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Sample records for homocysteine vitamin b12

  1. Relationship Between Plasma Homocysteine and Vitamin B12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency interferes with the normal pathway for homocysteine metabolism, even in the presence of adequate serum folate and pyridoxine. Homocysteinaemia, is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma which has been established as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. However ...

  2. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

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    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  3. Implication of homocysteine in diabetes and impact of folate and vitamin B12 in diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursleen, M Tahir; Riaz, Samreen

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an acutely debilitating ailment affecting a large population of the world. At present, over 415 million people around the world including 7 million people in Pakistan suffering from diabetes. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is inversely related to vitamin B12 and folate, and raised level of homocysteine is implicated in many adverse health conditions. In this study, the potential role of homocysteine in diabetes and the epidemiology of hyperhomocysteinaemia, and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency is reviewed along with the impact of folate and vitamin B12 in regulation of homocysteine level. Deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate is rare in developed countries and the countries which adopted fortification programs, but deficiency of these vitamins is found to be highly prevalent in developing world, particularly in Pakistan. Several studies have found an association of high homocysteine levels and diabetes, but a few studies found contrary results. Hence, further epidemiological studies are recommended for homocysteine involvement in diabetes and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, so that an urgent action can be taken to control the hyperhomocysteinaemia and consequently the ever increasing burden of disease and specifically diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

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    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary.

  5. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

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    Türksoy N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuray Türksoy,1 Rabia Bilici,2 Altan Yalçiner,3 Y Özay Özdemir,2 Ibrahim Örnek,4 Ali Evren Tufan,5 Ayşe Kara6 1Simurg Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Center, Istanbul, 2Erenköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, 3Düzen Laboratories, Istanbul, 4Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 6Bakırköy State Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation, which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  6. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

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    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  7. Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine as Indicators of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Cancer.

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    Vashi, Pankaj; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Gupta, Digant

    2016-01-01

    Normal or high serum vitamin B-12 levels can sometimes be seen in a B-12 deficient state, and can therefore be misleading. High levels of Methymalonic Acid (MMA) and Homocysteine (HC) have been identified as better indicators of B-12 deficiency than the actual serum B-12 level itself. We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency using appropriate cut-off levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC, and determined the relationship between serum levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC in cancer. This is a cross-sectional study using a consecutive case series of 316 cancer patients first seen at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center between April 2014 and June 2014. All patients were evaluated at baseline for vitamin B-12 (pg/mL), MMA (nmol/L) and HC (μmol/L) levels. In accordance with previously published research, the following cut-offs were used to define vitamin B-12 deficiency: vitamin B-12, >260 nmol/L for MMA and >12 μmol/L for HC. The relationship between B-12, MMA and HC was evaluated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and cross-tabulation analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vitamin B-12 using Fedosov quotient as the "gold standard". Mean age at presentation was 52.5 years. 134 (42.4%) patients were males while 182 (57.6%) were females. Median vitamin B-12, MMA and HC levels were 582.5 pg/mL, 146.5 nmol/L and 8.4 μmol/L respectively. Of 316 patients, 28 (8.9%) were vitamin B-12 deficient based on vitamin B-12 (deficient based on MMA (>260 nmol/L) while 55 (17.4%) were deficient based on HC (>12 μmol/L). Correlation analysis revealed a significant weak negative correlation between vitamin B-12 and MMA (rho = -0.22) as well as B-12 and HC (rho = -0.35). ROC curves suggested MMA to have the best discriminatory power in predicting B-12 deficiency. Vitamin B-12 is poorly correlated with MMA and HC

  8. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

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    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  9. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); H.R. van Tuijl (Ruud); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The associations of vitamin B(12), folate, and homocysteine with depression were examined in a population-based study. METHOD: The authors screened 3,884 elderly people for depressive symptoms. Subjects with positive screening results had psychiatric workups.

  10. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, and bone health in adults and elderly people: a systematic review with meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Doets, E.L.; Szczecinkska, A.; Souverein, O.W.; Duffy, M.E.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Pietruszka, B.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with

  11. Reduced folate, increased vitamin B(12) and homocysteine concentrations in women delivering preterm.

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    Dhobale, Madhavi; Chavan, Preeti; Kulkarni, Asmita; Mehendale, Savita; Pisal, Hemlata; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is an important determinant of the duration of pregnancy and fetal growth, and thereby influences pregnancy outcome. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) are involved in one-carbon metabolism and are reported to underlie intrauterine programming of adult diseases. In the present study, the levels of folate, vitamin B(12) and homocysteine were measured in mothers delivering preterm (PT; gestation epigenetic regulation of vital genes involved in the fetal programming of adult diseases, further studies need to be undertaken to understand their role in preterm deliveries. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder.

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    Esnafoğlu, Erman; Yaman, Elif

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex disorder with a poorly understood aetiopathogenesis. One carbon metabolism that includes vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine has been investigated in many psychiatric disorders like OCD. In recent years, vitamin D has also been considered to contribute to many of these psychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated whether vitamin B12, homocysteine and vitamin D play a role in the aetiology of paediatric OCD. With this aim we compared 52 children and adolescent OCD patients with 30 healthy controls. The participants were tested for vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels and were evaluated with a sociodemographic form, state-trait anxiety inventory 1 and 2, Kovacs Depression Inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). As a result we found significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and higher levels of homocysteine in the patient group compared to control group (p values for all three scores were OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of physical activity on levels of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 in the elderly.

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    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y; Qhatan, Redha A

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) has emerged as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However the relationship of physical activity (PA) with Hcy levels in the elderly is controversial. Accordingly, the current study examined the effect of low and high participation in PA on serum Hcy in young (n = 77; 18-50 years) and old (n = 207; > 65 years) males (n = 141) and females (n = 142). Level of PA was obtained in a 1-to-1 interview and participants divided into low and high groups. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were obtained after 12 hour fast drawn by venipuncture. Levels of Hcy correlated with folate (r = -0. 5; p = 0.000) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.3; p = 0.000). The ANOVA revealed a main effect of PA for Hcy (p = 0.04) but not for folate (p = 0.2) and vitamin B12 (p = 0.2). Main effects were found also of age for Hcy (p = 0.000) and folate (p = 0.005) as well as of gender for Hcy (p = 0.000) and vitamin B12 (p = 0.000). Subsequent ANCOVA showed lower levels of Hcy in the participants with greater versus lower PA even after controlling for B12 vitamin. These results confirm the importance of the vitamins for regulating Hcy levels. Additionally, the data suggests that PA affects Hcy levels without affecting and independent of B vitamins in the elderly.

  14. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in different types of glaucoma

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    Sahin Semsettin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to compare levels of serum homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B12 and folic acid in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG, normotensive glaucoma (NTG and healthy controls. Methods Twentyfive patients with POAG, 24 with PEXG, and 18 with NTG, along with 19 control healthy subjects were included this prospective study. Levels of serum Hcy were measured using immunoassay, and those of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Results The mean Hcy concentration in the PEXG group was significantly higher (P 0.05. There were no statistical differences in serum vitamin B12 levels among POAG, PEXG, NTG and control subjects (P > 0.05. The mean serum folic acid level was significantly lower in the subjects with PEXG (P 0.05. Conclusion Elevated levels of Hcy in PEXG may explain the role of endothelial dysfunction among patients with PEXG.

  15. Status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in diabetic retinopathy: association with vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Alleboena; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Pitla, Sujatha; Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Mudili, Sivaprasad; Lopamudra, Pratti; Suryanarayana, Palla; Viswanath, Kalluru; Ayyagari, Radha; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and DR, the results so far have been equivocal. Amongst the many determinants of homocysteine, B-vitamin status was shown to be a major confounding factor, yet very little is known about its relationship to DR. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the status of B-vitamins and homocysteine in DR. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted with 100 normal control (CN) subjects and 300 subjects with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 300 subjects with T2D, 200 had retinopathy (DR) and 100 did not (DNR). After a complete ophthalmic examination including fundus fluorescein angiography, the clinical profile and the blood levels of all B-vitamins and homocysteine were analyzed. While mean plasma homocysteine levels were found to be higher in T2D patients compared with CN subjects, homocysteine levels were particularly high in the DR group. There were no group differences in the blood levels of vitamins B1 and B2. Although the plasma vitamin-B6 and folic acid levels were significantly lower in the DNR and DR groups compared with the CN group, there were no significant differences between the diabetes groups. Interestingly, plasma vitamin-B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with the CN group; further, the levels were significantly lower in the DR group compared with the DNR group. Higher homocysteine levels were significantly associated with lower vitamin-B12 and folic acid but not with other B-vitamins. Additionally, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin-B12 deficiency did not seem to be related to subjects' age, body mass index, or duration of diabetes. These results thus suggest a possible association between vitamin-B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia in DR. Further, the data indicate that vitamin-B12 deficiency could be an independent risk factor for DR.

  16. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in healthy Turkish Van Cats

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    Cumali Özkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted for the purpose of setting forth the normal serum Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate levels in Van cats of varying ages and genders, and the age-dependent variations of these parameters. Materials and methods: The material of the study consisted of a total of 60 healthy Van cats including 30 female and 30 male cats. Cats from both genders were separated into 3 groups on the basis of their ages. While the cats of 6 - 12 months of age were included in the first group, cats of 12-24 months of age were included in the second and those of more than 24 months of age were included in the third group. Results: From the blood samples collected; serum normal homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined as 7.1±2.2 nmol/mL, 850.7±231.8 pg/mL and 16.7±0.8 ng/mL, respectively. In the statistical comparison of the determined serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels; some variations among different groups of age and genders were determined. However, none of these differences were determined to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The normal levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate of healthy Van cats were set forth for the first time by the present study. It is believed that the normal values of these parameters in Van cats can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases and particularly cardiovascular diseases, that they will be helpful for researchers and will serve as a guideline to the studies to be conducted in the future. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 58-64

  17. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels and multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

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    Dardiotis, Efthimios; Arseniou, Stylianos; Sokratous, Maria; Tsouris, Zisis; Siokas, Vasileios; Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A; Michalopoulou, Amalia; Andravizou, Athina; Dastamani, Metaxia; Paterakis, Konstantinos; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Brotis, Alexandros

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Several factors contribute to MS pathogenesis including genetic-environmental interactions. Case-control studies suggest that there might be associations between MS and homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12, and folate blood levels. To meta-analyze all available data describing associations between MS and serum or plasma Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels. The PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched for eligible case-control studies published until June 2017. After data extraction, separate analyses using mainly random-effects models were conducted to test for associations between MS and vitamin B12, Hcy, or folate blood levels. Twelve, 12, and 9 studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis of MS and Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels, respectively. The standardized mean difference (SMD) between MS patients and controls was statistically significant for Hcy (SMD: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.06, 1.34). Stratification according to clinical pattern did not reveal significant differences between relapsing-remitting MS patients and controls (SMD: 0.30, 95% CI: -0.93, 1.54) or between secondary progressive MS patients and controls (SMD: 0.12, 95% CI: -1.65, 1.90). There were no significant differences in SMD between MS patients and healthy individuals for vitamin B12 (SMD: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.29, 0.10) or folate (SMD: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.17, 0.05). MS patients tend to have elevated Hcy blood levels compared to healthy controls. Hcy may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in premature coronary artery disease

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    Fallah Nader

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis, but the probable role of hyperhomocysteinemia in premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of premature CAD. Methods We performed an analytical case-control study on 294 individuals under 45 years (225 males and 69 females who were admitted for selective coronary angiography to two centers in Tehran. Results After considering the exclusion criteria, a total number of 225 individuals were enrolled of which 43.1% had CAD. The mean age of participants was 39.9 +/- 4.3 years (40.1 +/- 4.2 years in males and 39.4 +/- 4.8 years in females. Compared to the control group, the level of homocysteine measured in the plasma of the male participants was significantly high (14.9 +/- 1.2 versus 20.3 +/- 1.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.01. However there was no significant difference in homocysteine level of females with and without CAD (11.8 +/- 1.3 versus 11.5 ± 1.1 micromol/lit, P = 0.87. Mean plasma level of folic acid and vitamin B12 in the study group were 6.3 +/- 0.2 and 282.5 +/- 9.1 respectively. Based on these findings, 10.7% of the study group had folate deficiency while 26.6% had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating independent CAD risk factors showed hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for premature CAD in males (OR = 2.54 0.95% CI 1.23 to 5.22, P = 0.01. Study for the underlying causes of hyperhomocysteinemia showed that male gender and Vitamin B12 deficiency had significant influence on incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Conclusion We may conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for CAD in young patients (bellow 45 years old – especially in men -and vitamin B12 deficiency is a preventable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  19. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

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    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  20. Comparative case-control study of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels in patients with epilepsy.

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    Pulido Fontes, L; Pulido Fontes, M; Quesada Jiménez, P; Muruzabal Pérez, J; Mendioroz Iriarte, M

    2017-09-01

    Increased blood homocysteine levels are a known cardiovascular risk factor. Epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs may present higher homocysteine levels and, consequently, a potential increase in cardiovascular risk. We conducted an observational case-control study to compare plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 . Our study included a total of 88 subjects: 52 patients with epilepsy and 36 controls. Epileptic patients showed higher homocysteine levels (P=.084) and lower levels of folic acid (P<.05). Homocysteine levels should be monitored in epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. We suggest starting specific treatment in patients with high homocysteine levels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Levels of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Fariba Karimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease is the most common formof dementia in the elderly. Serum levels of homocysteine havebeen related to increased cortical and hippocampal atrophy.We aimed to determine the serum levels of homocysteine,folate, and vitamin B12 in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Methods: Blood levels of homocysteine and its biologicaldeterminants, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in 51patients who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's diseaseaccording to DSM-IV criteria and compared with the serumlevels obtained from 49 control individuals.Results: The mean serum homocysteine concentration wassignificantly higher in patients with Alzheimer's disease thanthe controls (20.4 ± 16.5 μmol/L v 14.5 ± 5 μmol/L; P= 0.02.There were no statistically significant differences between themean serum levels of vitamin B12 (P=0.6 and folate (P= 0.3in the patients and the controls. There was no correlation betweenage and serum homocysteine concentration in bothgroups (P= 0.8.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine concentration was significantlyhigher in the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Thisbiomarker might be considered as a predictor of cognitive performance.

  2. Effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial

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    Ali Tayebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies have shown that hyper-homocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and many different methods have been investigated for lowering it in hemodialysis (HD patients. Our study investigated the effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine levels in these patients. This randomized trial was conducted on 140 HD patients. They were randomly distributed by lottery method into two groups: intervention and control. In the intervention group, 100 μg/mL of Vitamin B 12 was intravenously injected two times a week, for eight weeks. No intervention was performed in the control group. Serum levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were measured at the beginning and again after eight weeks (2 months of treatment. About 91% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (serum homocysteine >15 μmol/L. The median baseline levels of serum homocysteine in the intervention and control groups were 31.9 and 26.9 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.1. After eight weeks, the median homocysteine level reduced significantly in the Vitamin B 12 group to 22.2 versus 28.4 μmol/L in control group (P = 0.006. The mean Hb and Hct also changed significantly during our study (12.3 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.003 and 37.9 vs. 35.3%; P = 0.02, respectively. Our results demonstrated the existence of a statistical negative relationship between Vitamin B 12 and serum levels of homocysteine. Detailed investigations with larger sample sizes and longer-term use of Vitamin B 12 are recommended.

  3. Homocysteine and vitamin B 12 status and iron deficiency anemia in female university students from Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional deficiencies are very significant to the overall health of humans at all ages and for both genders, yet in infants, children and women of childbearing age these deficiencies can seriously affect growth and development. The present work is aimed to assess homocysteine and vitamin B12 status in females with iron deficiency anemia from the Gaza Strip.METHODS: Venous blood samples were randomly collected from 240 female university students (18-22 years old and parameters of the complete blood count, serum ferritin, homocysteine and vitamin B12 were measured. Statistical analysis included the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA using the IBM SPSS software (version 18. Statistical significance was set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: The results revealed that 20.4% of the students have iron deficiency anemia. The mean serum vitamin B12 level in females with iron deficiency anemia (212.9 ± 62.8 pg/mL was significantly lower than in normal controls (286.9 ± 57.1 pg/mL and subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (256.7 ± 71.1 pg/mL. Significantly higher serum homocysteine levels were reported in the iron deficiency anemia group (27.0 ± 4.6 µmol/L compared to normal controls (15.5 ± 2.9 µmol/L and in subjects with microcytic anemia and normal ferritin (18.1 ± 2.7 µmol/L. Statistically significant negative correlations were reported for serum homocysteine with serum ferritin, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels.CONCLUSION: Important associations were found between serum homocysteine and markers of iron deficiency. Monitoring homocysteine levels might be essential to understand the development of different clinical conditions including anemia. It seems necessary to conduct prospective trials to determine whether treating anemia ameliorates homocysteine levels.

  4. Vitamin B12, Folate, Homocysteine, and Bone Health in Adults and Elderly People: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

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    J. P. van Wijngaarden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD. Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n=14 and prospective (n=13 observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50 pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00. Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per μmol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07. We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal.

  5. The effects of nitrous oxide on vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in methyltetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, S; Hanci, V; Hakimoglu, Y; Cicek, S; Yurtlu, S; Okyay, R D; Ayoglu, H; Can, M; Mungan, G; Dursun, A; Turan, I

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of nitrous oxide on plasma total homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels in patients with or without methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHRF) gene mutation. After obtaining the ethics committee approval and written informed consents of patients, 93 patients between 18-70 years of age scheduled for surgery anticipated to last 1-4 hours were enrolled in the study. Patients with contraindications for nitrous oxide use were excluded. Preoperatively, blood samples were obtained from all patients for the determination of MTHFR gene mutation. Anesthesia induction was achieved with 3 mg.kg-1 of propofol and 1 µg.kg-1 of fentanyl. Anesthesia maintenance was performed with sevoflurane and with a carrier gas composed of 40 % O2 and 60 % N2O. Venous blood samples were obtained after venous canulation, and 24 hours after extubation for the analysis of plasma total homocysteine, vitamin B12 levels. Eighty-one patients were included in the study. Postoperative vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower when compared with their preoperative levels (p0.05). Postoperative plasma total homocysteine levels were found to be significantly different between patients with operation times under and over 3 hours (p=0.028). We conclude that MTHRF gene polymorphism had no significant effects on postoperative plasma total homocysteine levels. However, we found that homocysteine levels might rise in patients who received general anesthesia with nitrous oxide for longer than 3 hours (Tab. 7, Ref. 26).

  6. Bones, brains and B-vitamins : the impact of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine on bone health and cognitive function in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.

    2013-01-01

    ABackground An elevated homocysteine level has been indicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and fractures. Supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid in order to normalize homocysteine levels might be of substantial public health importance as

  7. Plasma Homocysteine, Vitamin B12 and Folate Levels in Multiple System Atrophy: A Case-Control Study.

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    Shuyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a neurodegenerative disease, and its pathological hallmark is the accumulation of α-synuclein proteins. Homocysteine (Hcy is an intermediate amino acid generated during the metabolism of methionine. Hcy may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of homocysteine.This study compared the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate in patients with MSA with those in healthy people to reveal the possible association between MSA and plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate. We enrolled 161 patients with MSA and 161 healthy people in this study. The association between MSA and the levels of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate were analyzed using binary logistic regression.The mean level of Hcy in patients with MSA was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (16.23 ± 8.09 umol/l vs 14.04 ± 4.25 umol/l, p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and medical history, the odds ratio for Hcy was 1.07 (95% CI = 1.01-1.13, p < 0.05 for patients with MSA. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between patients with MSA and controls.Our data suggest that higher levels of Hcy may be associated with an increased risk for MSA.

  8. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes in children with congenital heart disease and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, K E; Praveen, S L; Preethi, N R; Jissa, V T; Pillai, M R

    2017-09-06

    The objective of the study was to assess the role of variations in serum folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and the presence of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for congenital heart disease (CHD) in children. A total of 32 children with CHD, and their mothers and 32 normal children and their mothers formed the study and control groups, respectively. Serum folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine as well as genetic polymorphisms MTHFR C677→︀T, MTHFR A1298→︀C, MTR A2756→︀G and MTRR A66→︀G were assessed. Low serum folate and genetic polymorphisms MTHFR C677→︀T and MTRR A66→︀G among children and their mothers and high homocysteine among mothers were noted as risk factors for CHD (P<0.05). Vitamin B12 levels were normal and showed no association. Presence of MTHFR C677→︀T and MTRR A66→︀G, both concurrently among children as well as mothers and simultaneously among mother-child pairs, showed several fold increase in the risk for CHD. On multivariate analysis, the risk factors noted for CHD were presence of MTHFR C677→︀T among children and their mothers and MTRR A66→︀G among mothers. Analyses for nutrient-gene interaction revealed significant associations between low serum folate and high serum homocysteine levels, and the presence of selected genetic polymorphisms. Low serum folate, high homocysteine and presence of selected genetic polymorphisms among children and their mothers were noted as risk factors for CHD. Nutrient-gene interaction being a modifiable risk factor, the study recommends the use of peri-conceptional folate supplementation with vitamin B12 sufficiency for primary prevention of CHD.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.135.

  9. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

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    Daniel Rajdl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1 to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2 to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117 were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6. Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  10. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and physical function in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Aung, Khin Chaw Yu; Feng, Lei; Scherer, Samuel C; Yap, Keng Bee

    2012-12-01

    There is a paucity of studies, as well as inconsistent findings, on the associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with physical function and decline in older persons. We investigated the independent associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with gait and balance performance and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) in community-living older persons. We performed cross-sectional analyses on baseline data of 796 respondents in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study who had laboratory measurements of fasting homocysteine folate and vitamin B-12 and completed Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) of gait and balance and self-reports of IADLs. In multivariate analyses in which sex, age, education, housing type, comorbidities, hospitalization, depression and global cognitive scores, BMI, creatinine, arthritis and hip fracture, serum albumin and hemoglobin, and physical activities were controlled for, we showed that homocysteine, independently of folate and vitamin B-12, showed significant negative associations with POMA balance (P = 0.02), POMA gait scores (P < 0.01), and IADL (P < 0.01). Serum folate showed a significant positive association only with POMA balance scores (P < 0.045). No significant independent associations for vitamin B-12 were observed. The independent association of elevated homocysteine and low folate, but not vitamin B-12, on physical and functional decline was supported in this study. Interventional studies of the physical functional effects of folate and vitamin B-12 status in different populations are needed.

  11. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  12. Combined vitamin B-12 and balanced protein-energy supplementation affect homocysteine remethylation in the methionine cycle in pregnant south Indian women of low vitamin B-12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-quality dietary protein intake and vitamin B-12 deficiency could interact to decrease methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates during pregnancy, and may affect epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. The objective of this randomized, partially open-labeled intervention trial was...

  13. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Levels among Egyptian Children with Idiopathic Epilepsy

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    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: antiepileptic drugs might upset the homeostatic balance of Hcy and its cofactors and cause abnormalities of their serum levels. The duration of anti-epileptic drug treatment was related to decrease of folic acid and increase in homocysteine levels.

  14. Significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high homocysteine level with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-04-01

    A portion of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) may have nutritional deficiency. This study evaluated whether there was an intimate association of the deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high blood homocysteine level with RAS. The blood hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine concentrations in 273 RAS patients were measured and compared with the corresponding levels in 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We found that 57 (20.9%), 55 (20.1%), 13 (4.8%), and 7 (2.6%) RAS patients had deficiencies of hemoglobin (Men < 13 g/dl, Women < 12 g/dl), iron (<60 μg/dl), vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and folic acid (<4 ng/ml), respectively. Moreover, 21 (7.7%) RAS patients had abnormally high blood homocysteine level. RAS patients had a significantly higher frequency of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid deficiency and of abnormally elevated blood homocysteine level than healthy control subjects (all P-values = 0.000 except for folic acid P = 0.022). If 273 RAS patients were further divided into 32 patients with major-typed RAS (MjRAS) and 241 patients with minor-typed RAS (MiRAS), we found that male MjRAS patients had a significantly lower mean hemoglobin concentration than MiRAS patients (P = 0.021), but MjRAS patients had a significantly higher mean homocysteine level than MiRAS patients (P = 0.000). We conclude that there is a significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and abnormally high blood homocysteine level with RAS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  16. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Nour Eldeen

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... Abstract The relationship between increased homocysteine (Hcy) level and epileptic seizure remains controversial in human, despite a growing evidence of the pro-convulsive effect of the hype- rhomocysteinemia (HHcy) observed in the animal studies. The mechanism of this association with.

  17. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of this association with epileptogenesis has not been clearly understood, although there is emerging evidence to support the unfavorable effects of some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between the levels of ...

  18. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified ... B12 source References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, ...

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  20. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Nour Eldeen

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... neurotoxicity that contribute to the cognitive changes and the marked increased risk of cerebrovascular ... paired cognitive function, and fetal malformation [15]. The aim of this study was to uncover the ... eases, diabetes mellitus and nutritional deficiencies or those receiving vitamin supply or folic acid ...

  1. Serum high concentrations of homocysteine and low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 are significantly correlated with the categories of coronary artery diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Peng, Duanliang; Liu, Chenggui; Huang, Chen; Luo, Jun

    2017-01-21

    Homocysteine (Hcy) has been considered as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Folic acid and vitamin B12 are two vital regulators in Hcy metabolic process. We evaluated the correlations between serum Hcy, folic acid and vitamin B12 with the categories of CAD. Serum Hcy, folic acid and vitamin B12 from 292 CAD patients, including 73 acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 116 unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 103 stable angina pectoris (SAP), and 100 controls with chest pain patients were measured, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software. Compared to SAP patients, patients with AMI and UAP had higher Hcy levels with approximately average elevated (4-5) μmol/L, while SAP patients were approximately higher 8 μmol/L than controls. However, the levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 had opposite results, which in AMI group was the lowest, while in controls was the highest. CAD categories were positively correlated with Hcy (r = 0.286, p B12 (r = -0.208, p B12 from controls, to SAP, to UAP, and to AMI. The present study provide the valuable evidence that high concentrations of Hcy and low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 are significantly correlated with CAD categories.

  2. Association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, blood folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, and elevated serum total homocysteine in healthy individuals in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Juan; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Wei-Jiang; Xue, Jing-Lun; Cao, Neng; Wang, Xu

    2017-03-01

    An increased serum total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is typically associated with genetic defects involved in Hcy metabolism or related nutritional deficiencies. In this study, the combined effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency on serum total Hcy (tHcy) levels were evaluated in a healthy Chinese population in Yunnan Province, China. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped in 330 volunteers (164 men and 166 women) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Folate, vitamin B12, and tHcy concentrations were determined by corpuscle immune chemiluminescence assays. The tHcy concentration was determined using an enzymatic assay. Significant negative correlations (pB12 (r=-0.243). Men had significantly higher serum tHcy concentrations than women (pB12 (r=-0.212, p=0.046). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folate deficiency, and B12 deficiency were significantly associated with elevated serum tHcy levels. Among these three factors, folate deficiency had the greatest contribution to the serum tHcy concentration, followed by (in order of decreasing effect) MTHFR C677T and vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation could help prevent diseases associated with tHcy accumulation, especially in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with

  4. Effect of different doses of isotretinoin treatment on the levels of serum homocysteine, vitamin B 12 and folic acid in patients with acne vulgaris: A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad; Polat, Muhterem

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of isotretinoin on serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid in patients with acne vulgaris. The case-control study was conducted at Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from November 2012 to March 2013, and comprised male or non-pregnant female patients more than 18 years of age. The cases had moderate to severe nodulocystic acne, while an equal and matching control group had healthy individuals. Isotretinoin was started in a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day, and 1.0 mg/kg/day in patients with medium and severe acne vulgaris respectively. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid, liver function tests, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were tested at the baseline and on day 45. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. The two groups had 62 subjects each. The cases had 47(76%) women and 15(25%) men with a group mean age of 21.0±2.7 years. The controls had 45(72.6%) women and 17(27.4%) men with a group mean age of 21.6±3.0 years. Homocysteine levels were significantly increased in both groups taking 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1.0 mg/kg/day isotretinoin (p0.05 each). Total cholesterol level increased significantly in the group using 1.0 mg/kg/day (ptreatment.

  5. Effect of folic acid combined with fluoxetine in patients with major depression on plasma homocysteine and vitamin B12, and serotonin levels in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resler, Gustavo; Lavie, Renée; Campos, Julio; Mata, Salvador; Urbina, Mary; García, Alberto; Apitz, Rafael; Lima, Lucimey

    2008-01-01

    Folic acid, a micronutrient supporting the natural defense system, may elevate antidepressant responses, although the lymphocyte serotonergic system has not been explored in folate-supplemented depressed patients. Twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to groups receiving fluoxetine (20 mg) and folic acid (10 mg/day) or fluoxetine and placebo for 6 weeks. Clinical outcome was assessed according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at the beginning, during and at the end of treatment. Blood samples were taken, plasma was separated, and lymphocytes were obtained by density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll/Hypaque and differential adhesion to plastic dishes. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Plasma folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12, and serotonin concentration in lymphocytes were determined by HPLC. The HDRS score was significantly lower in patients receiving fluoxetine and folic acid compared with those receiving fluoxetine and placebo after 6 weeks of treatment (7.43 +/- 1.65 vs. 11.43 +/- 1.31, respectively; p = 0.04). Plasma homocysteine statistically significant decreased after folic acid (p = 0.02), but no significant changes were observed in vitamin B12. Serotonin was significantly reduced after fluoxetine either with folate (p = 0.03) or placebo (p = 0.01) probably by the effect of transporter blockade. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid was lower in lymphocytes of patients receiving folate (p = 0.04), indicating a reduced turnover rate, thus accumulating serotonin in the cells. A significant negative correlation was noted between homocysteine and folate. No significant correlations were present among biochemical parameters and depression severity. Modifications due to treatment with fluoxetine and folic acid may alter lymphocyte function in depression probably indirectly by reducing homocysteine levels and directly on lymphocytes by modifying the serotonergic system. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Robert C; Goodbred, Andrew J

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years. Initial laboratory assessment should include a complete blood count and serum vitamin B12 level. Measurement of serum methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low-normal levels of vitamin B12. Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B12 (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration for correcting anemia and neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular therapy leads to more rapid improvement and should be considered in patients with severe deficiency or severe neurologic symptoms. Absorption rates improve with supplementation; therefore, patients older than 50 years and vegans or strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B12 or take vitamin B12 supplements. Patients who have had bariatric surgery should receive 1 mg of oral vitamin B12 per day indefinitely. Use of vitamin B12 in patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease does not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, or alter cognitive decline.

  7. Crohn's disease and vitamin B12 metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D; Benhayoun, S; Adjalla, C; Gelot, M A; Renkes, P; Felden, F; Gerard, P; Belleville, F; Gaucher, P; Guéant, J L; Nicolas, J P

    1996-07-01

    The concentrations of vitamin B12, its analogs, and the haptocorrin and transcobalamin carriers in 21 patients suffering from Crohn's disease and a group of controls (20 adults) were measured. There were no significant differences in the mean values for vitamin B12, total corrinoids (vitamin B12 + analogs), or vitamin B12 or total corrinoids bound to haptocorrin or transcobalamin of the Crohn's and control patients. There was a significant increase in the binding capacity of transcobalamin in the Crohn's patients compared to the controls (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in the binding capacities of haptocorrin. The serum concentrations of the markers of vitamin B12 status, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, showed an increase (P < 0.01) in homocysteine in the Crohn's disease patients, but no change in methylmalonic acid. As the hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with normal folate concentrations, there may have been a defect in the activation of the enzyme due to altered intracellular vitamin B12 status.

  8. Laboratory assessment of vitamin B12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    The detection and correction of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency prevents megaloblastic anaemia and potentially irreversible neuropathy and neuropsychiatric changes. B12 status is commonly estimated using the abundance of the vitamin in serum, with ∼148 pmol/L (200 ng/L) typically set as the threshold for diagnosing deficiency. Serum B12 assays measure the sum of haptocorrin-bound and transcobalamin-bound (known as holotranscobalamin) B12 It is only holotranscobalamin that is taken up by cells to meet metabolic demand. Although receiver operator characteristic curves show holotranscobalamin measurement to be a moderately more reliable marker of B12 status than serum B12, both assays have an indeterminate range. Biochemical evidence of metabolic abnormalities consistent with B12 insufficiency is frequently detected despite an apparently sufficient abundance of the vitamin. Laboratory B12 status markers that reflect cellular utilisation rather than abundance are available. Two forms of B12 act as coenzymes for two different reactions. Methionine synthase requires methylcobalamin for the remethylation of methionine from homocysteine. A homocysteine concentration >20 µmol/L may suggest B12 deficiency in folate-replete patients. In the second B12-dependent reaction, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses adenosylcobalamin to convert methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. In B12 deficiency excess methylmalonyl-CoA is hydrolysed to methylmalonic acid. A serum concentration >280 nmol/L may suggest suboptimal status in young patients with normal renal function. No single laboratory marker is suitable for the assessment of B12 status in all patients. Sequential assay selection algorithms or the combination of multiple markers into a single diagnostic indicator are both approaches that can be used to mitigate inherent limitations of each marker when used independently. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  9. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B2, B12, B6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B2 levels and dietary vitamin B2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B2 levels and vitamin B2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B12 and B6 derived from milk; vitamins B12, B6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  10. The effect of metformin treatment on the serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although metformin therapy can increase homocysteine (Hcy levels, it frequently is used as an oral medicine in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, who might be at risk of catching diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin on the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 (vit B12, and folic acid in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was designed with 18 patients with PCOS at the Fatemehzahra infertility Hospital in Babol, Iran. Metformin treatment (500 mg twice daily was initiated in all patients for a period of consecutive 6 months. The levels of serum Hcy, vit B12, and folic acid were measured in the participants before and after metformin treatment. Results: The mean vit B12 level showed a significant decrease in patients after 6 months of metformin treatment (P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference in serum folic acid levels. The mean Hcy levels increased after treatment, but this difference not was statistically significant. When patients were stratified into four subgroups by their insulin sensitivity and body mass index (BMI, relatively similar results were obtained in the subgroups, except that Hcy levels in the overweight/obesity group (BMI > 25 kg/m2 after treatment showed a significant increase (P = 0.01. Conclusion: These findings indicate that metformin increases the serum Hcy concentration in patients with PCOS especially in the women with BMI > 25 kg/m2. The possible mechanism for this effect would be the obvious reduction in the levels of vit B12.

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red ... People with this type of anemia often do well with treatment. Long-term vitamin B12 deficiency can cause nerve damage. This may be permanent if ...

  12. Effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters in older people with an elevated plasma homocysteine level: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.W.; Swart, K.M.A.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cammen, van der T.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Meurs, van J.B.J.; Lips, P.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Zillikens, M.C.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.

    2015-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with increased osteoporotic fracture incidence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS)

  13. Vitamin B12 and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Ali Banihani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have revealed the effects of vitamin B12, also named cobalamin, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, we systematically discuss and summarize the currently understood role of vitamin B12 on semen quality and sperm physiology. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1961 to March 2017 (inclusive using the key words “vitamin B12” and “cobalamin” versus “sperm”. Certain relevant references were included to support the empirical as well as the mechanistic discussions. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the positive effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in vivo system studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The beneficial effects of vitamin B12 on semen quality may be due to increased functionality of reproductive organs, decreased homocysteine toxicity, reduced amounts of generated nitric oxide, decreased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa, decreased inflammation-induced semen impairment, and control of nuclear factor-κB activation. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these positive effects.

  14. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  15. Vitamin B12. III. The assay of vitamin B12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.; Wijmenga, H.G.; Wolff, R.; Karlin, R.; Winkler, K.C.; Haan, P.G. de

    1952-01-01

    1. 1. After the addition of KCN, purified liver-extracts can be chromatographed on Al2O3, the vitamin B12 being collected as one single band which can be measured spectrophotometrically. 2. 2. The values, thus obtained, agree satisfactorily with those of the L. Leichmannii and a little less with

  16. Folate, vitamin B12 and Homocysteine status in the post-folic acid fortification era in different subgroups of the Brazilian population attended to at a public health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabé, Aline; Aléssio, Ana Cláudia Morandi; Bittar, Luis Fernando; de Moraes Mazetto, Bruna; Bicudo, Angélica M; de Paula, Erich V; Höehr, Nelci Fenalti; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2015-02-19

    Folate and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients, whose deficiencies are considerable public health problems worldwide, affecting all age groups. Low levels of these vitamins have been associated with high concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and can lead to health complications. Several genetic polymorphisms affect the metabolism of these vitamins. The aims of this study were to assess folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in distinct Brazilian individuals after the initiation of folic acid fortification by Brazilian authorities and to investigate the effects of RFC1 A80G, GCPII C1561T and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy levels in these populations. A total of 719 individuals including the elderly, children, as well as pregnant and lactating women were recruited from our health care center. Folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were measured by conventional methods. Genotype analyses of RFC1 A80G, GCPII C1561T and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms were performed by PCR-RFLP. The overall prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 0.3% and 4.9%, respectively. Folate deficiency was observed only in the elderly (0.4%) and pregnant women (0.3%), whereas vitamin B12 deficiency was observed mainly in pregnant women (7.9%) and the elderly (4.2%). Plasma Hcy concentrations were significantly higher in the elderly (33.6%). Pregnant women carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed lower serum folate levels (p = 0.042) and higher Hcy levels (p = 0.003). RFC1 A80G and GCPII C1561T polymorphisms did not affect folate and Hcy levels in the study group. After a multivariate analysis, Hcy levels were predicted by variables such as folate, vitamin B12, gender, age and RFC1 A80G polymorphism, according to the groups studied. Our results suggest that folate deficiency is practically nonexistent in the post-folic acid fortification era in the subgroups evaluated. However, screening for vitamin B12 deficiency may be particularly relevant in our

  17. Neuroenhancement with Vitamin B12—Underestimated Neurological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer’s disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer’s disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  18. Vitamine B12 en cognitieve functies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamine B12-deficiëntie is een relatief veel voorkomend probleem bij ouderen. Wageningen Universiteit onderzoekt wat de optimale hoeveelheid vitamine B12 in capsules zou moeten zijn om een vitamine B12-deficiëntie te behandelen en of deze hoeveelheid B12 gunstige effecten heeft op het cognitief

  19. Evaluation of C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase gene and its association with levels of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pankaj K; Kapoor, Seema; Dubey, Anand P; Pandey, Sanjeev; Shah, Renuka; Nayak, Hemant K; Polipalli, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    Evaluation of C677T polymorphisms of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its association with level of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as possible maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. This was a case-control study. Fifty-two mothers (mean age 27.6 years) with babies having free trisomy 21 of North Indian ethnicity and 52 control nonlactating mothers (mean age 24.9 years) of same ethnicity attending services of genetic lab for bloodletting for other causes were enrolled after informed written consent. Fasting blood was collected and was used for determination of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate (serum and RBC), and for PCR amplification of the MTHFR gene. The prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in north Indian mothers of babies with trisomy 21 Down syndrome was 15.38% compared to 5.88 % in controls. The difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.124). Low serum folate was demonstrated in 34.62% of cases vs. 11.54% in controls, which was significant (P = 0.005). Low RBC folate was found in 30.7% of cases versus 11.53% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.059), when analyzed independently. But on multiple regression analysis the difference was statistically significant. Low serum vitamin B12 was found in 42.31% of cases versus 34.62% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.118). The mean serum homocysteine in cases was 10.35 ± 0.68 while controls were 9.02 ± 0.535. Serum levels of folate were low in cases. The RBC folate levels were comparable in both groups. However the combined serum folate and RBC folate were low in cases compared to control groups. Homocysteine levels in our study were higher in Down syndrome mothers compared to controls; however high-serum level of Homocysteine had no association with MTHFR polymorphism. No association of serum vitamin B12 with MTHFR polymorphism in occurrence of Down syndrome births was found. Peri- or preconceptional folate

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  1. Vitamin B12 intake and related biomarkers: Associations in a Dutch elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Swart, K. M. A.; van Dijk, S. C.; in 't Veld, P. H.; van Schoor, N. M.; van der Velde, N.; de Jonge, R.; Lips, P.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; de Groot, L. C. P. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 status is measured by four plasma/serum biomarkers: total vitamin B12 (total B12), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Associations of B12 intake with holoTC and tHcy and associations between all four biomarkers have not been extensively

  2. Vitamin B12 intake and related biomarkers: associations in a Dutch elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Swart, K.M.A.; Dijk, van S.C.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Jonge, de R.; Lips, P.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 status is measured by four plasma/serum biomarkers: total vitamin B12 (total B12), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Associations of B12 intake with holoTC and tHcy and associations between all four biomarkers have not been

  3. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  4. The human serum metabolome of vitamin B-12 deficiency and repletion, and associations with neurological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterize the human serum metabolome in sub-clinical vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency and repletion. A pre-post treatment study provided one injection of 10 mg B-12 to 27 community-dwelling elderly Chileans with B-12 deficiency evaluated with serum B-12, plasma homocysteine, methylmalonic acid a...

  5. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  6. Vitamin B12 requirements in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, Esmee; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of dose-response evidence relevant for estimating vitamin B12 requirements of healthy adults and elderly people, considering different indicators of health: vitamin B12 body stores, cognitive function, bone health, and biomarkers of vitamin B12

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    folate deficiency (≤ 2 - 3 ng/mL). Correlation analysis showed that serum cobalamin and homocysteine in the study samples were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of severe cobalamin deficiency with clinical significance is high in the elderly population of Shiraz, Iran. Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency, ...

  8. Hampered Vitamin B12 Metabolism in Gaucher Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hannibal PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Untreated vitamin B 12 deficiency manifests clinically with hematological abnormalities and combined degeneration of the spinal cord and polyneuropathy and biochemically with elevated homocysteine (Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA. Vitamin B 12 metabolism involves various cellular compartments including the lysosome, and a disruption in the lysosomal and endocytic pathways induces functional deficiency of this micronutrient. Gaucher disease (GD is characterized by dysfunctional lysosomal metabolism brought about by mutations in the enzyme beta-glucocerebrosidase (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM: 606463; Enzyme Commission (EC 3.2.1.45, gene: GBA1 . In this study, we collected and examined available literature on the associations between GD, the second most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder in humans, and hampered vitamin B 12 metabolism. Results from independent cohorts of patients show elevated circulating holotranscobalamin without changes in vitamin B 12 levels in serum. Gaucher disease patients under enzyme replacement therapy present normal levels of Hcy and MMA. Although within the normal range, a significant increase in Hcy and MMA with normal serum vitamin B 12 was documented in treated GD patients with polyneuropathy versus treated GD patients without polyneuropathy. Thus, a functional deficiency of vitamin B 12 caused by disrupted lysosomal metabolism in GD is a plausible mechanism, contributing to the neurological form of the disorder but this awaits confirmation. Observational studies suggest that an assessment of vitamin B 12 status prior to the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may shed light on the role of vitamin B 12 in the pathogenesis and progression of GD.

  9. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency detected in expanded newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamiero, Emanuela; Villani, Guglielmo Rosario Domenico; Ingenito, Laura; Pecce, Rita; Albano, Lucia; Caterino, Marianna; di Girolamo, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cristina; Franzese, Ignazio; Gallo, Giovanna; Ruoppolo, Margherita

    2014-12-01

    Besides the inherited form, vitamin B(12) deficiency may be due to diet restrictions or abnormal absorption. The spread of newborn screening programs worldwide has pointed out that non-inherited conditions are mainly secondary to a maternal deficiency. The aim of our work was to study seven cases of acquired vitamin B12 deficiency detected during our newborn screening project. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate vitamin B(12) and related biochemical parameters status on delivering female to verify the consequences on newborns of eventually altered parameters. 35,000 newborns were screened; those showing altered propionyl carnitine (C3) underwent second-tier test for methylmalonic acid (MMA) on dried blood spot (DBS). Subsequently, newborns positive to the presence of MMA on DBS and their respective mothers underwent further tests: serum vitamin B(12), holo-transcobalamin (Holo-TC), folate and homocysteine; newborns were also tested for urinary MMA content. A control study was conducted on 203 females that were tested for the same parameters when admitted to hospital for delivery. Approximately 10% of the examined newborns showed altered C3. Among these, seven cases of acquired vitamin B(12) deficiency were identified (70% of the MMA-positive cases). Moreover, our data show a high frequency of vitamin B(12) deficiency in delivering female (approximately 48% of examined pregnants). We suggest to monitor vitamin B(12) and Holo-TC until delivery and to reconsider the reference interval of vitamin B(12) for a better identification of cases at risk. Finally, newborns from mothers with low or borderline levels of vitamin B(12) should undergo second-tier test for MMA; in the presence of MMA they should be supplemented with vitamin B(12) to prevent adverse effects related to vitamin B(12) deficiency. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Whey protein isolate improves vitamin B12 and folate status in elderly Australians with subclinical deficiency of vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Almond, Theodora; Cavuoto, Paul; James-Martin, Genevieve; Fenech, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) contains vitamin B12 and folate. However, the efficacy of WPI as a bioavailable source of these vitamins in the elderly with low vitamin B12 was not previously tested. We investigated the effects of WPI supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate status in blood and measured changes in homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and genome integrity biomarkers in elderly individuals with low vitamin B12 status. The effect of WPI was compared to soy protein isolate (SPI). In this randomized controlled cross-over intervention trial, 56 subclinically vitamin B12 -deficient participants received 50 g WPI or 50 g SPI as a control for 8 wk followed by 16-wk washout phase and then cross-over to alternative supplement for next 8 wk. Consumption of WPI resulted in significant increase in serum active B12 (p B12 and folate status. Unlike SPI, WPI consumption may prevent increase in MMA, HCY, and genome instability in older Australians with low vitamin B12 status. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Role of Third Serum Vitamin B12 Binding Protein in Vitamin B12 Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chanarin, I.; England, J. M.; Rowe, K. L.; Stacey, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A third vitamin B12 binding protein present in normal serum has been shown to participate in transport of labelled vitamin B12 absorbed from the gut. All three vitamin B12 binding proteins in serum were labelled at the same time after oral administration of vitamin B12, implying that “free” vitamin B12 reached the portal blood from the gut mucosa.

  12. Effect of 8-week oral supplementation with 3-ug cyano-B12 or hydroxo-B12 in a vitamin B12-deficient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compare the effect of 8-week oral supplementation with cyano-B12 (currently used in vitamin pills) and hydroxo-B12 (predominant form in the diet) in a population with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy Indian adults with baseline serum cobalamin .../L were supplied for 8 weeks with daily oral supplements of 3-µg cyano-B12 (n = 15), 3-µg hydroxo-B12 (n = 16), or a placebo (n = 20). Blood at baseline, and each following week, was examined for total cobalamin, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine. RESULTS: The study groups did...

  13. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona O’Leary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.

  14. Comparison of four automated serum vitamin B12 assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İspir, Emre; Serdar, Muhittin A; Ozgurtas, Taner; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Akın, Kadir Okhan; Yesildal, Fatih; Kurt, İsmail

    2015-07-01

    Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is generally based on the measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels. However, in selected cases functional indices of vitamin B12, such as methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY), are needed. Here we compare the performance of four automated total vitamin B12 assays and also investigate how these assays relate to functional indices of vitamin B12 status. Total vitamin B12, MMA and HCY were measured in 69 serum samples from routine vitamin B12 assay requests. Serum vitamin B12 analysis was performed using four different immunoassay autoanalyzers: DxI 800 Unicel (Beckman Coulter, USA), ADVIA Centaur XP (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA), Roche Cobas E601 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), Architect i2000sr (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Serum MMA levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and serum homocysteine levels were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Four immunoassay methods were comparable and correlated with each other. Correlation coefficients (r) ranged from 0.898 to 0.987, pUnicel - ADVIA Centaur comparison. DxI 800 Unicel assay demonstrated high mean bias [-122 pg/mL (-616-125 pg/mL)] and a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.9161, lower than the others. MMA and HCY were correlated with the vitamin B12 results. The correlation coefficients with their 95% CI indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the four methods according to their relationship with MMA and HCY. Total B12 assays correlate very well with each other. However, results of DxI 800 Unicel were lower compared to the other three autoanalyzers. All total vitamin B12 methods show similar relationships with HCY and MMA. Standardization of serum vitamin B12 assays is still not completed and further standardization studies are needed. Laboratory professionals and clinicians should be aware of this disagreement between assay methods and

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency causing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. It is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, including autonomic dysfunction. Three cases are discussed here in which drenching night sweats were thought to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. All three responded dramatically to vitamin B12 therapy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency: the long-term effects in cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vlemmix, F.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Paloheimo, L.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated plasma homocysteine level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in homocysteine metabolism and could be the main factor in causing cardiovascular disease as well. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether vitamin

  17. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... the body and must be supplied by the diet. Vitamin B12 and folate tests measure vitamin levels ...

  18. Optimization of folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 supplements in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Dijs, Fey P L; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Niessink, Bram; van der Wal, Thaliet I C; Schnog, John-John B; Duits, Ashley J; Muskiet, Fred D; Muskiet, Frits A J

    Using homocysteine as a functional marker, we determined optimal folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 dosages in 21 pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) patients (11 HbSS, 10 HbSC; 7-16 years). Daily supplements of folic acid (400, 700, or 1,000 mug), vitamin B-12 (1, 3, or 5 U.S. 1989 RDA), and

  19. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (<10%) and high intra-day precision (defined as <15% for compounds with an isotopologue and <20% for compounds without an isotopologue as internal standard) in plasma, maternal milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30μL plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in

  20. Metformin Use and Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Untangling the Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Montes-Villarreal, Juan; Rodríguez-Velver, Karla Victoria; González-Velázquez, Camilo; Salcido-Montenegro, Alejandro; Elizondo-Plazas, Anasofia; González-González, José Gerardo

    2017-08-01

    Current evidence linking vitamin B12 deficiency with metformin use is inconsistent. Hence, there is uncertainty regarding the diagnostic approach in this scenario. Furthermore, this possible association has not been studied in the complete spectrum of patients with diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional, controlled study with the objective of assessing differences in serum vitamin B12 levels among patients with and without diabetes with different metformin-treatment regimens. A total of 150 participants were recruited: patients with diabetes (group 1: metformin alone ≥850mg/day, group 2: patients with type 2 diabetes naive to treatment and group 3: metformin ≥850mg/day, in addition to any other oral glucose lowering agent or insulin, or both) and without diabetes (group 4: polycystic ovary syndrome or group 5: healthy individuals). Serum vitamin B12, folate levels and complete blood counts were obtained for the entire population. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine were obtained for patients when vitamin B12 levels were found to be borderline or low. When patients with or without diabetes were compared, no significant difference was found in relation to their vitamin B12 levels (517.62 versus 433.83; P = 0.072). No difference in vitamin B12 levels was found among participants with metformin use and metformin naive participants (503.4 versus 462.3; P = 0.380). Irrespective of metformin use, no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamin B12 was observed, both in patients with and without diabetes. In the light of the body of evidence and the results of this study, a universal recommendation for vitamin B12 deficiency screening cannot be made. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  2. The Levels of Serum B12, Folic Acid and Homocysteine in the Thromboembolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziban Ucar Karabulut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum B12, folic acid, and homocysteine at admission in the cases established at the emergency department with thrombo-embolic diseases and to compare them with healthy subjects and also compare the diagnosis groups with each other.Material and Method: This study included 100 subjects diagnosed at the emergency department between March 2009-May 2009 with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, acute mesenteric embolism, peripheral artery embolism and 110 healthy voluntary subjects were included in the control group. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine levels were examined in blood samples obtained at admission. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the patient and control group. Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to compare the patient group, according to diagnosis. p%u2264 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean serum homocysteine and plasma vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher in the patient group than control group (p=0.002, 0.000 respectively. Mean serum B12 values of acute myocardial infarction and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease groups in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p

  3. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with

  4. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, M. G. H.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Verheugt, F. W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B 12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with

  5. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  6. Vitamin B-12 Supplementation during Pregnancy and Early Lactation Increases Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Measures of Vitamin B-12 Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women supplementation with vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12–supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12–supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12–supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862. PMID:24598885

  7. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Rasmussen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12 deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1 serum B12 20 μmol/L; and (3 serum B12 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds (95% confidence intervals, p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07, 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid. Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete.

  8. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  9. Vitamin B-12 and Cognition in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Sudha; Armata, Ilianna E; Strupp, Barbara J; Finkelstein, Julia L

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 is essential for brain development, neural myelination, and cognitive function. Inadequate vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and early childhood has been associated with adverse child health outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links vitamin B-12 and cognition in children. The search strategy resulted in 17 studies: 3 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 12 cohort studies, and 1 randomized trial. Cognitive processes assessed included attention, memory, and perception. Developmental outcomes, academic performance, and intelligence quotient were also considered. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 insufficiency and associated risk of adverse cognitive outcomes in children, to our knowledge, no studies to date have been conducted to examine the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognition in children. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of child cognitive outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Effect of 8-week oral supplementation with 3-µg cyano-B12 or hydroxo-B12 in a vitamin B12-deficient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri; Fedosov, Sergey; Heegaard, Christian W; Naik, Sadanand; Nexo, Ebba

    2017-12-05

    We compare the effect of 8-week oral supplementation with cyano-B12 (currently used in vitamin pills) and hydroxo-B12 (predominant form in the diet) in a population with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Fifty-one healthy Indian adults with baseline serum cobalamin B12 (n = 15), 3-µg hydroxo-B12 (n = 16), or a placebo (n = 20). Blood at baseline, and each following week, was examined for total cobalamin, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine. The study groups did not differ at baseline and were characterized by [median (range)] serum cobalamin [128 (68-191) pmol/L], holotranscobalamin [16 (6-41) pmol/L], methylmalonic acid [0.8 (0.3-1.7) µmol/L], homocysteine [17.9 (8.5-100.9) µmol/L], and a combined indicator of B12 status 4cB12 of - 1.65 (- 0.64 to - 4.07). The group supplemented with cyano-B12 showed a higher increase in total serum cobalamin than the group treated with hydroxo-B12, while other biomarkers changed comparably in the two groups. After 8 weeks of treatment, the biomarker values of the supplemented groups (pooled) differed significantly from the placebo group. Yet, the vitamin B12 status was still poor [cobalamin: 168 (87-302) pmol/L; holotranscobalamin: 19 (8-45) pmol/L; methylmalonic acid: 0.7 (0.2-1.7) µmol/L; homocysteine: 17.2 (2.6-96.8) µmol/L; 4cB12 = - 1.34 (- 0.33 to - 3.3)]. 8-week supplementation with 3-µg cyano-B12 elevated serum cobalamin more than 3 µg hydroxo-B12, but all other biomarkers changed similarly in both groups. Supplementation with 3 µg vitamin B12 did not reverse the low status in individuals with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. REF/2017/02/013343.

  11. The Efficacy of Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia G; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Akoğlu, Handan A; Özdemir, Gül N

    2017-11-17

    Standard treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been well established in childhood, the ideal amount of supplemental vitamin B12 is not clear. Vitamin B12 deficiency is classically treated with intramuscular injections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral therapy in children with vitamin B12 deficiency. Patients with serum cobalamin concentrations B12 ampules. Serum specimens were obtained at the end of first and third months of treatment for vitamin B12 levels. A total of 79 patients were included in the study. The mean pretreatment vitamin B12 level increased from 182±47.6 pg/mL to 482±318 pg/mL after 1 month of treatment in the whole cohort. Comparison of the pretreatment vitamin B12 levels with first and third month posttreatment values showed significant difference (P-value, 0.001 and 0.028, respectively). In this study, oral cyanocobalamin was found effective for the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in children.

  12. Vitamin B12 and cognitive function: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Low levels of vitamin

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D.; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple “stylized model” that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows—somewhat counter-intuitively—that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this “cysteine-block” is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology. PMID:27047940

  14. Mathematical modeling of glutathione status in type 2 diabetics with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKaramshetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH are associated with anumber of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diag-nosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 andGSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoreticaldependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbonmetabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycleof the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple ‘stylized model’ that cap-tures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. Theanalysis shows – somewhat counter-intuitively – that the flux responsible forthe homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methioninecycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methioninesynthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increaseGSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSHcorrelation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfurationpathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine.We hypothesize this ‘cysteine-block’ is an essential consequence of vitaminB12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondaryeffects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology.

  15. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12. Adil Ghani Khan S V Eswaran. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/06/0008-0016 ...

  16. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  17. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12. Adil Ghani Khan is a final year student of BSc. (Honours) in Chemistry at. St. Stephen's College,. Delhi University. S V Eswaran is an accomplished Organic. Chemist and principal of. Deshbandhu College,. Delhi University. Keywords. Asymmetric synthesis, chira!. Adil Ghani Khan and ...

  18. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) constitutes an amazing area of research with many hidden facets. Key milestones in this area have been developed over 10 decades. This long process of trials and errors, and search and discoveries has radically changed our understanding for the role of this nutrient...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  20. Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen; Mander, Alastair; Ames, David; Carne, Ross; Sanders, Kerrie; Watters, David

    2012-04-01

    This review examines the associations between low vitamin B12 levels, neurodegenerative disease, and cognitive impairment. The potential impact of comorbidities and medications associated with vitamin B12 derangements were also investigated. In addition, we reviewed the evidence as to whether vitamin B12 therapy is efficacious for cognitive impairment and dementia. A systematic literature search identified 43 studies investigating the association of vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment or dementia. Seventeen studies reported on the efficacy of vitamin B12 therapy for these conditions. Vitamin B12 levels in the subclinical low-normal range (vitamin B12 levels and may independently increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Vitamin B12 deficiency (Vitamin B12 supplements administered orally or parenterally at high dose (1 mg daily) were effective in correcting biochemical deficiency, but improved cognition only in patients with pre-existing vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 levels 19.9 μmol/L). Low serum vitamin B12 levels are associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive impairment. There is a small subset of dementias that are reversible with vitamin B12 therapy and this treatment is inexpensive and safe. Vitamin B12 therapy does not improve cognition in patients without pre-existing deficiency. There is a need for large, well-resourced clinical trials to close the gaps in our current understanding of the nature of the associations of vitamin B12 insufficiency and neurodegenerative disease.

  1. [Maternal and neonatal vitamin B12deficiency detected by expanded newborn screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ferenc; Rácz, Gábor; Lénárt, István; Kóbor, Jenő; Bereczki, Csaba; Karg, Eszter; Baráth, Ákos

    2017-12-01

    Infant vitamin B 12 deficiency can manifest as a severe neurodegenerative disorder and is usually caused by maternal deficiency due to vegetarian diet or pernicious anaemia. Its early recognition and treatment can prevent potentially serious and irreversible neurologic damage. Biochemically, vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to an accumulation of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and propionylcarnitine. Expanded newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry may identify neonatal and maternal vitamin B 12 deficiency by measurement of propionylcarnitine and other metabolites in the dried blood spot sample of newborns. To summarize our experiences gained by screening for vitamin B 12 deficiency. Clinical and laboratory data of vitamin B 12 -deficient infants diagnosed in Szeged Screening Centre were retrospectively analysed. In Hungary, expanded newborn screening was introduced in 2007. Since then approximately 395 000 newborns were screened in our centre and among them, we identified four newborns with vitamin B 12 deficiency based on their screening results. In three cases an elevated propionylcarnitine level and in the fourth one a low methionine level were indicative of vitamin B 12 deficiency. We also detected an additional vitamin B 12 -deficient infant with neurological symptoms at 4 months of age, after a normal newborn screening, because of elevated urinary methylmalonic acid concentration. Vitamin B 12 deficiency was secondary to maternal autoimmune pernicious anaemia in all the five infants. As a result of the recognized cases the incidence of infant vitamin B 12 deficiency in the East-Hungarian region was 1.26/100 000 births, but the real frequency may be higher. Conslusions: Optimizing the cut off values of current screening parameters and measuring of methylmalonic acid and/or homocysteine in the dried blood spot, as a second tier test, can improve recognition rate of vitamin B 12 deficiency. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(48): 1909-1918.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency in Jordan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khateeb, Mohammed; Khader, Yousef; Batieha, Anwar; Jaddou, Hashem; Hyassat, Dana; Belbisi, Adel; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and has been linked to hematologic, neurologic and psychiatric diseases. There are a few studies regarding vitamin B12 deficiency in developing countries in general and in Jordan in particular. The aims of the present study were to assess the vitamin B12 status of Jordanians at national level and to identify population groups at high risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 status was assessed in a national sample of 5,640 subjects aged >8 years. The study involved interviews, laboratory measurements of vitamin B12 and other parameters, and physical measurements. The present report deals exclusively with subjects aged >18 years (n = 2,847). The percentages of subjects with low (vitamin B12 level (>350 pg/ml, n = 1,608) were 30.1, 13.4 and 56.5%, respectively. Of the 382 subjects who had borderline vitamin B12 level, 61 subjects had both increased total homocysteine (tHcy; >13 µmol/l) and low holocobalamin (deficiency, the overall prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency reached 32.2% (31.9% among males and 32.4% among females) after adding those 61 subjects to the 857 subjects with low vitamin B12 level. In conclusion, our study showed that almost one third of Jordanian adults have vitamin B12 deficiency with no gender differences. Intake of vitamin B complex and multivitamins seems to protect from vitamin B12 deficiency. An in-depth study of the dietary and eating habits of Jordanians may be needed to explain the observed age and regional differences in vitamin B12 deficiency in the study population. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C.; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Blom, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders. PMID:27446930

  4. High folate and low vitamin B12 status during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jun S; Pang, Wei Wei; Cai, Shirong; Lee, Yung Seng; Chan, Jerry K Y; Shek, Lynette P C; Yap, Fabian K P; Tan, Kok Hian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Yap Seng; Chong, Mary F F

    2017-03-24

    B-vitamins and homocysteine may contribute to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but existing studies are inconsistent. We examined the cross-sectional associations of plasma folate, vitamins B6, B12, and homocysteine concentrations with GDM and glycemia in a sample of multi-ethnic Asian pregnant women. Plasma concentrations of folate, vitamins B6, B12, homocysteine and glucose were measured at 26-weeks' gestation in 913 pregnant women. GDM was diagnosed using the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Associations were examined with linear or logistic regression, adjusted for confounders and stratified by ethnicity. Higher plasma folate was associated with higher 2-h glucose and higher odds of GDM [0.15 (0.02, 0.23) per 1-SD increment in folate, OR 1.29 (1.00, 1.60)], mainly among Indian mothers. Higher plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine were associated with lower fasting and 2-h glucose, and lower odds of GDM [-0.04 (-0.07, -0.01) per 1-SD increment in B12 and -0.09 (-0.18, -0.003) respectively, OR: 0.81 (0.68, 0.97); -0.05 (-0.08, -0.02) per 1-SD increment in homocysteine and -0.12 (-0.21, -0.02) respectively, OR: 0.76 (0.62, 0.92)]. The highest odds of GDM were observed among women with combined vitamin B12 insufficiency and high folate concentration [OR: 1.97 (1.05, 3.68)]. An association between higher vitamin B6 and higher 2-h glucose shifted towards null adjusting for other B-vitamins. Higher maternal folate coupled with vitamin B12 insufficiency was associated with higher GDM risk. This finding has potential implications for antenatal supplement recommendations but will require confirmation in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Anne-Kathrin; Obeid, Rima; Weder, Stine; Awwad, Hussain M; Sputtek, Andreas; Geisel, Juergen; Keller, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier. Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status. Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo ( n = 34) or vitamin B-12 ( n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects ( n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements. Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02679833. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Vitamin B-12 supplementation improves arterial function in vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T; Chook, P; Qiao, M; Tam, L; Poon, Y K P; Ahuja, A T; Woo, J; Celermajer, D S; Woo, K S

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarians are more vascular-healthy but those with subnormal vitamin B-12 status have impaired arterial endothelial function and increased intima-media thickness. We aimed to study the impact of vitamin B-12 supplementation on these markers, in the vegetarians. Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised crossover study. Community dwelling vegetarians. Fifty healthy vegetarians (vegetarian diet for at least 6 years) were recruited. Vitamin B-12 (500 µg/day) or identical placebo were given for 12 weeks with 10 weeks of placebo-washout before crossover (n=43), and then open label vitamin B-12 for additional 24 weeks (n=41). Flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were measured by ultrasound. The mean age of the subjects was 45±9 years and 22 (44%) were male. Thirty-five subjects (70%) had serum B-12 levels vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 levels, proposing a novel strategy for atherosclerosis prevention.

  8. A randomized placebo controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in older diabetic people with borderline low serum vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Lee, Jenny; Ma, Ronald C; Wong, Samuel Y; Kung, Kenny; Lam, Augustine; Ho, C S; Lee, Vivian; Harrison, John; Lam, Linda

    2017-12-01

    Older diabetic people are at risk of cognitive decline. Vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Vitamin B12 deficiency may therefore contribute to cognitive decline in older diabetic people. We therefore performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in older diabetic people with mild vitamin B12 deficiency. 271 diabetic non-demented outpatients aged 70 years or older with plasma vitamin B12 150-300 pmol/L in outpatient clinics were randomly assigned to take either methylcobalamin 1000 μg or two similar looking placebo tablets once daily for 27 months. All subjects were followed up at 9 monthly intervals. The primary outcome is cognitive decline as defined by an increase in clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) global score. The secondary outcomes included Neuropsychological Test Battery (NTB) z-scores, serum methymalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine. The subjects in the trial groups were well matched in clinical characteristics, except that active intervention group had more smokers. 46.5% and 74.1% had elevated serum methymalonic acid (≥0.21 μmol/L) and homocysteine (≥13 μmol/L) respectively. 44% of the subjects had CDR score of 0.5 suggesting questionable dementia. At month 9 and 27, serum MMA and homocysteine was significantly reduced in the active treatment group, when compared with placebo group. (P B12 supplementation did not prevent cognitive decline in older diabetic patients with borderline vitamin B12 status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02457507. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  10. Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people by measuring vitamin B12 or the active fraction of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Sherliker, Paul; Hin, Harold

    2007-01-01

    , carried on holotranscobalamin (holoTC), may be of greater relevance than total vitamin B(12). METHODS: We compared the utility of serum holoTC with conventional vitamin B(12) for detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency in a population-based study of older people, using increased methylmalonic acid (MMA......) concentrations as a marker of metabolic vitamin B(12) deficiency in the overall population (n = 2403) and in subsets with normal (n = 1651) and abnormal (n = 752) renal function. RESULTS: Among all participants, 6% had definite (MMA >0.75 micromol/L) and 16% had probable (MMA >0.45 micromol/L) metabolic vitamin...

  11. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparieta...

  12. Orthostatic hypotension as a manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjehei, Leila; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi; Wilson, James M

    2012-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman with orthostatic hypotension and near-syncope was found to have a low-normal level of vitamin B(12) and no other medical findings that could explain her orthostasis. Her symptoms responded to vitamin B(12) replacement therapy. This case shows that vitamin B(12) deficiency can induce orthostatic hypotension and syncope that are correctable by vitamin B(12) replacement.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be...

  14. Production Of Vitamin B 12 By Streptomyces Fulvissimus | Atta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty five of actinomycete isolates were screened for vitamin B12 production by growing on soybean meal medium fortified with cobalt. Only one AZ-Z-88 among nine actinomycete cultures was found to produce significantly higher yield of the vitamin B12 (64.57 ug/ml). Determination of vitamin B12 production was carried out ...

  15. Gastric status and vitamin B12 levels in cardiovascular patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Sipponen, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Proper absorption of vitamin B12 requires gastric corpus mucosa that functions appropriately and secretes intrinsic factor needed as an essential cofactor for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12 in the small bowel. Here we describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and atrophic corpus

  16. Gastric status and vitamin B12 levels in cardiovascular patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Sipponen, Pentti; Laheij, Robert J. F.; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Proper absorption of vitamin B12 requires gastric corpus mucosa that functions appropriately and secretes intrinsic factor needed as an essential cofactor for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12 in the small bowel. Here we describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and atrophic corpus

  17. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. Impact of baseline vitamin B12 status on the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in older people: secondary analysis of data from the OPEN randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, L M; Allen, E; Clarke, R; Mills, K; Uauy, R; Dangour, A D

    2017-10-01

    The available evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin B12 supplementation does not improve neurologic function in older people with marginal but not deficient Vitamin B12 status. This secondary analysis used data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological function (OPEN) randomised controlled trial to assess whether baseline vitamin B12 status or change in vitamin B12 status over 12 months altered the effectiveness of dietary vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with depleted vitamin B12 status at study entry. Vitamin B12 status was measured as serum concentrations of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine and via a composite indicator (cB12). Neurological function outcomes included eleven electrophysiological measures of sensory and motor components of peripheral and central nerve function. Linear regression analyses were restricted to participants randomised into the intervention arm of the OPEN trial (n=91). Analyses revealed an inconsistent pattern of moderate associations between some measures of baseline vitamin B12 status and some neurological responses to supplementation. The directions of effect varied and heterogeneity in effect across outcomes could not be explained according to type of neurological outcome. There was no evidence of differences in the neurological response to vitamin B12 supplementation according to change from baseline over 12 months in any indicator of B12 status. This secondary analysis of high-quality data from the OPEN trial provides no evidence that baseline (or change from baseline) vitamin B12 status modifies the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on peripheral or central nerve conduction among older people with marginal vitamin B12 status. There is currently insufficient evidence of efficacy for neurological function to support population-wide recommendations for vitamin B12 supplementation in healthy asymptomatic older people with marginal

  19. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Oral treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in subacute combined degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, J; Sturm, K-U; Herrmann, W; Hoever, J; Klockgether, T; Linnebank, M

    2006-10-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency due to malnutrition or malabsorption may lead to pernicious anemia and neurological disorders. Although randomized prospective studies have shown that pernicious anemia can be safely treated with oral vitamin B12 even in the absence of intrinsic factor, it is still common practice to treat patients with neurological symptoms with intramuscular cyancobalamin injections. We report the successful oral treatment of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a 24-year-old woman closely monitored clinically with MRI and plasma levels of vitamin B12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid. We suggest monitored oral substitution therapy as first-line therapy for neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency.

  1. Folate and Vitamin B12-Related Biomarkers in Relation to Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van de Rest, Ondine; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; In 't Veld, Paulette H; Kourie, Daniella I; Swart, Karin M A; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van der Velde, Nathalie; Kessels, Roy P C; Smeets, Paul A M; Kok, Frans J; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-12-24

    We investigated cross-sectional associations between circulating homocysteine, folate, biomarkers of vitamin B12 status and brain volumes. We furthermore compared brain volumes of participants who received daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation with participants who did not. Participants of the B-PROOF study (n = 2919) were assigned to 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12, or a placebo. After two years of intervention, T₁-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were made in a random subsample (n = 218) to obtain grey and white matter volume, and total brain volume (TBV). Plasma homocysteine, serum folate, vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, and methylmalonic acid concentrations were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses showed inverse associations between plasma homocysteine with TBV (β = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85-0.03; p = 0.06) and between serum folate and TBV (β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.38, -0.02; p = 0.03). No significant associations were observed for serum vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin. Fully adjusted ANCOVA models showed that the group that received B-vitamins had a lower TBV (adjusted mean 1064, 95% CI 1058-1069 mL) than the non-supplemented group (1072, 95% CI 1067-1078 mL, p = 0.03). Results were contradictory, with higher Hcy levels associated with lower TBV, but also with higher folate levels associated with lower TBV. In addition, the lack of a baseline measurement withholds us from giving recommendations on whether folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation will be beneficial above and beyond normal dietary intake for brain health.

  2. Is oral vitamin B(12) therapy effective for vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients with prior ileocystoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbrink, Brian A; Cain, Mark P; King, Shelly; Meldrum, Kirstan; Kaefer, Martin; Misseri, Rosalia; Jones, Deanna; Rink, Richard C

    2010-10-01

    We previously identified vitamin B(12) deficiency as a potential long-term consequence in pediatric patients with prior ileocystoplasty despite adequate preservation of terminal ileum. Vitamin B(12) deficiency can result in hematological and neurological deficits, of which some are irreversible. Deficiency discovered after ileocystoplasty is purportedly due to B(12) malabsorption since the principal absorption site is ileum. B(12) deficiency due to malabsorption is typically treated with intramuscular injection to ensure adequate treatment. We determined whether oral vitamin B(12) supplementation could increase serum vitamin B(12) in patients with deficiency who underwent ileocystoplasty. During followup after ileocystoplasty we identified patients with low (200 pg/dl or less) or low normal (200 to 300 pg/dl) vitamin B(12). Oral vitamin B(12) was begun at 250 μg. Serum B(12) was assessed at 1, 2 and 3-month intervals after beginning therapy. A total of 128 patients with a mean followup of 83 months after ileocystoplasty had vitamin B(12) levels available for review. Of these patients 36 (28%) had a level of 300 pg/dl or less with a level of 200 pg/dl or less in 16 (13%). After oral vitamin B(12) treatment serum levels increased from a mean 235 to 506 pg/dl (114%) upon initial measurement (p vitamin B(12) effectively increases serum levels in pediatric patients with prior ileocystoplasty. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy.

  4. Vitamin b 12 supplementation: effects on some biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenytoin is known to have some toxicological implications. Vitamin B12 supplementation during phenytoin administration was investigated to assess the benefits and risks of single vitamin supplementation. This study evaluated the biochemical and haematological effects of vitamin B12 on phenytoin toxicity. Twenty-four ...

  5. Low Serum Vitamin B-12 Concentrations Are Prevalent in a Cohort of Pregnant Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Carly E; Masih, Shannon P; Plumptre, Lesley; Schroder, Theresa H; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Ly, Anna; Lausman, Andrea Y; Berger, Howard; Croxford, Ruth; Lamers, Yvonne; Kim, Young-In; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-05-01

    Among Canadian women of reproductive age, 5% and 20% have serum vitamin B-12 concentrations indicative of deficiency (infant) study investigated 1) vitamin B-12 status in a cohort of Canadian pregnant women and their newborns, 2) the association of maternal dietary vitamin B-12 intake with maternal and cord blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and its biomarkers, and 3) the association of fetal genetic polymorphisms with cord blood concentrations of vitamin B-12 and its biomarkers. In pregnant Canadian women (n = 368; mean ± SD age: 32 ± 5 y), vitamin B-12 intakes were assessed in early (0-16 wk) and mid- to late (23-37 wk) pregnancy. Serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) in maternal blood at 12-16 wk of pregnancy and at delivery (28-42 wk) and in cord blood were measured and compared by using regression analyses. The associations of 28 fetal genetic variants in vitamin B-12 metabolism and cord blood vitamin B-12, tHcy, and MMA concentrations were assessed by using regression analysis, with adjustment for multiple testing. A total of 17% and 38% of women had deficient and 35% and 43% had marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations at 12-16 wk of pregnancy and at delivery, respectively. Only 1.9-5.3% had elevated MMA (>271 nmol/L), and no women had elevated tHcy (>13 μmol/L). Maternal dietary vitamin B-12 intake during pregnancy was either weakly associated or not associated with maternal and cord blood vitamin B-12 (r(2) = 0.17-0.24, P pregnant women with the use of traditional cutoffs, despite supplement use. Given the growing interest among women to adhere to a vegetarian diet that may be lower in vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-12's importance in pregnancy, the functional ramifications of these observations need to be elucidated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02244684. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  7. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  8. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  9. Metformin and Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwan Awad

    The association between metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is well-established. However, many aspects of the topic remain to be elucidated. There is still controversy on the current diagnostic approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency. It is now believed that measuring the serum levels of the vitamin may not reflect its metabolic status. Moreover, there were conflicting results from studies attempting to quantify and explore metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency and its clinical impacts. This article reviews the cellular functions of vitamin B12, the biomarkers utilized to define the vitamin deficiency and metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency with an emphasis on its prevalence and clinical impacts. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  10. Lhermitte's sign and vitamin B12 deficiency: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Lhermitte's sign, a classical neurological sign, is a rare manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim here was to report on a case of an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of Lhermitte's sign. CASE REPORT: We describe an elderly patient with vitamin B12 deficiency who presented cognitive dysfunction, peripheral polyneuropathy and sensory ataxia, and whose first clinical manifestation was the presence of Lhermitte's sign. This sign is one of the rarest manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  11. An infant and mother with severe B12 deficiency: vitamin B12 status assessment should be determined in pregnant women with anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska-Malefora, A; Ramachandran, R; Cregeen, D; Green, E; Bennett, P; Harrington, D J; Lemonde, H A

    2017-08-01

    The vitamin B12 status of infants depends on maternal B12 status during pregnancy, and during lactation if breastfed. We present a 9-month-old girl who was admitted to the metabolic unit for assessment of developmental delay. She was exclusively breastfed and the introduction of solids at 5 months was unsuccessful. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, undetectable B12 and highly elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine normalised following B12 injections. Marked catch-up of developmental milestones was noted after treatment with B12. Investigations of parents showed normal B12 in the father and combined B12 and iron deficiency in the mother. Maternal B12 deficiency, most likely masked by iron deficiency, led to severe B12 deficiency in the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding and a subsequent failure to wean exacerbated the infant's B12 deficiency leading to developmental delay. This case highlights the need for development of guidelines for better assessment of B12 status during pregnancy.

  12. Holo-transcobalamin is an indicator of vitamin B-12 absorption in healthy adults with adequate vitamin B-12 status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Castel-Roberts, Kristina M; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the response of holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC) to oral vitamin B-12 may be used to assess absorption. To develop a reliable clinical absorption test that uses holo-TC, it is necessary to determine the optimal timeline for vitamin B-12 administration...... and postdose assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and patterns of change in the postabsorption response of holo-TC to oral vitamin B-12. DESIGN: Adult (18-49 y) male and female participants (n = 21) with normal vitamin B-12 status were given three 9-mug doses...... of vitamin B-12 at 6-h intervals beginning early morning (baseline) on day 1. Blood was drawn at 17 timed intervals over the course of 3 d for the analysis of holo-TC and other indicators of vitamin B-12 status. RESULTS: Mean holo-TC increased significantly (P

  13. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamran B Lankarani1, Payam Peymani1*, Sahar Zare2, Reza Tabrizi1, MH. Kazemi3 and ... gastritis, intestinal malabsorption, pancreatic insufficiency ..... B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 614– 620. 5. Wolters M, Strohle A, Hahn A. Cobalamin: a critical vitamin in ...

  14. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  15. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana; Stoian, Dana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy.

  16. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  17. Production of vitamin B12 in genetically engineered Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yongzhe; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Kawaraichi, Nami; Asegawa, Ryo; Ono, Hisayo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2004-01-01

    Since the chemical synthesis of vitamin B12 requires more than 70 steps, the production of vitamin B12 has been achieved by microorganism fermentation with additional brief chemical modifications. In an effort to increase the productivity of vitamin B12, we tried to express 10 genes belonging to the hem, cob and cbi gene families involved in the synthesis of vitamin B12 in Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is a known producer of vitamin B12. In a recombinant P. freudenreichii clone that harbored the expression vector containing a cobA, cbiLF, or cbiEGH, we obtained an increase in vitamin B12 production of 1.7-, 1.9-, and 1.5-fold higher, respectively, than that in the microorganism without any cloned genes in the expression vector pPK705. The cobU and cobS genes caused a slight increase in the production of vitamin B12. Furthermore, we achieved multigene expression in P. freudenreichii. In a recombinant P. freudenreichii clone that harbored an exogenous gene, hemA, from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and endogenous hemB and cobA genes, we successfully achieved the production of about 1.7 mg/l vitamin B12, 2.2-fold higher than that produced by P. freudenreichii harboring pPK705.

  18. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-19

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  19. Influence of vitamin b-12 complex injection (eldervit-12) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin B-12 complex injection on the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate injection and Vitamin B-12complex injection containing 2500mcg ...

  20. Vitamin B-12 and Depression: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hall-Flavin, M.D. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/. Accessed Oct.18, 2016. Lim SY, et al. Nutritional factors affecting mental health. Clinical Nutrition Research. 2016;5:143. Lang UE, et al. ...

  1. Vitamin B12: the forgotten micronutrient for critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, William; Hardy, Gil

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of vitamin B12 and evaluate current evidence on vitamin B12 status in the critically ill with systemic inflammation. Data on vitamin B12 status of intensive care unit patients are scarce. Cobalamins could potentially be useful agents for inhibiting nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production, controlling nuclear factor-kappa B activation, and restoring optimal bacteriostasis and phagocytosis in which transcobalamins play a proven role. The antioxidant properties of vitamin B12, with a glutathione-sparing effect, are secondary to stimulation of methionine synthase activity and reaction with free oxygen or nitrogen radicals. Large parenteral doses are routinely administered for cyanide poisoning, with only mild, reversible side-effects. Current evidence suggests that high-dose parenteral vitamin B12 may prove an innovative approach to treat critically ill systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients, especially those with severe sepsis/septic shock. In this setting, vitamin B12 and transcobalamins could modulate systemic inflammation contributing to the anti-inflammatory cascade and potentially improve outcome. Despite evidence from animal studies, so far there are no clinical intervention trials that have studied vitamin B12 as a pharmaconutrient strategy for critical care. Well designed animal and clinical studies are required to clarify several outstanding questions on the optimal posology, safety, and efficacy of high-dose vitamin B12 in the critically ill.

  2. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuka; Ouchi, Kenjiro; Funase, Yoshiko; Yamauchi, Keishi; Aizawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between metformin-induced vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum B12 concentrations, homocysteine plasma levels, the presence of retinopathy and history of macroangiopathy (stroke or coronary heart disease) were analyzed in patients without renal dysfunction (serum creatinineB12 status was analyzed in 62 consecutive metformin-treated patients. Secondly, the relationship between B12, homocysteine and vascular complications was analyzed in 46 metformin-treated and 38 age- and sex-matched non-metformin-treated patients. Among the 62 consecutive metformin-treated patients, B12 was deficient (deficient (150-220 pmol/L) in 18 (29%): the larger the metformin dosage, the lower the B12 (P=0.02, Spearman's ρ=-0.30). There were independent correlations between metformin use and B12 lowering (P=0.02, r = -0.25), and B12 lowering and elevation of homocysteine (PB12 and homocysteine was stronger in metformin-treated (Pmetformin-treated (P=0.04, r=-0.38) patients. In ten B12 deficient patients, B12 supplementation (1,500 μg/day) for 2.2±1.0 months with continued use of metformin raised B12 levels: 152±42 and 299±97 pmol/L before and after treatment, respectively (PMetformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy. Metformin-induced B12 deficiency was correctable with B12 supplementation.

  4. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  5. Vitamin B12 content in raw and cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vitamin B12 content and profile of cobalamin bioactive forms in raw and cooked beef. The study showed that vitamin B12 distribution is unequal among beef muscles. The content of this nutrient ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 μg/100 g of tissue. In beef, three biologically active forms of vitamin B12 were determined, i.e.: methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin; the dominating form of vitamin B12 was adenosylcobalamin (68% of total cobalamins). The process of roasting and grilling had little effect on the vitamin B12 content in the final product as compared to the raw meat. The fried product was characterised by about a 32% lower content of cobalamins than in raw meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The status of plasma homocysteine and related B-vitamins in healthy young vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chia; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Chang, Han-Hsin; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang

    2003-04-01

    Exclusion of animal products and having only plant protein in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the elevation of plasma homocysteine concentration. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of homocysteine and related B-vitamins in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The effects of biochemical parameters of B-vitamins and dietary protein on plasma homocysteine were also examined. The study was performed at the Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, in the central part of Taiwan. Thirty-seven vegetarians (28.9 +/- 5.5 y) and 32 nonvegetarians (22.9 +/- 1.6 y) were recruited. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained. Plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B-12 were measured. Vitamin B-6 status was assessed by direct measures [plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA)] and indirect measures [erythrocyte alanine (EALT-AC) and aspartate (EAST-AC) aminotransaminase activity coefficient]. There was no significant difference in vitamin B-6 intake between the two groups, although the vegetarian group had a significantly lower vitamin B-12 intake than the nonvegetarian group. Vegetarian subjects had significantly lower mean plasma PLP and vitamin B-12 concentrations than did nonvegetarian subjects (p vegetarian group. Vegetarian subjects had a significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine concentration than nonvegetarian subjects (13.2 +/- 7.9 vs. 9.8 +/- 2.2 micromol/L). Negative correlations were seen between plasma homocysteine and vitamin B-12 concentrations in the vegetarian (p = 0.004), nonvegetarian (p = 0.026), and pooled (p vegetarian subjects than for nonvegetarian subjects, leading to an increase in plasma homocysteine concentration. Vitamin B-6 and folate had little effect on plasma homocysteine concentration when individuals had adequate vitamin B-6 and folate status.

  7. The Human Serum Metabolome of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency and Repletion, and Associations with Neurological Function in Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes; Harvey, Danielle; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Fedosov, Sergey N; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Pedersen, Theresa L; Fiehn, Oliver; Newman, John W; Uauy, Ricardo; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-08-09

    Background: The specific metabolomic perturbations that occur in vitamin B-12 deficiency, and their associations with neurological function, are not well characterized.Objective: We sought to characterize the human serum metabolome in subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and repletion.Methods: A before-and-after treatment study provided 1 injection of 10 mg vitamin B-12 (with 100 mg pyridoxine and 100 mg thiamin) to 27 community-dwelling elderly Chileans (∼74 y old) with vitamin B-12 deficiency, as evaluated with serum vitamin B-12, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and holotranscobalamin. The combined indicator of vitamin B-12 status (cB-12) was computed. Targeted metabolites [166 acylcarnitines, amino acids, sugars, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry)], and untargeted metabolites [247 chemical entities (gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry)] were measured at baseline and 4 mo after treatment. A peripheral nerve score was developed. Differences before and after treatment were examined. For targeted metabolomics, the data from 18 individuals with adequate vitamin B-12 status (selected from the same population) were added to the before-and-after treatment data set. Network visualizations and metabolic pathways are illustrated.Results: The injection increased serum vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, and cB-12 (P vitamin B-12 status and nerve function. Multiple connections were identified with primary metabolites (e.g., an inverse relation between vitamin B-12 markers and tryptophan, tyrosine, and pyruvic, succinic, and citric acids, and a direct correlation between the nerve score and arginine).Conclusions: The human serum metabolome in vitamin B-12 deficiency and the changes that occur after supplementation are characterized. Metabolomics revealed connections between vitamin B-12 status and serum metabolic markers of mitochondrial function, myelin integrity, oxidative

  8. West syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Hepsen Mine; Kara, Aslıhan Oruçoğlu; Oğuz, Baran

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits including macrocyticanaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor andseizures. In this article, we report the case of a six-month-old male patient diagnosed with West syndrome associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Although the patient had no evidence of macrocytic anemia in complete blood count, we measured the level of vitamin B12 because the patient had hypotonicity and found it to be low. No other problem was found in the other investigations directed to the etiology of West syndrome. He was being exclusively breast-fed and vitamin B12 deficiency was related with nutritional inadequacy of his mother. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with different neurological findings. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered as a rare cause in West syndrome which has a heterogeneous etiology.

  9. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manual Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/ ... Manual Second Home Edition, Section 12. Disorders of Nutrition and metabolism, Chapter 154. Vitamins. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/ ...

  10. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies.

  12. [The importance of vitamin B12 in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Kasprzak, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Jarosław; Goch, Aleksander; Kamrowski, Czesław

    2010-03-01

    The article drew attention to the construction of a vitamin B12 deficiency and its importance in the human body. Emphasizes the role of cobalamin as a structural element involved, among others cobamides in such reactions as the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis or choline. Two metabolically active forms of cobalamin: methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin and their importance to the human body were presented. The process of absorption of vitamin B12 and methionine in revealing the importance of the neurological symptoms was described. The chemical importance and cause vitamin B12 deficiency was stressed. The attention was paid upon the role of acid in methylomalon determination of vitamin B12 deficiency in the human body. Disclosure reports analyzed the relationship of vitamin B12 from the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Particular attention is given to teams which binds to the vitamin B12 deficiency--depressive, delusional and manic. Based on case reports were analyzed cases with deficiency symptoms associated with a deficit of vitamin B12. Also points to the possibility of diagnosing cobalamin deficiency even before the onset of clinical symptoms.

  13. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  14. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period.

  15. Hyperhomocysteinaemia And Vitamin B12 Deficiency In Ischaemic Strokes In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadia R S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognised risk factor for stroke and ischemic heart disease (HID. Vit B12 Folate and pyridoxine deficiency are important causes of raised serum homocysteine. As a vegetarian diet is very poor in Vit B12 we sought to study the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in our stroke populating and to measure Vit B12 and folate in these cases. Consecutive cases of ischaemic stroke, either arterial or venous, admitted over a period of 2 1/2 years were studied. Embolic strokes and those on vitamin supplements were excluded. cases were divided into vegetarian (including those taking milk and / Or eggs, those who took non-vegetarian 4 or less times a month, and frequent non-vegetarians taking 5 or more times a month. Serum total homocysteine, serum B12 and folate levels were studied along with all other routine parameters. For comparison we examined 101 controls without HID, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, rental failure or recent vitamin intake. With the international norm for homocysteine given as 5-15 umol/litre (1we called serum homocysteine 16 umol/litre or more as raised. There were 147 cases of ischcmic stroke :119 arterial and 28 venous infarcts. In the arterial strokes 99 of 119 cases (83.19% had raised serum Homocysteine including 25 of 27 (92.5% of those with arterial stroke before age 45. Of 28 cases with venous infarct 21 (75% had raised homocysteine (HCY. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest risk factor for stroke in our populations. Out of the total 147 cases the exact dietary intake was not known for ten cases., 58 were vegetarians, 54 were occasional non vegetarians (NV and 25 were frequent NV. In the 58 vegetarians, 55 had serum HCY> 16 umol/1 (94.8% and of those vegetarians with HCY> 16, serum B12 <200pg/ml was seen in 44 (75.8% and between 200-300 pg/ml in five (8.6%. Of the 54 occasional NV, 46 had HCY>16umo/1 (85.2% Of those with HCY >16, serum B12 level of <200 pg/ ml was seen in 28 (51.85% occ. NV and

  16. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Tekin; Alişik, Murat; Akinci, Sema; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Dilek, Imdat; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the theory that oxidative stress might have an important mediating effect on the deleterious results of vitamin B12 metabolism deficiency seen throughout the body. Forty patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all participants to evaluate serum vitamin B12, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels in the pre- and posttreatment periods. There were no significant differences in TAS, TOS, or oxidative stress index (OSI) levels between the pretreatment patient and control groups, and there were no significant differences in TAS or TOS levels between the posttreatment and control groups. In addition, there were no significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of the patients. These findings are remarkable in that cyanocobalamin treatment had no direct effect on oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. The fact that there were no differences in oxidant and antioxidant status between the patients and the controls might suggest that oxidative stress does not play a role in the systemic negative effects of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Competitive immunoassay for analysis of vitamin B(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, L Sagaya; Thakur, M S

    2011-11-15

    In the current work, direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for derivatized vitamin B(12) by generating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) against derivatized vitamin B(12) and purified using affinity chromatography. Checkerboard assay was performed with vitamin B(12) antibody and vitamin B(12)-alkaline phosphatase conjugate followed by its conjugate characterization using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The limit of detection was 10 ng/ml with a linear working range of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml. The affinity constant (K(a)) of the vitamin B(12) antibody was found to be 4.23×10(8) L/mol. Cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins was found to be less than 0.01% except for analogs of vitamin B(12) that showed 12% to 35%. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were found to be in the ranges from 0.0005% to 1.2% and 0.009% to 1.03%, respectively. The assay was validated with the HPLC method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recovery of vitamin B(12) with spiked multivitamin injections, tablets, capsules, and chocolates. The HPLC method had a detection limit of 500 ng/ml with a linear working range of 1000 to 10,000 ng/ml. After extraction of vitamin B(12) using Amberlite XAD, the developed ELISA method correlated well with the established HPLC method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12...... or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both...

  19. Folate rescues vitamin B12 depletion-induced inhibition of nuclear thymidylate biosynthesis and genome instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ashley M; Kamynina, Elena; Field, Martha S; Stover, Patrick J

    2017-05-16

    Clinical vitamin B12 deficiency can result in megaloblastic anemia, which results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis by trapping folate cofactors in the form of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) and subsequent inhibition of de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. In the cytosol, vitamin B12 functions in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which regenerates THF from 5-methylTHF. In the nucleus, THF is required for de novo dTMP biosynthesis, but it is not understood how 5-methylTHF accumulation in the cytosol impairs nuclear dTMP biosynthesis. The impact of vitamin B12 depletion on nuclear de novo dTMP biosynthesis was investigated in methionine synthase-null human fibroblast and nitrous oxide-treated HeLa cell models. The nucleus was the most sensitive cellular compartment to 5-methylTHF accumulation, with levels increasing greater than fourfold. Vitamin B12 depletion decreased de novo dTMP biosynthesis capacity by 5-35%, whereas de novo purine synthesis, which occurs in the cytosol, was not affected. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks, was increased in vitamin B12 depletion, and this effect was exacerbated by folate depletion. These studies also revealed that 5-formylTHF, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), was enriched in nuclei, accounting for 35% of folate cofactors, explaining previous observations that nuclear SHMT is not a robust source of one-carbons for de novo dTMP biosynthesis. These findings indicate that a nuclear 5-methylTHF trap occurs in vitamin B12 depletion, which suppresses de novo dTMP biosynthesis and causes DNA damage, accounting for the pathophysiology of megaloblastic anemia observed in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

  20. Hampered Vitamin B12 Metabolism in Gaucher Disease?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannibal, Luciana; Siebert, Marina; Basgalupp, Suélen; Vario, Filippo; Spiekerkötter, Ute; Blom, Henk J

    2017-01-01

    ...) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Vitamin B 12 metabolism involves various cellular compartments including the lysosome, and a disruption in the lysosomal and endocytic pathways induces functional deficiency of this micronutrient. Gaucher disease (GD...

  1. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin generally synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals cannot synthesize this vitamin but have evolved processes for absorption, transport and cellular uptake of this vitamin. Only about 30% of vitamin B 12 , which is bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC (Holo-TC [HoloTC] enters into the cell and hence is referred to as the biologically active form of vitamin B 12 . Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to several complex disorders, including neurological disorders and anemia. We had earlier shown that vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD in Indian population. In the current study, using a proteomics approach we identified proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of individuals with low HoloTC levels. Materials and Methods: We used isobaric-tagging method of relative and absolute quantitation to identify proteins that are differently expressed in individuals with low HoloTC levels when compared to those with normal HoloTC level. Results: In two replicate isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation, cholesterol metabolic process, and lipoprotein metabolic process were found to be altered in individuals having low HoloTC levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that low HoloTc levels could be a risk factor in the development of CAD.

  2. The distribution of total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, and the active vitamin B12 fraction in the first 5 weeks postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, D A A; Pijnenborg, J M A; de Vries, J; van Wijk, E M

    2017-09-04

    Total vitamin B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy and recover to normal values within 8-week postpartum. Holotranscobalamin (holoTC) reflects the active part of vitamin B12 and has been shown to remain constant during pregnancy and postpartum. A mechanism of redistribution of vitamin B12 is suggested, with a shift toward holoTC if there is insufficient total vitamin B12 available. Our objective was to examine vitamin B12 deficiency and the active vitamin B12 fraction in postpartum women. Total vitamin B12 and holoTC were measured in 171 women within 48 hours (T0) and at 5 weeks (T5) postpartum. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as total vitamin B12 B12 fraction was defined as holoTC/total vitamin B12. Without intervention, vitamin B12 deficiency based on both serum total vitamin B12 and holoTC changed from 75% and 60%, to respectively 10% and 6% at T5. The fraction of active vitamin B12 was significant higher in vitamin B12 deficient women at both time points and across time (P B12 was only present in women with total vitamin B12 deficiency at T0. At T5, no high vitamin B12 fraction was found. The changes in total vitamin B12 levels seem to be based on a physiological changes rather than vitamin B12 deficiency. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that a shift toward the metabolic active vitamin B12 (holoTC) occurs in women with insufficient available total vitamin B12. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Vitamin B12 treatment on hematological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulali Aktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency is not a rare condition in medical practice. There is not much data in literature about overlooked hemogram parameters (ie. red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width in vitamin B12 deficiency. We aimed to compare pre and post treatment hematological parameters of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency in present retrospective study.Methodology: Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency icluded to the study. Age, gender, vitamin B12 levels and hematological parameters, such as, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil count (neu, lymphocyte count (lym, eosinophil count (eos, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Htc, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW, platelet count (PLT, mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW were recorded.Results: Pretreatment RDW (16.5±0.6 was significantly higher than in posttreatment (16.1±1 period (p=0.021. MPV was significantly lower in pretreatment period (8.5±1.1 than in posttreatment (9±1.1 period (p=0.025.Conclusion: We suggest that RDW and MPV alterations begin in early stages of Vitamin B12 deficiency before development of cytopenias. However, to confirm our results,  prospective studies with a larger cohort are needed. 

  4. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  5. Dietary sources of vitamin B-12 and their association with vitamin B-12 status markers in healthy older adults in the B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma (Elske); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); J.P. van Wijngaarden (Janneke); N.L. van der Zwaluw (N.); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations

  6. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; Zwaluw, Nikita L. van der; Velde, Nathalie van der; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between

  7. Vitamin B 6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin B 6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated epilepsy of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. ... African Health Sciences ... Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and homocysteine in different genotypes of ...

  8. Homocysteine, vitamins, and prevention of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2004-04-01

    Within the past four decades, the efforts of investigators worldwide have established the amino acid homocysteine as an important factor in arteriosclerosis and diseases of aging. After its discovery in 1932, homocysteine was demonstrated to be an important intermediate in the metabolism of amino acids. However, little was known about the broader biomedical significance of homocysteine until 1962, when children with mental retardation, accelerated growth, dislocated ocular lenses, and frequent vascular thrombosis were found to excrete homocysteine in the urine. My study of two patients with homocystinuria caused by different inherited enzymatic disorders in 1968 disclosed advanced widespread arteriosclerotic plaques in both cases. This discovery led to the conclusion that homocysteine causes vascular disease by a direct effect on the cells and tissues of the arteries. This interpretation suggests that homocysteine is important in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis in persons with hereditary, dietary, environmental, hormonal, metabolic, and other factors predisposing them to hyperhomocysteinemia. Within the past decade, many major clinical and epidemiological studies have proven that hyperhomocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease. According to the homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis, insufficient dietary intake of the B vitamins, folic acid and pyridoxine, caused by losses of these nutrients during processing of foods, leads to elevation of blood homocysteine and vascular disease in the general population. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality since the 1960s in the United States is attributed to fortification of the food supply by synthetic pyridoxine and folic acid. The recent Swiss Heart Study showed that B vitamins slowed restenosis in patients with coronary arteriosclerosis treated with angioplasty. Currently, more than 20 prospective, worldwide, interventional trials involving at least 100,000 participants are

  9. Vitamin B(12) status in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I; Mascarenhas, Maria R; Dougherty, Kelly A; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-06-01

    Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based, and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI. Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 years) and categorized as elevated (serum B12 above reference range for age and sex [Hi-B12]) or within reference range (serum B12 within reference range for age and sex) for age and sex. Serum homocysteine, plasma B6, red blood cell folate, height, weight, and body mass index z scores, pulmonary function, energy, and dietary and supplement-based vitamin intake were assessed. A total of 106 subjects, mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years, participated in the study. Median serum B12 was 1083 pg/mL, with 56% in the Hi-B12 group. Dietary and supplement-based B12 intakes were both high representing 376% and 667% recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively. The Hi-B12 group had significantly greater supplement-based B12 intake than the serum B12 within reference range for age and sex group (1000% vs 583% RDA, P 12 years increased the risk of Hi-B12, whereas higher forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) decreased the risk (pseudo-R = 0.18, P children with CF and PI. Supplement-based B12 intake was 6 to 10 times the RDA, and strongly predicted elevated serum B12 status. The health consequences of lifelong high supplement-based B12 intake and high serum B12 are unknown and require further study, as does the inversed correlation between serum B12 and forced expiratory volume at 1 second.

  10. Vitamin B12 in neurology and ageing; clinical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaddon, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The classic neurological and psychiatric features associated with vitamin B12 deficiency have been well described and are the subject of many excellent review articles. The advent of sensitive diagnostic tests, including homocysteine and methylmalonic acid assays, has revealed a surprisingly high prevalence of a more subtle 'subclinical' form of B12 deficiency, particularly within the elderly. This is often associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic evidence of B12 deficiency is also reported in association with other neurodegenerative disorders including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. These conditions are all associated with chronic neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress. It is possible that these clinical associations reflect compromised vitamin B12 metabolism due to such stress. Physicians are also increasingly aware of considerable inter-individual variation in the clinical response to B12 replacement therapy. Further research is needed to determine to what extent this is attributable to genetic determinants of vitamin B12 absorption, distribution and cellular uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Haye H; Comin-Colet, Josep; Klip, Ijsbrand T; Enjuanes, Cristina; Grote Beverborg, Niels; Voors, Adriaan A; Banasiak, Waldemar; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Bruguera, Jordi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical correlates and the effects on outcome of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). We studied an international pooled cohort comprising 610 patients with chronic HF. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Mean age of the patients was 68±12 years and median serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide level was 1801 pg/mL (IQR 705-4335). Thirteen per cent of the patients had an LVEF >45%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level <200 pg/mL), folate deficiency (serum level <4.0 ng/mL) and iron deficiency (serum ferritin level <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with a transferrin saturation <20%) were present in 5%, 4% and 58% of the patients, respectively. No significant correlation between mean corpuscular volume and vitamin B12, folic acid or ferritin levels was observed. Lower folate levels were associated with an impaired health-related quality of life (p=0.029). During a median follow-up of 2.10 years (1.31-3.60 years), 254 subjects died. In multivariable proportional hazard models, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not associated with prognosis. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are relatively rare in patients with chronic HF. Since no significant association was observed between mean corpuscular volume and neither vitamin B12 nor folic acid levels, this cellular index should be used with caution in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with chronic HF. In contrast to iron deficiency, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were not related to prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Thermotoga lettingae Can Salvage Cobinamide To Synthesize Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzin, Nicholas C.; Secinaro, Michael A.; Swithers, Kristen S.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that the Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B12 by acquisition of genes from two distantly related lineages, Archaea and Firmicutes (K. S. Swithers et al., Genome Biol. Evol. 4:730–739, 2012). Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the cobinamide salvage gene cluster was present in the Thermotogales' most recent common ancestor. We also predicted that Thermotoga lettingae could not synthesize B12 de novo but could use the cobinamide salvage pathway to synthesize B12. In this study, these hypotheses were tested, and we found that Tt. lettingae did not synthesize B12 de novo but salvaged cobinamide. The growth rate of Tt. lettingae increased with the addition of B12 or cobinamide to its medium. It synthesized B12 when the medium was supplemented with cobinamide, and no B12 was detected in cells grown on cobinamide-deficient medium. Upstream of the cobinamide salvage genes is a putative B12 riboswitch. In other organisms, B12 riboswitches allow for higher transcriptional activity in the absence of B12. When Tt. lettingae was grown with no B12, the salvage genes were upregulated compared to cells grown with B12 or cobinamide. Another gene cluster with a putative B12 riboswitch upstream is the btuFCD ABC transporter, and it showed a transcription pattern similar to that of the cobinamide salvage genes. The BtuF proteins from species that can and cannot salvage cobinamides were shown in vitro to bind both B12 and cobinamide. These results suggest that Thermotogales species can use the BtuFCD transporter to import both B12 and cobinamide, even if they cannot salvage cobinamide. PMID:24014541

  13. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Folate and vitamin B12 status is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Gueant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Quilliot, Didier; Sirveaux, Marie-Aude; Meyre, David; Gueant, Jean-Louis; Brunaud, Laurent

    2017-07-24

    Low vitamin B12 and high folate during pregnancy are associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in offspring. In the general population, high folate exacerbates the increase of methylmalonic acid, a marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the influence of vitamin B12 and folate and their related markers on insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome remains unknown in severe obesity. To evaluate the influence of vitamin B12 and folate on HOMA-IR and components of metabolic syndrome in severe obesity. 278 consecutive obese patients were assessed prospectively for HOMA-IR, red blood cell (RBC) folates, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid. We compared the associations with the components of metabolic syndrome during the preoperative multidisciplinary evaluation (period-1) and before bariatric surgery (period-2). The HOMA-IR was higher in patients with highest tertile of RBC and either lowest tertile of plasma B12 or highest tertile of MMA (p metabolic syndrome components (p = 0.006 and 0.020, respectively). RBC folate, homocysteine, and MMA predict HOMA-IR in severe obesity. Our findings challenge the benefit of folate fortified food in severe obesity, in particular in patients with a deficit of vitamin B12. The cohort study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02663388. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin B12 status in pregnant women and their infants in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, J L; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T; Srinivasan, K; Duggan, C

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, few studies have investigated the burden and determinants of vitamin B12 status in young infants. This study was conducted to determine the associations between maternal and infant vitamin B12 status. Pregnant women participating in a vitamin B12 supplementation trial in Bangalore, India, were randomized to receive vitamin B12 (50 μg) or placebo supplementation daily during pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. All women received 60 mg of iron and 500 μg of folic acid daily during pregnancy, as per standard of care. This prospective analysis was conducted to determine the associations between maternal vitamin B12 biomarkers (that is, plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid (MMA) and tHcy) during each trimester with infant vitamin B12 status (n=77) at 6 weeks of age. At baseline (⩽14 weeks of gestation), 51% of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (vitamin B12B12 status (vitamin B120.26 μmol/l); 44% of infants were vitamin B12 deficient at 6 weeks of age. After adjusting for vitamin B12 supplementation, higher vitamin B12 concentrations in each trimester were associated with increased infant vitamin B12 concentrations and lower risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants (PB12 supplementation, infants born to women with vitamin B12 deficiency had a twofold greater risk of vitamin B12 deficiency (PB12 deficiency in infants (PB12 status, which combined both circulating and functional biomarkers, was the single best predictor of infant vitamin B12 status. Impaired maternal vitamin B12 status throughout pregnancy predicted higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants, after adjusting for vitamin B12 supplementation. Future interventions are needed to improve vitamin B12 status periconceptionally, and to ensure optimal vitamin B12 status and health outcomes in pregnant women and their children.

  16. Prevalence of vitamin B(12) depletion and deficiency in Liechtenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Victoria; Stanga, Zeno; Zerlauth, Manfred; Bernasconi, Luca; Risch, Martin; Huber, Andreas; Risch, Lorenz

    2014-02-01

    Data about vitamin B(12) (B(12)) deficiency in the general population are scarce. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of B(12) deficiency in the general population of the Principality of Liechtenstein, as well as to identify sub-populations potentially at high risk. Retrospective study. Ambulatory setting, population of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Seven thousand four hundred and twenty-four patients seeking medical attention whose serum samples were referred for routine work-up in an ambulatory setting were consecutively enrolled. Serum total B(12) was determined in all patients in this cohort. In addition, for a subgroup of 1328 patients, serum holotranscobalamin was also measured. Prevalence of B(12) deficiency was calculated. Further, multivariate logistical regression models were applied to identify covariates independently associated with B(12) deficiency and depletion. Nearly 8% of the general population was suffering from either B(12) depletion or deficiency. The ratio between B(12) depletion and deficiency was 2:1 for all age ranges. Pathological changes were detected predominantly in older people. Female gender was a significant predictor of B(12) depletion. In the cohort, nearly 40% exhibited either depletion or deficiency of B(12). B(12) depletion and deficiency are common in Liechtenstein, a Central European country. The measurement of biochemical markers represents a cost-efficient and valid assessment of the B(12) state. When a deficiency of B(12) is diagnosed at an early stage, many cases can be treated or prevented, with beneficial effects on individual outcomes and subsequent potential reductions in health-care costs.

  17. Serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Koken, Resit; Koca, Halit Bugra

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope. This is a prospective review of 160 children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Subgroup analysis was done based on the results of head up tilt test. Head up tilt test gave positive results in 80 children and yielded negative results in the remaining 80 children. The tilt test positive children had significantly lower thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (p=0.06), total iron binding capacity (p=0.04) and serum vitamin B-12 (p=0.01). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the tilt positive group (80% vs 52.5%, p=0.001). Out of 80 children with positive tilt test, 8 children (10%) showed cardioinhibitory response, 22 children (27.5%) demonstrated a vasodepressor response, 24 children (30%) displayed mixed response and 26 children (32.5%) had the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly lower in the mixed response group than in the vasodepressor group (6.2±0.8 mm/h vs 14.3±2.5 mm/h, p=0.001). Serum vitamin B-12 was significantly lower in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) group than in the vasodepressor group (240.8±38.2 pg/mL vs 392.7±27.1 pg/mL, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the POTS group than in the vasodepressor group (92.3% vs 45.5%, p=0.001). Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes reduction in myelinization, deceleration in nerve conduction and elevation in serum concentrations of noradrenaline. These factors may contribute to the impairment of autonomic functions which are involved in the pathogenesis of vasovagal syncope.

  18. [Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; Capitão, Ricardo Miguel; Sequeira Duarte, João; Azinheira, Jorge; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-10-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease, affecting up to 13.1% of the Portuguese population. In addition to the known micro and macrovascular complications, drug side effects constitute a major concern, leading to changes in the treatment guidelines, which favor safety over efficacy. Metformin is the first-line pharmacological treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, it has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in up to 30% of treated patients. The authors describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in a diabetic population and explore the possible underlying factors. Retrospective, observational study. Clinical and laboratory data of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients whose vitamin B12 status was evaluated in the last decade (2005 - 2016) were analyzed. Patients with known malabsorptive syndromes or having undergone bariatric surgery were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done and the results were considered statistically significant at p values 2.2 years and 11 ± 10.4 years of type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. These patients had a high prevalence of complications: diabetic renal disease 47.7%, neuropathy 9.2%, retinopathy 14.9%, coronary artery disease 8.4%, cerebrovascular disease 10.9%, and peripheral arterial disease 5.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (21.4% of the population and this subgroup was older (68.4 vs 65.8 years, p = 0.006), had a longer type 2 diabetes mellitus duration (13.35 vs 10.36 years; p = 0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (20.9% vs 13.3%; p = 0.005) and thyroid dysfunction (34% vs 23.7%; p = 0.002). Vitamin B12 deficiency was also more frequent in patients treated with metformin (24.7% vs 15.8%; p = 0.017), antiplatelet agents (25.4% vs 16.2%, p 26.8% vs 18.2%; p = 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, the variables associated with B12 deficiency were: metformin, hypothyroidism, age and type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. Despite the retrospective design

  19. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, Michael, E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 10041 Adelaide BC, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Folate plays a critical role in the prevention of uracil incorporation into DNA and hypomethylation of DNA. This activity is compromised when vitamin B12 concentration is low because methionine synthase activity is reduced, lowering the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) which in turn may diminish DNA methylation and cause folate to become unavailable for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. The most plausible explanation for the chromosome-breaking effect of low folate is excessive uracil misincorporation into DNA, a mutagenic lesion that leads to strand breaks in DNA during repair. Both in vitro and in vivo studies with human cells clearly show that folate deficiency causes expression of chromosomal fragile sites, chromosome breaks, excessive uracil in DNA, micronucleus formation, DNA hypomethylation and mitochondrial DNA deletions. In vivo studies show that folate and/or vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated plasma homocysteine (a metabolic indicator of folate deficiency) are significantly correlated with increased micronucleus formation and reduced telomere length respectively. In vitro experiments indicate that genomic instability in human cells is minimised when folic acid concentration in culture medium is greater than 100 nmol/L. Intervention studies in humans show (a) that DNA hypomethylation, chromosome breaks, uracil incorporation and micronucleus formation are minimised when red cell folate concentration is greater than 700 nmol/L and (b) micronucleus formation is minimised when plasma concentration of vitamin B12 is greater than 300 pmol/L and plasma homocysteine is less than 7.5 {mu}mol/L. These concentrations are achievable at intake levels at or above current recommended dietary intakes of folate (i.e. >400 {mu}g/day) and vitamin B12 (i.e. >2 {mu}g/day) depending on an individual's capacity to absorb and metabolise these vitamins which may vary due to genetic and epigenetic differences.

  20. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs, and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile: 4.18 (3.29–5.38 versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40 μg/day, serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD: 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L. Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish.

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting with Myeloneuropathy | Kolapo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency, although uncommon, are the result of its effects on the brain, optic nerves, peripheral nerves, and spinal cord. Myeloneuropathy, resulting in sensory disturbances, weakness, and spasticity, is known as subacute combined degeneration and primarily involves the ...

  2. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. [Failure to thrive and psychomotor regression revealing vitamin B12 deficiency in 3 infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathey, C; Di Marco, J-N; Poujol, A; Cournelle, M-A; Brevaut, V; Livet, M-O; Chabrol, B; Michel, G

    2007-05-01

    The newborn's vitamin B12 storage exclusively comes from placenta transfer, later from animal food. We relate 3 observations of infants (3-11-13 months) with failure to thrive, anorexia, vomiting and for the two olders refusal of weaning, associated with psychomotricity regression and hypotony. Blood cell count showed a macrocytosis without anemia (case 2-3) and a severe microcytic anemia for the first case caused by a mild alpha-thalassemia, with megaloblastic bone marrow. Vitamin B12 levels were very low associated with increased methylmalonic acid and homocysteine serum levels which confirm the diagnostic . Cerebral imaging showed diffuse cortical atrophy. Cobalamin deficiency was caused by strict vegetarian diets mothers of breastfed infants (cases 2-3) and for younger by mother's unrecognized pernicious anemia. 3 mothers had no anemia and normal B12 's levels at diagnosis. Vitamin B12 supply lead to a rapid clinical and hematologic improvement. In two cases, neurologic recovery was incomplete. About one hundred case of B12 deficiency 's infant are reported, 2/3 are breast-fed by vegetarian mothers, and 1/4 have mothers with pernicious anemia. The failure to thrive is due to anorexia, refusal of weaning and partial villous atrophy. Neurologic manifestations are secondary to cerebral disorders, sometimes revealed by an exposure to anesthetic nitrous oxyd. The macrocytic anemia is inconstant. The etiologic research of developmental delay in an infant may include vitamin B12's deficiency, even if there is no haematologic signs, especially if breast-fedding 's mothers is vegetarian.

  4. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia, low vitamin B12, and low folic acid: Are risk factors of cerebral vascular thrombosis in northwest Iran?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Taheraghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral vascular thrombosis (CVT is the thrombosis of intracranial and sinuses. The aim of this is to estimate of risk of low folic acid, low vitamin B12, and hyperhomocysteinemia (hyper-Hcys for CVT. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients with CVT and 36 healthy controls participated in a cross-sectional case-control study. The deficient levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 defined as 90 th percentile of homocysteine of control group. Results: Patients had higher levels of total homocysteine (tHcys than controls (14.7 ± 6.5 vs. 6.4 ± 2.7 μmol/L, P = 0.001. Also, vitamin B12 level in case group was lower compared to control subjects (185.4 ± 58 vs. 299 ± 75 ng/mL, P = 0.001. Hyper-Hcys and low vitamin B12 were significantly more prevalent in CVT patients than controls. Although, significant independent association with risk of CVT was found for hyper-Hcys [adjusted odds ratio (OR 14.3, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.6-77.1, P = 0.002] and low vitamin B12 (adjusted OR 24.6, 95% CI: 2.3-262.9, P = 0.008. Association between low folic acid and risk of CVT was not significant. A significant negative correlation was found between the levels of tHcys and vitamin B12 (r = −0.32, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Hyper-Hcys and low vitamin B12 were related with the high risk for CVT.

  6. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182, of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood. Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L and folate (<4.6 μg/L were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol.

  7. Systematic review on daily vitamin B12 losses and bioavailability for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake with the factorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Szczecinska, A.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To systematically review the literature on daily losses and bioavailability of vitamin B12. These estimates could be used for deriving recommendations on vitamin B12 intake for adults and elderly. Methods: We identified publications on daily vitamin B12 losses (July 2011) and publications on

  8. LACK OF VITAMIN B12 AFTER ROUX Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo, Greise Janaina; Silva, Alice Freitas da

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health issue, with several factors as its cause. It may be related to several co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus II, systemic arterial pressure, dyslipidemia, cancer and others. Current research verified aspects of bariatric surgery with special focus on alterations caused by the lack of vitamin B12. The bibliographical review evaluated scientific papers, particularly recent ones, to obtain data on the theme. Obesity is defined as a disease characterized by the accum...

  9. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  10. White Centered Retinal Hemorrhages in Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Zehetner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a case of severe vitamin B12 deficiency anemia presenting with white centered retinal hemorrhages. Methods: Interventional case report. Results: A 40-year-old man, general practitioner himself, presented with a 1-day history of diminished left visual acuity and a drop-shaped central scotoma. The corrected visual acuities were 20/20, OD and 20/100, OS. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilaterally pale tarsal conjunctiva, discretely icteric bulbar conjunctiva and disseminated white centered intraretinal hemorrhages with foveal involvement. OCT imaging through these lesions revealed a retinal thickening caused by a sub-ILM accumulation of hyperreflective and inhomogeneous deposits within the nerve fiber layer. Immediate laboratory work-up showed severe megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency requiring erythrocyte transfusions. Discussion: Most reports of white centered retinal hemorrhages have been described in patients with leukemic retinopathy and bacterial endocarditis. It is interesting that this case of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia retinopathy has a clinically indistinguishable fundus appearance. This is probably due to the common pathology of capillary disruption and subsequent hemostatic fibrin plug formation. In megaloblastic anemia, direct anoxia results in endothelial dysfunction. The loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture.

  11. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  12. [Dementia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, María Isabel; Díaz, Violeta; Vásquez, Carolina; Donoso, Archibaldo

    2003-08-01

    Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency can cause polyneuropathy, myelopathy, blindness, confusion, psychosis and dementia. Nonetheless, its deficiency as the sole cause of dementia is infrequent. We report a 59 years old man with a 6 months history of progressive loss of memory, disorientation, apathy, paranoid delusions, gait difficulties with falls, and urinary incontinence. He had suffered a similar episode 3 years before, with a complete remission. On examination there was frontal type dementia with Korsakoff syndrome, a decrease in propioception and ataxic gait. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a protein of 0.42 g/L. Brain computed tomography showed sequelae of a frontal left trauma. Brain single photon computed tomography (SPECT) was normal. Complete blood count showed a macrocytic anemia with a hematocrit 29% and a mean corpuscular volume of 117 micron3. Plasma vitamin B12 levels were undetectable, erythrocyte folate levels were 3.9 ng/ml and plasma folate was normal. The myelogram showed megaloblastosis and the gastric biopsy showed atrophic gastritis. Treatment with parenteral B12 vitamin and folic acid reverted the symptoms, with normalization of the neuropsychological tests and reintegration to work.

  13. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  14. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Patrick H; Taga, Michiko E; Goodman, Andrew L

    2014-11-04

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities toward stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Requirements of precursors for the synthesis of vitamin B12 in cereal matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Sugito, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    To acquire sufficient amount of vitamin B12 (2-3 ?g/day), humans mostly consume animalderived foods in their diet, making vegetarians and vegans highly susceptible to vitamin B12.deficiency. Although sufficient vitamin B12 intake can also be met by consuming fortified foods and vitamin B12 supplements, there is an increasing trend to consume natural and food grade products rather than supplements in tablet form. However, plant-based fermented foods that contain naturally synthesized vitamin B...

  16. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-29

    Mar 29, 2016 ... [25] studied on plasma homocysteine, vitB12 and lipoprotein levels in patients with metabolic syndrome and found low levels of vitB12 compared to normal healthy individuals. Goyal et al.[26] conducted a retrospective randomized study to assess the prevalence vitB12 level in morbidly obese population ...

  17. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M Fevzi; Gocmen, A Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. The diagnosis of DVT was based upon Wells scoring system and serum D-dimer level and confirmed by deep venous Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limbs. Mean serum homocysteine levels were found significantly higher in patients over the age of 40 years (10.81±4.26 µmol/L vs 9.13±3.23 µmol/L). Of all the patients, 9 patients had homocysteine level above the 15µmol/L, 26 had folic acid level below 3 ng/ml, one had vitamin B12 level below 150 pmol/L, and two had vitamin B6 level below 30 nmol/L. In the hyperhomocysteinemic group, five patients had low folic acid level, one had low vitamin B12 level, and two had low vitamin B6 level. Hyperhomocysteinemia, in women older than 40 years, may be a risk factor for DVT. Folic acid deficiency may also influence serum homocysteine concentrations. Folate therapy may be offered to the patients with DVT. However further studies are required to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  18. Improving Bariatric Patient Aftercare Outcome by Improved Detection of a Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelt, H J M; Smulders, J F; Said, M; Nienhuijs, S W; Boer, A K

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common after bariatric surgery. Vitamin B12 is a poor predictor of functional vitamin B12 status, since deficiencies might even occur within the reference limits. Therefore, vitamin B12 deficiencies with serum vitamin B12 levels are between 140 and 200 pmol/L remain undetected. Methylmalonic acid (MMA), however, will detect these deficiencies as accumulates due to functional intracellular vitamin B12 deficiencies. MMA is a relative expensive analysis and is therefore not generally available. To lower the costs, we only request MMA when vitamin B12 levels are between these levels. As a result, more biochemical deficiencies are found. However, it was not known whether bariatric patients with vitamin B12 levels between 140 and 200 pmol/L would benefit from supplementation. Bariatric patients with vitamin B12 levels between 140 and 200 pmol/L with (n = 45) and without (n = 45) intramuscular hydroxocobalamin injections were compared. Treated patients showed a significant increase of vitamin B12 levels (P vitamin B12 supplementation are correlated with clinical improvement, patient records were checked for complaints. Complaints were disappeared after treatment, while no improvement was seen in untreated patients. This study shows that all bariatric patients with vitamin B12 levels between 140 and 200 pmol/L benefit clinical and biochemical from vitamin B12 supplementation, regardless the MMA levels.

  19. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  20. Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is positively associated with development and cognitive functioning 5 y later in Nepalese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Merina; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øyvind; Fawzi, Wafaie; Chandyo, Ram K; Shrestha, Prakash S; Strand, Tor A

    2017-05-01

    Background: Poor vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status is widespread in South Asia. Insufficient vitamin B-12 status has been linked to poor neurodevelopment in young children.Objective: We measured the associations between vitamin B-12 status in infancy (2-12 mo) and the development and cognitive functioning in Nepalese children 5 y later.Design: Vitamin B-12 status was assessed in infancy with the use of plasma cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA). At 5 y of age, we measured development with the use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), and cognitive functioning by using the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edition (NEPSY II), in 320 children. In regression models, we estimated the associations between vitamin B-12 status, including a combined indicator of vitamin B-12 status (3cB12) and scores on the ASQ-3 and NEPSY II subtests.Results: All markers of vitamin B-12 status with the exception of plasma cobalamin were significantly associated with the total ASQ-3 scores in the multiple regression models. A 1-unit increase in the 3cB12 score was associated with an increase in the total ASQ-3 score of 4.88 (95% CI: 2.09, 7.68; P = 0.001). Increases in both plasma tHcy and MMA (indicating poorer status) were associated with a decrease in scores on the NEPSY II affect recognition and geometric puzzle subtests. Each unit increment in 3cB12 scores was associated with increases of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.14; P < 0.0005), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.09; P = 0.020), and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.47; P = 0.035) in the affect recognition, geometric puzzle, and block construction scores, respectively.Conclusions: Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is associated with development and performance on social perception tasks and visuospatial abilities at 5 y of age. The long-term effects of poor vitamin B-12 status in infancy need further investigation in randomized controlled trials. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae...

  2. vitamin b12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7. Reports have shown that there is an association between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency.3, 4. However, the mechanism through which metformin induces vitamin B12 deficiency (VBD) in patients with. T2DM is presently unclear.

  3. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P vitamin B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P vitamin B12...

  4. Vitamin B12 Inhibits Tau Fibrillization via Binding to Cysteine Residues of Tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Saharnaz; Asadollahi, Kazem; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2017-12-20

    Two mechanisms underlie the inhibitory/acceleratory action of chemical compounds on tau aggregation including the regulation of cellular kinases and phosphatases activity and direct binding to tau protein. Vitamin B12 is one of the tau polymerization inhibitors, and its deficiency is linked to inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A and subsequently hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein. Regarding the structure and function of vitamin B12 and tau protein, we assumed that vitamin B12 is also able to directly bind to tau protein. Hence, we investigated the interaction of vitamin B12 with tau protein in vitro using fluorometry and circular dichrosim. Interaction studies was followed by investigation into the effect of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation using ThT fluorescence, circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and SDS-PAGE. The results indicated that vitamin B12 interacts with tau protein and prevents fibrillization of tau protein. Blocking the cysteine residues of tau confirmed the cysteine-mediated binding of vitamin B12 to tau and showed that binding to cysteine is essential for inhibitory effect of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that vitamin B12 inhibits tau aggregation and that tau oligomers formed in the presence of vitamin B12 are mostly SDS-soluble. We propose that direct binding of vitamin B12 is another mechanism underlying the inhibitory role of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation and neurodegeneration.

  5. Acceleration of brain amyloidosis in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model by a folate, vitamin B6 and B12-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that elevated circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 results in a significant increase of Hcy levels, a condition also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  6. Recommendations for diagnosis and management of metformin-induced vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Starakis, Ioannis K

    2012-09-01

    Metformin treatment is a known pharmacological cause of vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency with controversial responsible mechanisms. A possible diagnosis of this deficiency is based mainly on the combination of patient's medical history (usually long-term metformin use), clinical examination (possible neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs), laboratory studies which confirm a Cbl deficiency (haematological abnormalities, low serum Cbl levels, elevated serum total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels), and exclusion other causes of Cbl deficiency (as pernicious anaemia, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome, other drugs, etc.). In our review, recommendations for diagnosis and management of metformin-induced Cbl deficiency (MICD) in diabetic patients based on medical bibliography are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models.

  8. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 supplementation and consequent vitamin deposition in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchasak, Chaiyapoom; Kachana, Sompong

    2009-10-01

    We determined the effects of dietary supplementation with folate and vitamin B(12) on lipid metabolism and the deposition of these vitamins in eggs of laying hens (age 64-72 weeks). Four levels of folate (0, 0.5, 4 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin B(12) (0, 0.01 and 0.08 mg/kg) were added to the basal diet for 8 weeks in a 4 x 3 factorial completely randomized design study. No significant physiological interaction between folate and vitamin B(12) was evident under our experimental conditions. There was no effect of vitamins supplementation on egg production or feed intake. Supplementation with folate significantly elevated serum (p egg yolk vitamin B(12) levels. Supplementation with folate or vitamin B(12) did not significantly affect triglyceride or total phospholipid levels in serum or egg yolk although a positive relationship was observed between dietary folate supplementation and total serum phospholipid (r(2) = 0.68, p eggs. An increase in serum total phospholipids due to dietary supplementation with folate may provide physiological benefits to hens, although we did not observe any strong effects of these vitamins on lipid composition.

  9. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Sprong, R.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment

  10. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sadanand; Bhide, Vijayshri; Babhulkar, Ashish; Mahalle, Namita; Parab, Sonali; Thakre, Ravi; Kulkarni, Mohan

    2013-10-09

    Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (vegetarians indicating a potential dietary strategy to improve the vitamin status.

  11. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  12. Influence of maternal vitamin B12 and folate on growth and insulin resistance in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Urmila; Katre, Prachi; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is shifting rapidly to low- and middle-income countries. It calls for a review of the classic 'dogma' of genetic predisposition, precipitated by adult lifestyle. The paradigm of early life origins of chronic disease has focused attention on maternal health and nutrition as major determinants of the health of the offspring. India has high burden of maternal ill health and also of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, offering unique opportunities to study the links between the two. Pune studies showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal micronutrient status during pregnancy was a determinant of offspring size and body composition. Two thirds of the mothers had low vitamin B12 concentrations, while folate deficiency was rare. Higher circulating concentrations of homocysteine predicted smaller baby size. Follow-up studies revealed that higher maternal folate in pregnancy predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance in the child at 6 years of age, and that low maternal vitamin B12 exaggerated the risk of insulin resistance. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is also associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and poor offspring cognitive functions. Our results suggest an important role for maternal one-carbon metabolism in offspring growth and programming of NCD risk. These ideas are supported by animal studies. Improvement of adolescent nutrition could effect intergenerational prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Characterization and Quantitation of Vitamin B12Compounds in Various Chlorella Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Bito, Mariko; Asai, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tago, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Masato; Mizoguchi, Toru; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-11-16

    Vitamin B 12 was determined and characterized in 19 dried Chlorella health supplements. Vitamin contents of dried Chlorella cells varied from vitamin B 12 -containing Chlorella tablets, respectively. In four Chlorella tablet types with high and moderate vitamin B 12 contents, the coenzyme forms of vitamin B 12 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (approximately 32%) and methylcobalamin (approximately 8%) were considerably present, whereas the unnaturally occurring corrinoid cyanocobalamin was present at the lowest concentrations. The species Chlorella sorokiniana (formerly Chlorella pyrenoidosa) is commonly used in dietary supplements and did not show an absolute requirement of vitamin B 12 for growth despite vitamin B 12 uptake from the medium being observed. In further experiments, vitamin B 12 -dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase activities were detected in cell homogenates. In particular, methionine synthase activity was significantly increased following the addition of vitamin B 12 to the medium. These results suggest that vitamin B 12 contents of Chlorella tablets reflect the presence of vitamin B 12 -generating organic ingredients in the medium or the concomitant growth of vitamin B 12 -synthesizing bacteria under open culture conditions.

  14. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

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    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  15. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater.

  16. The distribution of total vitamin b12 holotranscobalamin and the active vitamin b12 fraction in the first 5 weeks postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, D.A.A.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; de Vries, J.; van Wijk, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Total vitamin B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy and recover to normal values within 8-week postpartum. Holotranscobalamin (holoTC) reflects the active part of vitamin B12 and has been shown to remain constant during pregnancy and postpartum. A mechanism of

  17. The distribution of total vitamin b12 holotranscobalamin and the active vitamin b12 fraction in the first 5 weeks postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, D.A.A.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; de Vries, J.; van Wijk, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Total vitamin B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy and recover to normal values within 8-week postpartum. Holotranscobalamin (holoTC) reflects the active part of vitamin B12 and has been shown to remain constant during pregnancy and postpartum. A mechanism of

  18. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik

    2017-01-01

    Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test...... for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum...... vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P B12...

  19. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B 12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

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    Idiris Altun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B 12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8 and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group. Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B 12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B 12 in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B 12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the institutionalized elderly: A regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C W; Ip, C Y; Leung, C P; Leung, C S; Cheng, J N; Siu, C Y

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is suggested to be even higher in the elderly living in institutions. This retrospective study evaluated the vitamin B12 and folate status of 1996 institutionalized elderly residents aged over 65years. Among them, 34.9% had vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 deficiency (serum folate vitamin B12 deficient residents (68%) had serum vitamin B12 between 100pmol/L and 149pmol/L. Macrocytosis was found in 24.2% of vitamin B12 deficient residents. A significant increase in macrocytosis was associated with a decrease in serum vitamin B12 below 100pmol/L. Macrocytosis was most common in those with vitamin B12 ≦69pmol/L (50.9%). Overall, vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the institutionalized elderly, however macrocytosis cannot predict deficiency. More liberal testing for vitamin B12 status in the institutionalized elderly may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Link between vitamin B12, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and bone mineral density in elderly patients

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    Moatassem S. Amer, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group than the diabetic group who did not receive oral B12 supplementation. Low serum vitamin B12 is commonly overlooked in the elderly, with or without diabetes. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect BMD in the elderly. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between serum vitamin B12 levels and BMD among diabetics.

  2. Effect of Combination Folic Acid, Vitamin B6 , and Vitamin B12 Supplementation on Fracture Risk in Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Katie L; Lui, Li-Yung; Christen, William G; Troen, Aron M; Bauer, Douglas C; Kado, Deborah; Schambach, Christopher; Cummings, Steven R; Manson, JoAnn E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association of elevated plasma homocysteine levels with greater bone resorption and fracture risk. Vitamins B12 , B6 , and folic acid are cofactors in homocysteine metabolism, and supplementation with B vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine levels in humans. However, randomized trials of supplemental B vitamins for reduction of fracture risk have been limited. Therefore, we performed an ancillary study to the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study (WAFACS), a large randomized trial of women with preexisting cardiovascular disease or three or more coronary risk factors, to test whether a daily B vitamin intervention including folic acid (2.5 mg/day), vitamin B6 (50 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/day) reduces nonspine fracture risk over 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up. Among 4810 women, we confirmed 349 nonspine fracture cases by centralized review of medical records. In a substudy of 300 women (150 in treatment group and 150 controls) with paired plasma samples at randomization and follow-up (7.3 years later), we measured two bone turnover markers, including C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and intact type I procollagen N-propeptide (P1NP). In Cox proportional hazards models based on intention-to-treat, we found no significant effects of B vitamin supplementation on nonspine fracture risk (relative hazard = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.34). In a nested case-cohort analysis, there were no significant effects of B vitamins on fracture risk among women with elevated plasma homocysteine levels, or low levels of vitamins B12 or B6 , or folate at baseline. Furthermore, treatment with B vitamins had no effect on change in markers of bone turnover. We found no evidence that daily supplementation with B vitamins reduces fracture risk or rates of bone metabolism in middle-aged and older women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American

  3. A Puzzle of Hemolytic Anemia, Iron and Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in a 52-Year-Old Male

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    Suartcha Prueksaritanond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male with no significant past medical history reports increasing generalized fatigue and weakness for the past 2 weeks. Physical examination reveals jaundice and pallor without organomegaly or lymphadenopathy. His hemoglobin was 5.9 g/dL with a mean corpuscular volume of 87.1 fL and elevated red blood cell distribution width of 30.7%. His liver function test was normal except for elevated total bilirubin of 3.7 mg/dL. Serum LDH was 701 IU/L, and serum haptoglobin was undetectable. Further investigation revealed serum vitamin B12 of <30 pg/mL with elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine level. In addition, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were low. The patient was diagnosed with hemolytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency with concomitant iron deficiency anemia.

  4. Fisiopatologia da deficiência de vitamina B12 e seu diagnóstico laboratorial Physiopathology of vitamin B12 deficiency and its laboratorial diagnosis

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    Clóvis Paniz

    2005-10-01

    synthetized by humans organisms, found in foods of animal origin. Its deficiency is very frequent among old people, vegetarians, subjects who use a low protein diet, or who present gastrointestinal absorption failure. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY: The vitamin B12 deficiency leads to hematologic, neurophatologic and cardiovascular disorders, mainly by interfering in the homocysteine (Hcy metabolism and in the methylation reactions of organism. Often, the deficiency can remain without symptoms for long time, leading to a chronic deficiency that, if not treated, may yield irreversible neurologic manifestations. METHODOLOGY: Efficient methodologies that allow the early diagnosis are essential. However, a gold standard method is not consensus yet. The vitamin B12 serum measurement presents some restrictions for problems of sensitivity and specificity, being able to occur deficiency’s symptoms even the serum vitamin B12 being in normal range or, in another way, occurring low levels of serum vitamin B12 without, however, showing low levels of vitamin B12 fraction really available for the cells and without showing symptoms. New alternatives come appearing, as the transcobalamin II measurement, the only vitamin B12 fraction available for the cells or the methylmalonic acid and Hcy measurement, metabolites that increase when intracellular vitamin B12 decreases. These tests present some advantages, but also important limitations for use in the routine. CONCLUSION: In the sub clinical cases, a correct and early diagnosis represents still a challenge and further studies are needed to define the best method for routine laboratorial diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  5. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33–50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  6. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system: a study on mice treated for four weeks with high-dose vitamin B12 or cobinamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte L Lildballe

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12 transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi (4.25 nmol/h, or B12 (1.75 nmol/h for 27 days (n = 7 in each group. B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33-50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment.

  7. Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency in the periconceptional period contributes to neural tube defects; deficits in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have negative consequences on the developing brain during infancy; and deficits of both vitamins are associated with a greater risk of depression during adulthood. This review examines two mechanisms linking folate and vitamin B12 deficiency to abnormal behavior and development in infants: disruptions to myelination and inflammatory processes. Future investigations should focus on the relationship between the timing of deficient and marginal vitamin B12 status and outcomes such as infant growth, cognition, social development, and depressive symptoms, along with prevention of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:18709887

  8. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations and atrophic gastritis in older New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T J; Venn, B J; Skeaff, C M; Williams, S M

    2005-02-01

    To determine the serum vitamin B(12) status of older New Zealanders and to assess the impact of atrophic gastritis on vitamin B(12) status. A cross-sectional nationally representative population-based survey. Serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were used to assess vitamin B(12) status. The presence and severity of atrophic gastritis was classified using serum pepsinogen I and II. A total of 466 noninstitutionalized urban and rural dwelling New Zealanders aged 65 y or older who participated in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of deficient (gastritis was 6.7% (severe 3.1%, mild-moderate 3.6%). While atrophic gastritis increased the relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of having a deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentration by 21-fold (6-67) and five-fold (1-17), respectively, those who had atrophic gastritis made up only 33 and 6% of the participants with deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations. An intake of vitamin B(12) from food that exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (2.4 mug/day) did not protect against deficient (RR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2) or marginal (RR 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.7) serum vitamin B(12) status. Vitamin B(12) supplement users had a reduced risk of having deficient and marginal vitamin B(12) status (RR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There is a relatively high prevalence of deficient and marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations among older New Zealanders. However, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis was low in the New Zealand elderly compared with other surveys. Although atrophic gastritis was a risk factor for low vitamin B(12) status, it did not fully explain the prevalence of low serum vitamin B(12).

  9. The levels of vitamın B12, folate and homocysteine in mothers and their babies with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Erdal; Demir, Nihat; Tuncer, Oğuz; Üstyol, Lokman; Balahoroğlu, Ragıp; Kaba, Sultan; Karaman, Kamuran

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine (Hcy) in mothers and their babies, and to assess the association between these levels and neural tube defect (NTD). The study group included 92 baby-mother pairs, where the babies had NTD, and the control group included 102 pairs, where the babies had no NTD, from May 2012 to May 2015. Plasma vitamin B12, folate, and Hcy levels of the babies and mothers were measured, and compared with each other. NTD was diagnosed in 2.6% of our babies. The vitamin B12 levels in the mothers and the babies in the study group were determined as 166.2 ± 63.7 pg/mL and 240.3 ± 120.3 pg/mL, and in the control group as 1 9 0 ± 80.2 pg/mL and 299.5 ± 151.4 pg/mL, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of both the mothers' and the babies' vitamin B12 levels (p = 0.024 and p = 0.003, respectively). The plasma folate levels of the mothers in the study group (5.2 ± 3 ng/mL) were significantly lower than control group (6.4 ± 4.3 ng/mL, p = 0.032).The plasma Hcy level of the mothers in the study group (9.3 ± 3.8 μmol/L) was significantly higher than the control group (7 ± 3.8 μmol/L, p < 0.001). High plasma Hcy levels and low plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels are risk factors for NTD. Our results show that the risk for NTD can be decreased by fortification of mothers-to-be, particularly in rural areas with folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, which would lower the plasma Hcy level.

  10. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

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    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Since 2008, approximately 30,000 Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. Routine medical examinations of refugees after arrival in resettlement states indicated hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. These cases were reported by examining physicians and state health departments to CDC, which initiated an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation. Sera from overseas medical examinations, postarrival examinations in three state health departments (Minnesota, Utah, and Texas), and medical records and interviews at a health clinic in St. Paul, Minnesota, were evaluated. Vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as serum vitamin B12 concentration refugees screened for vitamin B12 deficiency at the St. Paul clinic. Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. Additionally, infection with Helicobacter pylori might play a role. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for vitamin B12 deficiency in Bhutanese refugees. All Bhutanese refugees should be given nutrition advice and should receive supplemental vitamin B12 upon arrival in the United States. In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy.

  12. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Carlos Tavares Bello

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to identify the risk factors for the B12 deficit. The recognition of these variables will contribute to optimize the screening and prevention of the B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as a peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David S H

    2010-03-01

    Chronic metformin use results in vitamin B12 deficiency in 30% of patients. Exhaustion of vitamin B12 stores usually occurs after twelve to fifteen years of absolute vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin has been available in the United States for approximately fifteen years. Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may present without anemia and as a peripheral neuropathy, is often misdiagnosed as diabetic neuropathy, although the clinical findings are usually different. Failure to diagnose the cause of the neuropathy will result in progression of central and/or peripheral neuronal damage which can be arrested but not reversed with vitamin B12 replacement. To my knowledge, this is the first report of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency causing neuropathy.

  14. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees.

  15. Vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies are common in patients with midgut carcinoid (SI-NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A; Wängberg, B; Ellegård, L

    2016-09-01

    Patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NET) often have diarrhoea from hormonal overproduction, surgery and medical treatment, leading to malabsorption of bile salts, fats, vitamin B12 and fat-souble vitamins. This could lead to malnutrition. We assessed nutritional status in 50 consecutive out patients with disseminated SI-NET, 25 patients in each cohort. The first cohort was descriptive and the second cohort supplemented with vitamin D, B12 and calcium. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as vitamin D deficient. In patients without prior substitution, 32% had subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Seventy-six percent had low bone density. In the second cohort with vitamin and mineral supplementation, none had severe vitamin D deficiency, but 28% had moderate deficiency. No patient had subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Sixty percent had low bone density. The serum levels of vitamin D and B12 were higher and parathyroid hormone (PTH) lower in the second cohort compared with the first cohort (P⩽0,022). Vitamin D and PTH were negatively correlated, r=-30, P=⩽0.036. Low serum levels of vitamin D and vitamin B12, and low bone density are common in patients with disseminated SI-NET. Supplementation of vitamin D, B12 and calcium resulted in higher serum levels of vitamins, lower PTH levels and diminished severe vitamin D deficiency and is thus recommended as standard care.

  16. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?

    OpenAIRE

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, Sri Venkata

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III–V interpeak ...

  17. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves heart rate variability in healthy elderly Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharita, S; Thomas, T; Antony, B; Vaz, M

    2012-05-21

    While vitamin B(12) deficiency is global, data in elderly Indians are lacking. The problem in India is likely to be higher because of vegetarianism and malabsorption related to gastro-intestinal parasites. Autonomic dysfunction is known to occur much earlier in pernicious anemia. However, what is not known is whether these changes are reflected in healthy elderly individuals. This study assessed cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy elderly individuals of low and high vitamin B(12) status and evaluated the effect of vitamin B(12) supplementation in those with low vitamin B(12) status. 140 elderly subjects aged ≥60 years were screened; 47 healthy subjects were assessed. They underwent blood sampling, anthropometry, HRV and nerve conduction assessment. Subjects were classified based on vitamin B(12) level (148 pmol/L) into deplete vitamin B(12) and replete vitamin B(12) groups. Elderly subjects with low vitamin B(12) status underwent cyanocobalamin supplementation (100 μg) for 3 months. Low frequency (LF) HRV in absolute units was significantly lower in the low vitamin B(12) group. Following supplementation, LF HRV in absolute units and total power rose significantly as compared to pre-supplementation values for the entire supplemented group. In conclusion, elderly with lower vitamin B(12) status have reduced low frequency HRV suggestive of sympathetic involvement. Supplementation with vitamin B(12) for 3 months results in a significant increase in low frequency HRV to values comparable with unsupplemented, but vitamin B(12) replete elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship Between the Levels of Holotranscobalamin and Vitamin B12 in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok Bozkaya, Ikbal; Yarali, Nese; Kizilgün, Murat; Ozkan, Secil; Tunc, Bahattin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the plasma holoTC and serum vitamin B12 in children and to identify a cutoff cobalamin values according to holoTC. One hundred and fifty-five children were enrolled into the study. All children were evaluated for hemoglobin, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and holoTC levels. Children were grouped as with low vitamin B12 level (≤200 pg/mL, group I) and normal vitamin B12 (>200 pg/mL, group II). Serum vitamin B12, and holoTC levels were performed in each patient in the study. In 101 patients with low vitamin B12 (group I) the mean holoTC was 21.74 ± 1.14 pmol/L. In 54 children with normal vitamin B12 (group II) mean holoTC was 44.0 ± 2.7 pmol/L (p B12 level and it was found to be 165 pg/mL with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 74%; the area under curve was 0.783 (p B12 and holoTC, and defined an optimum cutoff value for vitamin B12 as 165 pg/mL. Further studies using the markers both MMA, tHcy and holoTC to confirm the findings are needed.

  19. Examining the Association between Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Dementia in High-Risk Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, O; Smeall, K; Watson, T; Donnelly-Vanderloo, M; O'Connor, C; Foley, N; Madill, J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the association between vitamin B12 deficiency and dementia in patients at high risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. Chart review. Emergency, critical care/ trauma, neurology, medicine, and rehabilitation units of two hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Adult patients (n = 666) admitted from 2010 to 2012. Data collection included: reason for admission, gender, age, clinical signs and symptoms of B12 deficiency, serum B12 concentration, and B12 supplementation. Patients with dementia were identified based on their medication profile and medical history. Vitamin B12 deficiency (pmol/L) was defined as serum B12 concentration 220. Comparisons between B12-deficient patients with and without dementia were examined using parametric and non-parametric tests. Serum B12 values were available for 60% (399/666) of the patients, of whom 4% (16/399) were B12-deficient and 14% (57/399) were marginally deficient. Patients with dementia were not more likely to be B12-deficient or marginally deficient [21% (26/121)] compared to those with no dementia [17% (47/278), p=0.27)]. Based on documentation, 34% (25/73) of the B12-deficient and marginally-deficient patients did not receive B12 supplementation, of whom 40% (10/25) had dementia. In this sample of patients, there was no association between B12 deficiency and dementia. However, appropriate B12 screening protocols are necessary for high risk patient to identify deficiency and then receive B12 supplementation as needed.

  20. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pacid (DHA) (pOmega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (pomega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of vitamin B12 compounds from Korean purple laver (Porphyra sp.) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Emi; Yabuta, Yukinori; Kwak, Chung Shil; Enomoto, Toshiki; Watanabe, Fumio

    2009-04-08

    Vitamin B(12) contents of various Korean purple laver products were determined with the microbiological vitamin B(12) assay method. Although a substantial amount (133.8 microg/100 g) of vitamin B(12) was found in dried purple laver, seasoned and toasted laver products contained lesser vitamin B(12) contents (about 51.7 microg/100 g). The decreased vitamin B(12) contents in the seasoned and toasted laver products, however, were not due to loss or destruction of vitamin B(12) during the toasting process. Silica gel 60 thin layer chromatography-bioautogram analysis indicated that all Korean laver products tested contain true vitamin B(12), but not inactive corrinoid compounds. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments indicated that digestion rate of vitamin B(12) from the dried Korean purple laver was estimated to be 50% under pH 2.0 conditions (as a model of normal gastric function). These results suggest that Korean purple laver products would be excellent vitamin B(12) sources for humans, especially vegetarians.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency and impaired expression of amnionless during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannérec, Alice; Migliavacca, Eugenia; De Castro, Antonio; Michaud, Joris; Karaz, Sonia; Goulet, Laurence; Rezzi, Serge; Ng, Tze Pin; Bosco, Nabil; Larbi, Anis; Feige, Jerome N

    2017-11-21

    Physical frailty and loss of mobility in elderly individuals lead to reduced independence, quality of life, and increased mortality. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to several age-related chronic diseases, including in the musculo-skeletal system, where vitamin B12 deficiency is generally believed to be linked to poor nutritional intake. In the present study, we asked whether aging and frailty associate with altered vitamin B12 homeostasis in humans and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms using preclinical models. We analysed a subset of the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study and stratified 238 participants based on age and Fried frailty criteria. Levels of methyl-malonic acid (MMA), a marker for vitamin B12 deficiency, and amnionless, the vitamin B12 co-receptor that anchors the vitamin B12 transport complex to the membrane of epithelial cells, were measured in plasma. In addition, vitamin B12 levels and the molecular mechanisms of vitamin B12 uptake and excretion were analysed in ileum, kidney, liver, and blood using a rat model of natural aging where nutritional intake is fully controlled. We demonstrate that aging and frailty are associated with a higher prevalence of functional vitamin B12 deficiency that can be detected by increased levels of MMA in blood (ρ = 0.25; P = 0.00013). The decline in circulating vitamin B12 levels is recapitulated in a rat model of natural aging where food composition and intake are stable. At the molecular level, these perturbations involve altered expression of amnionless in the ileum and kidney. Interestingly, we demonstrate that amnionless can be detected in serum where its levels increase during aging in both rodents and human (P = 3.3e-07 and 9.2e-07, respectively). Blood amnionless levels negatively correlate with vitamin B12 in rats (r2  = 0.305; P = 0.0042) and positively correlate with the vitamin B12 deficiency marker MMA in humans (ρ = 0.22; P = 0.00068). Our results demonstrate that

  3. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  4. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead...... in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  5. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies. To this end, we assessed: the difference in vascular risk factors and vitamin D-OH25 levels among groups of sVAD, AD, and healthy age-matched controls; the association of folate, B12, homocysteine, and vitamin D with sVAD/AD and whether a deficiency of vitamin D and an increment in homocysteine levels may be related to neurodegenerative or vessel damages. The commonly-considered vascular risk factors were collected in 543 patients and compared with those obtained from a healthy old volunteer population. ANOVA group comparison showed that vitamin D deficiency was present in demented cases, as well as low levels of folate and high levels of homocysteine, more pronounced in sVAD cases. The statistical models we employed, with regression models built, and adjustments for biochemical, demographic and neuropsychiatric scores, confirmed the association between the three measures (folate decrease, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin D decrease and dementia, more pronounced in sVAD than in AD.

  6. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infant formula is based on cow’s milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow’s milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Methods Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. Results All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19–78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. Conclusions This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated. PMID:27851744

  7. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, Towfida J; Ahmad, Shaikh M; Ahsan, Khalid B; Rashid, Mamunur; Roy, Anjan; Rahman, Syed M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Allen, Lindsay H; Raqib, Rubhana

    2016-02-01

    Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-specific responses in mothers and infants. In a blinded, placebo-controlled trial, Bangladeshi women (n = 68, age 18-35 years, hemoglobin pregnant) were randomized to receive 250 μg/day B12 or a placebo throughout pregnancy and 3-month postpartum along with 60 mg iron + 400 μg folate. Women were immunized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine at 26- to 28-week gestation. Blood from mothers (baseline, 72-h post-delivery, 3-month postpartum), newborns and infants (3-month) was analyzed for hemoglobin, B12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), total homocysteine (tHcy), ferritin and serum transferrin receptor, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Vitamin B12 was also assessed in breast milk. H1N1-specific antibodies were determined in plasma and colostrum/breast milk. At baseline, 26% women were B12 deficient (271 nmol/L), and 31% had elevated tHcy (>10 μmol/L). Supplementation increased B12 in plasma, colostrums and breast milk (p infants at 3 months (p infants with elevated AGP and CRP compared with placebo. Supplementation with 250 μg/day B12 during pregnancy and lactation substantially improved maternal, infant and breast milk B12 status. Maternal supplementation improved H1N1 vaccine-specific responses in mothers only and may alleviate inflammatory responses in infants.

  8. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  9. Smoking Discriminately Changes the Serum Active and Non-Active Forms of Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoohi, Niloofar; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Sohrabi, Marjan; Zarei, Mahnaz; Mohammadi, Hamed; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2017-06-01

    Smoking may modify the appetite, and consequently affect nutrient intake and serum micronutrients. The effect of smoking on vitamin B12 status has been considered in several studies. The research proposed that organic nitrites, nitro oxide, cyanides, and isocyanides of cigarette smoke interfere with vitamin B12 metabolism, and convert it to inactive forms. This research was carried out to determine the serum level of active and inactive forms of vitamin B12 in male smokers in comparison with male nonsmokers. This is a case-control study, in which the participants were 85 male smokers and 85 male nonsmokers. The serum levels of total and active form of vitamin B12 were measured. Dietary intake was recorded by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and one-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Independent two sample T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the case and control groups. The serum level of total vitamin B12 was not significantly different between two groups, but serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in the smoking group was significantly lower than non-smoking group (PB12 in smokers in the Iranian community. The results of this study identified that serum level of total vitamin B12 might be not different between smoking and non-smoking people, but the function of this vitamin is disturbed in the body of smokers through the reduction of serum level of active form of vitamin B12.

  10. The Singer's and the Clinician's Perspective on Vitamin B12 Treatment for Vocal Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Lava, Christian X; Hapner, Edie R; O'Dell, Karla; Reder, Lindsay; Johns, Michael M

    2018-01-03

    There is a belief among vocalists that there are voice benefits from vitamin B12 treatment. Yet there are no previous reports regarding vitamin B12 effects on voice. To assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 use among singers and their beliefs regarding vitamin B12 therapy. Anonymous online survey administered to singers, singing-teachers, speech-language pathologists, and laryngologists. A total of 192 participants completed the surveys; 128 singers (68 singing-teachers, 30 speech-language pathologists) and 64 laryngologists. Among singers, 12% have perceived voice benefits from vitamin B12 treatment taken for any reason. Four percent used vitamin B12 for voice benefits; all perceived voice benefits as a result. The leading voice benefits were improved stamina, reduced effort, confidence, and control. Nineteen percent of the singers would recommend vitamin B12 treatment to a friend; 15% of the singing-teachers would recommend it to a student. Among laryngologists, 33% been asked by a singer to prescribe vitamin B12 for voice benefits; 9% have prescribed it in the past. Yet only 3% would you recommend it to a patient. When asked "Do you believe vitamin B12 therapy improves vocal performance?" 31% of the singers responded "Yes," compared with none in the laryngologists. When asked "Do you think the singing community believes vitamin B12 therapy improves vocal performance?" 26% of the singers responded "Yes," compared with 53% of the laryngologists (P = 0.0002). There is a discrepancy between the singers' and the laryngologists' beliefs regarding vocal benefits perceived by vitamin B12. Blinded randomized trials are required to verify or refute this belief. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'eno, Bernadette N; Perrine, Cria G; Whitehead, Ralph D; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D

    2017-01-17

    Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a) age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.92) or 12-17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72) compared to 18-23 months; (b) being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50) compared to not being stunted; (c) and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41) compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  12. Oral Vitamin B12 Supplementation After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Reid, Alastair; Graham, Yitka; Callejas-Diaz, Lindes; Parmar, Chetan; Carr, William Rj; Jennings, Neil; Singhal, Rishi; Small, Peter K

    2018-01-09

    Many respectable guidelines recommend lifelong vitamin B12 injections for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients in the absence of lack of consensus on the efficacy of oral route of prophylaxis and the appropriate doses needed for this purpose. The purpose of this review was to examine the published English language scientific literature in accordance with PRISMA principles to find out if orally given vitamin B12 is adequate for prophylactic purposes in RYGB patients and the appropriate dosages needed for this purpose if it is. We examined the PubMed database for all English language articles examining various doses of oral vitamin B12 supplementation after proximal RYGB in adult patients. The search revealed 19 such articles. The data suggest that oral vitamin B12 supplementation doses of ≤ 15 μg daily are insufficient to prevent deficiency in RYGB patients. Higher supplementation doses show better results and it appears that a dose of 600.0 μg vitamin B12 daily is superior to 350.0 μg daily suggesting an incremental dose-response curve. It further appears that supplementation doses of 1000.0 μg vitamin B12 daily lead to an increase in B12 levels and are sufficient for the prevention of its deficiency in most RYGB patients. The review finds that oral supplementation doses of ≤ 15 μg vitamin B12 daily are inadequate for prophylaxis of vitamin B12 deficiency in adult RYGB patients but doses of 1000 μg vitamin B12 daily might be adequate. Future studies need to examine this and even higher oral doses for vitamin B12 supplementation for patients undergoing RYGB.

  13. Svaer vitamin B12-mangel hos spaedbørn brysternaeret af veganere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-01-01

    with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period...

  14. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ishak abdurrahman isik

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although vitamin B 12 levels of HP positive patients were lower than that of HP negative patients this differance was not statistically significant. Hereafter new studies with high number of patients will be helpful to investigate relation between HP infection and vitamin B 12 deficiency. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 221-225

  15. vitamin b12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:This study was carried out to determine the serum level of vitamin. B12 in Nigerian patients with type ... Methods: Serum vitamin B12 level was determined using high performance ... to obtain serum samples which were kept at -200C.

  16. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, E.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Szczecinska, A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Souverein, O.W.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 µg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and

  17. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  18. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  19. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  20. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency

  1. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. J.; de Rooij, S. E. J. A.; Huijmans, J. G. M.; Fischer, C.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum

  2. Association of aspirin use with vitamin B12 deficiency (results of the BACH study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Peters, W.H.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficiency and its association with medication use and characteristics, including infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in 255 patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. In almost half of the study population, vitamin B(12) deficiency was

  3. Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aryn B; Pawlak, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Due to the non-specificity of symptoms and possibly severe consequences of untreated vitamin B-12 deficiency, screening is important for at-risk patients to ensure the prompt delivery of treatment. In this review, studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction are evaluated to determine whether regular vitamin B-12 screening is necessary. A literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases. Only original studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction that reported their findings as percentages of the sample were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 7091 manuscripts generated, 6 were included in this review. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism was reported as 10, 18.6, and 40.5% in three separate studies. The prevalence of deficiency in autoimmune thyroid disease was reported as 6.3, 28, and 55.5% in three studies. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease are reflective of the nutrition status of the population. Autoimmune thyroid disease is also associated with the autoimmune disorders pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis which may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 screening is recommended upon initial diagnosis with autoimmune thyroid disease and then periodically thereafter. There is not enough evidence to recommend regular screening for patients with hypothyroidism unless the underlying cause is autoimmune thyroid disease.

  4. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd A Al-Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml, 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml, and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml. Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 (P < 0.005. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.

  5. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and vitamin B12 deficiency in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Taliha; Guven, Baris; Tavli, Vedide; Mese, Timur; Yilmazer, Murat Muhtar; Demirpence, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of adrenaline from noradrenaline. It is the cofactor involved in catecholamine degradation and plays a role in myelin synthesis. The current study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin B12 levels and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) during adolescence when accelerated myelin synthesis increases the vitamin B12 need. One hundred twenty-five patients (mean age 11.1 ± 2.3 years; 60% female) reporting short-term loss of consciousness and diagnosed with vasovagal syncope based on anamnesis with a normal distribution and 50 control subjects (mean age 10.94 ± 2.5 years, 62% female) were included in this study. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin levels were measured prospectively in addition to other tests. We defined vitamin B12 deficiency as a serum level <300 pg/mL.(1-4) RESULTS: Vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patient group compared with the control group (47.2% vs 18%, P < .001). In the patient group, children with the POTS pattern had significantly lower vitamin B12 levels compared with children without the POTS response (P = .03). Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with POTS may lead to sympathetic nervous system baroreceptor dysfunction.

  6. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova Tatyana; Saubenova Margarita; Halymbetova Aizhan; Kulnazarov Batyr

    2015-01-01

    Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml ) and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l).

  7. Relationship between soil cobalt and vitamin B12 levels in the liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materlais and methods: Liver and muscle tissues of livestock grazing on the selected areas were analyzed for the content .... py, Varian 1475 AA spectrophotometer with sensitivity. 0.0001PPM10. Determination of liver cobalt and vitamin B12 levels. Liver and muscle samples from twenty .... First, the plasma vitamin B12 level.

  8. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed parti...

  9. Diagnostic value of the mean corpuscular volume in the detection of vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, W. P.; Niessen, R. W.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Sanders, G. T.; Sturk, A.

    2000-01-01

    In clinical practice, the finding of an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV), macrocytic anaemia or specific neurological symptoms is often the reason to test for vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. Use of the MCV as a test for the detection or exclusion of B12 deficiency is only justified if the

  10. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals...

  11. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, D; Khaliq, F; Vaney, N; Madhu, S V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III-V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the left ear compared with the controls. The dose and duration of metformin showed no association with the stimulusrelated potentials. Therefore, although vitamin B12 levels were deficient and auditory conduction impairment was present in the diabetics on metformin, this impairment cannot be attributed to the vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality.

  13. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  14. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B 12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B 12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Serum B 12 concentration was measured with Radioimmunoassay Dual Isotope method. The cutoff value for low serum vitamin B 12 concentrations was 75 pg/mL. Patients were in remission at the time of blood draw. Results: There were 13 (21.6% MS patients and 10 (26.3% controls with low serum B 12 concentration with no significant difference between the groups; P>0.05. The mean serum vitamin B 12 concentration in MS patients (108.9±45.3 pg/mL was not significantly different compared with controls (98.9±44.4 pg/mL; P=0.284. Likewise, there was no correlation between the concentration of serum vitamin B 12 and disease′ age of onset, duration, subtypes, or disability status. Conclusions: In contrast to some previous reports, our findings did not support any association between B 12 deficiency and MS.

  15. Resistance imparted by vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 to the acute hepatic glycogen change in rats caused by noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bei-Wei; Piao, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yu; Han, Song; An, Qing-Da; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2006-04-01

    The effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 on the noise-induced acute change in hepatic glycogen content in rats were investigated. The exposure of rats to 95 dB and 110 dB of noise acutely reduced their hepatic glycogens. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) attenuated the noise-induced acute reduction in the hepatic glycogen contents. This result suggests that antioxidants could reduce the change via reactive oxygen species. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) delayed the noise-induced change, a finding that suggests that vitamin B12 could postpone the acute change via compensating for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  16. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco; C.O. Ramos-Peñafiel; A. Santoyo-Sánchez; J. Collazo-Jaloma; C. Martínez-Murillo; E. Montaño-Figueroa; A. Sinco-Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    .... An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly...

  17. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate (

  18. A multifaceted study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, the food-grade producer of active vitamin B12

    OpenAIRE

    Deptula, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is the most complex vitamin in existence and one of the most complex non-polymeric molecules occurring in nature. It is predominantly present in animal-derived products, which places vegetarians and people with limited access to animal-derived foods at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency. With the current trend of limiting the consumption of foods of animal origin, the deficiency may also affect other populations. In situ fortification of foods through microbial ferment...

  19. Vitamin B 12 absorption: correction of intestinal retention by whole-body profile activity of vitamin B 12-58 cobalt and by double tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, M.R. Bencke; Gheldof, R.; Paternot, L. van Tricht; Delmotte, E.; Verschaeren, A.; Martin, P.; Verhas, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Brugmann University Hospital]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Intestinal retention could give false negative results in determining the whole-body retention of vitamin B 12 absorption (WBC B12-58Co). After having validate the WBC B12-58Co, taking the Schilling test as reference, we have studied the feasibility to evaluate the intestinal contamination by measurement of the profile activity distribution of vitamin B12-58Co and by a double tracer technique (WBC B12-58Co/ WBC 51 Cr Cl3). Methodology: twenty five patients were studied for the setting up of the new methodology. For eleven of them the WBC B12-58 Co retention was measured at the 7th day after the oral administration of 37KBq of B12-58Co using a four detectors whole body counter. One week later, a Schilling test was performed after the oral absorption of 18,5 KBq B12-57Co. Results were expressed as %ID. In these patients, one single peak of hepatic activity was observed on the whole body profile and thus no further intestinal correction was needed. In order to evaluate the intestinal contribution, we made in nine other patients the profile of the whole body distribution of activity at 1 h, 1 week and two weeks after the oral administration of B12-58Co. For five other patients a double tracer technique was used for intestinal correction after the simultaneous oral administration of 37 KBq of B12-58Co and 1,85 MBq of 51 Cr Cl3. The B12-58Co absorption was evaluated after intestinal correction based on subtraction of the 51Cr Cl3 contribution after the formula: B12-58Co(%ID) = WBC B12-58Co - WBC 51 Cr Cl3/1 - WBC 51 Cr Cl3. Results: the correlation with the Schilling test was found excellent: r=0,94 (n=11). The normality for WBC retention (n=7) was define as 53,2 +-12,4% ID (SD). For nine patients studied at the 7th day, the presence of a double peak (hepatic and intestinal peaks) allowed the subtraction by exponential extrapolation; the correction range was 4,4% to 37,2%. With the exception of one observation there was no difference in the measure of vitamin

  20. The effects of long-term daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Lute, Carolien; Heil, Sandra G; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Schoor, Natasja M; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Folate and its synthetic form folic acid function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 μg folic acid and 500 μg vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of 2 years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n = 44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n = 43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8, and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development

  1. Effects of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on early infant neurocognitive outcomes: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kapanee, Aruna Rose Mary; Ramthal, Asha; Bellinger, David C; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. However, findings from studies on the association between maternal B12 status and child cognitive functions have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral B12 supplementation (50 µg) beginning at supplementation on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age on Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III). One hundred eighty-three pregnant women received vitamin B12, and 183 received placebo. Nine-month BSID-III development score was available in 178 infants. There were no significant differences in maternal sociodemographic characteristics and baseline biochemical measures between infants who underwent BSID-III evaluation and infants who were not evaluated. There were no significant differences in any of the subscales of BSID-III between infants born to mothers who received B12 supplementation (n = 78) vs. placebo (n = 100). On multiple regression analysis, elevated maternal total homocysteine (tHcy) levels adjusted for treatment group, birthweight, parity, income and home environment at second trimester of pregnancy were significantly negatively associated with expressive language (β = 3.13 points, P supplementation were seen on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age, elevated maternal tHcy levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance in some of the subdomains of BSID-III. In pregnant women with elevated tHcy levels and or B12 deficiencies, it may be worthwhile to study the impact of longer term maternal supplementation on infant cognitive outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Smoking Discriminately Changes the Serum Active and Non-Active Forms of Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shekoohi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking may modify the appetite, and consequently affect nutrient intake and serum micronutrients. The effect of smoking on vitamin B12 status has been considered in several studies. The research proposed that organic nitrites, nitro oxide, cyanides, and isocyanides of cigarette smoke interfere with vitamin B12 metabolism, and convert it to inactive forms. This research was carried out to determine the serum level of active and inactive forms of vitamin B12 in male smokers in comparison with male nonsmokers. This is a case-control study, in which the participants were 85 male smokers and 85 male nonsmokers. The serum levels of total and active form of vitamin B12 were measured. Dietary intake was recorded by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and one-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Independent two sample T test was used to compare quantitative variables between the case and control groups. The serum level of total vitamin B12 was not significantly different between two groups, but serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in the smoking group was significantly lower than non-smoking group (P<0.001. This is one of the first studies that evaluated the serum level of active form of vitamin B12 in smokers in the Iranian community. The results of this study identified that serum level of total vitamin B12 might be not different between smoking and non-smoking people, but the function of this vitamin is disturbed in the body of smokers through the reduction of serum level of active form of vitamin B12.

  3. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.

  4. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexø, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B......12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. METHODS: Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. RESULTS: All infant...... formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows...

  5. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Red Cell Distribution Width-Platelet Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and red cell distribution widthplatelet ratio (RPR, and the variations in the parameters on vitamin B12 treatment. Methods: One hundred fifty-four patients with untreated vitamin B12 deficiency (56% men, mean age: 50 ± 12.7 years (untreated group, 86 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (62% men, mean age: 42 ± 20.7 years on vitamin B12 treatment (treated group, and 92 age- and sex-matched control group (54% men, mean age: 45 ± 15.1 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters were evaluated by the method of laser-based flow cytometric impedance, using an automated blood cell counter (ABX Pentra 120 Hematology Blood Analyzer. Results: RPR was significantly reduced in treated group compared with untreated group (4.88 ± 1.06; 6.13 ± 1.27; p0.05. Conclusion: We proposed that vitamin B12 deficiency has effects on RPR and supplementation with vitamin B12 corrects the RPR levels. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (3: 211-215

  6. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  7. Associations between Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yun; Liu, Ya; Guo, Haizhuo; Jabir, Majid Sakhi; Liu, Xuanchen; Cui, Weiwei; Li, Dong

    2017-04-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiencies, as these micronutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, which is affected by IBD. However, a consensus has not been reached on the association between IBD and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. In this study, a comprehensive search of multiple databases was performed to identify studies focused on the association between IBD and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Studies that compared serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations between IBD and control patients were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The main outcome was the mean difference in serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations between IBD and control patients. Our findings indicated that the average serum folate concentration in IBD patients was significantly lower than that in control patients, whereas the mean serum vitamin B12 concentration did not differ between IBD patients and controls. In addition, the average serum folate concentration in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) but not Crohn's disease (CD) was significantly lower than that in controls. This meta-analysis identified a significant relationship between low serum folate concentration and IBD. Our findings suggest IBD may be linked with folate deficiency, although the results do not indicate causation. Thus, providing supplements of folate and vitamin B12 to IBD patients may improve their nutritional status and prevent other diseases.

  8. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Dietary Intake of Folate, but not Vitamin B(2) or B (12), Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density 5 Years after the Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, L; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2008-01-01

    supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases......Folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), and vitamin B(12 )may affect bone directly or through an effect on plasma homocysteine levels. Previously, a positive association has been found between plasma levels and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as risk of fracture. However, there are limited data...... on whether dietary intakes affect bone. Our aim was to investigate whether intake of folate, vitamin B(2,) and vitamin B(12), as assessed by food records affects BMD and fracture risk. In a population-based cohort including 1,869 perimenopausal women from the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...

  10. Involuntary movements after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a video-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanus, Caterina; Alberini, Elena; Costa, Paola; Colonna, Franco; Zennaro, Floriana; Carrozzi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Involuntary movements can appear before and after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment. The pathogenesis of involuntary movements in vitamin B12 deficiency and their relationship with cobalamin injection remain unclear due to a lack of video-EEG documentation making the electroclinical correlation difficult to ascertain. Here, we report video-EEG and neuroimaging findings of an 11-month-old girl with vitamin B12 deficiency, who acutely developed involuntary movements a few days after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment with normal vitamin plasmatic levels. Abnormal movements were a combination of tremor and myoclonus involving the face, mouth, and left arm, which disappeared after discontinuation of therapy. [Published with video sequences].

  11. Serum folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment in Chilean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lancellotti, Cecilia; Margozzini, Paula; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Padilla, Oslando; Uauy, Ricardo; Rozowski, Jaime; Tur, Josep A

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the relationship between serum folate (SF), vitamin B12 and impaired cognitive function in the Chilean elderly. We analysed the relationships between impaired cognitive function and age, SF (µg/l) and vitamin B12 (pg/ml) with Student's t test, as well as between impaired cognitive function and gender, educational level, residence area, diabetes and hypertension with the χ 2 test. Multiple logistic regressions with interactions were estimated to assess the impact of SF on impaired cognitive function according to these methods. Chile. Older adults (>65 years, n 1051), drawn from representative households of a national prevalence study, assessed using the Modified Mini Mental Status Examination (MMMSE). Individuals with altered MMMSE scores (≤13 points) were sequentially assessed using the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). Multivariate models using the MMMSE demonstrated an increased risk of impaired cognitive function for seniors who had hypertension, diabetes and higher vitamin B12 levels. SF and its square (SF2) were statistically significant, indicating that this predictor of impaired cognitive function displays a U-shaped distribution. The interaction between SF and vitamin B12 was not statistically significant. Models using the MMMSE plus PFAQ suggested that urban residence decreased the risk of impaired cognitive function, whereas male gender, older age, vitamin B12 levels and hypertension increased this risk. The variables SF and SF2 and the SF × vitamin B12 interaction were statistically significant (P<0.05). The risk of impaired cognitive function depended on different combinations of SF and vitamin B12 levels. When SF was low, a one-unit increase in SF (1 µg/l) diminished the risk. When SF was elevated, a further increase in SF raised the risk, especially at low vitamin B12 levels. The relationship between folate, vitamin B12 and impaired cognitive function warrants further study.

  12. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cabrerizo-García

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Decreased vitamin B12 concentration does not usually result in clinical or hematological abnormalities. Subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia are two serious and rarely displayed consequences that appear in severe deficits. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a patient with subacute combined spinal cord degeneration and pancytopenia secondary to severe and sustained vitamin B12 deficiency. Such cases are rare nowadays and have potentially fatal consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin B12 deficiency should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis in cases of blood disorders or severe neurological symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can avoid irreversible consequences.

  13. Blood lipids, homocysteine, stress factors, and vitamins in clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients present a decrease of antioxidants and neuroprotective and immunoregulatory vitamins and an increase of total homocysteine (tHcy), cholesterol (CHL), HDL-cholesterol, and of cellular stress markers, variably associated with the different phases of the disease. We compared the blood levels of uric acid, folic acid, vitamins B12, A, and E, tHcy, CHL, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in forty MS patients during a phase of clinical inactivity with those of eighty healthy controls, matched for age and sex. We found higher levels of tHcy (p = 0.032) and of HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.001) and lower levels of vitamin E (p = 0.001) and the ratio vitamin E/CHL (p = 0.001) in MS patients. In conclusion, modifications of some biochemical markers of cell damage were detected in MS patients during a phase of clinical inactivity. PMID:20163740

  14. Vitamin B1 and B12 uptake and cycling by plankton communities in coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eKoch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM, vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2 µm phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms, picoplankton (< 2 µm were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

  15. Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Müller, Paulo de Tarso

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential in the homocysteine, mitochondrial, muscle and hematopoietic metabolisms, and its effects on exercise tolerance and kinetics adjustments of oxygen consumption (V'O2p) in rest-to-exercise transition in COPD patients are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, controlled study aimed to verify a possible interaction between vitamin B12 supplementation and these outcomes. After recruiting 69 patients, 35 subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD were eligible and 32 patients concluded the study, divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): 1. rehabilitation group; 2. rehabilitation plus B12 group; 3. B12 group; and 4. placebo group. The primary endpoint was cycle ergometry endurance before and after 8 weeks and the secondary endpoints were oxygen uptake kinetics parameters (time constant). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was high (34.4%) and there was a statistically significant interaction (p  0.05 for both). Supplementation with vitamin B12 appears to lead to discrete positive effects on exercise tolerance in groups of subjects with more advanced COPD and further studies are needed to establish indications for long-term supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Most harmful algal bloom species are vitamin B1 and B12 auxotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Koch, Florian; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-11-30

    Eutrophication can play a central role in promoting harmful algal blooms (HABs), and therefore many HAB studies to date have focused on macronutrients (N, P, Si). Although a majority of algal species require exogenous B vitamins (i.e., auxotrophic for B vitamins), the possible importance of organic micronutrients such as B vitamins (B(1), B(7), B(12)) in regulating HABs has rarely been considered. Prior investigations of vitamins and algae have examined a relatively small number of dinoflagellates (n = 26) and a paucity of HAB species (n = 4). In the present study, the vitamin B(1), B(7), and B(12) requirements of 41 strains of 27 HAB species (19 dinoflagellates) were investigated. All but one species (two strains) of harmful algae surveyed required vitamin B(12), 20 of 27 species required B(1), and 10 of 27 species required B(7), all proportions higher than the previously reported for non-HAB species. Half-saturation (K(s)) constants of several HAB species for B(1) and B(12) were higher than those previously reported for other phytoplankton and similar to vitamin concentrations reported in estuaries. Cellular quotas for vitamins suggest that, in some cases, HAB demands for vitamins may exhaust standing stocks of vitamins in hours to days. The sum of these findings demonstrates the potentially significant ecological role of B-vitamins in regulating the dynamics of HABs.

  17. Genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content of bovine milk and its association with SNP along the bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Marc J M; Bouwman, Aniek C; Sprong, R Corinne; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visker, Marleen H P W

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland.

  18. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Marc J. M.; Bouwman, Aniek C.; Sprong, R. Corinne; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.; Visker, Marleen H. P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland. PMID:23626813

  19. Genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content of bovine milk and its association with SNP along the bovine genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J M Rutten

    Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment of the milk vitamin B-12 content could be achieved through genetic selection, provided there is genetic variation between cows with respect to the vitamin B-12 content in their milk. A substantial amount of genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content was detected among raw milk samples of 544 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. The presence of genetic variation between animals in vitamin B-12 content in milk indicates that the genotype of the cow affects the amount of vitamin B-12 that ends up in her milk and, consequently, that the average milk vitamin B-12 content of the cow population can be increased by genetic selection. A genome-wide association study revealed significant association between 68 SNP and vitamin B-12 content in raw milk of 487 first-lactation Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. This knowledge facilitates genetic selection for milk vitamin B-12 content. It also contributes to the understanding of the biological mechanism responsible for the observed genetic variation in vitamin B-12 content in milk. None of the 68 significantly associated SNP were in or near known candidate genes involved in transport of vitamin B-12 through the gastrointestinal tract, uptake by ileum epithelial cells, export from ileal cells, transport through the blood, uptake from the blood, intracellular processing, or reabsorption by the kidneys. Probably, associations relate to genes involved in alternative pathways of well-studied processes or to genes involved in less well-studied processes such as ruminal production of vitamin B-12 or secretion of vitamin B-12 by the mammary gland.

  20. Marginal maternal vitamin B12 status increases the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Peer, P.G.M.; Gooskens, R.H.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate B vitamins and homocysteine as risk factor for offspring with spina bifida. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples from 45 mothers and their children with spina bifida and from 83 control mothers and their children were obtained to determine the levels of

  1. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  2. High Prevalence of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and No Folate Deficiency in Young Children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette N. Ng’eno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children in low- and middle-income countries may have inadequate intake of vitamin B12 and folate; data confirming these inadequacies are limited. We used biochemical, demographic, behavioral and anthropometric data to describe the folate and vitamin B12 concentrations among six- to 23-month-old Nepalese children. Vitamin B12 (serum B12 < 150 pmol/L and folate deficiencies (red blood cell (RBC folate < 226.5 nmol/L were assessed. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of vitamin B12 deficiency. The vitamin B12 geometric mean was 186 pmol/L; 30.2% of children were deficient. The mean RBC folate concentration was 13,612 nmol/L; there was no deficiency. Factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency included: (a age six to 11 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.18, 1.92 or 12–17 months (aOR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.72 compared to 18–23 months; (b being stunted (aOR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.50 compared to not being stunted; (c and not eating animal-source foods (aOR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.41 compared to eating animal-source foods the previous day. There was a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, but no folate deficiency. Improving early feeding practices, including the consumption of rich sources of vitamin B12, such as animal-source foods and fortified foods, may help decrease deficiency.

  3. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  4. Genetic determinants of serum vitamin B12 and their relation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Kristine H; Friedrich, Nele; Pietzner, Maik; Grarup, Niels; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2017-02-01

    Lower serum vitamin B12 levels have been related to adverse metabolic health profiles, including adiposity. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test whether this relation might be causal. We included two Danish population-based studies (ntotal = 9311). Linear regression was used to test for associations between (1) serum vitamin B12 levels and body mass index (BMI), (2) genetic variants and serum vitamin B12 levels, and (3) genetic variants and BMI. The effect of a genetically determined decrease in serum vitamin B12 on BMI was estimated by instrumental variable regression. Decreased serum vitamin B12 associated with increased BMI (P B12 associated variants associated strongly with serum vitamin B12 (P B12 was associated with a 0.09 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05; 0.13) increase in BMI (P = 3 × 10-5), whereas a genetically induced 20% decrease in serum vitamin B12 had no effect on BMI [-0.03 (95% CI -0.22; 0.16) kg/m2] (P = 0.74). Nevertheless, the strongest serum vitamin B12 variant, FUT2 rs602662, which was excluded from the B12 genetic risk score due to potential pleiotropic effects, showed a per allele effect of 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.01; 0.32) on BMI (P = 0.03). This association was accentuated including two German cohorts (ntotal = 5050), with a combined effect of 0.19 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.08; 0.30) (P = 4 × 10-4). We found no support for a causal role of decreased serum vitamin B12 levels in obesity. However, our study suggests that FUT2, through its regulation of the cross-talk between gut microbes and the human host, might explain a part of the observational association between serum vitamin B12 and BMI.

  5. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (psupplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  6. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid and cobalamin are B-group vitamins that play an essential role in many cellular processes. Deficiency in one or both of these vitamins causes megaloblastic anaemia, a disease characterized by the presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts occur when inhibition of DNA synthesis causes asynchronous maturation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Clinical manifestations are similar to those of other types of anaemia, with the exception of cobalamin deficiency megaloblastic anaemia, which presents distinctive neurological symptoms. An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly of administering supplements to restore body reserves.

  7. Vitamin B12 intramuscular injections versus oral supplements: a budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, L; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections. This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency. Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists. Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars. The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2

  8. Association of serum vitamin B12 and folate with mortality in incident hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soohoo, Melissa; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Qader, Hemn; Streja, Elani; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Moradi, Hamid; Rhee, Connie M; Kim, Tae Hee; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) and folate are essential vitamins that play important roles in physiological processes. In the general population, many studies have evaluated the association of these vitamins with clinical outcomes, yet this association in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains unclear. We examined the association of serum folate and B12 with mortality in a 5-year cohort of 9517 (folate) and 12 968 (B12) HD patients using Cox models with hierarchical adjustment for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and laboratory variables associated with the malnutrition and inflammation complex syndrome. The associations of baseline B12 and folate (separately) with all-cause mortality were evaluated across five categories of B12 [B12 measurements had a mean ± standard deviation age of 63 ± 15 years, among whom 43% were female, 33% were African-American, and 57% were diabetic. Higher B12 concentrations ≥550 pg/mL were associated with a higher risk of mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and laboratory variables. However, only lower serum folate concentrations B12 concentrations are associated with higher all-cause mortality in HD patients independent of sociodemographics and laboratory variables, whereas lower folate concentrations were associated with higher all-cause mortality after accounting for sociodemographic variables. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimal B12 and folate level targets in this population.

  9. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer.

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sebastián; Benavente, David; Alvo, Miriam; de Pablo, Paola; Ferro, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency. The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude. Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; Psolar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], Psolar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Patients With Plasma Cell Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschi, Caitlyn; Doucette, John; Chari, Ajai

    2017-12-01

    Although increased rates of vitamin B12 deficiency have been reported in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs), no mechanism has been identified. Excess free light chains (FLCs) could disrupt the renal proximal tubule receptors where B12 is reabsorbed. We sought to characterize the relationship between B12 deficiency and PCDs. We hypothesized that rates of B12 deficiency would be highest in patients with PCDs with high FLC burdens. We reviewed the electronic medical records of 501 patients who met inclusion criteria (diagnosed PCD with documented serum B12 and FLC levels) to obtain clinical data recorded prior to patients' lowest B12 levels. Overall, 20.0% of patients had low vitamin B12. There was an expected negative correlation between estimated glomular filtration rate and FLC (rs = -0.317; P B12 levels were more prevalent in patients with preserved renal function (P = .047). Low B12 was associated with lower mean corpuscular volume (P = .037). Higher FLC burden was associated with poor kidney function but not with low B12. Low B12 was seen more commonly in patients with preserved kidney function. Mean corpuscular volume was statistically but not clinically different between patients with low and normal B12 and, therefore, may not be a reliable indicator of B12 deficiency in PCDs. Prospective studies should compare B12 metabolites with FLC levels. Detection of B12 deficiency among patients with PCDs remains important to reduce neurologic dysfunction and cytopenias, sequelae common to B12 deficiency and PCDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  13. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing...

  14. Perspectives on Peripheral Neuropathy as a Consequence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in T2DM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marwan A. Ahmed; George L. Muntingh; Paul Rheeder

    2017-01-01

    ...) and a direct manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. Examining the effects of metformin use on PN status became imperative following clinical studies that showed the vitamin B12-lowering effect of the medication...

  15. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison′s pigmentation: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Agrawala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis.

  16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison's pigmentation: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawala, Ritesh Kumar; Sahoo, Srikanta Kumar; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Mohanty, Binoy Kumar; Baliarsinha, Anoj Kumar

    2013-10-01

    A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis.

  18. Is Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency Responsible for Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, S V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in them. Vitamin B12 levels were found to be deficient, and latencies of waves P200 and P300 were prolonged in the diabetics as compared to the controls. The dose and duration of metformin had no association with the ERPs. Although the Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in diabetics on metformin, this is not the reason behind the cognitive impairment found in them.

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric manifestations. Results: We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms

  20. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    Het Ministerie van VWS overweegt om bepaalde voedselbestanddelen te verrijken met foliumzuur. Foliumzuurverrijking houdt echter een gezondheidsrisico in, omdat het vitamine B12 deficientie maskeert, waardoor het de incidentie van megaloblastische anemie en perifere neuropathie kan verhogen. Dit

  1. Applicability of ribosome engineering to vitamin B12 production by Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukinori; Kasahara, Ken; Izawa, Masumi; Ochi, Kozo

    2017-08-01

    Ribosome engineering has been widely utilized for strain improvement, especially for the activation of bacterial secondary metabolism. This study assessed ribosome engineering technology to modulate primary metabolism, taking vitamin B12 production as a representative example. The introduction into Propionibacterium shermanii of mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, respectively, increased per cell production (μg/L/OD 600 ) of vitamin B12 5.2-fold, although net production (μg/L) was unchanged, as the cell mass of the mutants was reduced. Real-time qPCR analysis demonstrated that the genes involved in vitamin B12 fermentation by P. shermanii were activated at the transcriptional level in the drug-resistant mutants, providing a mechanism for the higher yields of vitamin B12 by the mutants. These results demonstrate the efficacy of ribosome engineering for the production of not only secondary metabolites but of industrially important primary metabolites.

  2. Coordination Compounds in Biology-The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1273-1283 ...

  3. Relation between serum vitamin B12 level and duration of treatment with carbamazepine in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 levels in the serum of 58 epileptic patients receiving only carbamazepine for at least 6 months were measured. Same number of epilepsy patients with no history of taking antiepileptic medicine were taken as control. The mean level of vitamin B12 in carbamazepine-treated epileptic patients was 265.5 pg/mL whereas it was 478.3 pg/mL in control. Increased duration of treatment of carbamazepine in epilepsy caused significantly decreased level of serum vitamin B12 (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.9, p<0.0001. In conclusion, serum vitamin B12 level significantly decreased in relation to duration of carbamazepine treatment in epileptic patients.

  4. Is Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency Responsible for Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Khattar; Farah Khaliq; Neelam Vaney; S V Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were eva...

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: preventive strategies and key recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Soriano, Jose; Louie Cruz, Allan; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2013-01-01

    Advances in bariatric surgery have brought about a paradigm shift in the management of obesity, with benefits extending beyond weight loss. However, nutritional deficiencies are an inherent problem in the postoperative period and often require lifelong supplementation. Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies affecting this population. This review explores the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and provides an overview of the effectiveness of various available vitamin B12 formulations. To identify the relevant literature, a systematic review of MEDLINE was conducted from the earliest dates through September 2012 for English-language articles describing the prevention and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Intramuscular vitamin B12 continues to be the gold standard of therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in symptomatic patients. In select patients with asymptomatic vitamin B12 deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), high-dose oral cyanocobalamin should be given a consideration, especially when there are concerns with the adherence to intramuscular therapy or if compliance comes into question. Unlike patients post-RYGB, those undergoing restrictive procedures such as gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy may be maintained postoperatively on a lower-dose daily vitamin B12 supplementation. Efficacy data of nasal and sublingual routes for maintenance therapy is currently awaited. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery must be continuously educated on proper nutrition, the risk of developing significant vitamin B12 deficiency, and the role of supplements in avoiding catastrophic consequences. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early treatment causes clinicoradiological reversal of myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Rajesh; Kori, Prakash; Tushar B Patil; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation with a variety of neurological symptoms and signs. As a result, many patients lack classic features of advanced severe deficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in order to prevent the irreversible damage to the nervous system. We describe a 25-year-old man, who presented with predominant sensory symptoms without any signs on clinical evaluation. His serum vitamin B12 levels were low and neuroimaging revealed myel...

  7. Association between serum folate and vitamin B-12 and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Toth, Thomas L; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-10-01

    Preconceptional folate and vitamin B-12 have been linked to beneficial reproductive outcomes in both natural pregnancies and those after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the associations of serum folate and vitamin B-12 with ART outcomes. This analysis included a random sample of 100 women (154 ART cycles) participating in a prospective cohort study [Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH)] at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2007-2013). Serum folate and vitamin B-12 were measured in blood samples collected between days 3 and 9 of treatment. Generalized estimating equations with adjustment for age, BMI, and race were used to evaluate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 with ART outcomes. Women in the highest quartile of serum folate (>26.3 ng/mL) had 1.62 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.65) times the probability of live birth compared with women in the lowest quartile (Women in the highest quartile of serum vitamin B-12 (>701 pg/mL) had 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14, 3.62) times the probability of live birth compared with women in the lowest quartile (women with serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations greater than the median had 1.92 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.29) times the probability of live birth compared with women with folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations less than or equal to the median. This translated into an adjusted difference in live birth rates of 26% (95% CI: 10%, 48%; P = 0.02). Higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12 before ART treatment were associated with higher live birth rates among a population exposed to folic acid fortification. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00011713. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12.

  9. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2013-01-01

    of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined...

  10. Novel vitamin B12-producing Enterococcus spp. and preliminary in vitro evaluation of probiotic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing; Wang, Yuejiao; Yu, Yue; Yang, Lanlan; Chen, Jieyan V

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499.8 ± 83.7 μg/L), and the B12 compound from LZ86 was identified as the biological active adenosylcobalamin, using reversed phase high-performance liquid (RP-HPLC) chromatogram. We examined basic probiotic and safety properties of E. faecium LZ86 and found that it was able to survive harsh environmental conditions (hot temperature, cold temperature, ethanol and osmotic stresses), tolerate gastric acid (pH 2.0, 3 h) and bile salts (0.3%), and adhere to Caco-2 cells. We also showed that E. faecium LZ86 is devoid of transferable antibiotic resistance and potential virulence factors. Together, here we report a B12-producing E. faecium strain LZ86 firstly, which has desirable probiotic properties and may serve as a good candidate for vitamin B12 fortification in food industry.

  11. Evaluation of serum Vitamin B12 level and related nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Obesity is a major public health problem and great risk for not only cardiovascular diseases but also cancer, musculoskeletal, and gynecological diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum Vitamin B12 (vitB12), body mass index (BMI), and nutritional status among obese women.

  12. Atopy, asthma, and lung function in relation to folate and vitamin B(12) in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Husemoen, L L N; Ovesen, L

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested low serum folate and impaired folate metabolism as potential risk factors for development of asthma and atopic disease, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of markers of folate and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency with diff...

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, D; Wekesa, C; Kaddu-Mukasa, M; Waiswa, M

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neuro-psychiatric manifestations. We report a case of a 44 year old female patient referred to the haematology unit with vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as an acute confusional state or delirium. Total resolution of the psychiatric symptoms occurred following parenteral vitamin B12 replacement therapy. This case report highlights one of the neuro-psychiatric presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency in a previously healthy individual.

  14. Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcic, M; de Batlle, J; Ricci, C; Biessy, C; Perrier, F; Huybrechts, I; Weiderpass, E; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cadeau, C; His, M; Cox, D G; Boeing, H; Fortner, R T; Kaaks, R; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Sieri, S; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, G; Amiano, P; Sánchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Buckland, G; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H; Key, T J; Riboli, E; Gylling, B; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I; Chajès, V

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), alcohol intake and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C > T and 1298A > C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend  = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend  = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  15. The effectiveness of vitamin B12 in preventing minor Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis(RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzatul Syafiqah Bt Abd Samad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Minor type of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is the most common oral lesion among the populations especially in second decade. There are a lot of predisposing factors which may caused Minor type of RAS and one of them is nutritional deficiency include vitamin B12 deficiency. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of vitamin B12 in preventing Minor type of RAS. Randomised sampling; double blind, parallel design experimental of 30 students from faculty of dentistry in Padjadjaran university. All samples were divided into two groups and each group was given 100 mcg and 50 mcg of vitamin B12, they consumed one tablet for 1 month. Mann Whitney test was used to analyze the data. Result showed there were difference numbers of sample who still have ulcer between two groups after a month. As statistically, there was no significance difference in group of 50 mcg (p-value=0.073, but there was significant differences significant in group of 100 mcg (p-value=0.000 and there was no different significance in data between 50 mcg and 100 mcg vitamin B12 (p-value =0.367 for ulcer and different significance (p-value=0.011 for non ulcer. Conclusion: vitamin B12 is effective in preventing minor type of RAS in dosages 100 mcg and 50 mcg, but statistically 100 mcg of tablet vitamin B12 is more effective than 50 mcg.

  16. Hyperhomocysteinemia, Deep Vein Thrombosis and Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Metformin-treated Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Yu Lin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency may be induced by long-term use of metformin, which may in turn lead to hyper-homocysteinemia. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of vascular thrombosis in diabetic patients, when metformin is used and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutation is present. We report a 65-year-old Taiwanese diabetic woman who was treated with metformin for 6 years and who had suffered from swelling of the left lower extremity for 3 months. Ascending venography confirmed the diagnosis of proximal deep vein thrombosis, while hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, and a homozygous C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene were also found. She had no identifiable venous thrombotic risk factors other than hyperhomocysteinemia, which seemed to be caused by both MTHFR C677T homozygous mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency. With the substitution of insulin injection for metformin, short-term supplement of vitamin B12, and anticoagulant therapy for the deep vein thrombosis, her anemia and hyperhomocysteinemia recovered rapidly. The deep vein thrombosis also responded well. Our findings highly suggested the role of metformin in causing vitamin B12 deficiency, which may serve as an additional risk factor for venous thrombosis in diabetic patients. Our report also highlights the need to check vitamin B12 levels during metformin treatment.

  17. Hyperhomocysteinemia, deep vein thrombosis and vitamin B12 deficiency in a metformin-treated diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Wang, Ming-Lun; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2007-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may be induced by long-term use of metformin, which may in turn lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of vascular thrombosis in diabetic patients, when metformin is used and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation is present. We report a 65-year-old Taiwanese diabetic woman who was treated with metformin for 6 years and who had suffered from swelling of the left lower extremity for 3 months. Ascending venography confirmed the diagnosis of proximal deep vein thrombosis, while hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, and a homozygous C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene were also found. She had no identifiable venous thrombotic risk factors other than hyperhomocysteinemia, which seemed to be caused by both MTHFR C677T homozygous mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency. With the substitution of insulin injection for metformin, short-term supplement of vitamin B12, and anticoagulant therapy for the deep vein thrombosis, her anemia and hyperhomocysteinemia recovered rapidly. The deep vein thrombosis also responded well. Our findings highly suggested the role of metformin in causing vitamin B12 deficiency, which may serve as an additional risk factor for venous thrombosis in diabetic patients. Our report also highlights the need to check vitamin B12 levels during metformin treatment.

  18. B12 Vitamin and Folat Prevelance of Children and Adolescents in Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Öncel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of megaloblastic anemia in childhood are vitamin B12 and folat deficiency. Folat and vitamin B12 play a role in DNA synthessis in gastrointestinal, urogenital,nerves and hemotopoetic cells. The diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia is easy and the treatment cost is low.In this study, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folat deficiencies in 889 students were determined. Vitamin B12 and folat levels in blood samples were measured via RİAThe average age were betwen 12 and 22 years. Of this students 294(%33,1 were female and 595 (%66,9 were male. The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency was found to be 2.2%, while folat deficiency was 21.8%. The mean vitamin B12 level was 331,51±144,05 pg/mL (325,60±138,91 in pg/mL male, 343,48±153,48 pg/mL in female, the mean folat level was 5,42±2,12 ng/ml (5,23±2,11 ng/ml in male, 5,80±2,10 ng/ml in female.The prevelance of folat deficiency in our region was higher than other countries, possibly due to low socioeconomical status, improper or inadequate food intake and low educational status.

  19. Vitamin B12 Production by Marine Bacteria in Organic Substrate Limited, Slow Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Mendoza, J.; Cajal-Medrano, R.; Maske, H.

    2016-02-01

    The conditions and processes governing the B12 vitamin dissemination through planktonic organisms are little understood. It is generally assumed that bacteria produce B12 vitamin and the whole auxotrophic plankton community consumes it. We used natural marine bacteria communities and marine bacteria Dinoroseobacter shibae cultures, growing in substrate-limited continuous cultures at low specific growth rates [0.1 to 1 d-1] to measure intracellular and dissolved B12 production, bacterial and viral abundance, particulate organic carbon, and nitrogen, bacterial production, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ETS activity, and taxonomic composition. We find dissolved B12 vitamin at concentrations between 0 to 1.4 pM with no relation to growth or respiration rates. The intracellular B12 vitamin normalized to cell volume ranged between 1x10-2 to 4.6x10-2 pmol μm3 showing a significant relationship with growth rate [y=0.02(m)1.07; r2=0.78; p≤0.05; y=intracellular B12 production, pmol μm3 day-1; m=specific growth rate, day-1], and respiration rates [y=2.4ln(x)-2.66; r2=0.87; p≤0.05; x=CO2 production, μM day-1]. The vitamin B12 producing bacteria D. shibae, showed a dissolved B12 concentration between 0 and 1.8 pM, whereas intracellular B12 normalized to cell volume varied between 1.1x10-2 to 1.8x10-2 pmol μm-3, responding significantly to growth rate [y=0.01(m)0.56; r2=0.85; p≤0.05], and to respiration rates [y=3.01ln(x)-7.56, r2=0.97, p≤0.05; x=CO2 production, μM day-1]. The lack of correlation of dissolved B12 vitamin with the metabolic activity suggests that the dissolved B12 concentration depends on the interactions among vitamin B12 producers and consumers while the bacterial metabolism is regulating the intracellular production of B12 vitamin.

  20. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  1. Preliminary evidence for cell membrane amelioration in children with cystic fibrosis by 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation: a single arm trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scambi

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day. Red blood cells (RBCs were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv increased RBC K(+ content; (v reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association.5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509.

  2. TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION (TPN: ROLE OF RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2 AND CYANOCOBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Shiekh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Total parenteral nutrition (TPN replaces and maintains essential nutrients in patients in whom oral or tube feedings are contraindicated or inadequate. A nutritional assessment must be carried out before initiating TPN in order to determine nutritional needs and any metabolic changes due to the patient’s underlying condition, medications or concurrent therapies. In addition to carbohydrates, proteins and fats, certain amounts of micronutirents are also added to TPN solutions. These micronutrients include electrolytes, vitamins, and trace minerals. This review highlights some basic concepts regarding the use and formulation of TPNs along with their advantages and disadvantages and the importance of water soluble vitamins B2 and B12 in human nutrition.

  3. Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid on fracture incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Dijk, van S.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Zillikens, M.C.; Meurs, van J.B.J.; Brug, J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an

  4. Nitrous oxide-induced vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Lindsey; Simonsen, Cameron; Seago, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide is a gas that is odorless, colorless, and has a sweet taste at room temperature. Nitrous oxide has several uses, including in surgery and dentistry (referred to as "laughing gas"), in automotive racing, and in aerosol spray propellants. The aerosol spray propellants that typically use nitrous oxide are whipped cream canisters and cooking sprays. Unfortunately, these over-the-counter household items are a source of nitrous oxide that can be used for recreational use. The most popular is the use of industrial-grade canisters having the slang term "whippets." The nitrous oxide can be extracted by pushing the nozzle down slightly to the side and catching the released gas with a balloon. The contents of the balloon can then be directly inhaled, giving an instant feeling of euphoria. This is not a benign means to achieve a euphoric state but can cause severe nitrous oxide-induced B12 deficiency, which is presented in this case report.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia Is Associated with Vitamin B-12 Deficiency: A Cross-sectional Study in a Rural, Elderly Population of Shanxi China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, T-T; Zhang, W; Li, Y; Niu, X-Y; Fang, Y-L; Ma, L-S; Li, C-X

    2016-01-01

    To report the association of lifestyle factors and plasma vitamin B-12 with hyperhomocysteinemia in a large sample of men and women living in a region of China where there is an increased risk of NTDs. Community-based, cross-sectional study of Lvliang City, Shanxi Province, China. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a sensitive marker of vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency. A total of 2355 (1044 men and 1311 women) participants born before 1 January 1958 (≥55 years of age) and living in Lvliang City for at least 2 months a year were included. The participants were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, height, weight, as well as having a physical examination and blood sampling for serum cholesterol, total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12 levels. The median (25th-75th percentile) tHcy concentration was 21.5 (15.8-33.6) µmol/L in men and 18.0 (13.4-24.8) µmol/L in women. The overall prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy ≥15 µmol/L) was 72.6% (84.3% in men and 63.2% in women), inversely correlated with folate (r=-0.230, P=0.006) and vitamin B-12 (r=-0.540, PVitamin B-12 and folate deficiency, older age, and male gender were associated with elevated tHcy; with vitamin B-12 deficiency being the strongest. Plasma tHcy concentration and hyperhomocysteinemia were significantly higher in this population than in previously studied populations. Vitamin B-12 and folate supplementation, concomitant lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation, and lipid-lowering treatments may help to decrease plasma tHcy concentrations and reduce the CVD risk in this population.

  6. Long-term Metformin Therapy and Monitoring for Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Elliott, John L; Patel, Birju B; Holland, N Wilson; Johnson, Theodore M; Khakharia, Anjali; Phillips, Lawrence S; Oakley, Godfrey P; Vaughan, Camille P

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between long-term metformin therapy and serum vitamin B12 monitoring. Retrospective cohort study. A single Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), 2002-2012. Veterans 50 years or older with either type 2 diabetes and long-term metformin therapy (n = 3,687) or without diabetes and no prescription for metformin (n = 13,258). We determined diabetes status from outpatient visits, and defined long-term metformin therapy as a prescription ≥500 mg/d for at least six consecutive months. We estimated the proportion of participants who received a serum B12 test and used multivariable logistic regression, stratified by age, to evaluate the association between metformin use and serum B12 testing. Only 37% of older adults with diabetes receiving metformin were tested for vitamin B12 status after long-term metformin prescription. The mean B12 concentration was significantly lower in the metformin-exposed group (439.2 pg/dL) compared to those without diabetes (522.4 pg/dL) (P = .0015). About 7% of persons with diabetes receiving metformin were vitamin B12 deficient (B12 testing compared to those without metformin exposure, after adjusting for sex, race and ethnicity, body mass index, and number of years treated at the VAMC. Long-term metformin therapy is significantly associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentration, yet those at risk are often not monitored for B12 deficiency. Because metformin is first line therapy for type 2 diabetes, clinical decision support should be considered to promote serum B12 monitoring among long-term metformin users for timely identification of the potential need for B12 replacement. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

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    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  8. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  9. Effect of vitamin B12 addition to extenders on some physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asadpour

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... reports had shown a positive effect of vitamin B12 supplementation to the extender on sperm motility and sperm count. Ha and Zhao (2003) indicated that vitamin. B complex (3%, v/v) could improve post-thaw motility and protect the integrity of ram spermatozoa membrane during cryopreservation. Hu et al.

  10. Sulfur-containing amino acids, C-reactive protein, Vitamin B 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study aimed to analyze, whether there is a relationship between the plasma concentration of SAA, CRP as a predictor of mortality in HD patients as well as systemic vitamin concentration, measured as levels of vitamin B12 and folate. The present study shows that many abnormalities are observed in plasma SAA ...

  11. The histopathological evaluation of small fiber neuropathy in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Hafize Nalan; Bekircan-Kurt, Can Ebru; Tan, Ersin; Erdem-Özdamar, Sevim

    2017-10-19

    Small fiber neuropathy (SFN), due to loss of A-delta and unmyelinated C fibers, is a cause of neuropathic pain. Although the patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are included in SFN studies in the literature, there is no histopathological study investigating the small fiber loss solely in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. In this pilot study, we aim to demonstrate the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in skin punch biopsy of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Ten patients with vitamin B12 deficiency suffering from neuropathic pain and as control group ten patients with vitamin B12 deficiency without neuropathic pain were included. Neurological examination, electrophysiological evaluation, and DN4 questionnaire were performed. Subsequently, skin punch biopsy 10 cm above the lateral malleolus was done. The biopsy samples were stained with PGP9.5 antibody, and IENFD was determined. IENFD was low in two groups compared to their age normative values. The median of IENFD was 3.345 (1.12-5.32) in patients with neuropathic pain and 6. 20 (4.6-9.8) in controls (p B12 deficiency causes symptomatic as well as asymptomatic small fiber loss like diabetes mellitus.

  12. [Vitamin B12levels in the patient population attending an urban health centre in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Shelly, M

    2017-04-27

    Vitamin B 12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B 12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B 12 values obtained. A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted on a sample consisting of 5,531 patients from Barajas Health Primary Centre, Madrid, between 2008 and 2012, and on whom a blood test was performed for any reason, with values of vitamin B 12 . A deficiency was found in 9.1% (SD 2.3) of the patients, of whom 49.4% were less than 65 years. The deficiencies were associated (P<.001, 95% CI) with age, dementia, changes in blood red cell counts, memory, and with the taking of metformin and proton pump inhibitors (P=.007). The prevalence of vitamin B 12 deficiency in our served population is similar in patients older and younger than 65 years. The extended screening was relevant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic associations with plasma B12, B6, and folate levels in an ischemic stroke population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial

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    Keith L Keene

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction. Extensive quality control (QC measures resulted in a total of 737,081 SNPs for analysis. Genome-wide association analyses for baseline quantitative measures of folate, Vitamins B12 and B6 were completed using linear regression approaches, implemented in PLINK. Six associations met or exceeded genome wide significance (P≤5x10-08. For baseline Vitamin B12, the strongest association was observed with a non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP located in the CUBN gene (P=1.76×10-13. Two additional CUBN intronic SNPs demonstrated strong associations with B12 (P= 2.92×10-10 and 4.11×10-10, while a second nsSNP, located in the TCN1 gene, also reached genome-wide significance (P= 5.148×10-11. For baseline measures of Vitamin B6, we identified genome-wide significant associations for SNPs at the ALPL locus (rs1697421; P= 7.06×10-10 and rs1780316; P= 2.25×10-08. In addition to the six genome-wide significant associations, nine SNPs (two for Vitamin B6, six for Vitamin B12, and one for folate measures provided suggestive evidence for association (P≤10-07. Our GWAS study has identified six genome-wide significant associations, nine suggestive associations, and successfully replicated five of 16 SNPs previously reported to be associated with measures of B vitamins. The six genome-wide significant associations are located in gene regions that have shown previous associations with measures of B vitamins, however four of the nine suggestive associations represent novel finding and warrant further investigation in

  14. Management of Ocular Neuropathic Pain With Vitamin B12 Supplements: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Deshpande, Kalyani; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Sethu, Swaminathan

    2015-10-01

    To report the case of a 28-year-old patient with persistent bilateral burning pain and foreign body sensation in both eyes for the past 1 year. The patient showed a poor response to 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops and frequent instillations of artificial tears. Ocular examination showed few superficial punctate epithelial defects, well-positioned laser in situ keratomileusis (performed 5 years ago with symptomless recovery) flaps, and clear interfaces bilaterally, with a tear film breakup time of 7 and 8 seconds in the right and left eyes, respectively. The results of Schirmer tests, confocal microscopy, corneal esthesiometry, and meibography were normal for both eyes. The patient was incidentally diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency, with a serum vitamin B12 value of 90 pg/mL (reference range, 236-911 pg/mL), during routine laboratory tests. In view of weak correlation between signs and symptoms, a putative diagnosis of ocular neuropathic pain secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency was made. Case report. The patient was treated with parenteral vitamin B12, and topical therapy was continued without any changes. The patient experienced dramatic improvement with a decrease in symptoms within 3 weeks of administering vitamin B12 supplements and was symptom-free in the absence of any topical medication 6 months after treatment. Vitamin B12 deficiency, although common in India, has not been reported to be associated with ocular symptoms, including pain and mimicking those seen in severe dry eye. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ocular neuropathic pain and dry eye in patients presenting with recalcitrant ocular neuropathic pain.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in elderly: cross-sectional study in Eastern Croatia

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    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients and it has recently been connected with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients from Eastern Croatia and to evaluate whether there is a connection between this deficiency and the occurrence of depressive symptoms among them.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013, among 140 elderly patients from Vukovar-Srijem County (47.9%, 67/140 males and 52.1%, 73/140 females; mean age 71.0±6.7 years. The anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, data regarding socio-economic status and personal history of diseases of study participants as well as data pertaining to the existence of depressive symptoms among them. The competitive immunoassay vitamin B12 kit was used to determine serum levels of vitamin B12.Results: Among all study participants there were 7.1% (10/140 of them with B12 deficiency and 70.0% (98/140 of them with the symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms occurred in 100.0% (10/10 patients with the vitamin B12 deficiency and 67.7% (88/130 of patients without it.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the existence of depressive symptoms and vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients. This finding points to the need for frequent vitamin status evaluation in this age group and its consequent correction that could improve overall health of this population subgroup.

  16. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in children with iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ahmet; Cengiz, Murad; Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Celik, Hakim

    2012-05-01

    Paraoxonase-1 is an esterase enzyme and it has 3 types of activity, namely paraoxonase, arylesterase, and diazoxonase. It has been reported that paraoxonase-1 deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in children with iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia. Thirty children with iron deficiency anemia, 30 children with vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia, and 40 healthy children aged 6 months to 6 years were enrolled in this study. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured with a spectrophotometer by using commercially available kits. Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia group (103 ± 73 and 102 ± 41 U/L, respectively) were significantly lower than mean activities of control group (188 ± 100 and 147 ± 34 U/L, respectively; P iron deficiency anemia group (165 ± 103 and 138 ± 39 U/L, respectively; P iron deficiency anemia and control groups (P > .05). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment with vitamin B(12) in vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia; however, there were no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes after iron treatment in iron deficiency anemia group. Important correlations were found between vitamin B(12) levels and both paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (r = .367, P anemia causes important reductions in paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and after vitamin B(12) therapy the activities of these enzymes returned to near-normal levels.

  17. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-10-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B(12)) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B(12) levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 1970 itself. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B(12) deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vit B(12) levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12).

  18. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  19. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning −574 to −90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  20. Biochemical markers of vitamin B12 deficiency combined in one diagnostic parameter: the age-dependence and association with cognitive function and blood hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Sergey N

    2013-06-25

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is diagnosed by measurements of total B12, holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (Hcy) in blood. Results of the individual biochemical tests are often contradictory. Here the four markers are combined to achieve a more reliable indication of the B12 status. The results are aligned with hemoglobin and cognitive score. Databases from the literature were plotted in coordinates x=(holoTC·B12)(1∕2), y=1∕2·log10(MMA·Hcy), where distribution of points revealed the subgroups characterized by logarithmic ratios lr=log10[(holoTC·B12)/(MMA·Hcy)]. Distance between the subgroups w=lr(Test)-lr(Normal) was taken as a robust biochemical indicator of B12 status ("wellness parameter"). The dependence of lr(Normal) vs. age was described by a mathematical function to correct parameter w. The B12 status was defined as "excellent" (w≈+0.4), "normal" (w≈0), "transitional" (w≈-0.5), "deficient" (w≈-1.7) and "pernicious" (w≈-3.0). The groups of individuals with either w≥0 or w≤-1 exhibited the statistically significant differences in both hemoglobin and cognitive score. Analogous assessment of B12 status by the individual markers agreed with only one out of two physiological characteristics. Combined parameter w is a reliable diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-02-26

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p vegetarian diet.

  2. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting as Pancytopenia in Pregnancy: A Case Report

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    Idris N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of megaloblastic anaemia and pancytopenia. However, the incidence in pregnancy is rarely reported. We present a case of a 32-year old multigravid woman who was diagnosed with megaloblastic anaemia since 22 weeks gestation and progressed to develop severe pancytopenia at 30 weeks gestation. she was also diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency related to dietary and sociocultural habits. Folate and iron levels were normal throughout pregnancy. treatment with parenteral cyano-cobalamin resulted in sustained improvement of haematological parameters. the pregnancy was carried to term and the baby was born weighing 2,050gm but otherwise well at birth and had normal developmental milestones thereafter. this case illustrates the clinical presentation of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and demonstrates the importance of detecting and treating maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy in at-risk patients. Failure to diagnose and institute treatment carries significant risks to both mother and child. oral vitamin B12 supplementation should be considered for patients who are strict vegetarians or consume very little animal products.

  3. Genome shuffling of Propionibacterium shermanii for improving vitamin B12 production and comparative proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-Zhong; Huang, Jun-Sheng; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2010-07-20

    Genome shuffling is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of microbial phenotype. Here we improved vitamin B12 production of Propionibacterium shermanii by genome shuffling based on inactivated protoplast fusion. A genome shuffling strain with titer of vitamin B12 of 2.85 mgl(-1), named Propionibacterium shermanii-F2-3, was obtained. The genome shuffled strain produced about 61% improvement of vitamin B12 over the parent strain after 96 h. Comparative analysis of proteome profile was conducted between Propionibacterium shermanii 17 and F2-3. The expression levels of 38 proteins varied significantly in the genome shuffled strain compared with those in the parent strain. Of these proteins, 22 proteins were up-regulated, 16 proteins were down-regulated. Of the up-regulated proteins, 6 proteins (glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnS), Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (HemB), methionine synthase (Meth), riboflavin synthase (RibE), phosphofructo kinase (PfkA) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (Icd) is involved in the vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway. They may be the key enzymes of vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Vitamin B12 and Nitrate Availability on the Concentration of Particulate Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, J.; Lee, P. A.; Schanke, N. L.; Pound, H.; Penta, W. B.; Shore, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    The production of particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp) was examined in natural phytoplankton communities from the South Atlantic Bight near Savannah, Georgia, during an expedition in June 2015. Vitamin B12 and nitrate were added to seawater samples from a coastal and an oceanic site, both of which contained low-biomass, cyanobacteria-dominated communities. Under nitrate-limited conditions, irrespective of changes in B12 levels, DMSPp concentrations increased. DMSPp concentrations of these mixed phytoplankton communities did not appear to be limited by the availability of B12. In a laboratory experiment, DMSPp concentrations in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were measured after the removal of vitamin B12 and nitrate from a synthetic seawater culture media. DMSPp concentrations increased under nitrate-limited conditions, irrespective of changes in B12 levels, and are argued to be the result of increased biosynthesis. DMSPp concentrations in P. tricornutum were unaffected by B12 limitation. It is hypothesized that P. tricornutum is using the B12-independent methionine synthase MetE to synthesize DMSPp rather than the B12-dependent methionine synthase MetH.

  5. An audit of holotranscobalamin ("Active" B12) and methylmalonic acid assays for the assessment of vitamin B12 status: application in a mixed patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; Gorska, Renata; Pelisser, Michel; Ruwona, Patricia; Witchlow, Bernie; Harrington, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 insufficiency/deficiency is common in mixed patient populations. However there is no single marker which can reliably diagnose B12 insufficiency/deficiency. Elevated concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered the most representative marker of metabolic vitamin B12 insufficiency, but poor assay availability limits clinical utility. Low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 are often used to assess vitamin B12 status but this approach generates a high rate of false negative results. Emerging evidence indicates that holotranscobalamin (holoTC) may be a more reliable indicator of vitamin B12 status. We substituted serum vitamin B12 measurement with holoTC, supported by MMA in patients referred for assessment of vitamin B12 status. A service evaluation was undertaken of the pattern of MMA values obtained for patients with holoTC 25-50 pmol/L (an indeterminate result). MMA cut-offs of 280 and 360 nmol/L were applied for patients ≤ 65 or >65 years respectively. A total of 4,175 consecutive patients were investigated and MMA was analysed for 19% of patients. The incidence of elevated MMA was 41% (holoTC, 25-29 pmol/L), 32% (30-34 pmol/L), 33% (35-39 pmol/L), 30% (40-44 pmol/L), and 26% (45-50 pmol/L). Our results indicate that in the clinical setting a holoTC between 25 and 50 pmol/L is a poor predictor for the concentration of MMA provided the goal is to identify patients with MMA values above the limits used in the present study. Further studies are needed to evaluate to what extent holoTC 50 pmol/L reflect circulatory MMA concentrations. © 2013.

  6. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  7. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  8. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Vitamin B12-catalyzed synthesis of some peracetylated alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA STEVANOVIC

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin B12-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of brominated b-D-xylose peracetate with alkanols ROH (C1-C8 has been studied. The catalytically active species in this reaction was cob(Ialamin, obtained by chemical reduction of Vitamin B12 with NaBH4 (Co(III to Co(I. The reaction was carried out with 2 mol% of vitamin B12, with respect to xylosyl bromide 1, under argon at room temperature. Under these conditions, peracetylated C1-C8-alkyl b-D-xylopyranosides (3a–3f were obtained in moderate yield (55–70 %. In all cases 3,4-di-O-acetyl-D-xylal (4 was obtained, as the product of reductive elimination of peracetylated xylosyl bromide (15–25 %.

  10. Cellular folate vitamer distribution during and after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case for the methylfolate trap.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Y.M.; Smith, D.E.; Kok, R.M.; Teerlink, T.; Swinkels, D.W.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Jakobs, C.

    2006-01-01

    Haematological sequellae of vitamin B12 deficiency are attributed to disturbed DNA synthesis, but vitamin B12 itself plays no role in DNA biosynthesis. A proposed explanation for this is the methylfolate trap hypothesis. This hypothesis states that B12 deficiency impairs overall folate metabolism

  11. [Metabolic complications and neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency in children of vegetarian mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, V; Bekárek, V; Hlídková, E; Bucil, J; Mayerová, D; Skopková, Z; Adam, T; Hrubá, E; Kozich, V; Buriánková, L; Saligová, J; Buncová, M; Zeman, J

    2001-11-22

    Serious hematological, metabolic and neurological complications owing to the nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 may occur in infants of mothers on a strict vegetarian diet. The mother of the first child was a strict vegetarian. She had an elevated urinary methylmalonic acid level and a low concentration of serum vitamin B12. Her 13-month-old daughter was exclusively breast-fed until the age of 9 month and then she was fed only vegetables. Physical examination revealed psychomotoric retardation, apathy, muscular hypotonia, abnormal movements and failure to thrive. Laboratory analysis showed a megaloblastic anaemia, a low level of vitamin B12 and methylmalonic aciduria. MRI of the brain revealed diffuse frontotemporoparietal atrophy and retardation of myelination. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, abnormal movements disappeared and development improved, but a mild generalised hypotonia continued. A cranial MRI 9 months after treatment still showed signs of retardation of myelination. The second patient, an 8 month-old male, son of a strict vegetarian mother too, was referred for investigation of psychomotoric retardation, hypotonia, dyskinesia, failure to thrive and microcephaly. He was breast-fed and from 6 month of age he had also received fruit juices. Laboratory analysis revealed megaloblastic anaemia, high methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. The patient's and his mother's serum level of vitamin B12 were low. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, biochemical and metabolic markers of disease were normal but there continued a generalised hypotonia, microcephaly and language delay. Our observations emphasize the health complications of nutritional cobalamine deficiency and a requirement of clinical, biochemical and metabolic monitoring in infants within strict vegetarian families.

  12. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  13. Potential cobalt limitation of vitamin B12 synthesis in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeca, C.; Beck, A. J.; Leblanc, K.; Taylor, G. T.; Hutchins, D. A.; SañUdo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2008-06-01

    While recent studies have confirmed the ecological importance of vitamin B12, it is unclear whether the production of this vitamin could be limited by dissolved Co, a trace metal required for B12 biosynthesis, but found at only subnanomolar concentrations in the open ocean. Herein, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of dissolved B12 (range: 0.13-5 pmol L-1) in the North Atlantic Ocean follows the abundance of total dissolved Co (range: 15-81 pmol L-1). Similar patterns were observed for bacterial productivity (range: 20-103 pmol 3H leucine L-1 hr-1) and algal biomass (range: 0.4-3.9 μg L-1). In contrast, vitamin B1 concentrations (range: 0.7-30 pM) were decoupled from both Co and B12 concentrations. Cobalt amendment experiments carried out in low-dissolved Co waters (˜20 pmol L-1) enhanced B12 production two-fold over unamended controls. This study provides evidence that B12 synthesis could be limited by the availability of Co in some regions of the world ocean.

  14. Association of MTHFR, SLC19A1 Genetic Polymorphism, Serum Folate, Vitamin B12and Hcy Status with Cognitive Functions in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Can; Xiao, Rong; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Zhen, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Yuan, Linhong

    2016-10-24

    Studies have indicated a relationship between either gene polymorphism or in vivo B vitamins' nutritional status with cognition in the elderly. However, the combined effects of MTHFR and SLC19A1gene polymorphism with serum folate and vitamin B 12 levels on cognition in Chinese adult population remain unclear. Demographic information of 426 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 90 were collected by a well designed self-administered questionnaire. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment test was utilized to evaluate the cognition status of the participants. MTHFR and SLC19A1 genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR- LDR) method. Serum folate, vitamin B 12 and homocysteine (Hcy) levels were detected by commercial assay kits. Pearson's correlation was used for data analyses and statistical significance was set at p cognitive performance were dependent on the status of serum vitamin B 12 . Cognition of adults was associated with MTHFR, SLC19A1 gene polymorphism and serum Hcy levels. This study clearly establishes a combined effect of MTHFR gene polymorphism and serum B vitamins levels on cognition in Chinese adults.

  15. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Enhancement in VitaminB12 Production By Mutant Strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Naiman Ali,; Mazharuddin Khan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    In the present study vitaminB12 production was carried out with parental as well as mutant strains of Propionibcterium freudenreichii. Physical mutagenesis was performed by three different doses of U.V. irradiation- 200, 300 and 400erg/mm2and five different irradiation time periods were selected- 30sec, 60sec, 90sec, 120 sec and 150sec. Obtained 15 mutant strains were used to produce vitaminB12 by anaerobic and aerobic fermentation techniques at 300C, 320C and 340C. 200 erg/mm2 U.V. dose and ...

  17. Assessment of Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Patients with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Cette étude limitée dans laquelle un supplément modeste de vitamine B12 (100 microgrammes deux fois annuellement) a été donné, n'a démontré aucun effet néfaste sur des concentrations sériques en vitamine B12 pendant une période allant jusqu'à 10 années après la confection d'une poche urinaire ...

  18. Effect of antimicrobial agents on the Euglena method of serum vitamin B12 assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, J. T.; Ungar, Berta; Cowling, D. C.

    1969-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents in the serum may affect the results of the Euglena method of serum vitamin B12 assay. Sulphonamides suppress the growth of Euglena in concentrations attainable in the serum during treatment; streptomycin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, and nitrofurantoin bleach Euglena but only when present in concentrations far exceeding the normal peak therapeutic blood levels. False low results of serum vitamin B12 assay due to inhibitory and/or bleaching substances in the serum can be readily detected by microscopy of the assay cultures and Euglena cell counts. PMID:5364439

  19. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Almoallim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

  20. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 13/C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin.

  1. B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism in adults celiac disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Flávia Xavier; Campos, Tatiana do Nascimento; Moraes, Luís Fernando de Sousa; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Gilberti, Flávio Augusto Barros; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2015-10-20

    The only treatment for celiac disease is the gluten-free diet. Few studies have assessed the nutritional adequacy of this diet, especially of B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and serum concentrations of B vitamins involved in homocysteine metabolism, and to determine whether the dietary intake of these vitamins are meeting Dietary Reference Intakes in celiac patients. A cross-sectional study enrolled a total of 20 celiac patients (36.3 ± 13.7 years old; 65% women), following strict gluten-free diet (GFD) and 39 healthy controls matched by sex and age. The dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, and serum concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins B6, B12, and folate were determined after overnight fasting. Comparisons between the two groups were performed by Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U-test, for continuous variables. Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. An alpha level of 5% were considered significant. Celiac patients had lower serum folate concentrations (7.7 ± 3.5 ng/mL, P celiac patients had folate intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (130.8 ± 53.6 μg/d). However, only a small proportion of celiac patients had hyperhomocysteinemia. Celiac patients treated with GFD presented inadequacy of dietary folate intake and low-serum concentrations of folate, suggesting that more attention should be given to the quality of the nutrients offered by the GFD, as it constitutes a lifelong treatment.

  2. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B12) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B12 levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 197...

  3. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6. Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2. Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8 and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.

  4. Low vitamin B12 increases risk of gastric cancer: A prospective study of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranti, Eugenia H; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Selhub, Jacob; Männistö, Satu; Taylor, Philip R; Freedman, Neal D; Albanes, Demetrius; Abnet, Christian C; Murphy, Gwen

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies have found associations between one-carbon metabolism nutrients and risk of several cancers, but little is known regarding upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. We analyzed prediagnostic serum concentrations of several one-carbon metabolism nutrients (vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, riboflavin and homocysteine) in a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study of male smokers, which was undertaken in Finland between 1985 and 1988. We conducted a nested case-control study including 127 noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA), 41 esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma and 60 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma incident cases identified within ATBC. Controls were matched to cases on age, date of serum collection and follow-up time. One-carbon nutrient concentrations were measured in fasting serum samples collected at baseline (up to 17 years prior to cancer diagnosis). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Lower prediagnostic vitamin B12 concentrations at baseline were associated with a 5.8-fold increased risk of NCGA (95% CI = 2.7-12.6 for lowest compared to highest quartile, p-trend cancer more than 10 years after blood collection, and after restricting the analysis to participants with clinically normal serum vitamin B12 (>300 pmol/L). In contrast, pepsinogen I, a known serologic marker of gastric atrophy, was not associated with NCGA in this population. As vitamin B12 absorption requires intact gastric mucosa to produce acid and intrinsic factor, our findings suggest vitamin B12 as a possible serologic marker for the atrophic gastritis that precedes NCGA, one more strongly associated with subsequent NCGA than pepsinogen. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain of the United States of America.

  5. Supplementation of vitamin B12 or folic acid on hemoglobin concentration in children 6-36 months of age: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tivendra; Taneja, Sunita; Sachdev, H P S; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of this report is to measure to what extent folate or vitamin B12 given daily for 6 months to young North Indian Children improves hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. In a randomized placebo controlled trial in low-to-middle income neighborhoods in New Delhi, India, children were randomized into four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and supplemented daily for 6 months with 2 RDAs of vitamin B12, folic acid, both, or placebo. All children with anemia at baseline were given iron supplementation daily for 2 months. We measured the plasma concentrations of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B12, total homocysteine (tHcy) and Hb in 262 children. Mean Hb concentration decreased in all four study groups during the six months of follow up and supplementation of either or both of the vitamins did not improve the Hb concentration. Iron supplements for the initial 2 mo had limited effect on anemia at 6 mo as almost 90% were still anemic at study end. Supplementation of folic acid and/or vitamin B12 for 6 months does not improve Hb concentration in young children. Our findings do not argue for widespread vitamin B12 or folic acid supplementation to combat anemia. Our results also call for alternative strategies to improve iron status and treat iron deficiency anemia. NCT00717730 at www.clinicaltrials.gov, CTRI No.: CTRI/2010/091/001090 at www.ctri.nic.in. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Bailey, Lynn B; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed ≥ 200 μg folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although < 0.5% of children had folate deficiency or low vitamin B-12 status, the consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.

  7. Vitamin B12 supplementation and cognitive scores in geriatric patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender

  8. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study showed a significant increase in plasma tHcy coexisting with a decrease in plasma vitamin B12 TC, LDLC and HDLC, in depressed patients. Increased plasma homocysteine could be a sensitive indicator of plasma B vitamin deficiency. Keywords: Cholesterol; Depression; Homocysteine; Tryptophan; ...

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Serkan; Ozer, Murat Atabey; Akdemir, Mehmet Orçun

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with severe DED (without receiving topical artificial tears treatment) and ocular pain were enrolled (n = 90). Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). Patients were evaluated by the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, 3rd question (have you experienced painful or sore eyes during last week?) score of OSDI as a pain determiner and pain frequency measure), tear break up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's type 1 test. We compared the groups' OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer's test recordings at the first visit and after 12 weeks retrospectively. The OSDI score, 3rd OSDI question score, TBUT, and Schirmer's test results improved after 12 weeks (p B12 level at enrollment was 144.24 ±43.36 pg/ml in group 1 and 417.53 ±87.22 pg/ml in group 2. The mean vitamin B12 level in group 1 reached to 450 ±60.563 pg/ml after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean score changes between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the decrease in the OSDI questionnaire score (-30.80 ±5.24) and 3rd OSDI question score (-2.82 ±0.53) were remarkable in group 1 (Table 2). The mean TBUT increase was +7.98 ±2.90 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +12.16 ±2.01 mm in group 1. The mean TBUT increase was +6.18 ±1.49 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +6.71 ±1.47 mm in group 2. These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. It may be important to consider measuring the serum vitamin B12 level in patients with severe DED presenting with resistant ocular pain despite taking topical treatment.

  10. Pregnant women of South Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.

  11. Reduced dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlak, Scott T; Walsh, Stephen J; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2010-05-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), commonly referred to as canker sores, is a very common and painful oral mucosal disease. Although the etiology of RAS is not well understood, a number of factors may play a role, including nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare dietary vitamin intake in RAS patients to that of a control group. One hundred subjects, who had suffered at least three episodes of minor RAS in the previous 12 months, completed a detailed Diet History Questionnaire designed and validated by the US National Institutes of Health. DietCalc software was used to calculate daily dietary intakes of nine different vitamins in the study subjects. Daily intakes were energy-adjusted and compared to age- and gender-matched nutrient intake data on 9033 subjects from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects had significantly lower daily intake of vitamin B12 (P recurrent aphthous stomatitis are more likely to have lower dietary intakes of vitamin B12 and folate than a control group. These results support and extend previous studies indicating a link between the etiology of RAS and hematological deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate. These findings suggest that consuming sufficient amounts of these vitamins may be a useful strategy to reduce the number and/or duration of RAS episodes.

  12. Vitamin B12 Levels in Rat Organs - No Change Following Prolonged Treatment with Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Mikkel Svankjær; Nexø, Ebba; Greibe, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Few studies have explored vitamin B12 (B12) distribution in control rats and in rats treated with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug known to decrease the plasma level of B12 in humans. Here we report B12 levels in both control rats and in rats treated by two different methods of delivering...... metformin. Methods: Male Wistar rats aged 16 weeks at sacrifice was treated for 6 weeks with daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (n = 10) or metformin (n = 10). We collected plasma and organs for analyses of B12, and we explored the fraction of protein-bound B12 in selected organs. In addition we...... examined the effect of four weeks administration of metformin (n = 10= or sline (n = 10) by intra-peritoneal osmotic pumps on levels of B12 in plasma, liver, and kidneys of rats aged 14 weeks at sacrifice. Results: Median concentration of B12 in the 16 weeks old control rats was highest in the kidney (1350...

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian S; Jensen, Jan S; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Vitamin B12 deficiency could be associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in diabetes patients. We aim to investigate the association between serum levels of vitamin B12 and CAN in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 469 ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients (mean diabetes...... duration 10.0years (IQR 5.0;17.0), mean age 59.0years (SD 11.6), 63% men, mean B12 289.0pmol/l (IQR 217;390)) were screened for CAN using three cardiovascular reflex tests, five minute resting heart rate (5min RHR) and heart rate variability indices. RESULTS: Serum levels of vitamin B12 were significantly...... lower in patients treated with metformin and/or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) compared with patients not treated (pvitamin B12 was associated with an odds ratio of the CAN diagnosis of 0.94 (95% CI 0.88; 1.00, p=0.034), an increase in E/I-ratio of 0.21% (95% CI 0...

  14. Combination of vitamin B12 active forms improved fetal growth in Wistar rats through up-regulation of placental miR-16 and miR-21 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tejas; Mishra, Sanjay; More, Amol; Otiv, Suhas; Apte, Kishori; Joshi, Kalpana

    2017-12-15

    Epidemiological studies have indicated importance of folate and vitamin (B12) during pregnancy. Also available evidence on efficacy of B12 forms viz. Cyanocobalamin (Cbl), Methylcobalamin (MeCbl), Adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl) and Hydroxycobalamin (HCbl) in preventing or treating cobalamin deficiency is limited. The present study examines the effect of various forms of B12 in combination with folate during pregnancy and their effect on gestational outcomes. In the present study, we examined the effect of various vitamin B12 forms in presence of recommended folate (RFol: 400μg/day) and high folate (HFol: 5mg/day) on gestational outcomes in female Wistar rats. Dams dosed with excessive folate (HFol group) delivered low birth weight (LBW) offsprings (pB12 supplementation. Excessive folate supplementation and homocysteine levels showed inverse association with placental weight (pB12 supplementation significantly up-regulated placental miR-16 and miR-21, associated with fetal growth which in turn reflected in improved birthweights. Supplementation with vitamin B12 forms, especially combination of active forms of cobalamins: MeCbl+AdCbl significantly increased birth weights (pB12 along with folate during pregnancy had positive impact on the gestational outcomes. We have shown for the first time that combination of active forms of vitamin B12: MeCbl+AdCbl has better efficacy as compared to Cbl, MeCbl, AdCbl and HCbl alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  16. Vitamin B12 and Serum Mineral Levels in Children with Enterobius vermicularis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sadraei

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in the general populations and entrobiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between parasitic infection of Enterobius vermicularis and the absorbing levels of vitamin B12 and the minerals such as copper, zinc, and magnesium. Methods: Nine hundred sixty eight stool samples and cello-tape anal swabs were collected from 3- 6 year old children in Tehran. From the whole population, 60 children were chosen for case group who had only E. vermicularis infection. Also 30 children without parasitic infection were chosen as the control group. Both groups had no record of serum shortage of mentioned factors and malnutrition. Amount of copper, zinc and magnesium along with vitamin B12 were measured in both groups. Results: Comparison of the case and control groups showed a significant difference in serum mineral levels and vitamin B12 in patients and control groups (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of intestinal parasitic infection could avoid these serum mineral and vitamin B12 deficiencies.

  17. Effects of vitamin B 12 supplementation on the quality of Ovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various levels of vitamin B12 in Tris extender on semen quality of Dallagh rams following the cooling and freeze/thawing process. Semen was collected from six healthy and mature rams with an average body weight of 60.0 ± 5.0 Kg using an electro ejaculator.

  18. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 defiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized,

  19. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  20. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  1. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  2. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Clarke, R.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  3. Effect of vitamin B12 addition to extenders on some physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different doses of vitamin B12 on some physicochemical parameters and antioxidtive enzyme activities in crossbreed rams semen during storage at 5°C. Semen samples were collected from eight crossbreed rams, evaluated and pooled at 33°C. Fresh semen was diluted ...

  4. Reference values for Serum levels of Folic acid and Vitamin B12 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... own patient population and if necessary determine its own reference ranges. This study sought to establish Folic acid and Vitamin B12 reference values for young Ugandan adults, which reference values could be used as baseline information for future research, especially related to their role in breast cancer prevention.

  5. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: the multi-enzyme synthesis of precorrin-4 and factor IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamford, N P; Duggan, S; Li, Y; Alanine, A I; Crouzet, J; Battersby, A R

    1997-06-01

    In order to study the biosynthesis of vitamin B12, it is necessary to produce various intermediates along the biosynthetic pathway by enzymic methods. Recently, information on the organisation of the biosynthetic pathway has permitted the selection of the set of enzymes needed to biosynthesise any specific identified intermediate. The aim of the present work was to use recombinant enzymes in reconstituted multi-enzyme systems to biosynthesise particular intermediates. The products of the cobG and cobJ genes from Pseudomonas denitrificans were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli to afford good levels of activity of the corresponding enzymes, CobG and CobJ. Aerobic incubation of precorrin-3A with the CobG enzyme alone yielded precorrin-3B. When CobJ and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were included in the incubation, the product was precorrin-4. Both precorrin 3B and precorrin-4 are known precursors of vitamin B12 and their availability has allowed new mechanistic studies of enzymic transformations. Our results show that the expression of the CobG and CobJ enzymes has been successful, thus facilitating the biosynthesis of two precursors of vitamin B12. This lays the foundation for the structure determination of CobG and CobJ as well as future enzymic experiments focusing on later steps of vitamin B12 biosynthesis.

  6. Relationship between soil cobalt and vitamin B12 levels in the liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Zn2+, Pb2+ compete with Co in soil, which eventually affected the levels of vitamin B12 in liver. Conclusion: It was recommended that survey of heavy metals in grazing fields of cattle should consider inclusion of multiple elements that compete with the bioavailability of essential elements in plants ...

  7. Vitamin B12 and ketorolac on pain in Long Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effects of vitamin B12 on pain have been demonstrated in different animal and humanstudies. But comparison of these effects with similar effects of ketorolac tromethamine (KT and theircombination have not been established. Objective: To assess the effects of vitamin B12 on pain andalso to compare them with those of the combinations of vitamin B12 with KT in rat models. Methods:This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh MujibMedical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, from March 2015 to February 2016. For this, 20 (twentyLong Evans rats (215±35 gm of both sexes were divided into control (A, with 5 ml/kg normal salineand experimental (B1, with 15 mg/kg B12; B2, with 10 mg/kg KT; B3, with B12+KT groups with 5rats in each group. All the drugs and vitamin were administered intraperitoneally in a single dose justone hour before formalin test. To evaluate the treatments’ effect on nociceptive pain, early phase (1st-5th minutes; on central analgesic system, interphase (6th-15th minutes; and on inflammatory pain,late phase (16th-60th minutes of the formalin test, were observed. In all phases, total frequency ofjerking and total duration of flexing and licking of the right hind paw were counted after administrationof subcutaneous formalin (50 μl, 2.5% injection. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA, followedby Bonferroni post hoc test. In the interpretation of results, p≤0.05 was considered as significant.Results: B12 lowered only the jerking frequency and KT lowered both jerking frequency and flexinglicking duration significantly (p≤0.001 in the late phase of formalin test. On the other hand, combinationof B12 and KT significantly (p≤0.001 lowered both the study variables in all 3 phases of formalintest. Conclusion: From this study it may be concluded that, vitamin B12 possess analgesic effects andcombination of B12 with KT is more effective than those of their individual administration.

  8. The effect of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is commonly known as a Swiss-type cheese ripening culture, and is also frequently applied in the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin). One way to increase vitamin B12 productivity is the supplementation of medium with 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI), the lower ligand of cobalamin. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of exogenous DMBI on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in type strain of P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenre...

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type-2 diabetes patients, prevalence and association with peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Marwan A.; Muntingh, George; Rheeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the studies. The potential of the deficiency to cause or worsen peripheral neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been investigated with conflicting results. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in T2DM patients ...

  10. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  11. EVALUATION OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS ON METFORMIN THERAPY ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Anand Kalakappa Koppad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is an endocrine disorder and a heterogeneous group of syndromes characterised by an elevation of fasting blood glucose that is caused by a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin. Serum vitamin B12 levels have been reported to be inversely associated with the dose and duration of metformin use. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable condition. However, there is insufficient data regarding prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the South Indian population. Hence, the study was undertaken to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels in T2DM on metformin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 T2DM patients attending Outpatient Department (OPD or admitted under Department of General Medicine of KIMS, Hubli, during the time period of 2 years were taken for study considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Qualifying patients underwent detailed history, clinical examination, routine investigation and vitamin B12 estimation. RESULTS Majority were in the age group of 45-59 years making 42% of the total. The age group in most patients having vitamin B12 deficiency was >60 years. Males had more vitamin B12 deficiency forming 54.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency was more in hypertensive group accounting for 71.4%, which was statistically significant. Most of the vitamin B12 deficiency patients had diabetes duration >10 years. Most of the vitamin B12 deficient patients were taking metformin therapy for longer years (≥10 years and in higher dose (>2 g/day. Most of the vitamin B12 deficient diabetes patients were overweight forming 52.5% of the total. CONCLUSION Longer duration of diabetes increases the risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency on metformin therapy. The higher dose of metformin intake had inverse relation with vitamin B12 levels. Longer duration of metformin intake causes vitamin B12 deficiency and hence should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency and can be supplemented with vitamin B12.

  12. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with serum vitamin B12 level in women of gestational age in Khorram Abad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Yari

    2006-02-01

    Findings: There was no significant difference between mean age of HP positive and HP negative participants. 76 out of 110 (72.2% samples were HP positive. The rate of HP seropositivity was significantly higher in patients with serum vitamin B12 level less than 12 pg/ml. who had lower and moderate vitamin B12 levels (145-180 pg/ml, that is 94% vs 64.5%, P<0.013. Conclusion: High HP seropositivity rate among patients with low-normal less serum vitamin B12 levels than normal indicates that there may be an association between HP infection and serum vitamin B12 levels.

  13. Variability in the carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene on its reductive dechlorination by vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Yu, Tingting; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde; Yu, Kai; Han, Li

    2014-08-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionation through the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 was determined to assess the possibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the efficacy of remediation of trichloroethylene using vitamin B12. We elucidated the effects of environmental conditions, including the pH, reaction temperature, and vitamin B12 concentration, on the carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε). The ε values were relatively insensitive to the reaction temperature and vitamin B12 concentration, ranging from -15.7‰ to -16.2‰, with a mean of -15.9 ± 0.2‰, at different temperatures and vitamin B12 concentrations. Such a reproducible ε value could be particularly useful for estimating the extent of degradation in reactions in which a mass balance is difficult to achieve. However, changing the initial solution pH from 6.5 to 9.0 caused a notable change in the ε values, from -14.0‰ to -18.0‰. Reactions were investigated by calculating the apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon, which, at 1.029-1.037, were smaller than the kinetic isotope effect values previously found for C-Cl bond cleavage. This indicates that a reaction other than the elimination of chloride may be a competitive degradation pathway. The dominant degradation pathway may be different for different initial solution pH values, and this will clearly influence carbon isotope fractionation. Therefore, if the ε value varies with reaction conditions, such as the solution pH, the calculations should take into account the actual environmental conditions that affect the rate limiting pathways.

  14. Does B12 vitamin limit phytoplankton growth in the new Iberian Peninsula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barber Lluch

    2014-07-01

    Surface autotrophic microbial populations were monthly collected and exposed to known nutrient concentrations and incubated under in situ light and temperature conditions. The experimental addition treatments included: a inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and phosphate; b B12 vitamin (cobalamin and c inorganic nutrients and cobalamin. On two occasions, four additional treatments were included: d organic nutrients (glucose and amino acids; e a combination of inorganic and organic nutrients; f organic nutrients and cobalamin; g inorganic and organic nutrients plus cobalamin. Amendment experiments lasted 4 days. Samples were collected every 24h for Chlorophyll-a concentration, pico- and nanoplankton abundance and heterotrophic bacterial abundance determination. Our results suggest that phytoplankton growth is co-limited by inorganic nutrients and B12-vitamin. This co-limitation varied along the study period likely related to changes in community composition and ambient nutrient and B-vitamins concentrations.

  15. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  16. Effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce serum antigastric parietal cell antibody titer in patients with oral mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Andy; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wang, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Patients with serum antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity may have vitamin B12 deficiency and some oral symptoms. This study assessed the changes of serum GPCA titer in GPCA-positive patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment. Two hundred and ten GPCA-positive oral mucosal disease patients became oral symptom free (complete response) after 1.0-67.1 months of treatment with regular and continuous intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 once per week. The changes of serum GPCA titers after treatment were evaluated in these 210 patients. We found a significant drop of the GPCA positive rate from 100% to 42.9% in our 210 complete response patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment (p vitamin BC capsules (containing 10 μg of vitamin B12) plus deficient hematinic supplements per day after a follow-up period of 2.7-27 months. A maintenance vitamin B12 treatment once a month could retain the GPCA-negative status in 87% of treated-to GPCA-negative patients compared with those (10%) without further maintenance vitamin B12 treatment. Regular and continuous effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce the relatively higher serum GPCA titers to significantly lower or undetectable levels in GPCA-positive patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Joosten, L.W.; Bloo, R.J.; Clarke, R.; Ueland, P.M.; Schneede, J.; Blom, H.J.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin B-12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment in older people. However, evidence from randomized trials of the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on cognitive function is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether daily

  18. Moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation improved folate and vitamin B12 status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Sari; Stern, Felicia; Polyak, Zeev; Ichelzon, Ina; Dror, Yosef

    2016-11-01

    The dependent elderly are widely considered to be at higher risk of nutritional problems. Suboptimal micronutrient intake might put the elderly, especially those living in nursing homes, at high risk of morbidity. So far, no public authority, except for the Israel Ministry of Health, has issued particular recommendations for micronutrient supplementation for the elderly. We hypothesized that moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation could improve the vitamin status of the dependent elderly. The study took place in two nursing homes and included 144 dependent elderly (males/females, 35/109). Demographic and clinical data as well as routine blood tests were retrieved from the patient electronic medical records. After a two-year daily 'multivitamin' supplementation, containing 120μg of folic acid, there was a small and non-significant increase of 12% in serum folate; the same 'multivitamin' preparatory, containing 2.4μg of vitamin B12, significantly increased serum vitamin B12 by 8%. Three models of evaluation clearly showed the effect of a two- year vitamin supplementation: 1. The number of subjects with the lowest baseline concentration range, decreased, with moderate concentration, increased, with no difference at the higher concentrations; 2. Above each vitamin concentration, the number of subjects was higher than at baseline; 3. The two vitamins at the two lower concentration tertiles increased, and at the highest tertile, folate was not affected, whereas vitamin B12 decreased. Therefore, very moderate 'multivitamin' supplementation, as practiced in our study, has a high probability of improving vulnerable old population health status without causing any adverse effects to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fermentation fortification of active vitamin B12 in food matrices using Propionibacterium freudenreichii: Analysis, production and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Chamlagain, Bhawani

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (later B12) intake is insufficient in developing countries, and globally, vegetarians and vegans are also at risk of B12 deficiency. Occurring naturally only in foods of animal origin, new affordable and sustainable dietary sources of B12 are needed to ensure sufficient intake. The only known food-grade producers of active B12, Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains, however, are yet to be exploited to enrich plant-based foods with B12. The B12 production capacity of P. freudenr...

  20. Geographical gradients of dissolved Vitamin B12 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBonnet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotic phytoplankton require vitamin B12 to grow. However, the cycling of this organic growth factor has received substantially less attention than other bioactive substances such as trace metals in the marine environment. This is especially true in the Mediterranean Sea, where direct measurements of dissolved vitamins have never been reported. We report here the first direct measurements of dissolved vitamin B12 across longitudinal gradients in Mediterranean waters. The range of vitamin B12 concentrations measured over the whole transect was 0.5 to 6.2 pM, which is slightly higher than the range (undetectable – 4 pM of ambient concentrations measured in other open ocean basins in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The concentrations measured in the western basin were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those of the eastern basin. They were positively correlated with chlorophyll concentrations in the most western part of the basin, and did not show any significant correlation with any other biological variables in other regions of the sampling transect.

  1. Impact of Vitamin B12 and Nitrate on Transcript and Metabolite Abundances in Marine Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, H. L.; Schanke, N. L.; Penta, W. B.; Zavala, J.; Casu, F.; Bearden, D. W.; Lee, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Phytoplankton play countless roles in the support and regulation of marine ecosystems, as well as in global biogeochemical cycling processes. They are also, to varying extents, reliant on other physical and biological processes to supply their nutrient demands, such as the production of vitamin B12 by bacteria and archaea or the regeneration and upwelling of nitrate. One such process in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle is the pathway that begins with the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by marine phytoplankton and leads to the atmospheric formation of sulfate-based cloud condensation nuclei, which contribute to the Earth's albedo. Nutrient limitation is thought to play a major role in the amount of DMSP produced by phytoplankton. Vitamin B12 and nitrate are of particular interest due to their involvement as a co-factor and nitrogen source, respectively, in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor for DMSP. Laboratory-based nutrient limitation experiments have been performed on cultures of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In addition to the B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) P. tricornutum has a unique B12-independent methionine synthase gene (MetE). Based on classic techniques, B12 limitation had little impact on cell growth, whereas nitrate limitation had a significant effect on both culture health and DMSP concentration. Yet, targeted transcriptomic analysis (using Nanostring nCounter technology) and metabolomics analysis (using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)) revealed complex changes in transcript abundance towards upregulated gene expression associated with the MetE gene in B12 limited cultures, and shifts away from nitrogen-based metabolites towards DMSP in nitrate-limited cultures. These experiments help verify the role of B12 in DMSP production and link the underlying metabolic pathways that drive the cellular portion of the sulfur cycle to ecosystem and global scale processes.

  2. Vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil in the therapy of plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stücker, M; Memmel, U; Hoffmann, M; Hartung, J; Altmeyer, P

    2001-01-01

    There are already many effective topical therapies available for use in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Unfortunately, these treatments are often associated with a rather significant risk of undesirable effects. In this randomized, prospective clinical trial, the effects of the vitamin D(3) analog calcipotriol were evaluated against those of a recently developed vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil in an intraindividual right/left-side comparison. The trial population consisted of 13 patients, 10 men and 3 women, with chronic plaque psoriasis. The observation period was 12 weeks; the effects of therapy were assessed on the basis of a PASI score adapted to the right/left-side comparison technique, the subjective evaluations of the investigator and patients and the results of 20-MHz sonography. There was a more rapid development of beneficial effects with the use of calcipotriol in the initial 8 weeks, although differences in effects were significant only at the time point of therapy week 8 (p avocado oil remained at a constant level over the whole observation period. This would indicate that the vitamin B(12) preparation containing avocado oil may be suitable for use in long-term therapy, a hypothesis further supported by the fact that the investigator and the patients assessed the tolerability of the vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil as significantly better in comparison with that of calcipotriol. The results of this clinical trial provide evidence that the recently developed vitamin B(12) cream containing avocado oil has considerable potential as a well-tolerated, long-term topical therapy of psoriasis. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  4. Vitamin B12 screening in metformin-treated diabetics in primary care: were elderly patients less likely to be tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kitai, Eliezer; Blumberg, Gari; Golan-Cohen, Avivit; Rapoport, Micha; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-04-01

    Low serum B12 level is a common occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with metformin. There is lack of evidence concerning blood testing of vitamin B12 and current clinical guidelines make no recommendations on the detection or prevention of vitamin B-12 deficiency during metformin treatment. Our objective was to examine the current practice and clinical determinants of vitamin B12 testing in metformin treated T2DM patients. Data were collected from health maintenance organization patients, and consisted of T2DM patients who were newly prescribed metformin from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomly divided into two subgroups: referred for a vitamin B12 blood test, and did not receive a referral. The demographic data and medical characteristics were analyzed. 5131 patients began taking metformin during the study period. Of these 2332 (44.5 %) had vitamin B12 tested. Significant differences were found between the groups in regard to glycosylated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, chronic renal failure, and disease duration. A significant positive association (p B12 testing and insulin treatment, retinopathy, neuropathy and hypertension. Vitamin B12 in elderly (>75 years) patients was significantly lower (p B12 testing. T2DM patients 75 years and above were less likely to be tested for B12 deficiency.

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency in metformin-treated type-2 diabetes patients, prevalence and association with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwan A; Muntingh, George; Rheeder, Paul

    2016-10-07

    The association between long-term metformin use and low vitamin B12 levels has been proven. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed considerable variation among the studies. The potential of the deficiency to cause or worsen peripheral neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been investigated with conflicting results. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in T2DM patients on metformin; 2) the association between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy; 3) and the risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in these patients. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive metformin-treated T2DM patients attending diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in South Africa were approached for participation. Participation included measuring vitamin B12 levels and assessing peripheral neuropathy using Neuropathy Total Symptom Score-6 (NTSS-6) questionnaire. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (defined by concentrations 6 were considered to have peripheral neuropathy. The relationship between vitamin B12 and peripheral neuropathy was investigated when the two variables were in the binary and continuous forms. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency. Among 121 participants, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 28.1 %. There was no difference in presence of neuropathy between those with normal and deficient vitamin levels (36.8 % vs. 32.3 %, P = 0.209). Vitamin B12 levels and NTSS-6 scores were not correlated (Spearman's rho =0.056, P = 0.54). HbA1c (mmol/mol) (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.95 to 0.99, P = 0.003) and black race (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.13 to 0.92, P = 0.033) were risk factors significantly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin daily dose (gram) showed borderline significance (OR = 1.96, 95 % CI: 0.99 to 3.88, P = 0.053). Close to third of metformin

  6. Association of Vitamin B12 with Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers Related to Cardiometabolic Risk in Saudi Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Rahman, Shakilur; Sabico, Shaun; Yakout, Sobhy; Wani, Kaiser; Al-Attas, Omar S; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G; Alokail, Majed S

    2016-09-06

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD) years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m² and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m²) were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer. Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.14, p vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = -0.160, p vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = -0.242, p vitamin B12 in all subjects (r² = -0.17, p B12 in adults (r² = -0.78, p vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population.

  7. [Interactions between markers of endothelial damage (homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine) and antioxidants and B-vitamins in preeclamptic women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Vital-Reyes, Victor Saúl; Montalvo-Velarde, Irene; Hinojosa-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Puellotamara, Edgardo

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related pathological condition triggered by an abnormal placentation which produces endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED, in turn, is associated with an increase in homocysteine (hcy) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA); these molecules are also increased when some of the B-vitamins are deficient. It is unclear whether increases in hcy and ADMA during preeclampsia are the result of ED, or the consequence of a B-vitamin deficiency. To evaluate hcy, ADMA, folic acid (FA), vitamin B6 and B2 concentrations in patients with preeclampsia. In a cross-sectional design 19 patients with severe preeclamp- sia (preeclampsia) and 57 with normal pregnancy (no-preeclampsia), paired by gestational age and body mass index, were studied. Plasma hcy, ADMA, FA and vitamins B6 and B12 were determined. Non-parametric statistics was used for between-groups comparisons and regression analyses to evaluate interactions among molecules. 72% of women were vitamin B deficient, 40% were deficient of B12 and 4% of FA. Preeclamptic patients presented hcy and ADMA concentrations higher than no-preeclamptic ones. Inferential analyses demonstrated that: hcy and ADMA are increased during preeclampsia independently from vitamins blood concentration; that the risk for pre- eclampsia is associated with high hcy but not with vitamins deficiency; and that the ratio L-arginine:ADMA decreases the preeclampsia risk. In patients with preeclampsia, increases of hcy and ADMA are associated with ED, but not with deficiency of the vitamins involved in their metabolism.

  8. Effect of vitamin B-12 pulse addition on the performance of cobalt deprived anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Bartacek, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a pulse addition of vitamin B-12 as cobalt source to restore the performance of cobalt depleted methanol-fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was supplied with a pulse of vitamin B-12, and its operation was compared to that of another cobalt

  9. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: A comparative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Güzelcan (Yener); P. van Loon (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kamphuis, D M; van Dijk, P R; Groenier, K H; Houweling, S T; Bilo, H J G; Kleefstra, N

    OBJECTIVES: To study vitamin B12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B12 concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients with

  11. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kamphuis, D. M.; van Dijk, P. R.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.

    Objectives: To study vitamin B-12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B-12 concentrations. Research design and methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients

  12. Vitamin B-12, folic acid, and growth in 6- to 30-month-old children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Manger, Mari S; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita

    2015-04-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are important for growth. Many children in low- and middle-income countries have inadequate intakes of these nutrients. We undertook a randomized, placebo controlled double-blind trial in 1000 North Indian children, 6 to 35 months of age, providing twice the recommended daily allowance of folic acid and/or vitamin B-12, or placebo, daily for 6 months. By using a factorial design, we allocated children in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in blocks of 16. We measured the effect of giving vitamin B-12, folic acid, or the combination of both on linear and ponderal growth. We also identified predictors for growth in multiple linear regression models and effect modifiers for the effect of folic acid or vitamin B-12 supplementation on growth. The overall effect of either of the vitamins was significant only for weight; children who received vitamin B-12 increased their mean weight-for-age z scores by 0.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.13). Weight-for-age z scores and height-for-age z scores increased significantly after vitamin B-12 supplementation in wasted, underweight, and stunted children. These subgrouping variables significantly modified the effect of vitamin B-12 on growth. Vitamin B-12 status at baseline predicted linear and ponderal growth in children not receiving vitamin B-12 supplements but not in those who did (P-interaction < .001). We provide evidence that poor vitamin B-12 status contributes to poor growth. We recommend studies with larger doses and longer follow-up to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Three-month B vitamin supplementation in pre-school children affects folate status and homocysteine, but not cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh-Pfeiffer, Astrid; Handel, Uschi; Demmelmair, Hans; Peissner, Wolfgang; Niesser, Mareile; Moretti, Diego; Martens, Vanessa; Wiseman, Sheila; Weichert, Judith; Heene, Moritz; Bühner, Markus; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-10-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B status might affect cognitive performance in early childhood. We tested the hypothesis that short-term supplementation with folic acid and selected B vitamins improves cognitive function in healthy children in a population with relatively low folate status. We screened 1,002 kindergarten children for suboptimal folate status by assessing the total urinary para-aminobenzoylglutamate excretion. Two hundred and fifty low ranking subjects were recruited into a double blind, randomized, controlled trial to receive daily a sachet containing 220 μg folic acid, 1.1 mg vitamin B2, 0.73 mg B6, 1.2 μg B12 and 130 mg calcium, or calcium only for 3 months. Primary outcomes were changes in verbal IQ, short-term memory and processing speed between baseline and study end. Secondary outcomes were urinary markers of folate and vitamin B12 status, acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamate and methylmalonic acid, respectively, and, in a subgroup of 120 participants, blood folate and plasma homocysteine. Pre- and post-intervention cognitive measurements were completed by 115 children in the intervention and 122 in the control group. Compared to control, median blood folate increased by about 50% (P for difference, P cognitive measures. Short-term improvement of folate and homocysteine status in healthy children does not appear to affect cognitive performance.

  14. The level of Vitamin B12 and hemoglobin in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Although many factors have been suggested as possible causes of RAS, its precise etiology is controversial. Vitamin B12 (vit B12 and iron deficiencies may cause RAS. Aims: We investigated the level of serum hemoglobin (Hb and vit B12 in patients with RAS and to compare them with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients who had had at least one episode of oral ulcerations per month since childhood were diagnosed as having RAS. Blood samples were drawn from the RAS group and control group for measuring blood Hb and vit B12 concentrations. Results: Exactly 195 patients (62 men and 133 women with RAS and 217 healthy controls (62 men and 155 women were enrolled in the study. The RAS group had significantly lower mean Hb levels than the control group (P < 0.001. No significant difference in the mean vit B12 level was demonstrated between the study group and controls. Around 58 (29.7% patients were diagnosed as Hb deficient in the RAS group and 21 (9.7% patients in controls. Vit B12 deficiency was diagnosed in 63 (32.3% individuals in the RAS group and 32 (14.7% individuals among controls. Conclusions: In our study, vit B12 and Hb deficiency were found higher in patients with RAS compared to the control group. Therefore, we suggested the investigation of the level of vit B12 and Hb in patients with RAS.

  15. Vitamin B(12) deficiency as a cause of delirium in a patient with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Amanda L; Dixon, Thomas M; Ho, Chester H

    2011-11-01

    A man with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple medical comorbidities had new-onset delirium during his 14th month of hospitalization. Diagnostic workup did not elicit an obvious etiology for mental status changes. Delirium persisted despite psychiatry intervention, and he was unable to be weaned from the ventilator because of prolonged agitation. Routine anemia workup revealed a possible untreated vitamin B(12) deficiency, although laboratory values were inconclusive. Empiric treatment with cyanocobalamin injections was initiated, and his delirium remarkably resolved after 3 weeks of treatment. We provide a concise review of the etiologies and varied clinical presentations of vitamin B(12) deficiency. As illustrated in this case, classic laboratory findings may not appear, and neurologic impairments from SCI can obscure the physical signs of deficiency, making diagnosis difficult. Empiric treatment may be indicated in cases of neuropsychiatric abnormalities not explained by other causes. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion of Vitamin B12 Across a Mesoporous Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Valencia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the rate of uptake and the rate of release of a Vitamin B12 solution (dissolved in water at 2 different temperatures (room temperature and 37°C by the mesoporous metal organic framework TbMOF-100 at 1-hour intervals using a spectrophotometer. Using the Beer-Lambert law, we calculate the concentration of the stock solution based on the absorbance values obtained with the spectrophotometer. These values allow for the quantification of the initial rate of uptake and the rate of uptake at a random incubation time of the Vitamin B12 by the TbMOF-100. We also calculate the value of the coefficient of diffusion for this 2-phase system using Fick’s laws of diffusion.

  17. Decreased vitamin B12 and folic Acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, Ma

    2014-11-01

    Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  18. Dietary folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer's disease: the cache county memory, health and aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C; Wengreen, H J; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C D

    2009-12-01

    To examine associations between dietary and supplemental folate, vitamin B-12 and vitamin B-6 and incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) among elderly men and women. Data collected were from participants of the Cache County Memory, Health and Aging Study, a longitudinal study of 5092 men and women 65 years and older who were residents of Cache County, Utah in 1995. Multistage clinical assessment procedures were used to identify incident cases of AD. Dietary data were collected using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox Proportional Hazards (CPH) modeling was used to determine hazard ratios across quintiles of micronutrient intake. 202 participants were diagnosed with incident AD during follow-up (1995-2004). In multivariable CPH models that controlled for the effects of gender, age, education, and other covariates there were no observed differences in risk of AD or dementia by increasing quintiles of total intake of folate, vitamin B-12, or vitamin B-6. Similarly, there were no observed differences in risk of AD by regular use of either folate or B6 supplements. Dietary intake of B-vitamins from food and supplemental sources appears unrelated to incidence of dementia and AD. Further studies examining associations between dietary intakes of B-vitamins, biomarkers of B-vitamin status and cognitive endpoints are warranted.

  19. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12. Different pathways in some aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllriegl, V; Lamm, L; Rowold, J; Hörig, J; Renz, P

    1982-08-01

    Radioactivity from [1'-14C]riboflavin was incorporated into the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of Vitamin B12 in the aerobes Bacillus megaterium, Nocardia rugosa and Streptomyces sp. as well as in the aerotolerant anaerobe Propionibacterium freudenreichii, but not in the anaerobe Eubacterium limosum. As recently published for E. limosum, also in the anaerobe Clostridium barkeri radioactivity from [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine was found in the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole moiety, but not in the corrin moiety. The addition of L-[methyl-14C]methionine to C. barkeri led to the labeling of the corrin moiety and the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole moiety, showing that the seven "extra" methyl groups in the corrin ring as well as the two methyl groups of the base part originate from this precursor. In Clostridium thermoaceticum, forming the vitamin B12 analog 5-methoxybenzimidazolylcobamide, [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine were also incorporated into the 5-methoxybenzimidazole moiety, but not into the corrin ring. In E. limosum L-[U-14C]glutamate led to the labeling of the corrin ring of vitamin B12, but not of its base moiety. These results together with data from the literature indicate that a common biosynthetic pathway might exist for the corrinoid biosynthesis in aerobic microorganisms, and in those aerotolerant anaerobes like the Propionibacteria, which form the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of vitamin B12 only under aerobic conditions. They also show that this pathway differs from the pathway found in anaerobic bacteria.

  20. Production of tetrapyrrole compounds and vitamin B12 using genetically engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Piao, Yongzhe; Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Yamashita, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is used in the production of cheeses, cobalamin (vitamin B12) and propionic acid. Metabolic engineering using genetically improved strains will make the fermentation process more economical and also enhance the quality of the products. Host-vector systems and expression vectors using strong promoters from P. freudenreichii were developed in propionibacteria. By using these expression vectors an...

  1. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, M?nica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, In?s; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  2. Production of Propionibacterium shermanii biomass and vitamin B12 on spent media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, N; Champagne, C P

    2005-01-01

    The propionibacteria are commercially important due to their use in the cheese industry, and there is a growing interest for their probiotic effects. Stimulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on propionic acid bacteria have been observed. This study was designed to examine the possibility of using spent media previously used to grow LAB for the production of biomass and metabolites of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Seventeen MRS and vegetable juice media were prefermented by various LAB and evaluated for their ability to subsequently support the growth of Propionibacterium, using automated spectrophotometry (AS). Growth of Propionibacterium in spent media was strongly affected by the LAB strain used to produce the spent medium. The native MRS medium (not prefermented) yielded the highest optical density values followed by prefermented media by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactococcus lactis. Prefermented cabbage juice enabled good growth of Propionibacterium. For the production of organic acids and vitamin B12, cells of Propionibacterium were concentrated and immobilized in alginate beads in the aim of accelerating the bioconversions. More propionic acid was obtained in spent media than in native MRS. The concentration of vitamin B12 was higher in media fermented