WorldWideScience

Sample records for homo sapiens sapiens

  1. The Emergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, Boyce

    1980-01-01

    Describes chronologically the evolution of the human race on earth so as to refute Darwin's theory of descent from animals. Skull fragments from sites around the world suggest at least two possible routes toward the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens. (Author/SK)

  2. A comparison of tooth structure in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens sapiens: a radiographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, U; Smith, P

    1992-01-01

    Tooth components of 1st and 2nd erupted permanent molars were measured from standardised radiographs of Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Enamel height was greater in Homo sapiens sapiens but pulp height and width and the height of the enamel to floor of the pulp chamber were greater in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Dentine height, crown width and enamel width showed similar results in the two groups. Unerupted first molars were measured to analyse the influence of func...

  3. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approx...

  4. Diagnosing Homo sapiens in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christopher Brian; Buck, Laura Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing Homo sapiens is a critical question in the study of human evolution. Although what constitutes living members of our own species is straightforward, in the fossil record this is still a matter of much debate. The issue is complicated by questions of species diagnoses and ideas about the mode by which a new species is born, by the arguments surrounding the behavioural and cognitive separateness of the species, by the increasing appreciation of variation in the early African H. sapiens record and by new DNA evidence of hybridization with extinct species. This study synthesizes thinking on the fossils, archaeology and underlying evolutionary models of the last several decades with recent DNA results from both H. sapiens and fossil species. It is concluded that, although it may not be possible or even desirable to cleanly partition out a homogenous morphological description of recent H. sapiens in the fossil record, there are key, distinguishing morphological traits in the cranium, dentition and pelvis that can be usefully employed to diagnose the H. sapiens lineage. Increasing advances in retrieving and understanding relevant genetic data provide a complementary and perhaps potentially even more fruitful means of characterizing the differences between H. sapiens and its close relatives.

  5. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; DeGusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D; Suwa, Gen; Howell, F Clark

    2003-06-12

    The origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and the fate of Neanderthals have been fundamental questions in human evolutionary studies for over a century. A key barrier to the resolution of these questions has been the lack of substantial and accurately dated African hominid fossils from between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. Here we describe fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, that fill this gap and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens. Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals and lack their derived features. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa.

  6. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned. Thus, it is likely that the African fossil record will document early members of the sapiens lineage showing only some of the derived features of late members of the lineage. On that basis, I argue that human fossils such as those from Jebel Irhoud, Florisbad, Eliye Springs and Omo Kibish 2 do represent early members of the species, but variation across the African later middle Pleistocene/early Middle Stone Age fossils shows that there was not a simple linear progression towards later sapiens morphology, and there was chronological overlap between different 'archaic' and 'modern' morphs. Even in the late Pleistocene within and outside Africa, we find H. sapiens specimens which are clearly outside the range of Holocene members of the species, showing the complexity of recent human evolution. The impact on species recognition of late Pleistocene gene flow between the lineages of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans is also discussed, and finally, I reconsider the nature of the middle Pleistocene ancestor of these lineages, based on recent morphological and genetic data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1. Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan dos dilemas éticos: la violencia y el incestoEste artigo reflete sobre os encontros e desencontros entre o ser humano e os demais animais, enquanto membros de sistemas em permanente interação(1. Seu principal objetivo é abordar a definição de Homo, traçar um panorama de sua evolução biológica e cultural e refletir sobre os resquícios da animalidade que permanecem no comportamento social do Homo sapiens-sapiens. Busca-se refletir sobre os dilemas morais que acompanham o homem enquanto ser cultural, o que para isso são considerados como dilemas éticos: a violência e o incestoThis paper reflects on the similarities and differences between human beings and animals as members of systems in permanent interaction. The main goal is to define Homo, reviewing his/her biological and cultural evolution and reflecting on the animal social behaviors that still remain in Homo sapiens-sapiens. The paper reflect on the moral dilemmas present in humans as cultural beings, taking as example the ethical dilemmas of violence and incest

  8. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1). Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan d...

  9. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  10. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the ...

  11. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    Valdebenito, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1). Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan d...

  12. What constitutes Homo sapiens? Morphology versus received wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2016-06-20

    Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H. sapiens? When in 1950 Mayr collapsed all human fossils into Homo, he not only denied humans a diverse evolutionary past, he also shifted the key to identifying its species from morphology to geological age - a practice most paleoanthropologists still follow. Thus, for example, H. erectus is the species that preceded H. sapiens, and H. sapiens is the species into which H. erectus morphed. In order to deal with a growing morass of morphologically dissimilar specimens, the non-taxonomic terms "archaic" (AS) and "anatomically modern" (AMS) were introduced to distinguish between the earlier and later versions of H. sapiens, thereby making the species impossible to define. In attempting to disentangle fact from scenario, I begin from the beginning, trying to delineate features that may be distinctive of extant humans (ES), and then turning to the fossils that have been included in the species. With the exception of Upper Paleolithic humans - e.g. from Cro-Magnon, Dolni Vestonice, Mladeč - I argue that many specimens regarded as AMS, and all those deemed AS, are not H. sapiens. The features these AMS do share with ES suggest the existence of a sapiens clade. Further, restudy of near-recent fossils, especially from southwestern China (∼11-14.5 ka), reinforces what discoveries such as H. floresiensis indicate: "If it's recent, it's not necessarily H. sapiens".

  13. Stravovacích návyky z hlediska fylogeneze Homo sapiens sapiens.

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis on the synthesis of literature, is attempting to create an overview of our human ancestor's dietary habits. The time frame is from the oldest representative of the hominoid family, genus Ardipithecus ramidus, to neolithic Homo sapiens.This will show the connection between the changing food spectrum and the phylogeny of our species.

  14. The biting performance of Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Fitton, Laura C; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Stringer, Chris B; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Modern humans have smaller faces relative to Middle and Late Pleistocene members of the genus Homo. While facial reduction and differences in shape have been shown to increase biting efficiency in Homo sapiens relative to these hominins, facial size reduction has also been said to decrease our ability to resist masticatory loads. This study compares crania of Homo heidelbergensis and H. sapiens with respect to mechanical advantages of masticatory muscles, force production efficiency, strains experienced by the cranium and modes of deformation during simulated biting. Analyses utilize X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan-based 3D models of a recent modern human and two H. heidelbergensis. While having muscles of similar cross-sectional area to H. heidelbergensis, our results confirm that the modern human masticatory system is more efficient at converting muscle forces into bite forces. Thus, it can produce higher bite forces than Broken Hill for equal muscle input forces. This difference is the result of alterations in relative in and out-lever arm lengths associated with well-known differences in midfacial prognathism. Apparently at odds with this increased efficiency is the finding that the modern human cranium deforms more, resulting in greater strain magnitudes than Broken Hill when biting at the equivalent tooth. Hence, the facial reduction that characterizes modern humans may not have evolved as a result of selection for force production efficiency. These findings provide further evidence for a degree of uncoupling between form and function in the masticatory system of modern humans. This may reflect the impact of food preparation technologies. These data also support previous suggestions that differences in bite force production efficiency can be considered a spandrel, primarily driven by the midfacial reduction in H. sapiens that occurred for other reasons. Midfacial reduction plausibly resulted in a number of other significant changes in morphology, such

  15. Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D; Bailey, Geoff; Scerri, Eleanor M L; Parton, Ash; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Jennings, Richard P; Lewis, Laura; Blinkhorn, James; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul S; Inglis, Robyn H; Devès, Maud H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew; Boivin, Nicole; Thomas, Mark G; Scally, Aylwyn

    2015-01-01

    Current fossil, genetic, and archeological data indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa in the late Middle Pleistocene. By the end of the Late Pleistocene, our species was distributed across every continent except Antarctica, setting the foundations for the subsequent demographic and cultural changes of the Holocene. The intervening processes remain intensely debated and a key theme in hominin evolutionary studies. We review archeological, fossil, environmental, and genetic data to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa. The emerging picture of the dispersal process suggests dynamic behavioral variability, complex interactions between populations, and an intricate genetic and cultural legacy. This evolutionary and historical complexity challenges simple narratives and suggests that hybrid models and the testing of explicit hypotheses are required to understand the expansion of Homo sapiens into Eurasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary History. Sindhu Radhakrishna. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Sacral Variability in Tailless Species: Homo sapiens and Ochotona princeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Homo sapiens is variable in number of sacral vertebrae, and this variability can lead to obstetrical complication. This study uses the comparative method to test the hypothesis that sacral variability in H. sapiens is associated with absence of a tail. Three species of lagomorphs are studied: Ochotona princeps (N = 271), which is tailless, and Lepus californicus (N = 212) and Sylvilagus audubonii (N = 206), which have tails. Results show that O. princeps has (1) higher diversity index for number of sacral vertebrae (0.49) compared to L. californicus (0.25) and S. audubonii (0.26) and (2) significantly higher percentage of individuals with the species-specific nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (43.9%) compared to L. californicus (14.2%) and S. audubonii (15.5%). Comparison of H. sapiens (N = 1,030; individuals of age 20-39 years) with O. princeps shows similarities between the species in diversity index (also 0.49 in H. sapiens) and percentage of individuals with nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (37.3% in H. sapiens). Homeotic transformation best explains the results. H. sapiens and O. princeps show propensity for caudal shift at the sacral-caudal border (i.e., homeotic transformation of the first caudal vertebra to a sacral vertebra). Caudal and cranial shift among presacral vertebrae increases or decreases this propensity, respectively. Increase in number of sacral vertebrae in H. sapiens by homeotic transformation reduces pelvic outlet capacity and can be obstetrically hazardous. Anat Rec, 300:798-809, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Homo sapiens natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) mRNA,partial cds and 3' UTR.

    OpenAIRE

    Landi, Stefano; Melaiu, Ombretta; Cabiati, Manuela; Landi, Debora; Caselli, Chiara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Giannessi, Daniela; Gemignani, Federica; Del Ry, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    LOCUS HQ419060 318 bp mRNA linear PRI 24-NOV-2010 DEFINITION Homo sapiens natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) mRNA, partial cds and 3' UTR. ACCESSION HQ419060 VERSION HQ419060.1 GI:312261407 KEYWORDS . SOURCE Homo sapiens (human) ORGANISM Homo sapiens Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 318) AUTHORS Landi,S., Melaiu,O., Cabiati,M., Landi,D., C...

  19. The evolution of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis miRNA targeting genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, Konstantin V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Rogaev, Eugeny I

    2015-01-01

    As the evolution of miRNA genes has been found to be one of the important factors in formation of the modern type of man, we performed a comparative analysis of the evolution of miRNA genes in two archaic hominines, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova, and elucidated the expression of their target mRNAs in bain. A comparative analysis of the genomes of primates, including species in the genus Homo, identified a group of miRNA genes having fixed substitutions with important implications for the evolution of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova. The mRNAs targeted by miRNAs with mutations specific for Homo sapiens denisova exhibited enhanced expression during postnatal brain development in modern humans. By contrast, the expression of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs bearing variations specific for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis was shown to be enhanced in prenatal brain development. Our results highlight the importance of changes in miRNA gene sequences in the course of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis evolution. The genetic alterations of miRNAs regulating the spatiotemporal expression of multiple genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain may contribute to the progressive evolution of brain function, which is consistent with the observations of fine technical and typological properties of tools and decorative items reported from archaeological Denisovan sites. The data also suggest that differential spatial-temporal regulation of gene products promoted by the subspecies-specific mutations in the miRNA genes might have occurred in the brains of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, potentially contributing to the cultural differences between these two archaic hominines.

  20. Fossil evidence for the origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Our species Homo sapiens has never received a satisfactory morphological definition. Deriving partly from Linnaeus's exhortation simply to "know thyself," and partly from the insistence by advocates of the Evolutionary Synthesis in the mid-20th Century that species are constantly transforming ephemera that by definition cannot be pinned down by morphology, this unfortunate situation has led to huge uncertainty over which hominid fossils ought to be included in H. sapiens, and even over which of them should be qualified as "archaic" or as "anatomically modern," a debate that is an oddity in the broader context of paleontology. Here, we propose a suite of features that seems to characterize all H. sapiens alive today, and we review the fossil evidence in light of those features, paying particular attention to the bipartite brow and the "chin" as examples of how, given the continuum from developmentally regulated genes to adult morphology, we might consider features preserved in fossil specimens in a comparative analysis that includes extant taxa. We also suggest that this perspective on the origination of novelty, which has gained a substantial foothold in the general field of evolutionary developmental biology, has an intellectual place in paleoanthropology and hominid systematics, including in defining our species, H. sapiens. Beginning solely with the distinctive living species reveals a startling variety in morphologies among late middle and late Pleistocene hominids, none of which can be plausibly attributed to H. sapiens/H. neanderthalensis admixture. Allowing for a slightly greater envelope of variation than exists today, basic "modern" morphology seems to have appeared significantly earlier in time than the first stirrings of the modern symbolic cognitive system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2010-02-08

    LOC79017 (MW 21.0 kDa, residues 1-188) was annotated as a hypothetical protein encoded by Homo sapiens chromosome 7 open reading frame 24. It was selected as a target by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG) because it did not share more than 30% sequence identity with any protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known. The biological function of the protein has not been established yet. Parts of LOC79017 were identified as members of uncharacterized Pfam families (residues 1-95 as PB006073 and residues 104-180 as PB031696). BLAST searches revealed homologues of LOC79017 in many eukaryotes, but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the crystal structure of H. sapiens protein LOC79017 (UniGene code Hs.530024, UniProt code O75223, CESG target number go.35223).

  2. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...significantly attacked. Citation: Shakarian P, Wickiser JK (2012) Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean B

    2003-04-24

    Understanding the genetic basis of the physical and behavioural traits that distinguish humans from other primates presents one of the great new challenges in biology. Of the millions of base-pair differences between humans and chimpanzees, which particular changes contributed to the evolution of human features after the separation of the Pan and Homo lineages 5-7 million years ago? How can we identify the 'smoking guns' of human genetic evolution from neutral ticks of the molecular evolutionary clock? The magnitude and rate of morphological evolution in hominids suggests that many independent and incremental developmental changes have occurred that, on the basis of recent findings in model animals, are expected to be polygenic and regulatory in nature. Comparative genomics, population genetics, gene-expression analyses and medical genetics have begun to make complementary inroads into the complex genetic architecture of human evolution.

  4. The Lake Ndutu cranium and early Homo sapiens in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G P

    1983-06-01

    The partial cranium from Lake Ndutu, near Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, has generally been viewed as Homo erectus, although points of similarity to H. sapiens have also been recognized. Bones of the vault are in fact quite thick, and the cranium is small. Length and breadth dimensions are comparable to those of earlier H. erectus from Koobi Fora and Ileret, and the Ndutu individual is more similar in size to O.H. 12 than to O.H. 9. Unfortunately, the facial skeleton and frontal bone are very incomplete, and little useful information can be obtained from these parts of the existing reconstruction. The parietals are also damaged, but the left temporal is more satisfactorily preserved, and the occiput is nearly complete. Occipital morphology, mastoid shape, and characteristics of the glenoid cavity and tympanic plate probably provide the best available guide to affinities of the Ndutu hominid. In many of these features the cranium resembles Broken Hill, Elandsfontein, and other African fossils referred to archaic H. sapiens. There are some similarities to modern humans also, but no ties to the Neanderthals of Europe. Allocation of Ndutu to an African subspecies of H. sapiens seems most appropriate, even if the pattern of relationships between such archaic populations and recent humans is still unclear.

  5. Homo sapiens in Arabia by 85,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Grün, Rainer; Zalmout, Iyad A S; Drake, Nick A; Armitage, Simon J; Candy, Ian; Clark-Wilson, Richard; Louys, Julien; Breeze, Paul S; Duval, Mathieu; Buck, Laura T; Kivell, Tracy L; Pomeroy, Emma; Stephens, Nicholas B; Stock, Jay T; Stewart, Mathew; Price, Gilbert J; Kinsley, Leslie; Sung, Wing Wai; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Al-Omari, Abdulaziz; Zahir, Muhammad; Memesh, Abdullah M; Abdulshakoor, Ammar J; Al-Masari, Abdu M; Bahameem, Ahmed A; Al Murayyi, Khaled M S; Zahrani, Badr; Scerri, Eleanor L M; Petraglia, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the timing and character of the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa is critical for inferring the colonization and admixture processes that underpin global population history. It has been argued that dispersal out of Africa had an early phase, particularly ~130-90 thousand years ago (ka), that reached only the East Mediterranean Levant, and a later phase, ~60-50 ka, that extended across the diverse environments of Eurasia to Sahul. However, recent findings from East Asia and Sahul challenge this model. Here we show that H. sapiens was in the Arabian Peninsula before 85 ka. We describe the Al Wusta-1 (AW-1) intermediate phalanx from the site of Al Wusta in the Nefud desert, Saudi Arabia. AW-1 is the oldest directly dated fossil of our species outside Africa and the Levant. The palaeoenvironmental context of Al Wusta demonstrates that H. sapiens using Middle Palaeolithic stone tools dispersed into Arabia during a phase of increased precipitation driven by orbital forcing, in association with a primarily African fauna. A Bayesian model incorporating independent chronometric age estimates indicates a chronology for Al Wusta of ~95-86 ka, which we correlate with a humid episode in the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 5 known from various regional records. Al Wusta shows that early dispersals were more spatially and temporally extensive than previously thought. Early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.

  6. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Human taxonomic diversity and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The term race is a traditional synonym for subspecies, however it is frequently asserted that Homo sapiens is monotypic and that what are termed races are nothing more than biological illusions. In this manuscript a case is made for the hypothesis that H. sapiens is polytypic, and in this way is no different from other species exhibiting similar levels of genetic and morphological diversity. First it is demonstrated that the four major definitions of race/subspecies can be shown to be synonymous within the context of the framework of race as a correlation structure of traits. Next the issue of taxonomic classification is considered where it is demonstrated that H. sapiens possesses high levels morphological diversity, genetic heterozygosity and differentiation (F(ST)) compared to many species that are acknowledged to be polytypic with respect to subspecies. Racial variation is then evaluated in light of the phylogenetic species concept, where it is suggested that the least inclusive monophyletic units exist below the level of species within H. sapiens indicating the existence of a number of potential human phylogenetic species; and the biological species concept, where it is determined that racial variation is too small to represent differentiation at the level of biological species. Finally the implications of this are discussed in the context of anthropology where an accurate picture of the sequence and timing of events during the evolution of human taxa are required for a complete picture of human evolution, and medicine, where a greater appreciation of the role played by human taxonomic differences in disease susceptibility and treatment responsiveness will save lives in the future.

  7. Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Gastaldon, Simone; O'Rourke, Thomas; Samuels, Bridget D; Messner, Angela; Martins, Pedro Tiago; Delogu, Francesco; Alamri, Saleh; Boeckx, Cedric

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest.

  8. Morphological comparison of archaic Homo sapiens crania from China and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Bräuer, G

    1993-12-01

    Regional features play a great role in the analysis of the differentiations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. However, this poses the question how widespread and variable these features are. In order to examine this with regard to the features commonly seen in China their occurrence and variability were determined in Chinese as well as in African crania of archaic and late Pleistocene/Holocene modern Homo sapiens. Furthermore, some features known from Africa were examined with regard to their occurrence and variability in China. Although the variability might change due to new finds, the present results for some features point to larger morphological spectra in the African than in the Chinese archaic Homo sapiens. It is furthermore remarkable that the early modern Chinese in many features show deviations from the pattern of archaic Homo sapiens of this region and exhibit broader spectra similar to those seen in African archaic and early modern Homo sapiens.

  9. A Comprehensive Exploration of Java Man: Bio-Cultural Evolution from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Haryono

    2017-02-01

    An overlap of time period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens has not been confirmed. In the history of man, there have been two missing links: one between man and ape, and one between progressive Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens.  Specimen dating on Java Man has been discrepant among research groups, and the use of molecular biology in ancient specimens has been a novelty. This study intends to use fossilised specimens, to harvest DNA to be sequenced for ribosomal DNA analysis for comparative phylogeny among ancient and modern man and other hominids. Dental calculus will be analysed to identify starch, carbohydrate, and protein to illustrate paleo dietary pattern. Soil samples will be examined for pollen and phytoliths to elaborate on ancient ecosystem. Blood samples will be procured from indigenous people along the riverflow region of Bengawan Solo to analyse modern human DNA. We hope that we may reconstruct the evolution pathway, construct the phylogenetic tree between ancient and modern hominids, and discover the uniqueness of Homo sapiens sapiens. Keywords: Java Man, Ribosomal DNA, Hominid Phylogenetic,

  10. Genetic, physiologic and ecogeographic factors contributing to variation in Homo sapiens: Homo floresiensis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    A new species, Homo floresiensis, was recently named for Pleistocene hominid remains on Flores, Indonesia. Significant controversy has arisen regarding this species. To address controversial issues and refocus investigations, I examine the affinities of these remains with Homo sapiens. Clarification of problematic issues is sought through an integration of genetic and physiological data on brain ontogeny and evolution. Clarification of the taxonomic value of various 'primitive' traits is possible given these data. Based on this evidence and using a H. sapiens morphological template, models are developed to account for the combination of features displayed in the Flores fossils. Given this overview, I find substantial support for the hypothesis that the remains represent a variant of H. sapiens possessing a combined growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis modification and mutation of the MCPH gene family. Further work will be required to determine the extent to which this variant characterized the population.

  11. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E.; Freidline, Sarah E.; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M.; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day ‘modern’ morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens1 or evolved gradu...

  12. Orsang Man: a robust Homo sapiens in Central India with Asian Homo erectus features

    OpenAIRE

    Dambricourt-Malassé, Anne; Raj, Rachna; Shah, Samit

    2013-01-01

    17th World Congress of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences "Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds", Manchester, August 5th-10th, 2013 Accepted preprint; A Homo sapiens calvarium recovered in a fluvial deposit of the Orsang River give evidence of genetic continuity between late Asian Homo erectus suggesting an Asian "like-cromagnoid" stadium in the evolutionary process. IRSL dating of the host sediments provided an age ranging from 50 to 30 ka. The interesting fea...

  13. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  14. Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shara E; Benazzi, Stefano; Souday, Caroline; Astorino, Claudia; Paul, Kathleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    A significant number of Middle to Late Pleistocene sites contain primarily (and sometimes only) deciduous teeth (e.g., Grotta del Cavallo, Mezmaiskaya, Blombos). Not surprisingly, there has been a recent renewed interest in deciduous dental variation, especially in the context of distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Most studies of the deciduous dentition of fossil hominins have focused on standard metrical variation but morphological (non-metric and morphometric) variation also promises to shed light on long standing taxonomic questions. This study examines the taxonomic significance of the crown outline of the deciduous upper second molar through principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We examine whether or not the crown shape of the upper deciduous second molar separates H. neanderthalensis from H. sapiens and explore whether it can be used to correctly assign individuals to taxa. It builds on previous studies by focusing on crown rather than cervical outline and by including a large sample of geographically diverse recent human populations. Our samples include 17 H. neanderthalensis, five early H. sapiens, and 12 Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens. In addition, we include two Homo erectus specimens in order to evaluate the polarity of crown shape differences observed between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Our results show that crown outline shape discriminates H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis quite well, but does not do well at distinguishing H. erectus from H. sapiens. We conclude that the crown outline shape observed in H. sapiens is a primitive retention and that the skewed shape observed in H. neanderthalensis is a derived condition. Finally, we explore the phylogenetic implications of the results for the H. erectus molars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone strength and athletic ability in hominids: Ardipithecus ramidus to Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of the femur to resist bending stresses is determined by its midlength cross-sectional geometry, its length and the elastic properties of the mineral part of the bone. The animal's athletic ability, determined by a ``bone strength index,'' is limited by this femoral bending strength in relation to the loads on the femur. This analysis is applied to the fossil record for Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus afarensis and Ardipithecus ramidus. Evidence that the femoral bone strength index of modern Homo sapiens has weakened over the last 50,000 years is found.

  16. Inferential reasoning by exclusion in children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Collier-Baker, Emma; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The cups task is the most widely adopted forced-choice paradigm for comparative studies of inferential reasoning by exclusion. In this task, subjects are presented with two cups, one of which has been surreptitiously baited. When the empty cup is shaken or its interior shown, it is possible to infer by exclusion that the alternative cup contains the reward. The present study extends the existing body of comparative work to include human children (Homo sapiens). Like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were tested with the same equipment and near-identical procedures, children aged three to five made apparent inferences using both visual and auditory information, although the youngest children showed the least-developed ability in the auditory modality. However, unlike chimpanzees, children of all ages used causally irrelevant information in a control test designed to examine the possibility that their apparent auditory inferences were the product of contingency learning (the duplicate cups test). Nevertheless, the children's ability to reason by exclusion was corroborated by their performance on a novel verbal disjunctive syllogism test, and we found preliminary evidence consistent with the suggestion that children used their causal-logical understanding to reason by exclusion in the cups task, but subsequently treated the duplicate cups information as symbolic or communicative, rather than causal. Implications for future comparative research are discussed. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Mandibular ramus shape variation and ontogeny in Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Ritzman, Terrence B; Robinson, Chris A

    2018-04-27

    As the interface between the mandible and cranium, the mandibular ramus is functionally significant and its morphology has been suggested to be informative for taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. In primates, and particularly in great apes and humans, ramus morphology is highly variable, especially in the shape of the coronoid process and the relationship of the ramus to the alveolar margin. Here we compare ramus shape variation through ontogeny in Homo neanderthalensis to that of modern and fossil Homo sapiens using geometric morphometric analyses of two-dimensional semilandmarks and univariate measurements of ramus angulation and relative coronoid and condyle height. Results suggest that ramus, especially coronoid, morphology varies within and among subadult and adult modern human populations, with the Alaskan Inuit being particularly distinct. We also identify significant differences in overall anterosuperior ramus and coronoid shapes between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis, both in adults and throughout ontogeny. These shape differences are subtle, however, and we therefore suggest caution when using ramus morphology to diagnose group membership for individual specimens of these taxa. Furthermore, we argue that these morphologies are unlikely to be representative of differences in masticatory biomechanics and/or paramasticatory behaviors between Neanderthals and modern humans, as has been suggested by previous authors. Assessments of ontogenetic patterns of shape change reveal that the typical Neanderthal ramus morphology is established early in ontogeny, and there is little evidence for divergent postnatal ontogenetic allometric trajectories between Neanderthals and modern humans as a whole. This analysis informs our understanding of intraspecific patterns of mandibular shape variation and ontogeny in H. sapiens and can shed further light on overall developmental and life history differences between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Copyright

  18. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  2. Homo sapiens zestárl o 100 tisíc let

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2017), s. 12 ISSN 2533-784X Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : paleoanthropology * hominization * Homo sapiens * human fossils * archaeological dating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.avcr.cz/opencms/export/sites/avcr.cz/.content/galerie-souboru/AB/A_03_2017_web.pdf

  3. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  4. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E; Freidline, Sarah E; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-06-07

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day 'modern' morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years. Here we report newly discovered human fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and interpret the affinities of the hominins from this site with other archaic and recent human groups. We identified a mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology. In combination with an age of 315 ± 34 thousand years (as determined by thermoluminescence dating), this evidence makes Jebel Irhoud the oldest and richest African Middle Stone Age hominin site that documents early stages of the H. sapiens clade in which key features of modern morphology were established. Furthermore, it shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.

  5. Homo sapiens as physician and patient: a view from Darwinian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Franco, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere. That human microecosystem is composed of constituents derived from the archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryan domains via endosymbiotic, commensalistic and mutualistic interactions. This amalgamation of 100 trillion cells and viral elements is regulated by a composite genome aggregated over the 3.8 billion years of evolutionary history of organic life. No component of H. sapiens or its genome can be identified as irreducibly and exclusively human. H. sapiens' humanity is an emergent property of the microecosystem. Ironically as H. sapiens is viewed by evolutionary science in a highly integrated manner medicine approaches it as a balkanized, deaggregated entity through the eye of 150 different specialties. To effectively address the needs of H sapiens in its role as patient by the same species in its role as physician the disparate views must be harmonized. Here I review some conceptual elements that would assist a physician in addressing the needs of the patient in integrum, as a microecosystem, by the former address the latter as a historical gestalt being. The optimal way to recover the harmony between patient and physician is through a revitalization of the clinical encounter via an ecological and Darwinian epistemology.

  6. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  8. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    OpenAIRE

    Potau, J. M.; Arias-Martorell, J.; Bello-Hellegouarch, G.; Casado, A.; Pastor, J. F.; de Paz, F.; Diogo, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan\\ud troglodytes) and bonobos(Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans(Homo sapiens). We\\ud have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and\\ud five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we...

  9. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R. (Swiss Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Bern (Switzerland))

    1991-02-15

    The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes.

  10. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O.; Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N.; Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R.

    1991-01-01

    The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes

  11. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: Population affinities and pathological abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, T.; Indriati, E.; Soejono, R. P.; Hsü, K.; Frayer, D. W.; Eckhardt, R. B.; Kuperavage, A. J.; Thorne, A.; Henneberg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose ...

  12. Prediction of host - pathogen protein interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens using sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tong; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yu; Yang, Cheng; Lin, Jianping; Rao, Zihe

    2015-03-26

    Emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) threatens to derail global efforts aimed at reigning in the pathogen. Co-infections of M. tuberculosis with HIV are difficult to treat. To counter these new challenges, it is essential to study the interactions between M. tuberculosis and the host to learn how these bacteria cause disease. We report a systematic flow to predict the host pathogen interactions (HPIs) between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens based on sequence motifs. First, protein sequences were used as initial input for identifying the HPIs by 'interolog' method. HPIs were further filtered by prediction of domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Functional annotations of protein and publicly available experimental results were applied to filter the remaining HPIs. Using such a strategy, 118 pairs of HPIs were identified, which involve 43 proteins from M. tuberculosis and 48 proteins from Homo sapiens. A biological interaction network between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens was then constructed using the predicted inter- and intra-species interactions based on the 118 pairs of HPIs. Finally, a web accessible database named PATH (Protein interactions of M. tuberculosis and Human) was constructed to store these predicted interactions and proteins. This interaction network will facilitate the research on host-pathogen protein-protein interactions, and may throw light on how M. tuberculosis interacts with its host.

  13. The Homo sapiens 'hemibun': its developmental pattern and the problem of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, W; Kuźmiński, L

    2009-01-01

    The occipital bun is widely considered a Neanderthal feature. Its homology to the 'hemibun' observed in some European Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans is a current problem. This study quantitatively evaluates the degree of occipital plane convexity in African and Australian modern human crania to analyse a relationship between this feature and some neurocranial variables. Neanderthal and European Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens crania were included in the analysis as well. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the degree of occipital plane convexity and the following two features in the examined crania of modern humans: the ratio of the maximum neurocranial height to the maximum width of the vault and the ratio of bregma-lambda chord to bregma-lambda arc. The results also revealed that some H. sapiens crania (modern and fossil) show the Neanderthal shape of the occipital plane and that the neurocranial height and shape of parietal midsagittal profile has an influence on occipital plane convexity in the hominins included in this study. This study suggests that the occurrence of the great convexity of the occipital plane in the Neanderthals and H. sapiens is a "by-product" of the relationship between the same neurocranial features and there is no convincing evidence that the Neanderthal occipital bun and the similar structure in H. sapiens develop during ontogeny in the same way.

  14. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  15. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: New insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Viscardi, Lucas Henrique; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-12-01

    After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  16. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: new insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  17. Earliest evidence for the structure of Homo sapiens populations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Drake, Nick A.; Jennings, Richard; Groucutt, Huw S.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the structure and variation of Homo sapiens populations in Africa is critical for interpreting multiproxy evidence of their subsequent dispersals into Eurasia. However, there is no consensus on early H. sapiens demographic structure, or its effects on intra-African dispersals. Here, we show how a patchwork of ecological corridors and bottlenecks triggered a successive budding of populations across the Sahara. Using a temporally and spatially explicit palaeoenvironmental model, we found that the Sahara was not uniformly ameliorated between ∼130 and 75 thousand years ago (ka), as has been stated. Model integration with multivariate analyses of corresponding stone tools then revealed several spatially defined technological clusters which correlated with distinct palaeobiomes. Similarities between technological clusters were such that they decreased with distance except where connected by palaeohydrological networks. These results indicate that populations at the Eurasian gateway were strongly structured, which has implications for refining the demographic parameters of dispersals out of Africa.

  18. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  19. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship b...

  20. ABOUT OTHER KIND OF PRODUCTIVITY AND GROWTH (HOMO-SAPIENS TO HOMO-OECONOMICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Alexandru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Part of a larger research, this paper ranges among the matter of ideas confrontation concerning the causes of the economic crises and those keys to be passed. Paper aims at finding and praising the defining elements of our economy, in the purpose of better understanding the nowadays crisis, and at presenting certain conceptually different approaches. In this purpose, analytical presentations are focussed on the specific realities of the economic life that are in position in the last centuries, which are considered to be favouring the arriving to the critical states in the last years and to be promoting those maintaining, or which allow explaining certain effects and tendencies. The approach is made from the angle of the nature of the productivity that is had in view and highlighted in the market regulating mechanisms, and of the due growth. The paper is grounded on important analysis on the matter (including anterior researches of the author, but their dimensions does not allow their presentation in the abstract. Analysis starts from interpreting the very nowadays crisis, from different sites concerning the core (general causes, by correlating with certain features of the industrialized consuming society. More recent references are made in the literature on the matter. Modern western economy is defined from the angle of focussing on material-quantitative productivity and growth. Analysis tries to explain certain effects concerning this kind of focus. Interesting effects and tendencies are noticed, that miss to the traditional approaches. Further on an opposed theoretic model is discussed. This is built and developed inside the service economy (on the case of two conceptually similar approaches, came from two different sources of economic thought in the field; original contributions of the author are involved. Adequately to the knowledge society, this last one is considered more favourable for homo sapiens, at least once the visible effects of

  1. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  2. Data of 10 SSR markers for genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K K V V V S; Raju, S Viswanadha; Someswara Rao, Chinta

    2017-06-01

    In this data, we present 10 Simple Sequence Repeat(SSR) markers TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA which are extracted from the genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys using string matching mechanism [1]. All loci showed 4 Base Pair(bp) in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that maybe useful for the detection of similarity among the genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the SSR extraction is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of genomes.

  3. Reflexões sobre a articulação entre o homo faber e o homo sapiens na enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nogueira Valenca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo com o objetivo de analisar a articulação entre o enfermeiro-docente (Homo sapiens e o enfermeiro-assistencial (Homo faber no ambiente hospitalar, à luz do pensamento gramsciano. Na Enfermagem, coexistem duas dimensões: a teórica, exemplificada na figura do enfermeiro docente com seus projetos de pesquisa e publicações científicas; e a dimensão prática, com a atuação técnico-assistencial. Evidencia-se o distanciamento do enfermeiro docente em relação aos cenários de prática da graduação, assim como do enfermeiro assistencial, da pesquisa e da prática baseada em evidências científicas. Face ao dilema entre Homo faber e Homo sapiens na Enfermagem, emerge a importância de refletir sobre a dimensão ética subjacente às ações de ambos, centradas no ser humano. Este diálogo não pode ser ignorado, pois dele depende o desbravamento de novos horizontes e o crescimento da Enfermagem enquanto ciência e prática social.

  4. Homo sapiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køppe, Simo; Emmeche, Claus

    2018-01-01

    I den politiske kamp strides forskellige opfattelser af hvad mennesket er og bør være. De er blevet udformet af de humanistiske videnskaber igennem et langt historisk forløb med indspil fra også samfunds- og naturvidenskaberne. Dette kapitel beskriver den biologiske menneskeopfattelse: mennesket ...

  5. L'evolució del cervell humà: des d'Homo erectus a Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Coma Almenar, Herena

    2017-01-01

    Homo sapiens presenta unes característiques morfològiques cerebrals que han possibilitat les capacitats cognitives que podem observar actualment. Però no ha estat a causa d'un fet puntual en la nostra historia evolutiva, sinó que anys de canvis en la dotació genètica i l'adaptació a l'entorn ha procurat el nostre augment del volum encefàlic i de la seva reorganització i connectivitat, on la asimetria cerebral ha estat l'estratègia per optimitzar els recursos neuronals. No obstant, en el regis...

  6. Dental size reduction in Indonesian Homo erectus: Implications for the PU-198 premolar and the appearance of Homo sapiens on Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Joshua M; Marsh, Hannah E; Maddux, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The recent recovery of a hominin maxillary third premolar, PU-198, within the faunal collections from Punung Cave (East Java) has led to assertions that Homo sapiens appeared on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. The taxonomic assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens was based predominantly on the small size of the specimen, following an analysis which found little to no overlap in premolar size between Homo erectus and terminal Pleistocene/Holocene H. sapiens. Here, we re-evaluate the use of size in the taxonomic assignment of PU-198 in light of 1) new buccolingual and mesiodistal measurements taken on the fossil, 2) comparisons to a larger sample of H. erectus and H. sapiens maxillary third premolars, and 3) evidence of a diachronic trend in post-canine dental size reduction among Javan H. erectus. Our results demonstrate PU-198 to be slightly larger than previously suggested, reveal substantial overlap in premolar size between H. erectus and H. sapiens, and indicate a statistically significant reduction in premolar size between early and late Javan H. erectus. Our findings cast doubt on the assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens, and accordingly, question the appearance of H. sapiens on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  8. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  9. Evolutionary genetic analyses of MEF2C gene: implications for learning and memory in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Arasappa, Rashmi; Rao, Naren P

    2013-02-01

    MEF2C facilitates context-dependent fear conditioning (CFC) which is a salient aspect of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. CFC might have played a crucial role in human evolution because of its advantageous influence on survival of species. In this study, we analyzed 23 orthologous mammalian gene sequences of MEF2C gene to examine the evidence for positive selection on this gene in Homo sapiens using Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) and HyPhy software. Both PAML Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) and HyPhy Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL) analyses supported significant positive selection on 4 codon sites in H. sapiens. Also, haplotter analysis revealed significant ongoing positive selection on this gene in Central European population. The study findings suggest that adaptive selective pressure on this gene might have influenced human evolution. Further research on this gene might unravel the potential role of this gene in learning and memory as well as its pathogenetic effect in certain hippocampal disorders with evolutionary basis like schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  11. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  12. Differential effects of visual context on pattern discrimination by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Cook, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task. Humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays constructed from large elements but not when tested with the smaller, more densely packed texture displays. The pigeons, in contrast, exhibited a configural inferiority effect when required to discriminate line orientation, regardless of stimulus size. These contrasting results suggest a species difference in the perceptionand use of features and contextual information in the discrimination of line information.

  13. The mystery of the seven spheres how homo sapiens will conquer space

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2015-01-01

    In this book, Giovanni Bignami, the outstanding Italian scientist and astronomer, takes the reader on a journey through the “seven spheres”, from our own planet to neighboring stars. The author offers a gripping account of the evolution of Homo Sapiens to the stage where our species is developing capabilities, in the form of new energy propulsion systems, that will enable us to conquer space. The reader will learn how we first expanded our activities to reach beyond our planet, to the Moon, and how nuclear energy, nuclear fusion, and matter–antimatter annihilation will enable us to extend our exploration. After Mars and Jupiter we shall finally reach the nearest stars, which we now know are surrounded by numerous planets, some of which are bound to be habitable. The book includes enticing descriptions of such newly discovered planets and also brings alive key historical characters in our story, such as Jules Verne and Werner von Braun.

  14. The success of failed Homo sapiens dispersals out of Africa and into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabett, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The evidence for an early dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into the Levant during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS-5) 126-74 ka (thousand years ago) was characterized for many years as an 'abortive' expansion: a precursor to a sustained dispersal from which all extant human populations can be traced. Recent archaeological and genetic data from both western and eastern parts of Eurasia and from Australia are starting to challenge that interpretation. This Perspective reviews the current evidence for a scenario where the MIS-5 dispersal encompassed a much greater geographic distribution and temporal duration. The implications of this for tracking and understanding early human dispersal in Southeast Asia specifically are considered, and the validity of measuring dispersal success only through genetic continuity into the present is examined.

  15. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  16. Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanippayoor, Rachelle L; Alpern, Joshua H M; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-04-01

    The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

  17. Structural and molecular study of the supraspinatus muscle of modern humans (Homo sapiens) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Casado, A; de Diego, M; Ciurana, N; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Barbosa, M; de Paz, F J; Pastor, J F; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2018-04-21

    To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA). In the same samples, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we have assessed the percentages of expression of the MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, and MyHC-IIx isoforms. The mean MFL of the supraspinatus was longer (p = 0.001) and the PCSA was lower (p sapiens than in Pan troglodytes. Although the percentage of expression of MyHC-IIa was lower in Homo sapiens than in Pan troglodytes (p = 0.035), the combination of MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx was expressed at a similar percentage in the two species. The longer MFL in the human supraspinatus is associated with a faster contractile velocity, which reflects the primary function of the upper limbs in Homo sapiens-the precise manipulation of objects-an adaptation to bipedal locomotion. In contrast, the larger PCSA in Pan troglodytes is related to the important role of the supraspinatus in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during the support phase of knuckle-walking. These functional differences of the supraspinatus in the two species are not reflected in differences in the expression of the MyHC isoforms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E. M.; Alberdi, A.; G?nther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A. R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M. G.; de-la-Rua, C.

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as ...

  19. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Bonobos (Pan paniscus, and Humans (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Potau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens. We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes; none of the Pan paniscus, however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus. In all six Pan troglodytes, the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens, it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  20. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Casado, A; Pastor, J F; de Paz, F; Diogo, R

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens) . We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes , five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens . Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes ; none of the Pan paniscus , however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus . In all six Pan troglodytes , the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens , it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  1. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, J

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile and adult orangutans (n = 5; Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (n = 7; Pan troglodytes), and 19- and 26-month-old children (n = 24; Homo sapiens) received visible and invisible displacements. Three containers were presented forming a straight line, and a small box was used to displace a reward under them. Subjects received 3 types of displacement: single (the box visited 1 container), double adjacent (the box visited 2 contiguous containers), and double nonadjacent (the box visited 2 noncontiguous containers). All species performed at comparable levels, solving all problems except the invisible nonadjacent displacements. Visible displacements were easier than invisible, and single were easier than double displacements. In a 2nd experiment, subjects saw the baiting of either 2 adjacent or 2 nonadjacent containers with no displacements. All species selected the empty container more often when the baited containers were nonadjacent than when they were adjacent. It is hypothesized that a response bias and inhibition problem were responsible for the poor performance in nonadjacent displacements.

  2. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G Politis

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P. and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.. Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in the North America.

  3. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gustavo G; Gutiérrez, María A; Rafuse, Daniel J; Blasi, Adriana

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America.

  4. Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N

    2015-01-13

    The postcranial skeleton of modern Homo sapiens is relatively gracile compared with other hominoids and earlier hominins. This gracility predisposes contemporary humans to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Explanations for this gracility include reduced levels of physical activity, the dissipation of load through enlarged joint surfaces, and selection for systemic physiological characteristics that differentiate modern humans from other primates. This study considered the skeletal remains of four behaviorally diverse recent human populations and a large sample of extant primates to assess variation in trabecular bone structure in the human hip joint. Proximal femur trabecular bone structure was quantified from microCT data for 229 individuals from 31 extant primate taxa and 59 individuals from four distinct archaeological human populations representing sedentary agriculturalists and mobile foragers. Analyses of mass-corrected trabecular bone variables reveal that the forager populations had significantly higher bone volume fraction, thicker trabeculae, and consequently lower relative bone surface area compared with the two agriculturalist groups. There were no significant differences between the agriculturalist and forager populations for trabecular spacing, number, or degree of anisotropy. These results reveal a correspondence between human behavior and bone structure in the proximal femur, indicating that more highly mobile human populations have trabecular bone structure similar to what would be expected for wild nonhuman primates of the same body mass. These results strongly emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise for bone health and the attenuation of age-related bone loss.

  5. Normalization of Complete Genome Characteristics: Application to Evolution from Primitive Organisms to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Okayasu, Teiji; Ohhira, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Normalized nucleotide and amino acid contents of complete genome sequences can be visualized as radar charts. The shapes of these charts depict the characteristics of an organism's genome. The normalized values calculated from the genome sequence theoretically exclude experimental errors. Further, because normalization is independent of both target size and kind, this procedure is applicable not only to single genes but also to whole genomes, which consist of a huge number of different genes. In this review, we discuss the applications of the normalization of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid contents of complete genomes to the investigation of genome structure and to evolutionary research from primitive organisms to Homo sapiens. Some of the results could never have been obtained from the analysis of individual nucleotide or amino acid sequences but were revealed only after the normalization of nucleotide and amino acid contents was applied to genome research. The discovery that genome structure was homogeneous was obtained only after normalization methods were applied to the nucleotide or predicted amino acid contents of genome sequences. Normalization procedures are also applicable to evolutionary research. Thus, normalization of the contents of whole genomes is a useful procedure that can help to characterize organisms.

  6. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L

    2015-08-21

    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  9. Do humans (Homo sapiens) and fish (Pterophyllum scalare) make similar numerosity judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian; Izard, Véronique; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that many animal species can be trained to discriminate between stimuli differing in numerosity. However, in the absence of generalization tests with untrained numerosities, what decision criterion was used by subjects remains unclear: the subjects may succeed by selecting a specific number of items (a criterion over absolute numerosities), or by applying a more general relative numerosity rule, for example, selecting the larger/smaller quantity of items. The latter case may require more powerful representations, supporting judgments of order ("more/less") beyond simple "same/different" judgments, but a relative numerosity rule may also be more adaptive. In previous research, we showed that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) spontaneously prefer relative numerosity rules. To date it is unclear whether this preference is shared by other fish and, more broadly, other species. Here we compared the performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) with that of human adults (Homo sapiens) in a task in which subjects were initially trained to select arrays containing 10 dots (either in 5 vs. 10 or 10 vs. 20 comparisons). Subsequently they were tested with the previously trained numerosity and a novel numerosity (respectively, 20 or 5). In the absence of explicit instructions, both species spontaneously favored a relative rule, selecting the novel numerosity. These similarities demonstrate that, beyond shared representations for numerical quantities, vertebrate species may also share a system for taking decisions about quantities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Greater Emphasis on Female Attractiveness in Homo Sapiens: A Revised Solution to an Old Evolutionary Riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gottschall

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence from psychology and cross-cultural anthropology supports a general rule of greater emphasis on female physical attractiveness in Homo sapiens. As sensed by Darwin (1871 and clarified by Trivers (1972, generally higher female parental investment is a key determinant of a common pattern of sexual selection in which male animals are more competitive, more eager sexually and more conspicuous in courtship display, ornamentation, and coloration. Therefore, given the larger minimal and average parental investment of human females, keener physical attractiveness pressure among women has long been considered an evolutionary riddle. This paper briefly surveys previous thinking on the question, before offering a revised explanation for why we should expect humans to sharply depart from general zoological pattern of greater emphasis on male attractiveness. This contribution hinges on the argument that humans have been seen as anomalies mainly because we have been held up to the wrong zoological comparison groups. I argue that humans are a partially sex-role reversed species, and more emphasis on female physical attractiveness is relatively common in such species. This solution to the riddle, like those of other evolutionists, is based on peculiarities in human mating behavior, so this paper is also presented as a refinement of current thinking about the evolution of human mating preferences.

  12. Improved analyses of human mtDNA sequences support a recent African origin for Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, D; Steel, M; Waddell, P J; Hendy, M D

    1995-09-01

    New quantitative methods are applied to the 135 human mitochondrial sequences from the Vigilant et al. data set. General problems in analyzing large numbers of short sequences are discussed, and an improved strategy is suggested. A key feature is to focus not on individual trees but on the general "landscape" of trees. Over 1,000 searches were made from random starting trees with only one tree (a local optimum) being retained each time, thereby ensuring optima were found independently. A new tree comparison metric was developed that is unaffected by rearrangements of trees around many very short internal edges. Use of this metric showed that downweighting hypervariable sites revealed more evolutionary structure than studies that weighted all sites equally. Our results are consistent with convergence toward a global optimum. Crucial features are that the best optima show very strong regional differentiation, a common group of 49 African sequences is found in all the best optima, and the best optima contain the 16 !Kung sequences in a separate group of San people. The other 86 sequences form a heterogeneous mixture of Africans, Europeans, Australopapuans, and Asians. Thus all major human lineages occur in Africa, but only a subset occurs in the rest of the world. The existence of these African-only groups strongly contradicts multiregional theories for the origin of Homo sapiens that require widespread migration and interbreeding over the entire range of H. erectus. Only when the multiregional model is rejected is it appropriate to consider the root, based on a single locus, to be the center of origin of a population (otherwise different loci could give alternative geographic positions for the root). For this data, several methods locate the root within the group of 49 African sequences and are thus consistent with the recent African origin of H. sapiens. We demonstrate that the time of the last common ancestor cannot be the time of major expansion in human numbers

  13. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  14. Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific gene family and chromosome 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, Xander; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Duyzend, Michael H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Sudmant, Peter H; Penn, Osnat; Chiatante, Giorgia; Malig, Maika; Huddleston, John; Benner, Chris; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Stessman, Holly A F; Marchetto, Maria C N; Denman, Laura; Harshman, Lana; Baker, Carl; Raja, Archana; Penewit, Kelsi; Janke, Nicolette; Tang, W Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Banci, Lucia; Antonacci, Francesca; Akey, Joshua M; Amemiya, Chris T; Gage, Fred H; Reymond, Alexandre; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-08-11

    Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 (BOLA2) as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens. We estimate that a 95-kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately 282 thousand years ago (ka), one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. All humans examined carried one or more copies of the duplication, which nearly fixed early in the human lineage--a pattern unlikely to have arisen so rapidly in the absence of selection (P sapiens-specific duplication. In summary, the duplicative transposition of BOLA2 at the root of the H. sapiens lineage about 282 ka simultaneously increased copy number of a gene associated with iron homeostasis and predisposed our species to recurrent rearrangements associated with disease.

  15. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J.; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A.; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L.; Hasler, William L.; Koch, Kenneth L.; McCallum, Richard W.; Nguyen, Linda A. B.; Parkman, Henry P.; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J.; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Aim Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Methods Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. Results The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Conclusions Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in

  16. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L; Hasler, William L; Koch, Kenneth L; McCallum, Richard W; Nguyen, Linda A B; Parkman, Henry P; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  17. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  18. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Gibbons

    Full Text Available Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1 expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162 are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases.Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders.Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2 and without diabetes (n = 170 were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2 and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234. Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI were done. Statistical analyses of short (32 repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis.The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016. Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008. Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23 as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12, P = 0.022.Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  19. Homo Sapiens to Robo Sapiens

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083520

    1997-01-01

    Is it possible for engineers to build robots that will be more intelligent than humans?Could such robots become conscious?Could Artificial Life be engineered?If so,how long will it be before this is achieved?

  20. Dating Of Remains Of Neanderthals And Homo Sapiens From Anatolian Region By ESR-US Combined Methods Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Farkh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tried in the present study to apply the electron spin resonance method ESR combined with uranium-series method US for dating fossilized human teeth and found valuable archaeological sites such as Karain Cave in Anatolia. Karain Cave is a crucial site in a region that has yielded remains of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens our direct ancestors. The dating of these remains allowed us to trace the history since the presence of man on earth. Indeed Anatolia in Turkey is an important region of the world because it represents a passage between Africa the Middle East and Europe. Our study was conducted on faunal teeth found near human remains. The combination of ESR and US data on the teeth provides an understanding of their complex geochemical evolution and get better estimated results. Our samples were taken from the central cutting where geological layers are divided into archaeological horizons each 10 cm. The AH4 horizon of I.3 layer which represents the boundary between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic is dated to 29 4 ka by the ESR-US model. Below two horizons AH6 and AH8 in the same layer I.4 are dated respectively 40 6 and 45 7 ka using the ESR-US model. In layer II where a stalagmite floor was taken we made two U-Th dating at the base and on the top ages oscillated around 120 ka. Since human remains were collected from AH3 horizon for Homo sapiens and AH5 and AH7 horizons for the Neanderthal man so the dates obtained in AH4 AH6 and AH8 represent maximum ages. Thus they provide the disappearance of Neanderthal man between 45 and 40 ka and the appearance of Homo sapiens in 29 ka in Anatolia region. Undoubtedly there is a chronological gap between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic represented by the disappearance of Neanderthals and the appearance of sapiens and none of our results confirm the contemporaneity of these two species in this region.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of histone lysine demethylase NO66 from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xing; Tao, Yue; Wu, Minhao; Zhang, Dandan; Zang, Jianye

    2012-01-01

    The JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase NO66 from H. sapiens was overproduced in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.29 Å resolution. NO66 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase with specificity towards histone H3 methylated on both Lys4 and Lys36 in vitro and in vivo. A fragment of NO66 lacking the N-terminal 167 amino-acid residues was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.29 Å. NO66 crystallized in space group P3 1 or P3 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = 89.35, b = 89.35, c = 304.86 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and the crystal is likely to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit

  2. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E.M.; Alberdi, A.; Gunther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A.R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M.G.; Rua, C. de la

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we

  3. Relative orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril: a homology model for homo sapiens type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Thomas A; Nash, Anthony; Birch, Helen L; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2018-02-15

    Type I collagen is an essential extracellular protein that plays an important structural role in tissues that require high tensile strength. However, owing to the molecule's size, to date no experimental structural data are available for the Homo sapiens species. Therefore, there is a real need to develop a reliable homology model and a method to study the packing of the collagen molecules within the fibril. Through the use of the homology model and implementation of a novel simulation technique, we have ascertained the orientations of the collagen molecules within a fibril, which is currently below the resolution limit of experimental techniques. The longitudinal orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril has a significant effect on the mechanical and biological properties of the fibril, owing to the different amino acid side chains available at the interface between the molecules.

  4. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Susan; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Horn, Thomas; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome (coverage of 1.3-fold) suggested defective leukotriene signaling in this archaic human subspecies since expression of essential proteins appeared to be corrupted. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies (H. neanderthalensis, Homo denisovan) and completion of the human 1000 genome project provided a comprehensive database characterizing the genetic variability of the human genome. For this study we extracted the nucleotide sequences of selected eicosanoid relevant genes (ALOX5, ALOX15, ALOX12, ALOX15B, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, COX1, COX2, LTA4H, LTC4S, ALOX5AP, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, BLTR1, BLTR2) from the corresponding databases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability in first Homo: Analysis of the ratio between the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813 based on sexual dimorphism of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, S W Ferreira; Lorenzo, C

    2015-10-01

    The study of the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813, considered the first members of the genus Homo, has raised some debates. While some of researchers maintain that there is only one species, another group argues that there are two species. On one hand these two fossils are still taxonomically undetermined, on the other hand they bring up another problem related to the existence of a genus with multiple species since its beginning, according to the last discoveries. In this paper, we have compared the size ratio between these fossils with ratios established in populations of Homo sapiens, in order to know if they fit into the human standard, considering intra-sexual and inter-sexual variation. Results help to establish whether these fossils correspond to different species or their differences could be related to sexual dimorphism within a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Homo sapiens-Specific Binding Site Variants within Brain Exclusive Enhancers Are Subject to Accelerated Divergence across Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rabail; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2018-03-01

    Empirical assessments of human accelerated noncoding DNA frgaments have delineated presence of many cis-regulatory elements. Enhancers make up an important category of such accelerated cis-regulatory elements that efficiently control the spatiotemporal expression of many developmental genes. Establishing plausible reasons for accelerated enhancer sequence divergence in Homo sapiens has been termed significant in various previously published studies. This acceleration by including closely related primates and archaic human data has the potential to open up evolutionary avenues for deducing present-day brain structure. This study relied on empirically confirmed brain exclusive enhancers to avoid any misjudgments about their regulatory status and categorized among them a subset of enhancers with an exceptionally accelerated rate of lineage specific divergence in humans. In this assorted set, 13 distinct transcription factor binding sites were located that possessed unique existence in humans. Three of 13 such sites belonging to transcription factors SOX2, RUNX1/3, and FOS/JUND possessed single nucleotide variants that made them unique to H. sapiens upon comparisons with Neandertal and Denisovan orthologous sequences. These variants modifying the binding sites in modern human lineage were further substantiated as single nucleotide polymorphisms via exploiting 1000 Genomes Project Phase3 data. Long range haplotype based tests laid out evidence of positive selection to be governing in African population on two of the modern human motif modifying alleles with strongest results for SOX2 binding site. In sum, our study acknowledges acceleration in noncoding regulatory landscape of the genome and highlights functional parts within it to have undergone accelerated divergence in present-day human population.

  7. Before the Emergence of Homo sapiens: Overview on the Early-to-Middle Pleistocene Fossil Record (with a Proposal about Homo heidelbergensis at the subspecific level)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The origin of H. sapiens has deep roots, which include two crucial nodes: (1) the emergence and diffusion of the last common ancestor of later Homo (in the Early Pleistocene) and (2) the tempo and mode of the appearance of distinct evolutionary lineages (in the Middle Pleistocene). The window between 1,000 and 500 thousand years before present appears of crucial importance, including the generation of a new and more encephalised kind of humanity, referred to by many authors as H. heidelbergensis. This species greatly diversified during the Middle Pleistocene up to the formation of new variants (i.e., incipient species) that, eventually, led to the allopatric speciation of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. The special case furnished by the calvarium found near Ceprano (Italy), dated to 430–385 ka, offers the opportunity to investigate this matter from an original perspective. It is proposed to separate the hypodigm of a single, widespread, and polymorphic human taxon of the Middle Pleistocene into distinct subspecies (i.e., incipient species). The ancestral one should be H. heidelbergensis, including specimens such as Ceprano and the mandible from Mauer. PMID:21716742

  8. Azole affinity of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes from Candida albicans and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, Andrew G; Parker, Josie E; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) (Erg11), full-length Homo sapiens CYP51 (HsCYP51), and truncated Δ60HsCYP51 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. CaCYP51 and both HsCYP51 enzymes bound lanosterol (K(s), 14 to 18 μM) and catalyzed the 14α-demethylation of lanosterol using Homo sapiens cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH as redox partners. Both HsCYP51 enzymes bound clotrimazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole tightly (dissociation constants [K(d)s], 42 to 131 nM) but bound fluconazole (K(d), ~30,500 nM) and voriconazole (K(d), ~2,300 nM) weakly, whereas CaCYP51 bound all five medical azole drugs tightly (K(d)s, 10 to 56 nM). Selectivity for CaCYP51 over HsCYP51 ranged from 2-fold (clotrimazole) to 540-fold (fluconazole) among the medical azoles. In contrast, selectivity for CaCYP51 over Δ60HsCYP51 with agricultural azoles ranged from 3-fold (tebuconazole) to 9-fold (propiconazole). Prothioconazole bound extremely weakly to CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51, producing atypical type I UV-visible difference spectra (K(d)s, 6,100 and 910 nM, respectively), indicating that binding was not accomplished through direct coordination with the heme ferric ion. Prothioconazole-desthio (the intracellular derivative of prothioconazole) bound tightly to both CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51 (K(d), ~40 nM). These differences in binding affinities were reflected in the observed 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values, which were 9- to 2,000-fold higher for Δ60HsCYP51 than for CaCYP51, with the exception of tebuconazole, which strongly inhibited both CYP51 enzymes. In contrast, prothioconazole weakly inhibited CaCYP51 (IC(50), ~150 μM) and did not significantly inhibit Δ60HsCYP51.

  9. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  10. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  11. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sapiens: Hayvanlar insanar

    OpenAIRE

    Yalı, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Bu yazıda sizlere satış rekorları kıran bir tarihkitabından bahsetmek istiyorum. Kitap, 2011'de ibranice, 2014'te ingilizceyayımlandı ve şimdiye dek otuz civarında dile çevrildi. “Sapiens: İnsan Türünün Kısa Bir Tarihi” başlığı ile dilimizeçevrilen kitapta insanlık tarihinin serüvenine 70 bin yıllık zaman sürecindenbakılmaya çalışılıyor. Öyle bir kitap ki Amerika Başkanı Obama halkına bukitabı okumasını tavsiye ediyor. Öyle etkili bir kitap ki Facebook’un kurucusuMark Zuckerberg sos...

  14. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  15. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  16. Structural modelling and comparative analysis of homologous, analogous and specific proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens: putative drug targets for chagas' disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Guimarães, Ana C R; Otto, Thomas D; Miranda, Antonio B; Dardenne, Laurent E; Degrave, Wim M

    2010-10-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, an endemic infection that causes thousands of deaths every year in Latin America. Therapeutic options remain inefficient, demanding the search for new drugs and/or new molecular targets. Such efforts can focus on proteins that are specific to the parasite, but analogous enzymes and enzymes with a three-dimensional (3D) structure sufficiently different from the corresponding host proteins may represent equally interesting targets. In order to find these targets we used the workflows MHOLline and AnEnΠ obtaining 3D models from homologous, analogous and specific proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens. We applied genome wide comparative modelling techniques to obtain 3D models for 3,286 predicted proteins of T. cruzi. In combination with comparative genome analysis to Homo sapiens, we were able to identify a subset of 397 enzyme sequences, of which 356 are homologous, 3 analogous and 38 specific to the parasite. In this work, we present a set of 397 enzyme models of T. cruzi that can constitute potential structure-based drug targets to be investigated for the development of new strategies to fight Chagas' disease. The strategies presented here support the concept of structural analysis in conjunction with protein functional analysis as an interesting computational methodology to detect potential targets for structure-based rational drug design. For example, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.3.1.34) and triacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), classified as analogous proteins in relation to H. sapiens enzymes, were identified as new potential molecular targets.

  17. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, M; Svensson, E M; Alberdi, A; Günther, T; Izagirre, N; Munters, A R; Alonso, S; Ioana, M; Ridiche, F; Soficaru, A; Jakobsson, M; Netea, M G; de-la-Rua, C

    2016-05-19

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans. The derived U6 haplotypes are predominantly found in present-day North-Western African populations. Concomitantly, those found in Europe have been attributed to recent gene-flow from North Africa. The presence of the basal haplogroup U6* in South East Europe (Romania) at 35 ky BP confirms a Eurasian origin of the U6 mitochondrial lineage. Consequently, we propose that the PM1 lineage is an offshoot to South East Europe that can be traced to the Early Upper Paleolithic back migration from Western Asia to North Africa, during which the U6 lineage diversified, until the emergence of the present-day U6 African lineages.

  18. Protein-protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwastava, Brijesh Kumar; Basu, Subhadip; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-10-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) site prediction aids to ascertain the interface residues that participate in interaction processes. Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance of the classical SVM can be enhanced with the help of an interaction-affinity based fuzzy membership function. The performances of both SVM and F-SVM on the PPI databases of the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms are evaluated and estimated the statistical significance of the developed method over classical SVM and other fuzzy membership-based SVM methods available in the literature. Our membership function uses the residue-level interaction affinity scores for each pair of positive and negative sequence fragments. The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed F-SVM method improves the performances obtained by the corresponding classical SVM and the other classifiers, available in the literature.

  19. Learning a weighted sequence model of the nucleosome core and linker yields more accurate predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence-301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored-with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the

  20. Learning a weighted sequence model of the nucleosome core and linker yields more accurate predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sheila M; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William Stafford

    2010-07-08

    DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence-301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored-with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the bulk of the

  1. Learning a Weighted Sequence Model of the Nucleosome Core and Linker Yields More Accurate Predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sheila M.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William Stafford

    2010-01-01

    DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence—301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored—with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the bulk of the

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of inositol monophosphatase from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C.; Knight, Matthew; Lack, Nathan A.; Lowe, Edward; Churchill, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    M. musculus and H. sapiens inositol monophosphatase 1 were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected and analysed at resolutions of 2.4 and 1.7 Å, respectively, and the structures were compared in order to identify any structural differences. Inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of inositol monophosphate to inositol and is crucial in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) signalling pathway. Lithium, which is the drug of choice for bipolar disorder, inhibits IMPase at therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. Both mouse IMPase 1 (MmIMPase 1) and human IMPase 1 (HsIMPase 1) were cloned into pRSET5a, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop method. The structures were solved at resolutions of 2.4 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Comparison of MmIMPase 1 and HsIMPase 1 revealed a core r.m.s. deviation of 0.516 Å

  3. The Watinglo mandible: a second terminal Pleistocene Homo sapiens fossil from tropical Sahul with a test on existing models for the human settlement of the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, D; O'Connor, S

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses a fossil human mandible, dated to circa 10ka, from Watinglo rockshelter on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The fossil is metrically and morphologically similar to male mandibles of recent Melanesians and Australian Aborigines. It is distinguished from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek male mandibles (Murray Valley, terminal Pleistocene) by being smaller and having different shape characteristics, as well as smaller teeth and a slower rate of tooth wear. It pairs with the Liang Lemdubu female (Late Glacial Maximum, Aru Islands) in suggesting that the morphology of the terminal Pleistocene inhabitants of tropical Sahul was gracile compared to their contemporaries within the southern Murray drainage. An explanatory scenario for this morphological contrast is developed in the context of the Homo sapiens early fossil record, Australasian mtDNA evidence, terminal Pleistocene climatic variation, and the possibility of multiple entry points into Sahul. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  5. Light Has Been Thrown (on Human Origins: a Brief History of Palaeoanthropology, with Notes on the "Punctuated" Origin of Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Manzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”: this was the single line that Charles Darwin devoted to human evolution in the Origin of Species (1859. At present, there is a number of extinct species, which we understand  to be related to human evolution, demonstrating that the Darwin’s prediction was correct: light has been thrown, indeed. Moreover, the science of human origin (or palaeoanthropology appears to be able to shed much light not only on the natural history of humankind, but also on mechanisms and patterns of "evolution" as a general phenomenon. This is of special interest when we focus on data and hypotheses concerning the origin of our own species, Homo sapiens.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Liwen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2006-05-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to 51.8% solvent content

  8. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  10. Sapiens a brief history of humankind

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Yuval Noah

    2015-01-01

    From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also comp...

  11. A comparative analysis of global and local processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in young children (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina; Naylor, Donna M

    2005-05-01

    Results obtained with preschool children (Homo sapiens) were compared with results previously obtained from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in matching-to-sample tasks featuring hierarchical visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, monkeys, in contrast with children, showed an advantage in matching the stimuli on the basis of their local features. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which control trials enabled the authors to rule out that children used spurious cues to solve the matching task. In a 3rd experiment featuring conditions in which the density of the stimuli was manipulated, monkeys' accuracy in the processing of the global shape of the stimuli was negatively affected by the separation of the local elements, whereas children's performance was robust across testing conditions. Children's response latencies revealed a global precedence in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. These results show differences in the processing of hierarchical stimuli by humans and monkeys that emerge early during childhood. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  12. The relative use of proximity, shape similarity, and orientation as visual perceptual grouping cues in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Giovanna; De Lillo, Carlo; Truppa, Valentina; Castorina, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental results suggest that human and nonhuman primates differ in how they process visual information to assemble component parts into global shapes. To assess whether some of the observed differences in perceptual grouping could be accounted for by the prevalence of different grouping factors in different species, we carried out 2 experiments designed to evaluate the relative use of proximity, similarity of shape, and orientation as grouping cues in humans (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Both species showed similarly high levels of accuracy using proximity as a cue. Moreover, for both species, grouping by orientation similarity produced a lower level of performance than grouping by proximity. Differences emerged with respect to the use of shape similarity as a cue. In humans, grouping by shape similarity also proved less effective than grouping by proximity but the same was not observed in capuchins. These results suggest that there may be subtle differences between humans and capuchin monkeys in the weighting assigned to different grouping cues that may affect the way in which they combine local features into global shapes. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Structural Exploration and Conformational Transitions in MDM2 upon DHFR Interaction from Homo sapiens: A Computational Outlook for Malignancy via Epigenetic Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural basis for exploration into MDM2 and MDM2-DHFR interaction plays a vital role in analyzing the obstruction in folate metabolism, nonsynthesis of purines, and further epigenetic regulation in Homo sapiens. Therefore, it leads to suppression of normal cellular behavior and malignancy. This has been earlier documented via yeast two-hybrid assays. So, with a novel outlook, this study explores the molecular level demonstration of the best satisfactory MDM2 model selection after performing manifold modeling techniques. Z-scores and other stereochemical features were estimated for comparison. Further, protein-protein docking was executed with MDM2 and the experimentally validated X-ray crystallographic DHFR. Residual disclosure from the best suited simulated protein complex disclosed 18 side chain and 3 ionic interactions to strongly accommodate MDM2 protein into the pocket-like zone in DHFR due to the positive environment by charged residues. Lysine residues from MDM2 played a predominant role. Moreover, evaluation from varied energy calculations, folding rate, and net area for solvent accessibility implied the active participation of MDM2 with DHFR. Fascinatingly, conformational transitions from coils to helices and β-sheets after interaction with DHFR affirm the conformational strength and firmer interaction of human MDM2-DHFR. Therefore, this probe instigates near-future clinical research and interactive computational investigations with mutations.

  14. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SET/TAF-Iβ ΔN from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhen; Yang, Weili; Shi, Nuo; Gao, Yongxiang; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2010-01-01

    The SET/TAF-Iβ that lacked the first 22 residues of the N-terminus from Homo sapiens was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The histone chaperone SET encoded by the SET gene, which is also known as template-activating factor Iβ (TAF-Iβ), is a multifunctional molecule that is involved in many biological phenomena such as histone binding, nucleosome assembly, chromatin remodelling, replication, transcription and apoptosis. A truncated SET/TAF-Iβ ΔN protein that lacked the first 22 residues of the N-terminus but contained the C-terminal acidic domain and an additional His 6 tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium acetate as precipitant at 283 K. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4 3 2 1 2

  15. Crystal Structure of the Homo sapiens Kynureninase-3-Hydroxyhippuric Acid Inhibitor Complex: Insights into the Molecular Basis Of Kynureninase Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima,Santiago; Kumar,Sunil; Gawandi,Vijay; Momany,Cory; Phillips,Robert S.; (Georgia)

    2009-02-23

    Homo sapiens kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxykynurenine to yield 3-hydroxyanthranilate and L-alanine as part of the tryptophan catabolic pathway leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +}. This pathway results in quinolinate, an excitotoxin that is an NMDA receptor agonist. High levels of quinolinate have been correlated with the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as AIDS-related dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We have synthesized a novel kynureninase inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippurate, cocrystallized it with human kynureninase, and solved the atomic structure. On the basis of an analysis of the complex, we designed a series of His-102, Ser-332, and Asn-333 mutants. The H102W/N333T and H102W/S332G/N333T mutants showed complete reversal of substrate specificity between 3-hydroxykynurenine and L-kynurenine, thus defining the primary residues contributing to substrate specificity in kynureninases.

  16. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of protein targets in pathogen-host interaction in infectious diseases: a case study on Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sovan; Sengupta, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Mita

    2017-09-23

    Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors. In this article, we attempt to investigate characteristics of host-pathogen protein interactions by presenting a comprehensive review of computational approaches applied on different infectious diseases. As an illustration, we have analyzed a case study on infectious disease malaria, with its causative agent Plasmodium falciparum acting as 'Bait' and host, Homo sapiens/human acting as 'Prey'. In this pathogen-host interaction network based on some interconnectivity and centrality properties, proteins are viewed as central, peripheral, hub and non-hub nodes and their significance on infection process. Besides, it is observed that because of sparseness of the pathogen and host interaction network, there may be some topologically unimportant but biologically significant proteins, which can also act as Bait/Prey. So, functional similarity or gene ontology mapping can help us in this case to identify these proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔG binding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  20. Structural Exploration and Conformational Transitions in MDM2 upon DHFR Interaction from Homo sapiens: A Computational Outlook for Malignancy via Epigenetic Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-01-01

    Structural basis for exploration into MDM2 and MDM2-DHFR interaction plays a vital role in analyzing the obstruction in folate metabolism, nonsynthesis of purines, and further epigenetic regulation in Homo sapiens. Therefore, it leads to suppression of normal cellular behavior and malignancy. This has been earlier documented via yeast two-hybrid assays. So, with a novel outlook, this study explores the molecular level demonstration of the best satisfactory MDM2 model selection after performing manifold modeling techniques. Z-scores and other stereochemical features were estimated for comparison. Further, protein-protein docking was executed with MDM2 and the experimentally validated X-ray crystallographic DHFR. Residual disclosure from the best suited simulated protein complex disclosed 18 side chain and 3 ionic interactions to strongly accommodate MDM2 protein into the pocket-like zone in DHFR due to the positive environment by charged residues. Lysine residues from MDM2 played a predominant role. Moreover, evaluation from varied energy calculations, folding rate, and net area for solvent accessibility implied the active participation of MDM2 with DHFR. Fascinatingly, conformational transitions from coils to helices and β-sheets after interaction with DHFR affirm the conformational strength and firmer interaction of human MDM2-DHFR. Therefore, this probe instigates near-future clinical research and interactive computational investigations with mutations.

  1. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  3. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  4. Perceived risk of female infidelity moderates the relationship between objective risk of female infidelity and sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Starratt, Valerie G; Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2011-08-01

    Female extrapair copulation (EPC) can be costly to a woman's long-term romantic partner. If a woman has copulated recently with a man other than her long-term partner, her reproductive tract may contain the sperm of both men, initiating sperm competition (whereby sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize an egg). Should the woman become pregnant, her long-term partner is at risk of cuckoldry-investing unwittingly in offspring to whom he is not genetically related. Previous research in humans (Homo sapiens) and in nonhuman animals suggests that males have evolved tactics such as partner-directed sexual coercion that reduce the risk of cuckoldry. The current research provides preliminary evidence that mated men (n = 223) at greater risk of partner EPC, measured as having spent a greater proportion of time apart from their partner since the couple's last in-pair copulation, more frequently perform partner-directed sexually coercive behaviors. This relationship is moderated, however, by men's perceived risk of partner EPC, such that the correlation between the proportion of time spent apart since last in-pair copulation and sexually coercive behaviors remains significant only for those men who perceive themselves to be at some risk of partner EPC. Discussion addresses limitations of this research and highlights directions for future research investigating the relationship between female EPC and men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The association between mid-facial morphology and climate in northeast Europe differs from that in north Asia: Implications for understanding the morphology of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evteev, Andrej A; Movsesian, Alla A; Grosheva, Alexandra N

    2017-06-01

    The climate of northeastern Europe is likely to resemble in many ways Late Pleistocene periglacial conditions in Europe, but there have been relatively few studies exploring the association between climate and morphology in the mid-face of modern northeastern European populations. To fill this gap, we sampled 540 male skulls from 22 European and Near Eastern groups, including 314 skulls from 11 populations from northeastern Europe, to test for possible climate-morphology association at the continental scale. Our results found a moderate and highly significant association (R = 0.48, p = 0.0013, Mantel test) between sets of 23 mid-facial measurements and eight climatic variables. A partial least squares analysis revealed this association to be mostly driven by differences between groups from northeastern Europe and populations from the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. Matrices of between-group genetic distances based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers, as well as cranial non-metric and geographic distance matrices, were used to control for the possible influence of shared population history. Irrespective of which measure of neutral between-population distances is taken into account, the association between cranial variables and climate remains significant. The pattern of association between climate and morphology of the mid-face in western Eurasia was then compared to that in east and north Asia. Although differences between the two were found, there were also similarities that support existing functional interpretations of morphology for the bony parts of the upper airways. Last, in a preliminary analysis using a reduced set of measurements, mid-facial morphology of several Upper Paleolithic European Homo sapiens specimens was found to be more similar to groups from northern and northeastern Europe than to southern European populations. Thus, the population of northeastern Europe rather than east and north Asian groups should be used as a model when studying

  6. Conduction Abnormalities and Pacemaker Implantations After SAPIEN 3 Vs SAPIEN XT Prosthesis Aortic Valve Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Oliver; Kessler, Thorsten; Burgdorf, Christof; Templin, Christian; Pellegrini, Costanza; Schneider, Simon; Kasel, Albert Markus; Kastrati, Adnan; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is increasingly used in patients with aortic stenosis. Post-procedural intraventricular conduction abnormalities and permanent pacemaker implantations remain a serious concern. Recently, the Edwards SAPIEN 3 prosthesis has replaced the SAPIEN XT. We sought to determine the incidences of new-onset intraventricular conduction abnormalities and permanent pacemaker implantations by comparing the 2 devices. We analyzed the last consecutive 103 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with SAPIEN XT before SAPIEN 3 was used in the next 105 patients. To analyze permanent pacemaker implantations and new-onset intraventricular conduction abnormalities, patients with these conditions at baseline were excluded. Electrocardiograms were recorded at baseline, after the procedure, and before discharge. SAPIEN 3 was associated with higher device success (100% vs 92%; P=.005) and less paravalvular leakage (0% vs 7%; Ppacemaker implantations was 12.6% (23 of 183) with no difference between the 2 groups (SAPIEN 3: 12.5% [12 of 96] vs SAPIEN XT: 12.6% [11 of 87]; P=.99). SAPIEN 3 was associated with a higher rate of new-onset intraventricular conduction abnormalities (49% vs 27%; P=.007) due to a higher rate of fascicular blocks (17% vs 5%; P=.021). There was no statistically significant difference in transient (29% [20 of 69] vs persistent 19% [12 of 64]; P=.168) left bundle branch blocks (28% [19 of 69] vs 17% [11 of 64]; P=.154) when SAPIEN 3 was compared with SAPIEN XT. We found a trend toward a higher rate of new-onset intraventricular conduction abnormalities with SAPIEN 3 compared with SAPIEN XT, although this did not result in a higher permanent pacemaker implantation rate. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-01-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

  8. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenbin [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, You [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mysore, Raghavendra [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chang, Mau-Sun [Institute of Biochemical Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M. [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang, E-mail: tydg@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  9. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Platas-Neri, Diana; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita; Trejo, David; Conde, Rubén; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Cervantes, Juan José; Braun, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present qualitative study was to analyze the morphological aspects of the inner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates, using magnetic resonance images (MRI): spider monkey (A. geoffroyi) and human (H. sapiens), on the basis of a comparative study of the cerebral structures of the two species, focusing upon the brain of the spider monkey and, primarily, its limbic system. In spite of being an endemic Western hemisphere species, a fact which is by its own right intere...

  10. Who's afraid of Homo sapiens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M

    2006-11-29

    Understanding how humans differ from other animals, as well as how we are like them, requires comparative investigations. For the purpose of documenting the distinctive features of humans, the most informative research involves comparing humans to our closest relatives-the chimpanzees and other great apes. Psychology and anthropology have maintained a tradition of empirical comparative research on human specializations of cognition. The neurosciences, by contrast, have been dominated by the model-animal research paradigm, which presupposes the commonality of "basic" features of brain organization across species and discourages serious treatment of species differences. As a result, the neurosciences have made little progress in understanding human brain specializations. Recent developments in neuroimaging, genomics, and other non-invasive techniques make it possible to directly compare humans and nonhuman species at levels of organization that were previously inaccessible, offering the hope of gaining a better understanding of the species-specific features of the human brain. This hope will be dashed, however, if chimpanzees and other great ape species become unavailable for even non-invasive research.

  11. Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Martin; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Genomes can be compared at different levels of divergence, either between species or within species. Within species genomes can be compared between different subpopulations, such as human subpopulations from different continents. Investigating the genomic differences between different human subpopulations is important when studying complex diseases that are affected by many genetic variants, as the variants involved can differ between populations. The 1000 Genomes Project collected genome-scale variation data for 2504 human individuals from 26 different populations, enabling a systematic comparison of variation between human subpopulations. In this chapter, we present step-by-step a basic protocol for the identification of population-specific variants employing the 1000 Genomes data. These variants are subsequently further investigated for those that affect the proteome or RNA splice sites, to investigate potentially biologically relevant differences between the populations.

  12. Homo Sapiens as Geological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Caldeira, K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Kelley, G.; Rosenzweig, C.; Caldeira, K.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Holloway, T.; Purdy, J. S.; Vince, G.; Syvitski, J. A.; Bondre, N. R.; Kelly, J.; Vince, G.; Seto, K. C.; Steffen, W.; Oreskes, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, earth scientists came to understand the magnitude and power of geological and geophysical processes. In comparison, the activities of humans seemed paltry if not insignificant. With the development of radiometric dating in the 20th century, scientists realized that human history was but a miniscule part of Earth history. Metaphors to this effect abounded, and filled textbooks: If Earth history were a 24-hour day, human history would not occupy even the final second. If Earth history were a yardstick, the human portion would not even be visible to the naked eye. Generations of scientists were taught that one of the principal contributions of geology, qua science, was the demonstration of our insignificance. The Anthropocene concept disrupts this. To affirms its existence is to insist that human activities compete in scale and significance with other Earth processes, and may threaten to overwhelm them. It also inverts our relation to normative claims. For more than a century earth scientists and evolutionary biologists insisted that their theories were descriptive and not normative—that there was no moral conclusion to be drawn from either planetary or human evolution. Now, we confront the suggestion that there is a moral component to our new paradigm: we can scarcely claim that humans are disrupting the climate, destroying biodiversity, and acidifying the oceans without implying that there is something troubling about these developments. Thus, the Anthropocene concept suggests both a radical redefinition of the scope of Earth science, and a radical reconsideration of the place of normative judgments in scientific work.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  15. Mechanistically Distinct Pathways of Divergent Regulatory DNA Creation Contribute to Evolution of Human-Specific Genomic Regulatory Networks Driving Phenotypic Divergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-09-19

    Thousands of candidate human-specific regulatory sequences (HSRS) have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that unique to human phenotypes result from human-specific alterations of genomic regulatory networks. Collectively, a compendium of multiple diverse families of HSRS that are functionally and structurally divergent from Great Apes could be defined as the backbone of human-specific genomic regulatory networks. Here, the conservation patterns analysis of 18,364 candidate HSRS was carried out requiring that 100% of bases must remap during the alignments of human, chimpanzee, and bonobo sequences. A total of 5,535 candidate HSRS were identified that are: (i) highly conserved in Great Apes; (ii) evolved by the exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA; (iii) defined by either the acceleration of mutation rates on the human lineage or the functional divergence from non-human primates. The exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA pathway seems mechanistically distinct from the evolution of regulatory DNA segments driven by the species-specific expansion of transposable elements. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of HSRS revealed that a small fraction of topologically associating domains (TADs) contain more than half of HSRS from four distinct families. TADs that are enriched for HSRS and termed rapidly evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) comprise 0.8-10.3% of 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome. RevTADs manifest distinct correlation patterns between placements of human accelerated regions, human-specific transcription factor-binding sites, and recombination rates. There is a significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (P sapiens is driven by the evolution of human-specific genomic regulatory networks via at least two mechanistically distinct pathways of creation of

  16. Programming and Playing with RoboSapien on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M Cvjetkovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RoboSapien is famous human like robot toy intended for playing with, of interested in, of all ages, and learning through the game, of some basic characteristics of robots and robotic control. The programming of RoboSapien as described in user’s manual is limited with the internal memory, battery life, and not very convenient input of actions through the multipurpose buttons of the RoboSapien IR remote control device. In order to offer better conditions for experimenting and using of RoboSapien, the web user interface was developed, that provides interactive user control, programming of command sequences of arbitrary length, observing of RoboSapien actions using the web cam that shows the movements and actions on web page. Access and control of RoboSapien by remote user through the web page user interface, is controlled by access levels depending on whether the user is logged in or not. The whole system is implemented in C# as ASP.NET project with NI USB 6501 digital I/O driving the CMOS 4066 analog switches for controlling the RoboSapien IR remote control device.

  17. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  18. In Silico Molecular Modeling and Docking Studies on Novel Mutants (E229V, H225P and D230C) of the Nucleotide-Binding Domain of Homo sapiens Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elengoe, Asita; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of determining the synergistic interactions between nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Homo sapiens heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) and E1A 32 kDa of adenovirus serotype 5 motif (PNLVP) in the efficiency of killing of tumor cells in cancer treatment. At present, the protein interaction between NBD and PNLVP motif is still unknown, but believed to enhance the rate of virus replication in tumor cells. Three mutant models (E229V, H225P and D230C) were built and simulated, and their interactions with PNLVP motif were studied. The PNLVP motif showed the binding energy and intermolecular energy values with the novel E229V mutant at -7.32 and -11.2 kcal/mol. The E229V mutant had the highest number of hydrogen bonds (7). Based on the root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, secondary structure, surface-accessible solvent area, potential energy and distance matrices analyses, it was proved that the E229V had the strongest and most stable interaction with the PNLVP motif among all the four protein-ligand complex structures. The knowledge of this protein-ligand complex model would help in designing Hsp70 structure-based drug for cancer therapy.

  19. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  20. Simulating an infection growth model in certain healthy metabolic pathways of Homo sapiens for highlighting their role in Type I Diabetes mellitus using fire-spread strategy, feedbacks and sensitivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Tagore

    Full Text Available Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a 'critical value' to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG.

  1. A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus: Comparing Behavior of Pathogen Perturbed and Unperturbed Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Namrata; De, Rajat K.

    2013-01-01

    Response of an immune system to a pathogen attack depends on the balance between the host immune defense and the virulence of the pathogen. Investigation of molecular interactions between the proteins of a host and a pathogen helps in identifying the pathogenic proteins. It is necessary to understand the dynamics of a normally behaved host system to evaluate the capacity of its immune system upon pathogen attack. In this study, we have compared the behavior of an unperturbed and pathogen perturbed host system. Moreover, we have developed a formalism under Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) for the optimization of conflicting objective functions. We have constructed an integrated pathway system, which includes Staphylococcal Superantigen (SAg) expression regulatory pathway and TCR signaling pathway of Homo sapiens. We have implemented the method on this pathway system and observed the behavior of host signaling molecules upon pathogen attack. The entire study has been divided into six different cases, based on the perturbed/unperturbed conditions. In other words, we have investigated unperturbed and pathogen perturbed human TCR signaling pathway, with different combinations of optimization of concentrations of regulatory and signaling molecules. One of these cases has aimed at finding out whether minimization of the toxin production in a pathogen leads to the change in the concentration levels of the proteins coded by TCR signaling pathway genes in the infected host. Based on the computed results, we have hypothesized that the balance between TCR signaling inhibitory and stimulatory molecules can keep TCR signaling system into resting/stimulating state, depending upon the perturbation. The proposed integrated host-pathogen interaction pathway model has accurately reflected the experimental evidences, which we have used for validation purpose. The significance of this kind of investigation lies in revealing the susceptible interaction points that can take back the

  2. Simulating an Infection Growth Model in Certain Healthy Metabolic Pathways of Homo sapiens for Highlighting Their Role in Type I Diabetes mellitus Using Fire-Spread Strategy, Feedbacks and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K.

    2013-01-01

    Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a ‘critical value’ to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). PMID:24039701

  3. Ranking U-Sapiens 2010-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son

  4. Anatomía Cerebral del mono araña Ateles geoffroyi estudiada utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética. Primer reporte: estudio comparativo con el cerebro humano Homo Sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Platas-Neri, Diana; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Santillán-Doherty, Ana-María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita; Trejo, David; Conde, Rubén; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Cervantes, Juan José; Braun, Marc

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio cualitativo fue analizar los aspectos morfológicos de la anatomía cerebral interna utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética (IRM) en dos especies de primates, El mono Araña (A. geoffroyi) y el humano (H. sapiens), tomando como base un estudio comparativo de las estructuras cerebrales de las dos especies, concentrándose primordialmente en el sistema límbico del cerebro del mono araña. Aunque es una especie común en el hemisferio occidental, es interesante pa...

  5. Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mark; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2013-08-13

    We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level. SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively. Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes. There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.

  6. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important stages in human evolution. Extan t primates ... with concomitant development of binocular, stereoscopic and .... phenomena as disparate as climatic changes, geological impacts and floral shifts. ... Global cooling and increased glacia- tion in the .... product of diffuse co-evolu tionary in teractions with angiosperms.

  7. Homo Sapiens, All Too Homo Sapiens: Wise Man, All Too Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, Amaris

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis on STEM education should not be interpreted as an omen of the death of humanities; art, literature, history, and philosophy can inform and enlighten STEM studies if the walls of academic silos are broken down and taught in combination. Where the physical universe collides with the fanciful and flawed human experience of life, there is…

  8. Comparison between the SAPIEN S3 and the SAPIEN XT transcatheter heart valves: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Fadi J; Spaziano, Marco; Lefèvre, Thierry; Roy, Andrew; Garot, Phillippe; Hovasse, Thomas; Neylon, Antoinette; Benamer, Hakim; Romano, Mauro; Unterseeh, Thierry; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard

    2016-12-26

    To investigate the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve (S3-THV) vs the SAPIEN XT valve (XT-THV). We retrospectively analyzed 507 patients that underwent TAVI with the XT-THV and 283 patients that received the S3-THV at our institution between March 2010 and December 2015. Thirty-day mortality (3.5% vs 8.7%; OR = 0.44, P = 0.21) and 1-year mortality (25.7% vs 20.1%, P = 0.55) were similar in the S3-THV and the XT-THV groups. The rates of both major vascular complication and paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) > 1 were almost 4 times lower in the S3-THV group than the XT-THV group (major vascular complication: 2.8% vs 9.9%, P 1: 2.4% vs 9.7%, P < 0.0001). However, the rate of new pacemaker implantation was almost twice as high in the S3-THV group (17.3% vs 9.8%, P = 0.03). In the S3 group, independent predictors of new permanent pacemaker were pre-procedural RBBB (OR = 4.9; P = 0.001), pre-procedural PR duration (OR = 1.14, P = 0.05) and device lack of coaxiality (OR = 1.13; P = 0.05) during deployment. The S3-THV is associated to lower rates of major vascular complications and PVR but higher rates of new pacemaker compared to the XT-THV. Sub-optimal visualization of the S3-THV in relation to the aortic valvular complex during deployment is a predictor of new permanent pacemaker.

  9. The minerals and the light: Mineralogy and astronomy in the history of the homo sapiens sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanna Giovine, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of the '90s, when the concept of competence was introduced in the education world, the debate on teaching assessment of competences is going on in the Italian school system. Nonetheless, first cycle and second cycle State Exams and national tests (INVALSI), yet have a focus on knowledge and skills. In the education field competence is defined as the capability to face requests and complex tasks effectively, using knowledge and skills acquired by study, research, observation and experience. The proposal formulated here is directed to turn disciplinary knowledge and skills to personal competences through educational and unitary teaching, in order to overcome the discontinuities between Primary school - Secondary school - Universities - the world of work. The ultimate goal is to preserve throughout the didactic course of teaching the wholeness and unitarily of personal competence of the student, who uses acquired disciplinary knowledge and skills in a personal fashion, neither mnemonic nor mechanical. The course of study may begin in the first class of lower secondary school and go on up to the fifth class of upper secondary school, with didactic laboratorial strategies and teaching strategies for competences, involving multiple disciplines. The recipients are the classes where a greater difficulty for students to integrate into the life of the School is registered, or the learned input-skills are of low or inadequate level, possibly with the presence of students with Special Educational Needs. In involved classes the collaboration and sharing of all teachers of the Class Council has been requested, in order to build an educational unitary course, centered on the concept of competence. Contents of the course: • The materials of the solid earth: minerals (physical and chemical properties, classification) • Percentages, graphics, angles, geometric solids, symmetry • Measurement units, speed and acceleration, mass and weight, pressure, energy, heat, temperature, density • States of matter: solid state and liquid state • The periodic table of elements, atoms and molecules • Mixtures Introduction to the course: • History informs sciences: newspapers and books dating back to the First World War are read in the classroom, mineral resources used in everyday life and the their mining locations, in cooperation with Geohistory and Italian teachers. • Discussion groups and "questioning" by the test "Is it useful to study the Mineralogy?" and input test with open-ended questions. • Experiments in the laboratory shared with Physics teacher: we observe a mineral (recognition, classification, chemical composition) • Theoretical lesson: natural sciences, physics and chemistry, with the support of the textbook and using material found by students in the Internet • Visit to the local museum with the teacher of Geometric Design or Art History or Technology or Geohistory • Brainstorming and project with support of LIM to view video-on lab and specific software • Experiments in the laboratory shared with the teacher of Mathematics: growing crystals (shape and symmetry, recognition and classification, chemical composition and structure of atoms) • Final report on experiments, possibly with research hypotheses.

  10. ¿Homo Sapiens u Ogro Sapiens? Los jefes duros de roer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lotito Catino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del pésimo ambiente laboral reinante en la empresa France Télécom, entre los años 2008 y 2010, esta compañía perdió a 49 de sus trabajadores quienes, en función de las malsanas condiciones laborales, optaron por suicidarse. Uno de los objetivos de este artículo es poner en evidencia la existencia de los llamados jefes ogros, razón por la cual, se busca alertar a los directivos de empresas con respecto a lo que ellos deben identificar, controlar y/o deshacerse –en la medida de lo posible– de este tipo de jefaturas tóxicas. Por oposición, el segundo objetivo, es destacar que también existen jefes que han desarrollado su Inteligencia Emocional y que pueden hacer las cosas de una manera muy distinta. Es decir, podemos tener una empresa donde prevalece un ambiente grato y se practica el buen humor, sin que por ello se pierdan las metas de productividad y eficiencia necesarias para que una organización pueda tener éxito y competir en mercados nacionales e internacionales; basándonos en premisas básicas de buen trato, comportamiento ético y un norte que apunte a la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial, en que la práctica del buen trato y del buen humor por parte de un jefe en una empresa, no es en absoluto, enemiga de la buena administración y del verdadero liderazgo. La metodología consistió en una revisión de la literatura disponible y atingente al tema desarrollado. As a consequence of the terrible work environment prevailing in France Télécom, between 2008 and 2010, the company lost 49 of its workers, who, chose to commit suicide given the unhealthy work conditions they were subjected to. The main objective of this articles is to alert upper management of the need to identifying, controlling and getting rid of the so called “ogre bosses”. The second objective is to show examples of good bosses who have developed their emotional intelligence and that can do things in a very different way; i.e. It is possible to create a pleasant and friendly work environment without risking productivity and efficiency which an organization needs to be successful and compete on a national and international level. It is based on the premiss of good treatment, ethical behavior, and Corporate Social Responsibility in which good nature and fair treatment by upper management is by no means the enemy of good administration, but rather an exercise of true leadership. The methodology consisted in examination of the related literature available.

  11. On the homogeneity and heterogeneity of cortical thickness profiles in Homo sapiens sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, Jan Willem; Schüppen, André; Morozova, Maria; Lehofer, Agnes; Koschutnig, Karl; Wood, Guilherme

    2017-12-20

    Cortical thickness has been investigated since the beginning of the 20th century, but we do not know how similar the cortical thickness profiles among humans are. In this study, the local similarity of cortical thickness profiles was investigated using sliding window methods. Here, we show that approximately 5% of the cortical thickness profiles are similarly expressed among humans while 45% of the cortical thickness profiles show a high level of heterogeneity. Therefore, heterogeneity is the rule, not the exception. Cortical thickness profiles of somatosensory homunculi and the anterior insula are consistent among humans, while the cortical thickness profiles of the motor homunculus are more variable. Cortical thickness profiles of homunculi that code for muscle position and skin stimulation are highly similar among humans despite large differences in sex, education, and age. This finding suggests that the structure of these cortices remains well preserved over a lifetime. Our observations possibly relativize opinions on cortical plasticity.

  12. Molecular modeling, dynamics studies and density functional theory approaches to identify potential inhibitors of SIRT4 protein from Homo sapiens : a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sanjay K; Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Nachiappan, Mutharasappan; Biswal, Jayshree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges in the world and WHO projects it to be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. It is a chronic condition affecting the way our body metabolizes sugar. Insulin resistance is high risk factor marked by expression of Lipoprotein Lipases and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor that predisposes to type 2 diabetes. AMP-dependent protein kinase in AMPK signaling pathway is a central sensor of energy status. Deregulation of AMPK signaling leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and deactivation of autophagy which are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance. SIRT4 protein deactivates AMPK as well as directly inhibits insulin secretion. SIRT4 overexpression leads to dyslipidimeia, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and lipogenesis which are the characteristic features of insulin resistance promoting type 2 diabetes. This makes SIRT4 a novel therapeutic target to control type 2 diabetes. Virtual screening and molecular docking studies were performed to obtain potential ligands. To further optimize the geometry of protein-ligand complexes Quantum Polarized Ligand Docking was performed. Binding Free Energy was calculated for the top three ligand molecules. In view of exploring the stereoelectronic features of the ligand, density functional theory approach was implemented at B3LYP/6-31G* level. 30 ns MD simulation studies of the protein-ligand complexes were done. The present research work proposes ZINC12421989 as potential inhibitor of SIRT4 with docking score (-7.54 kcal/mol), docking energy (-51.34 kcal/mol), binding free energy (-70.21 kcal/mol), and comparatively low energy gap (-0.1786 eV) for HOMO and LUMO indicating reactivity of the lead molecule.

  13. SAPIENS: Spreading Activation Processor for Information Encoded in Network Structures. Technical Report No. 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortony, Andrew; Radin, Dean I.

    The product of researchers' efforts to develop a computer processor which distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant information in the database, Spreading Activation Processor for Information Encoded in Network Structures (SAPIENS) exhibits (1) context sensitivity, (2) efficiency, (3) decreasing activation over time, (4) summation of…

  14. Transfemoral implantation of an Edwards SAPIEN valve in a tricuspid bioprosthesis without fluoroscopic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Patrick A; Himbert, Dominique; Brochet, Eric; Radu, Costin; Iung, Bernard; Hvass, Ulrik; Darondel, Jean-Marc; Depoix, Jean-Pol; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec

    2012-03-01

    We describe the first report of an Edwards SAPIEN valve implanted in a tricuspid bioprosthesis from the femoral vein. We highlight the feasibility of this previously avoided approach and the techniques involved. A 61-year-old woman with multiple valve replacements for rheumatic heart disease presented with NHYA IV dyspnoea secondary to a severely stenosed tricuspid bioprosthesis. After failed aggressive medical therapy and surgical turn down, an Edwards SAPIEN XT valve was deployed in the tricuspid bioprosthesis via the right femoral vein. Adaptations to the standard transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique included: (1) crossing the tricuspid bioprosthesis with a balloon floatation catheter; (2) temporary pacing wire in the coronary sinus rather than the right ventricle; (3) mounting of the SAPIEN XT valve in the reverse orientation to transfemoral TAVI; and (4) fine positioning of the final valve position pre-deployment by 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (3D TOE) alone due to complete radiolucency of the tricuspid bioprosthesis. The procedure was completed without complication and resulted in significant symptomatic improvement. Deployment of an Edwards SAPIEN valve in a tricuspid bioprosthesis via the femoral vein is feasible and, with careful adaptations to established TAVI techniques, can be performed without complications and with good clinical response.

  15. Syndromes associated with Homo sapiens pol II regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, M; Demmon, S; Pares-Matos, E I

    2000-01-01

    The molecular basis of human characteristics is an intriguing but an unresolved problem. Human characteristics cover a broad spectrum, from the obvious to the abstract. Obvious characteristics may include morphological features such as height, shape, and facial form. Abstract characteristics may be hidden in processes that are controlled by hormones and the human brain. In this review we examine exaggerated characteristics presented as syndromes. Specifically, we focus on human genes that encode transcription factors to examine morphological, immunological, and hormonal anomalies that result from deletion, insertion, or mutation of genes that regulate transcription by RNA polymerase II (the Pol II genes). A close analysis of abnormal phenotypes can give clues into how sequence variations in regulatory genes and changes in transcriptional control may give rise to characteristics defined as complex traits.

  16. A Resource of Quantitative Functional Annotation for Homo sapiens Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşan, Murat; Drabkin, Harold J; Beaver, John E; Chua, Hon Nian; Dunham, Julie; Tian, Weidong; Blake, Judith A; Roth, Frederick P

    2012-02-01

    The body of human genomic and proteomic evidence continues to grow at ever-increasing rates, while annotation efforts struggle to keep pace. A surprisingly small fraction of human genes have clear, documented associations with specific functions, and new functions continue to be found for characterized genes. Here we assembled an integrated collection of diverse genomic and proteomic data for 21,341 human genes and make quantitative associations of each to 4333 Gene Ontology terms. We combined guilt-by-profiling and guilt-by-association approaches to exploit features unique to the data types. Performance was evaluated by cross-validation, prospective validation, and by manual evaluation with the biological literature. Functional-linkage networks were also constructed, and their utility was demonstrated by identifying candidate genes related to a glioma FLN using a seed network from genome-wide association studies. Our annotations are presented-alongside existing validated annotations-in a publicly accessible and searchable web interface.

  17. CatSper ion channels: Bioinformatics analysis in Homo sapiens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the availability of huge amount of molecular biology data, our main focus was to determine the protein structures, functions and their role in different molecular pathways. The 3-D structure prediction of protein is important in medicine and biotechnology. Molecular docking not only finds the interaction between ...

  18. Feromony druhu .I.Homo sapiens./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďárek, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2000), s. 1036-1038 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /35./. 13.11.2000-15.11.2000, Liblice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  20. Homo Sapiens 1.0: Human Development and Policy Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Pam

    2017-01-01

    Nearly a century of psychological research and recent advances in neuropsychology suggest that there is a "learning to learn" stage in early childhood, during which children need to create the foundations of human cognition, which relies upon the ability to logically categorise incoming information. Mid-twentieth-century psychologists…

  1. Are We Reaching the Limits of Homo sapiens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Antero, Juliana; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Saulière, Guillaume; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Boeuf, Gilles; Spedding, Michael; Le Bourg, Éric; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Echoing scientific and industrial progress, the Twentieth century was an unprecedented period of improvement for human capabilities and performances, with a significant increase in lifespan, adult height, and maximal physiological performance. Analyses of historical data show a major slow down occurring in the most recent years. This triggered large and passionate debates in the academic scene within multiple disciplines; as such an observation could be interpreted as our upper biological limits. Such a new phase of human history may be related to structural and functional limits determined by long term evolutionary constraints, and the interaction between complex systems and their environment. In this interdisciplinary approach, we call into question the validity of subsequent forecasts and projections through innovative and related biomarkers such as sport, lifespan, and height indicators. We set a theoretical framework based on biological and environmental relevance rather than using a typical single-variable forecasting approach. As demonstrated within the article, these new views will have major social, economical, and political implications.

  2. Structure of the CLC-1 chloride channel from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyong; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2018-05-29

    CLC channels mediate passive Cl - conduction, while CLC transporters mediate active Cl - transport coupled to H + transport in the opposite direction. The distinction between CLC-0/1/2 channels and CLC transporters seems undetectable by amino acid sequence. To understand why they are different functionally we determined the structure of the human CLC-1 channel. Its 'glutamate gate' residue, known to mediate proton transfer in CLC transporters, adopts a location in the structure that appears to preclude it from its transport function. Furthermore, smaller side chains produce a wider pore near the intracellular surface, potentially reducing a kinetic barrier for Cl - conduction. When the corresponding residues are mutated in a transporter, it is converted to a channel. Finally, Cl - at key sites in the pore appear to interact with reduced affinity compared to transporters. Thus, subtle differences in glutamate gate conformation, internal pore diameter and Cl - affinity distinguish CLC channels and transporters. © 2018, Park & MacKinnon.

  3. [The emergence of obstetrical mechanism: From Lucy to Homo sapiens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémondière, P; Thollon, L; Marchal, F

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary history of modern birth mechanism is now a renewed interest in obstetrical papers. The purpose of this work is to review the literature in paleo-obstetrical field. Our analysis focuses on paleo-obstetrical hypothesis, from 1960 to the present day, based on the reconstruction of fossil pelvis. Indeed, these pelvic reconstructions usually provide an opportunity to make an obstetrical assumption in our ancestors. In this analysis, we show that modern birth mechanism takes place during the emergence of our genus 2 million years ago. References are made to human specificities related to obstetrical mechanism: exclusive bipedalism, increase of brain size at birth, metabolic cost of the pregnancy and deep trophoblastic implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Seksuaalsus ja Homo sapiens / Mari Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvelaid, Mari, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Miks kujunes inimene evolutsioonis partenogeneesi asemel sugulisel teel paljunevaks? Kultuuri mõju seksuaalsusele. Seksuaalsed tavad ja hoiakud Eestis. Inimese seksuaalfunktsioon teaduslikus ja arstlikus käsitluses

  5. CatSper ion channels: Bioinformatics analysis in Homo sapiens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... have a role in hyperactivation in sperm and fertilization processes. As a result of deletion of certain regions (bps) containing these genes along with some other genes, male infertility occurs. We have predicted and analyzed the 3D structures of all members of CatSper protein family in this article. Docking of ...

  6. Homo Sapiens, an endless universe and other living beings. (Italian Title: Homo sapiens, un universo senza confini e altri viventi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, F.

    2016-02-01

    The idea that we live in an universe with multiple inhabited worlds can be found in the works of Greek scholars of the centuries BC, through the renaissance age, up to the present day. The author examines this theory marking reference to two scientific facts, the velocity of electromagnetic waves and the evolution's time taken for the development of life on a planet.

  7. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-07-14

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.

  8. Homo sapiens, Homo demens e Homo degradandis: a psiquê humana e a crise ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bortoni Ninis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a crise ambiental por meio de um diálogo entre a psicanálise, filosofia e ciências sociais. Busca-se introduzir um eixo comum de compreensão das relações entre a psiquê e a natureza, a partir de um texto reflexivo sobre a natureza humana, sua complexidade e suas sociopatias. A crise socioambiental em que vivemos é tratada a partir das seguintes proposições: (i a humanidade se distanciou da sua condição natural; (ii a humanidade pode estar psicologicamente doente; (iii a humanidade não está moralmente apta para delegar a superação da crise às futuras gerações, pois vivemos num simulacro que envolve consumismo e alienação. Conclui-se que há uma dimensão subjetiva na raiz da crise ambiental, de cuja análise depende a solução real do impasse civilizacional com o qual nos defrontamos.

  9. Stringent DDI-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Rezaei, Javad; Hugo, Willy; Gao, Shangzhi; Jin, Jingjing; Fan, Mengyuan; Yong, Chern-Han; Wozniak, Michal; Wong, Limsoon

    2013-01-01

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are very important information to illuminate the infection mechanism of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. But current H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data are very scarce. This seriously limits the study of the interaction between this important pathogen and its host H. sapiens. Computational prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs is an important strategy to fill in the gap. Domain-domain interaction (DDI) based prediction is one of the frequently used computational approaches in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, the performance of DDI-based host-pathogen PPI prediction has been rather limited. We develop a stringent DDI-based prediction approach with emphasis on (i) differences between the specific domain sequences on annotated regions of proteins under the same domain ID and (ii) calculation of the interaction strength of predicted PPIs based on the interacting residues in their interaction interfaces. We compare our stringent DDI-based approach to a conventional DDI-based approach for predicting PPIs based on gold standard intra-species PPIs and coherent informative Gene Ontology terms assessment. The assessment results show that our stringent DDI-based approach achieves much better performance in predicting PPIs than the conventional approach. Using our stringent DDI-based approach, we have predicted a small set of reliable H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which could be very useful for a variety of related studies. We also analyze the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach using cellular compartment distribution analysis, functional category enrichment analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The analyses support the validity of our prediction result. Also, based on an analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent DDI-based approach, we have discovered some

  10. Percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Salgado-Fernández, Jorge; Vázquez-González, Nicolás

    2013-02-01

    Significant periprosthetic aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis has become a major concern of this technique given its association with impaired survival. We report the successful closure of such defects using vascular occlusion devices with significant improvement in clinical status of patients.

  11. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  12. Stringent homology-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Gao, Shangzhi; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Fan, Mengyuan; Jin, Jingjing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Geng; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-04-08

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, some limitations are not properly resolved in several published works that predict eukaryote-prokaryote inter-species PPIs using intra-species template PPIs. We develop a stringent homology-based prediction approach by taking into account (i) differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins and (ii) differences between inter-species and intra-species PPI interfaces. We compare our stringent homology-based approach to a conventional homology-based approach for predicting host-pathogen PPIs, based on cellular compartment distribution analysis, disease gene list enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment analysis and functional category enrichment analysis. These analyses support the validity of our prediction result, and clearly show that our approach has better performance in predicting H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs. Using our stringent homology-based approach, we have predicted a set of highly plausible H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which might be useful for many of related studies. Based on our analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent homology-based approach, we have discovered several interesting properties which are reported here for the first time. We find that both host proteins and pathogen proteins involved in the host-pathogen PPIs tend to be hubs in their own intra-species PPI network. Also, both host and pathogen proteins involved in host-pathogen PPIs tend to have longer primary sequence, tend to have more domains, tend to be more hydrophilic, etc. And the protein domains from both

  13. HomoTarget: a new algorithm for prediction of microRNA targets in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Ahmadi, Ali; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shoorehdeli, Mahdi Aliyari; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-02-01

    MiRNAs play an essential role in the networks of gene regulation by inhibiting the translation of target mRNAs. Several computational approaches have been proposed for the prediction of miRNA target-genes. Reports reveal a large fraction of under-predicted or falsely predicted target genes. Thus, there is an imperative need to develop a computational method by which the target mRNAs of existing miRNAs can be correctly identified. In this study, combined pattern recognition neural network (PRNN) and principle component analysis (PCA) architecture has been proposed in order to model the complicated relationship between miRNAs and their target mRNAs in humans. The results of several types of intelligent classifiers and our proposed model were compared, showing that our algorithm outperformed them with higher sensitivity and specificity. Using the recent release of the mirBase database to find potential targets of miRNAs, this model incorporated twelve structural, thermodynamic and positional features of miRNA:mRNA binding sites to select target candidates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. From Homo Sapiens to Homo Cosmicus - Astronautics, Darwinism abd Historical Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkowsky, G.

    Since its inception in late-nineteenth century, astronautics has been viewed as a historical outcome of human evolution as well as a future driver thereof. The history of astronautics-related, evolutionary thought reveals a tension between the Darwinian notion of natural selection and that of homocosmic predestination - be it of dialectical materialistic or theological nature. One can detect the influence of this ideological diversity on the American and Soviet space programs.

  15. Do homo sapiens ao homo convergente. É tempo de coisas e pessoas integradas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Fernanda Feitosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquidade do mundo digital fornece a nós a possibilidade de uma transformação do estilo de vida, extensível à vida do consumo. Entendemos que esse processo já está consolidado, embora não esteja implantado, pois esse estilo de vida será exercido pela geração que já incorporou a computação ubíqua com parte integrante das suas vidas. Porém, uma tecnologia em fase de desenvolvimento promete integrar e digitalizar o planeta e muito do que há nele, construindo cidades inteligentes, espaços e coisas que dialogam continuamente para o câmbio de informações. Tudo indica que esta será a era pós-digital, dominada pela “Internet das Coisas”, mas sempre manipulada pelas habilidades e inteligência inerentes ao homem.

  16. Reidentification of Ebola Virus E718 and ME as Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H; Lofts, Loreen L; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Smither, Sophie J; Lever, Mark S; van der Groen, Guido; Johnson, Karl M; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-11-20

    Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered in 1976 around Yambuku, Zaire. A lack of nomenclature standards resulted in a variety of designations for each isolate, leading to confusion in the literature and databases. We sequenced the genome of isolate E718/ME/Ecran and unified the various designations under Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran. Copyright © 2014 Kuhn et al.

  17. Commercial versus PARTNER study experience with the transfemoral Edwards SAPIEN valve for inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyala, Lakshmana K; Minha, Sa'ar; Barbash, Israel M; Torguson, Rebecca; Magalhaes, Marco A; Okubagzi, Petros; Loh, Joshua P; Chen, Fang; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2014-01-15

    In patients with aortic stenosis who cannot have surgery, transcatheter aortic valve replacement using the Edwards SAPIEN valve has been shown to improve survival rate and is approved for commercial use in the United States. This study aims to assess the clinical profile, procedural characteristics, and in-hospital complications in patients treated with a commercial SAPIEN valve outside the clinical trial context. We retrospectively analyzed 69 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement with a commercial SAPIEN valve compared with 55 Placement of AoRTic traNscathetER valves (PARTNER) trial patients from cohort B enrolled in the same institution by the same Heart Team. Compared with the commercial group, patients in the PARTNER cohort B had higher mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (10 ± 5 vs 9 ± 4, p = 0.04) and a lower rate of peripheral arterial disease (19% vs 44%, p = 0.004). Most patients in the commercial group had the procedure under conscious sedation (83% vs 66%, p = 0.03). Planned surgical cut down for vascular access was rare in the commercial group (1.4% vs 46%, p commercial group (7.2% vs 27%, p = 0.003; 2.9% vs 16%, p = 0.01; and 28% vs 60%, p commercial group. In conclusion, transfemoral commercial use of the Edwards SAPIEN valve for inoperable patients shows similar in-hospital mortality and stroke rates compared with PARTNER cohort B. The refinements in the procedure such as more conscious sedation, experience of the operators, and careful vascular planning in the commercial group led to lesser vascular and bleeding complications and shorter length of stay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short- and long-term need for permanent pacemaker after transcatheter implantation of the Edwards Sapien aortic valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; Galeote, Guillermo; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; López, Teresa; Plaza, Ignacio; González-Davia, Rosa; Ramírez, Ulises; Mesa, Jose Maria; Moreno-Gomez, Isidro; López-Sendón, José-Luis

    2015-11-01

    A permanent pacemaker is frequently needed after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but the available data are mainly on the CoreValve system. To evaluate the need for new permanent pacemaker after implantation of the Edwards Sapien device, as well as related factors. We included the first 100 patients treated with the Edwards Sapien device at our institution. Of these, 12 had a permanent pacemaker before the procedure, and thus our study population was the remaining 88 patients. A permanent pacemaker was indicated in eight patients (9.1%) during hospitalization or at 30 days. After discharge, another four patients needed a pacemaker (at 42 days and three, 18, and 30 months). Two variables were associated with the need for pacemaker during hospitalization: previous dialysis (13% vs. 1%, p=0.042) and complete right bundle branch block before the procedure (25% vs. 5%, p=0.032). More than one month after the procedure, the characteristics associated with the need for pacemaker were plasma creatinine level (2.5±1.7 vs. 1.3±0.6 mg/dl, p=0.001) and previous myocardial infarction (50% vs. 10%, p=0.013). The rate of pacemaker implantation with the Edwards Sapien device was 9.1%. Right bundle branch block and dialysis were associated with this complication.

  19. One-year multicentre outcomes of transapical aortic valve implantation using the SAPIEN XT™ valve: the PREVAIL transapical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Thomas; Thielmann, Matthias; Kempfert, Joerg; Schroefel, Holger; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard; Treede, Hendrik; Wahlers, Thorsten; Wendler, Olaf

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate 1-year outcomes of the multicentre PREVAIL transapical (TA) study of TA-aortic valve implantation (AVI) in high-risk patients. From September 2009 to August 2010, a total of 150 patients, aged 81.6 ± 5.8 years, 40.7% female, were included at 12 European TA-AVI experienced sites. Patients received 23 (n = 36), 26 (n = 57) and 29 mm (n = 57) second-generation SAPIEN XT™ (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valves. The mean logistic EuroSCORE was 24.3 ± 7.0, and mean Society Thoracic Surgeons score was 7.5 ± 4.4%. Survival was 91.3% at 30 days and 77.9% at 1 year. Subgroup analysis revealed survivals of 91.7/88.9, 86.0/70.2, 96.55/91.2% for patients receiving 23-, 26- and 29-mm valves at 30 days and at 1 year, respectively. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and low gradients. Aortic incompetence was none in 41/48, trace 30/36, mild 22/12 and moderate in 7/4% at discharge and 1 year. Walking distance increased from 221 (postimplant) to 284 m (at 1 year, P = 0.0004). Three patients required reoperation due to increasing aortic incompetence during follow-up. Causes of mortality at 1 year were cardiac (n = 7), stroke (n = 1) and others (n = 5). The European PREVAIL multicentre trial demonstrates good functionality and good outcomes for TA-AVI using the second-generation SAPIEN XT prosthesis and the ASCENDRA-II delivery system. The 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve was successfully introduced and showed excellent results.

  20. Fracture of the delivery balloon shaft during balloon-expandable prosthesis alignment during implantation of an Edwards SAPIEN 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takahide; Hovasse, Thomas; Chevalier, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    The expandable sheath was designed with a lower profile in order to reduce the incidence of vascular complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using transfemoral approach. However, once the prosthesis has crossed the sheath, it could be difficult to retrieve it from the body. This is the first case of successful bail-out in an instance of delivery balloon shaft malfunction subsequent to the crossing of an expandable sheath during implantation of an Edwards SAPIEN 3 prosthesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  2. Anatomické změny na kostrách v evoluci rodu Homo

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmannová, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the anatomical features on the skeletons of species Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensi, Homo sapiens and Homo naledi. For each type are described those features which characterize it. Emphasis is placed on changes in the anatomy of the skull and pelvis, but they are also mentioned other features typical for the species. Part of this work is to outline the mobility and function of the skeleton. Information about individual species are supplem...

  3. homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Ongeti

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... in toe length and toe-length ratios among the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. A total ... The toe-length ratios also displayed symmetrical differences for ... For the female population, all ratios were not significantly different.

  4. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Grammer, K; Thornhill, R

    2001-03-01

    The notion that surface texture may provide important information about the geometry of visible surfaces has attracted considerable attention for a long time. The present study shows that skin texture plays a significant role in the judgment of female facial beauty. Following research in clinical dermatology, the authors developed a computer program that implemented an algorithm based on co-occurrence matrices for the analysis of facial skin texture. Homogeneity and contrast features as well as color parameters were extracted out of stimulus faces. Attractiveness ratings of the images made by male participants relate positively to parameters of skin homogeneity. The authors propose that skin texture is a cue to fertility and health. In contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that dark skin, not light skin, was rated as most attractive.

  5. Comparative investigations of anatomy and physiology in mammalian noses (Homo sapiens--Artiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützenmacher, S; Robinson, D M; Sevecke, J; Mlynski, G; Beule, A G

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of airflow in animal noses is sparse. Such knowledge could be important for selection of animal models used in environmental studies. From the phylogenetic and ontogenetic point of view, a comparison between the animal and human nose is interesting. Nose models of 5 even-toed ungulate species (he-goat, sheep, cow, roebuck, wild boar) and two humans (new born infant and adult) were examined. Anatomical and physiological features of the nasal cavities of all species were compared. All models were rinsed with water and the flow was visualized for observation. Geometric and rhinoresistometric measurements were then performed. Even-toed ungulates have two turbinates directly in the main part of the nasal airflow (respiratory turbinates) and a different number of turbinates in a so-called dead space of the nasal airflow above the nasopharyngeal duct (ethmoidal turbinates). The latter correspond with the upper and middle turbinate in analogy to the human nose. Respiratory turbinates of even-toed ungulates insert immediately behind the external nasal ostium. Thus, the whole nasal cavity acts as a functional area with the exception of a small area acting as dead space only detectable in ruminants, possibly indicating a small evolutionary progress from suinae to bovidae. The shape of the animal nasal cavity is stretched and flat. The airflow runs nearly completely turbulent through the nose. The nasal cavity in the adult human is relatively short and high. The area between the external nasal ostium and the head of the inferior turbinate is called inflow area. It distributes the airflow over the whole nasal cross section and generates a turbulent flow. So the airflow is prepared to contact the mucosa in the functional area (turbinate area). The morphology of the inflow area is approximately formed by the shape of the external nose. The nasal cavity of a newborn child is also stretched and flat and more similar to the nasal shape of the investigated animals. The inflow area in the newborn nose is not yet developed and corresponds with the growing external newborn nose. One can hypothesize that the inflow area in human noses is a morphological adaptation in the changed length-height-ratio of the nasal cavity.

  6. Evolution and development of brain networks: from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marcus; Varier, Sreedevi

    2011-01-01

    Neural networks show a progressive increase in complexity during the time course of evolution. From diffuse nerve nets in Cnidaria to modular, hierarchical systems in macaque and humans, there is a gradual shift from simple processes involving a limited amount of tasks and modalities to complex functional and behavioral processing integrating different kinds of information from highly specialized tissue. However, studies in a range of species suggest that fundamental similarities, in spatial and topological features as well as in developmental mechanisms for network formation, are retained across evolution. 'Small-world' topology and highly connected regions (hubs) are prevalent across the evolutionary scale, ensuring efficient processing and resilience to internal (e.g. lesions) and external (e.g. environment) changes. Furthermore, in most species, even the establishment of hubs, long-range connections linking distant components, and a modular organization, relies on similar mechanisms. In conclusion, evolutionary divergence leads to greater complexity while following essential developmental constraints.

  7. The use of interval ratios in consonance perception by rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Morphological adaptation to climate in modern Homo sapiens crania: the importance of basicranial breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Dabrowski, Paweł; Kuźmiński, Łukasz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the variation in breadth of the cranial base among modern human populations that inhabit different regions of the world is linked with climatic adaptation. This work provides an examination of two hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that the correlation between basicranial breadth and ambient temperature is stronger than the correlation between temperature and other neurocranial variables, such as maximum cranial breadth, maximum neurocranial length, and the endocranial volume. The second hypothesis is that the correlation between the breadth of the cranial base and the ambient temperature is significant even when other neurocranial features used in this study (including the size of the neurocranium) are constant. For the sake of this research, the necessary neurocranial variables for fourteen human populations living in diverse environments were obtained from Howells' data (except for endocranial volume which was obtained by means of estimation). The ambient temperature (more precisely, the mean yearly temperature) of the environments inhabited by these populations was used as a major climatic factor. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation coefficients, linear regression and partial correlation analyses. The results supported the two hypotheses, thus suggesting that ambient temperature may contribute to the observed differences in the breadth of the cranial base in the studied modern humans.

  9. Finding genes on the X chromosome by which homo may have become sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-06-01

    The map of the X chromosome is now littered, from one telomere to the other, with genes for mental handicap, alone or in combination with other features. In this issue of the journal, report such an entity from the Scottish Highlands, which they give the catchy title of {open_quotes}PPM-X syndrome,{close_quotes} denoting the association of pyramidal tract signs, psychosis, and macroorchidism with mental handicap (XLMR). They have localized this to Xq28 and discuss other genes in the same area, which include L1CAM (associated with MASA [mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs] and X-linked hydrocephalus) and two genes for nonspecific XLMR-MRX3 and MRX25. It is also the localization of the gene for G6PD deficiency, which, in earlier studies, had demonstrated linkage to bipolar affective disorders, although this has been questioned in more recent studies. There may well be other families with this pattern of abnormalities who have remained undescribed because depression is so often not diagnosed in those with moderate mental handicap. The occurrence, in this family, of mental handicap with a bipolar disorder may be the chance association of two common disorders, or it may a significant association; at this stage, one cannot judge. 8 refs.

  10. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepal H. Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5–18 years, but not in infancy (<5 years. The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13–18 years. The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites.

  11. Archeogenetika. Mitochondriální DNA a migrace Homo sapiens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2010), s. 13-17 ISSN 1213-1628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587; GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : archaeogenetics * migrations * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Crystal Structure of Homo Sapiens PTD012 Reveals a Zinc-Containing Hydrolase Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjasetty,B.; Bussow, K.; Fieber-ErdMan, M.; Roske, Y.; Gobam, J.; Scheich, C.; Gotz, F.; Niesen, F.; Heinemann, U.

    2006-01-01

    The human protein PTD012 is the longer product of an alternatively spliced gene and was described to be localized in the nucleus. The X-ray structure analysis at 1.7 Angstroms resolution of PTD012 through SAD phasing reveals a monomeric protein and a novel fold. The shorter splice form was also studied and appears to be unfolded and non-functional. The structure of PTD012 displays an {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} four-layer topology. A metal ion residing between the central {beta}-sheets is partially coordinated by three histidine residues. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identifies the PTD012-bound ion as Zn{sup 2+}. Tetrahedral coordination of the ion is completed by the carboxylate oxygen atom of an acetate molecule taken up from the crystallization buffer. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to PTD012 is reminiscent of zinc-containing enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and {beta}-lactamase. Biochemical assays failed to demonstrate any of these enzyme activities in PTD012. However, PTD012 exhibits ester hydrolase activity on the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate.

  13. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Deepal H; Smith, Heather F

    2015-01-01

    The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5-18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13-18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites.

  14. HOMO SAPIENS, ¿HACIA DÓNDE VAS? EL RETO PARA EL FUTURO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Señor Presidente:

    Permítame usted ante todo, manifestar la emoción que me han producido los amables, inmerecidos y exagerados elogios que ha hecho usted de mi vida como persona, como cirujano, como amigo y, por supuesto, como miembro de esta ilustre Institución. Le agradezco hondamente esta presentación que sé sincera y bondadosa y, repito: inmerecida.

    Quiero asimismo expresar mis sinceros agradecimientos al personal de empleados de la Academia quienes, con gran amabilidad y cortesía, me han ayudado a conr el presente trabajo: Carmiña, Susana, Sylvia, Gilberto: muchas gracias, y a Martha, artista del computador, gracias por su paciencia y su colaboración insuperable; así como a las Señoritas colaboradoras de la Clínica de Marly, Astrid y Luz Mery.

    Y, desde luego y más que a nadie, a mi querida familia.

    Héme aquí ante ustedes, queridos colegas, distinguido auditorio, embargado por la emoción y la gratitud que ojalá me permitan manifestar el agradecimiento inmenso por esta distinción, la más importante que otorga la ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA, por el querer y el voto voluntario de sus miembros, que me enaltece y premia mi larga trayectoria que se inició en febrero de 1966, como Asociado, para ocupar en estos 43 años, posiciones en la Honorable Junta Directiva y haber gozado de todos los privilegios y enseñanzas que esta ilustre institución otorga.

  15. HOMO SAPIENS ¿HACIA DONDE VAS? El reto para el futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    * Discurso de posesión como Miembro Honorario de la Corporación. Sesión solemne de Agosto 13 de 2009.

    El hombre, trasformado en el depredador más grande del mundo, que en el fugaz lapso de 50 años ha aumentado su número sobre la tierra de tres mil a seis mil quinientos millones de habitantes, en nuestra época, demandando elementos para su subsistencia en forma tal, que al contaminar su ambiente en forma exponencial, disminuye gradualmente su capacidad de subsistencia, agravada por la prolongación de su promedio de vida, que en ese mismo lapso ha alcanzado alrededor de los 80 años, haciendo prácticamente insostenible su espacio vital sobre este pequeño planeta en el que le tocó habitar.

    El acelerado desarrollo del hombre lo llevó, a mediados del Siglo XVIII a iniciar la llamada “Revolución Industrial”, que, al mismo tiempo que producía inmensos adelantos en sus medios de movilización, comunicación, relaciones internacionales, los separaba cada vez más ostensiblemente de los llamados países subdesarrollados, o del tercer mundo, que no sólo no se equiparaban a los pueblos desarrollados, sino que se constituían en el origen de mayor incidencia de desnutrición, de enfermedad y de muerte.

    Separación cada vez más notable, al extremo de llegar, en nuestro tiempo a programar reuniones de los representantes de los ocho o de los seis países más ricos del mundo como ha sucedido en los últimos tiempos, para equilibrar sus finanzas y para trazar sus metas de desarrollo y, como complemento, debatir las ayudas que puedan dar, misericordiosamente, a los indigentes de ese tercer mundo, para mejorar su desnutrición, sus epidemias, su ignorancia, su elevada morbimortalidad y su triste vida sin futuro ni esperanza.

     

  16. Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others' performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan...

  17. Structure of filamin A immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Richard C.; Clark, Jeffrey G.; Misra, Saurav

    2011-01-01

    The structure of immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from human filamin A solved at 2.44 Å resolution suggests the potential effects of mutations correlated with otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders. Filamin A (FlnA) plays a critical role in cytoskeletal organization, cell motility and cellular signaling. FlnA utilizes different binding sites on a series of 24 immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig repeats) to interact with diverse cytosolic proteins and with cytoplasmic portions of membrane proteins. Mutations in a specific domain, Ig10 (FlnA-Ig10), are correlated with two severe forms of the otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders Melnick–Needles syndrome and frontometaphyseal dysplasia. The crystal structure of FlnA-Ig10 determined at 2.44 Å resolution provides insight into the perturbations caused by these mutations

  18. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP (APICOMPLEXA : CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HOMO SAPIENS. (R826138)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Similar pathogen targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and homo sapiens protein networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Shakarian

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities. Specifically, we preform [Formula: see text]-shell decomposition analysis on these networks - which groups the proteins into various "shells" based on network structure. We observe that shells with a higher average degree are more highly targeted (with a power-law relationship and that highly targeted nodes lie in shells closer to the inner-core of the network. Additionally, we also note that the inner core of the network is significantly under-targeted. We show that these core proteins may have a role in intra-cellular communication and hypothesize that they are less attacked to ensure survival of the host. This may explain why certain high-degree proteins are not significantly attacked.

  20. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Brian

    2017-01-03

    The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human self-domestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution. As a by-product of this selection, humans are predicted to show traits of the domestication syndrome observed in other domestic animals. In reviewing comparative, developmental, neurobiological, and paleoanthropological research, compelling evidence emerges for the predicted relationship between unique human mentalizing abilities, tolerance, and the domestication syndrome in humans. This synthesis includes a review of the first a priori test of the self-domestication hypothesis as well as predictions for future tests.

  2. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  3. Comparing children's Homo sapiens and chimpanzees' Pan troglodytes quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets of items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. BERAN, Julie S. JOHNSON-PYNN, Christopher READY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We presented a quantity judgment task that involved comparing two sequentially presented sets of items to preschoolers and chimpanzees using nearly identical procedures that excluded verbal instructions to children. Trial difficulty in this task reflected the ratio difference between sets of discrete items where larger ratios (e.g., 0.80 as from comparing 4 to 5 were more difficult than smaller ones (e.g., 0.50 as from comparing 4 to 8. Children also completed verbal-based tasks probing the relationship between counting proficiency and performance on the quantity judgment task of sequentially presented identical sized items. Both species’ performance was best when ratios between comparison sets were small regardless of set size in all types of tasks. Generally, chimpanzees and older children performed better than younger children except at larger ratios. Children’s counting proficiency was not related to success in choosing the larger of two quantities of identical-sized items. These results indicate that chimpanzees and children share an approximate number sense that is reflected through analog magnitude estimation when comparing quantities [Current Zoology 57 (4: 419–428, 2011].

  4. The effect of clustering on perceived quantity in humans (Homo sapiens) and in chicks (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Guest, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia

    2018-04-30

    Animals can perceive the numerosity of sets of visual elements. Qualitative and quantitative similarities in different species suggest the existence of a shared system (approximate number system). Biases associated with sensory properties are informative about the underlying mechanisms. In humans, regular spacing increases perceived numerosity (regular-random numerosity illusion). This has led to a model that predicts numerosity based on occupancy (a measure that decreases when elements are close together). We used a procedure in which observers selected one of two stimuli and were given feedback with respect to whether the choice was correct. One configuration had 20 elements and the other 40, randomly placed inside a circular region. Participants had to discover the rule based on feedback. Because density and clustering covaried with numerosity, different dimensions could be used. After reaching a criterion, test trials presented two types of configurations with 30 elements. One type had a larger interelement distance than the other (high or low clustering). If observers had adopted a numerosity strategy, they would choose low clustering (if reinforced with 40) and high clustering (if reinforced with 20). A clustering or density strategy predicts the opposite. Human adults used a numerosity strategy. Chicks were tested using a similar procedure. There were two behavioral measures: first approach response and final circumnavigation (walking behind the screen). The prediction based on numerosity was confirmed by the first approach data. For chicks, one clear pattern from both responses was a preference for the configurations with higher clustering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Homology modeling of Homo sapiens lipoic acid synthase: Substrate docking and insights on its binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ezhilarasi; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Padmalayam, Indira; Rajaram, Rama; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-05-07

    Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role. A homology model for LIAS protein was generated using X-ray crystallographic structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (PDB ID: 4U0P). The predicted structure has 93% of the residues in the most favour region of Ramachandran plot. The active site of LIAS protein was mapped and docked with S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) using GOLD software. The LIAS-SAM complex was further refined using molecular dynamics simulation within the subsite 1 and subsite 3 of the active site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a reliable homology model of LIAS protein. This study will facilitate a better understanding mode of action of the enzyme-substrate complex for future studies in designing drugs that can target LIAS protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    samples are linearly separable, then hyperplane could be represented .... Average density ρ and sample density ρi which is defined ... for the current experimental study. At first ... account true and false positives and negatives and is normally.

  7. Structural similarity-based predictions of protein interactions between HIV-1 and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Shawn M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of infection, viruses such as HIV-1 must enter a cell, travel to sites where they can hijack host machinery to transcribe their genes and translate their proteins, assemble, and then leave the cell again, all while evading the host immune system. Thus, successful infection depends on the pathogen's ability to manipulate the biological pathways and processes of the organism it infects. Interactions between HIV-encoded and human proteins provide one means by which HIV-1 can connect into cellular pathways to carry out these survival processes. Results We developed and applied a computational approach to predict interactions between HIV and human proteins based on structural similarity of 9 HIV-1 proteins to human proteins having known interactions. Using functional data from RNAi studies as a filter, we generated over 2000 interaction predictions between HIV proteins and 406 unique human proteins. Additional filtering based on Gene Ontology cellular component annotation reduced the number of predictions to 502 interactions involving 137 human proteins. We find numerous known interactions as well as novel interactions showing significant functional relevance based on supporting Gene Ontology and literature evidence. Conclusions Understanding the interplay between HIV-1 and its human host will help in understanding the viral lifecycle and the ways in which this virus is able to manipulate its host. The results shown here provide a potential set of interactions that are amenable to further experimental manipulation as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Reactome Pengine: A web-logic API to the homo sapiens reactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, Samuel R; Tsoka, Sophia; Millard, Louise A C

    2018-03-30

    Existing ways of accessing data from the Reactome database are limited. Either a researcher is restricted to particular queries defined by a web application programming interface (API), or they have to download the whole database. Reactome Pengine is a web service providing a logic programming based API to the human reactome. This gives researchers greater flexibility in data access than existing APIs, as users can send their own small programs (alongside queries) to Reactome Pengine. The server and an example notebook can be found at https://apps.nms.kcl.ac.uk/reactome-pengine. Source code is available at https://github.com/samwalrus/reactome-pengine and a Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/samneaves/rp4/ . samuel.neaves@kcl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. HOMO SAPIENS, ¿HACIA DÓNDE VAS? EL RETO PARA EL FUTURO”

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Señor Presidente:

    Permítame usted ante todo, manifestar la emoción que me han producido los amables, inmerecidos y exagerados elogios que ha hecho usted de mi vida como persona, como cirujano, como amigo y, por supuesto, como miembro de esta ilustre Institución. Le agradezco hondamente esta presentación que sé sincera y bondadosa y, repito: inmerecida.

    Quiero asimismo expresar mis sinceros agradecimientos al personal de emp...

  10. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator.

  11. Discrimination of holograms and real objects by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.

  12. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... technique to extract high-quality physico-chemical indices from the .... In real life state of affairs .... sponding residue pair (ai,bj), belonging to the protein pair ..... gateway proteins in humans and their involvement in microrna.

  13. Non-Molecular-Clock-Like Evolution following Viral Origins in Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers routinely adopt molecular clock assumptions in conducting sequence analyses to estimate dates for viral origins in humans. We used computational methods to examine the extent to which this practice can result in inaccurate ‘retrodiction.’ Failing to account for dynamic molecular evolution can affect greatly estimating index case dates, resulting in an overestimated age for the SARS-CoV-human infection, for instance.

  14. The behaviour of Homo sapiens, the forgotten factor in the transmission of tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J D

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of the pathogens responsible for tropical disease and the behaviour of the hosts other than man are both studied in great detail, but the behaviour of man, the third component in these cycles of transmission, is for the most part totally and inexplicably disregarded. Even when the pathogens are actively brought to us through the agency of an arthropod host, we too often ease the passage of the vectors either by unthinkingly providing facilities for their breeding or by neglecting the simple steps that can be taken to prevent their feeding on us. The problem resolves itself into two parts, (i) the collection and collation of relevant data on human behaviour, and (ii) the taking of steps to change this behaviour. Part two has recently been greatly facilitated by the development of radio transmission via artificial satellite. While WHO is now making a start on both these aspects it is doing so at a relatively low level. Instead, the two phases of this new approach should be given top priority even if it means large scale reorganization of relevant university departments and even of WHO itself. We have, after all, had almost 100 years to try out the old methods and, as far as the Third World is concerned, they have for the most part failed.

  15. Homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A digital Vernier caliper was used to obtain direct linear measurements of the toe length of both feet; hallux (1T), second toe (2T), third toe (3T), fourth toe (4T), and the fifth toe (5T). Ten (10) possible toe-length ratios were also determined and named as follows; 1T/2T, 1T/3T, 1T/4T, 1T/5T, 2T/3T, 2T/4T, 2T/5T, 3T/4T, 3T/5T, ...

  16. AMS radiocarbon dating at Oxford and its contribution to issues of the extinction of Neanderthals and the spread of Homo sapiens sapiens across Eurasia

    CERN Document Server

    Pettitt, P B; Hedges, R E M; Hodgins, G W L

    2000-01-01

    The Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit has participated in a number of projects central to the question of the evolutionary fate of the Neanderthals and the spread of our own species across Eurasia. This paper outlines some of the key issues in this field and reports on some dating projects which have refined our knowledge of these momentous events in human history.

  17. AMS radiocarbon dating at Oxford and its contribution to issues of the extinction of Neanderthals and the spread of Homo sapiens sapiens across Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettitt, P.B.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; Hedges, R.E.M.; Hodgins, G.W.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit has participated in a number of projects central to the question of the evolutionary fate of the Neanderthals and the spread of our own species across Eurasia. This paper outlines some of the key issues in this field and reports on some dating projects which have refined our knowledge of these momentous events in human history

  18. Optimal sizing for SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with or without left ventricular outflow tract calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshio; Abramowitz, Yigal; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Israr, Sharjeel; Yoon, Sunghan; Sharma, Rahul P; Kazuno, Yoshio; Kawamori, Hiroyuki; Miyasaka, Masaki; Rami, Tanya; Mangat, Geeteshwar; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Okuyama, Kazuaki; Kashif, Mohammad; Chakravarty, Tarun; Nakamura, Mamoo; Cheng, Wen; Makkar, Raj R

    2017-04-07

    The impact of left ventricular outflow tract calcification (LVOT-CA) on SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve replacement (S3-TAVR) is not well understood. The aims of the present study were to determine optimal device sizing for S3-TAVR in patients with or without LVOT-CA and to evaluate the influence of residual paravalvular leak (PVL) on survival after S3-TAVR in these patients. This study analysed 280 patients (LVOT-CA=144, no LVOT-CA=136) undergoing S3-TAVR. Optimal annular area sizing was defined as % annular area sizing related to lower rates of ≥mild PVL. Annular area sizing was determined as follows: (prosthesis area/CT annulus area-1)×100. Overall, ≥mild PVL was present in 25.7%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for prediction of ≥mild PVL in patients with LVOT-CA showed that 7.2% annular area sizing was identified as the optimal threshold (area under the curve [AUC] 0.71). Conversely, annular area sizing for no LVOT-CA appeared unrelated to PVL (AUC 0.58). Aortic annular injury was seen in four patients (average 15.5% annular area oversizing), three of whom had LVOT-CA. Although there was no difference in one-year survival between patients with ≥mild PVL and without PVL (log-rank p=0.91), subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients with ≥moderate LVOT-CA who had ≥mild PVL had lower survival compared to patients with ≥mild PVL and none or mild LVOT-CA (log-rank p=0.010). In the setting of LVOT-CA, an optimally sized S3 valve is required to reduce PVL and to increase survival following TAVR.

  19. PREVAIL TRANSAPICAL: multicentre trial of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the newly designed bioprosthesis (SAPIEN-XT) and delivery system (ASCENDRA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Thomas; Thielmann, Matthias; Kempfert, Joerg; Schroefel, Holger; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard; Treede, Hendrik; Wahlers, Thorsten; Wendler, Olaf

    2012-08-01

    Transapical (TA) aortic valve implantation (AVI) has evolved as an alternative procedure for high-risk patients. We evaluated the second-generation SAPIEN XT™ prosthesis in a prospective multicentre clinical trial. A total of 150 patients (age: 81.6 ± 5.8 years; 40.7% female) were included. Prosthetic valves (diameter: 23 mm (n = 36), 26 mm (n = 57) and 29 mm (n = 57)) were implanted. The ASCENDRA-II™ modified delivery system was used in the smaller sizes. Mean logistic EuroSCORE was 24.3 ± 7.0%, and mean STS score 7.5 ± 4.4%. All patients gave written informed consent. Off-pump AVI was performed using femoral arterial and venous access wires as a safety net. All but two patients received TA-AVI, as planned. The 29-mm valve showed similar function as the values of two other diameters did. Three patients (2%) required temporary cardiopulmonary bypass support. Postoperative complications included renal failure requiring long-term dialysis in four, bleeding requiring rethoracotomy in four, respiratory complication requiring reintubation in eight and sepsis in four patients, respectively. Thirty-day mortality was 13 (8.7%) for the total cohort and 2/57 (3.5%) for patients receiving the 29-mm valve, respectively. Echocardiography at discharge showed none or trivial aortic incompetence (AI) in 71% and mild-AI in 22% of the patients. Post-implantation AI was predominantly paravalvular and ≥ 2+ in 7% of patients. One patient required reoperation for AI within 30 days. The PREVAIL TA multicentre trial demonstrates good functionality and good outcomes for TA-AVI, using the SAPIEN XT™ prosthesis and its second-generation ASCENDRA-II™ delivery system, as well successful introduction of the 29-mm SAPIEN XT™ valve for the benefit of high-risk elderly patients.

  20. Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation with the New Edwards Sapien 3 Valve for Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis-Impact of Valve Size in a Single Center Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wöhrle

    Full Text Available The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications.235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77, 26mm (N = 91 or 29mm (N = 67 valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6% and stroke (2.1% were low.In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069.

  1. Successful transfemoral aortic Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) bioprosthesis implantation without using iodinated contrast media in a woman with severe allergy to contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Lionel; Dijos, Marina; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Severe anaphylactoid reaction after the use of iodinated contrast media are rare but can contraindicate the use of contrast agent. It was the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, recused for cardiac surgery because of deleterious effects of chest-wall irradiation, with porcelain aorta. We decided to implant a 23-mm Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) transcatheter aortic valve via a femoral route without using any contrast media. The implantation was successful after surgical approach of the femoral artery, transesophageal echocardiography guiding, and localization of native leaflets and coronary trunk with catheters. Immediate and one month post-interventional follow-up was favorable and echocardiography showed a good functioning of the aortic bioprosthesis. Although conventional angiography is the best way to visualize the good positioning of the valve before deployment, our case suggests that, in special situations, transfemoral implantation of an Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) aortic bioprosthesis is feasible without any contrast injection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Groves, Colin P; Lee, Michael S Y; Jungers, William L

    2017-06-01

    Although the diminutive Homo floresiensis has been known for a decade, its phylogenetic status remains highly contentious. A broad range of potential explanations for the evolution of this species has been explored. One view is that H. floresiensis is derived from Asian Homo erectus that arrived on Flores and subsequently evolved a smaller body size, perhaps to survive the constrained resources they faced in a new island environment. Fossil remains of H. erectus, well known from Java, have not yet been discovered on Flores. The second hypothesis is that H. floresiensis is directly descended from an early Homo lineage with roots in Africa, such as Homo habilis; the third is that it is Homo sapiens with pathology. We use parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to test these hypotheses. Our phylogenetic data build upon those characters previously presented in support of these hypotheses by broadening the range of traits to include the crania, mandibles, dentition, and postcrania of Homo and Australopithecus. The new data and analyses support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis is an early Homo lineage: H. floresiensis is sister either to H. habilis alone or to a clade consisting of at least H. habilis, H. erectus, Homo ergaster, and H. sapiens. A close phylogenetic relationship between H. floresiensis and H. erectus or H. sapiens can be rejected; furthermore, most of the traits separating H. floresiensis from H. sapiens are not readily attributable to pathology (e.g., Down syndrome). The results suggest H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown migration out of Africa, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of some previously unrecognized apomorphies in the nasal region of Homo neanderthalensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, J H; Tattersall, I

    1996-01-01

    For many years, the Neanderthals have been recognized as a distinctive extinct hominid group that occupied Europe and western Asia between about 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. It is still debated, however, whether these hominids belong in their own species, Homo neanderthalensis, or represent an extinct variant of Homo sapiens. Our ongoing studies indicate that the Neanderthals differ from modern humans in their skeletal anatomy in more ways than have been recognized up to now. The purpose of ...

  4. Should autism be considered a canary bird telling that Homo sapiens may be on its way to extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There has been a dramatic enhancement of the reported incidence of autism in different parts of the world over the last 30 years. This can apparently not be explained only as a result of improved diagnosis and reporting, but may also reflect a real change. The causes of this change are unknown, but if we shall follow T.C. Chamberlin's principle of multiple working hypotheses, we need to take into consideration the possibility that it partly may reflect an enhancement of the average frequency of responsible alleles in large populations. If this hypothesis is correct, it means that the average germline mutation rate must now be much higher in the populations concerned, compared with the natural mutation rate in hominid ancestors before the agricultural and industrial revolutions. This is compatible with the high prevalence of impaired human semen quality in several countries and also with what is known about high levels of total exposure to several different unnatural chemical mutagens, plus some natural ones at unnaturally high levels. Moreover, dietary deficiency conditions that may lead to enhancement of mutation rates are also very widespread, affecting billions of people. However, the natural mutation rate in hominids has been found to be so high that there is apparently no tolerance for further enhancement of the germline mutation rate before the Eigen error threshold will be exceeded and our species will go extinct because of mutational meltdown. This threat, if real, should be considered far more serious than any disease causing the death only of individual patients. It should therefore be considered the first and highest priority of the best biomedical scientists in the world, of research-funding agencies and of all medical doctors to try to stop the express train carrying all humankind as passengers on board before it arrives at the end station of our civilization.

  5. Perceived differences between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human (Homo sapiens) facial expressions are related to emotional interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Bard, Kim A; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Smith Pasqualini, Marcia C

    2007-11-01

    Human face perception is a finely tuned, specialized process. When comparing faces between species, therefore, it is essential to consider how people make these observational judgments. Comparing facial expressions may be particularly problematic, given that people tend to consider them categorically as emotional signals, which may affect how accurately specific details are processed. The bared-teeth display (BT), observed in most primates, has been proposed as a homologue of the human smile (J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff, 1972). In this study, judgments of similarity between BT displays of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human smiles varied in relation to perceived emotional valence. When a chimpanzee BT was interpreted as fearful, observers tended to underestimate the magnitude of the relationship between certain features (the extent of lip corner raise) and human smiles. These judgments may reflect the combined effects of categorical emotional perception, configural face processing, and perceptual organization in mental imagery and may demonstrate the advantages of using standardized observational methods in comparative facial expression research. Copyright 2007 APA.

  6. Associative learning in baboons (Papio papio) and humans (Homo sapiens): species differences in learned attention to visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, J; Kruschke, J K; Dépy, D; Vauclair, J

    1998-10-01

    We examined attention shifting in baboons and humans during the learning of visual categories. Within a conditional matching-to-sample task, participants of the two species sequentially learned two two-feature categories which shared a common feature. Results showed that humans encoded both features of the initially learned category, but predominantly only the distinctive feature of the subsequently learned category. Although baboons initially encoded both features of the first category, they ultimately retained only the distinctive features of each category. Empirical data from the two species were analyzed with the 1996 ADIT connectionist model of Kruschke. ADIT fits the baboon data when the attentional shift rate is zero, and the human data when the attentional shift rate is not zero. These empirical and modeling results suggest species differences in learned attention to visual features.

  7. Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: evidence for SII and PV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, E; Roberts, T; Krubitzer, L

    2000-02-28

    The human somatosensory cortex in the Sylvian fissure was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the number and internal organization of cortical fields present. Somatic stimuli were applied to the lips, face, hand, trunk, and foot of 18 human subjects. Activity patterns were transposed onto three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the brain so that the location of activity associated with the different stimuli could be related to specific regions of the cortex. There were several consistent findings. First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum. The other two areas, one rostral and one caudal to this large central area, were smaller and were activated less consistently. Second, when activity patterns in the large central area resulting from stimulation of all body parts were considered, this region appeared to contain two fields that corresponded in location and somatotopic organization to the second somatosensory area (SII) and the parietal ventral area (PV). Finally, patterns of activation within SII and PV were somewhat variable across subjects. Repeated within-subject stimulus presentation indicated that differences across subjects were not due to inconsistent stimulus presentation. Comparisons with other mammals suggest that some features of organization are found only in primates. It is hypothesized that these features may be associated with manual dexterity and coordination of the hands, a characteristic generally restricted to the primate lineage.

  8. First metatarsophalangeal joint motion in Homo sapiens: theoretical association of two-axis kinematics and specific morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Michael N; McElroy, Tucker; Durrant, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The metatarsal head and proximal phalanx exhibit considerable asymmetry in their shape and geometry, but there is little documentation in the literature regarding the prevalence of structural characteristics that occur in a given population. Although there is a considerable volume of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrating first metatarsal inversion around its longitudinal axis with dorsiflexion, little is known regarding the applicability of specific morphometrics to these motions. Nine distinctive osseous characteristics in the metatarsal head and phalanx were selected based on their location, geometry, and perceived functional relationship to previous studies describing metatarsal motion as inversion with dorsiflexion. The prevalences of the chosen characteristics were determined in a cohort of 21 randomly selected skeletal specimens, 19 of which were provided by the anatomical preparation office at the University of California, San Diego, and two of which were in the possession of one of us (M.D.). The frequency of occurrence of each selected morphological characteristic in this sample and the relevant summary statistics confirm a strong association between the selected features and a conceptual two-axis kinematic model of the metatarsophalangeal joint. The selected morphometrics are consistent with inversion of the metatarsal around its longitudinal axis as it dorsiflexes.

  9. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully functionally characterized. On the basis of prior work, we predicted that cTHAP4 is composed of a heme-binding nitrobindin domain, making THAP4 the only human THAP protein predicted to bind a cofactor. Nitrobindin, a recently characterized protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, is structurally similar and exhibits nitric oxide (NO)-binding properties that resemble the heme-binding nitrophorins. Nitrophorins use a heme moiety to store, transport, and release NO in a pH-specific manner. Although the exact function of nitrobindin is not fully known, the similarities between the well-characterized nitrophorins imply a role in NO transport, sensing, or metabolism. To better elucidate the possible function of THAP4, we solved the hemebound structure of cTHAP4 to a resolution of 1.79 {angstrom}.

  10. Structure of putative CutA1 from Homo sapiens determined at 2.05 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin, E-mail: bagautdi@spring8.or.jp; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide [Protein Structure Analysis Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The X-ray structure of human CutA1 was solved in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The structure of human brain CutA1 (HsCutA1) has been determined using diffraction data to 2.05 Å resolution. HsCutA1 has been implicated in the anchoring of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal cell membranes, while its bacterial homologue Escherichia coli CutA1 is involved in copper tolerance. Additionally, the structure of HsCutA1 bears similarity to that of the signal transduction protein PII, which is involved in regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Although several crystal structures of CutA1 from various sources with different rotation angles and degrees of interaction between trimer interfaces have been reported, the specific functional role of CutA1 is still unclear. In this study, the X-ray structure of HsCutA1 was determined in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. HsCutA1 is a trimeric molecule with intertwined antiparallel β-strands; each subunit has a molecular weight of 14.6 kDa and contains 135 amino-acid residues. In order to obtain clues to the possible function of HsCutA1, its crystal structure was compared with those of other CutA1 and PII proteins.

  11. Eye-mouth-eye angle as a good indicator of face masculinization, asymmetry, and attractiveness (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, Dariusz; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2007-05-01

    Past research on male facial attractiveness has been limited by the reliance on facialmetric measures that are less than ideal. In particular, some of these measures are face size dependent and show only weak sexual dimorphism, which limits the ability to identify the relationship between masculinization and attractiveness. Here, the authors show that eye-mouth-eye (EME) angle is a quantitative and face size independent trait that is sexually dimorphic and a good indicator of masculinity and face symmetry. Using frontal photographs of female and male faces, the authors first confirmed that the EME angle (measured with the vertex in the middle of the mouth and the arms crossing the centers of pupils) was highly sexually dimorphic. Then, using pictures of young male faces whose attractiveness was assessed on a 7-point scale by young women, the authors showed that attractiveness rate was negatively correlated with EME angle and with the angle asymmetry. The results are compared with those that could be obtained with interpupilary or upper face height measurements. The authors discuss the relationship between attractiveness and both EME angle and its symmetry in the light of evolutionary psychology.

  12. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The relationship of cranial, orbital and nasal cavity size with the morphology of the supraorbital region in modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Łapicka, Urszula; Cieślik, Agata; Biecek, Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Morphological variation of the supraorbital region (SR) in human crania has been investigated and its potential sources suggested, along with the importance of the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, and orbit for the formation of this region. However, previous studies have not indicated whether facial size exhibits a stronger association with SR robusticity than neurocranial size or sex; moreover, the association between orbital volume and SR robusticity has been analysed only in non-human primate skulls. In this study we investigate whether the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, two measures of relative orbital size (orbital volume and estimated orbital aperture area), the relative size of the nasal cavity, and the relative estimated area of the anterior nasal cavity opening are related to SR robusticity; we also examine which of these analysed relationships is strongest, as well as independent of the influence of the other traits, in a geographically diverse modern human cranial sample. The results of Spearman's rank and partial rank correlations (encompassing models including or excluding sex and geographic origin) show a relationship between most of the above-mentioned variables and SR robusticity, with the exception of the estimated relative area of the orbital opening (in the case of the results of Spearman's rank correlations) and the traits of the nasal cavity. Of all the analysed traits, sex appears to be the most important for the formation of SR robusticity and, of two measures of cranial size, neurocranial size was the most significant. The strong relationship between SR robusticity and relative orbital volume was observed in models without the geographic origin factor. The results concerning analysed models suggest the influence of this factor on this relationship; however, to explain this influence, further studies are needed.

  14. Structure of putative CutA1 from Homo sapiens determined at 2.05 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray structure of human CutA1 was solved in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The structure of human brain CutA1 (HsCutA1) has been determined using diffraction data to 2.05 Å resolution. HsCutA1 has been implicated in the anchoring of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal cell membranes, while its bacterial homologue Escherichia coli CutA1 is involved in copper tolerance. Additionally, the structure of HsCutA1 bears similarity to that of the signal transduction protein PII, which is involved in regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Although several crystal structures of CutA1 from various sources with different rotation angles and degrees of interaction between trimer interfaces have been reported, the specific functional role of CutA1 is still unclear. In this study, the X-ray structure of HsCutA1 was determined in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. HsCutA1 is a trimeric molecule with intertwined antiparallel β-strands; each subunit has a molecular weight of 14.6 kDa and contains 135 amino-acid residues. In order to obtain clues to the possible function of HsCutA1, its crystal structure was compared with those of other CutA1 and PII proteins

  15. High mutation rates explain low population genetic divergence at copy-number-variable loci in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Yeh, Francis C; Hu, Yang; Deng, Li-Ting; Ennos, Richard A; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2017-02-22

    Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites. Populations generally exhibit very small genetic divergence (G st  = 0.05 ± 0.049). The smallest divergence is among African populations (G st  = 0.0081 ± 0.0025), with increased divergence among non-African populations (G st  = 0.0217 ± 0.0109) and then among African and non-African populations (G st  = 0.0324 ± 0.0064). Genetic diversity is high in African populations (~0.13), low in Asian populations (~0.11), and intermediate in the remaining 11 populations. Few significant linkage disequilibria (LDs) occur between the genome-wide CNV loci. Patterns of gametic and zygotic LDs indicate the absence of epistasis among CNV loci. Mutation rate is about twice as large as the migration rate in the non-African populations, suggesting that the high mutation rates play dominant roles in producing the low population genetic divergence at CNV loci.

  16. Intricate and Cell Type-Specific Populations of Endogenous Circular DNA (eccDNA) in Caenorhabditis elegans and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoura, Massa J; Gabdank, Idan; Hansen, Loren; Merker, Jason; Gotlib, Jason; Levene, Stephen D; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-10-05

    Investigations aimed at defining the 3D configuration of eukaryotic chromosomes have consistently encountered an endogenous population of chromosome-derived circular genomic DNA, referred to as extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA). While the production, distribution, and activities of eccDNAs remain understudied, eccDNA formation from specific regions of the linear genome has profound consequences on the regulatory and coding capabilities for these regions. Here, we define eccDNA distributions in Caenorhabditis elegans and in three human cell types, utilizing a set of DNA topology-dependent approaches for enrichment and characterization. The use of parallel biophysical, enzymatic, and informatic approaches provides a comprehensive profiling of eccDNA robust to isolation and analysis methodology. Results in human and nematode systems provide quantitative analysis of the eccDNA loci at both unique and repetitive regions. Our studies converge on and support a consistent picture, in which endogenous genomic DNA circles are present in normal physiological states, and in which the circles come from both coding and noncoding genomic regions. Prominent among the coding regions generating DNA circles are several genes known to produce a diversity of protein isoforms, with mucin proteins and titin as specific examples. Copyright © 2017 Shoura et al.

  17. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  18. I scan, therefore I decline: The time course of difficulty monitoring in humans (homo sapiens) and macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Church, Barbara A; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Beran, Michael J; Baum, Michael L

    2018-05-01

    The study of nonhumans' metacognitive judgments about trial difficulty has grown into an important comparative literature. However, the potential for associative-learning confounds in this area has left room for behaviorist interpretations that are strongly asserted and hotly debated. This article considers how researchers may be able to observe animals' strategic cognitive processes more clearly by creating temporally extended problems within which associative cues are not always immediately available. We asked humans and rhesus macaques to commit to completing spatially extended mazes or to decline completing them through a trial-decline response. The mazes could sometimes be completed successfully, but other times had a constriction that blocked completion. A deliberate, systematic scanning process could preevaluate a maze and determine the appropriate response. Latency analyses charted the time course of the evaluative process. Both humans and macaques appeared, from the pattern of their latencies, to scan the mazes through before committing to completing them. Thus monkeys, too, can base trial-decline responses on temporally extended evaluation processes, confirming that those responses have strategic cognitive-processing bases in addition to behavioral-reactive bases. The results also show the value of temporally and spatially extended problems to let researchers study the trajectory of animals' online cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  20. Simulations of simple Bovine and Homo sapiens outer cortex ocular lens membrane models with a majority concentration of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark; Wang, Eric; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-11-21

    The lipid composition of bovine and human ocular lens membranes has been probed, and a variety of lipids have been found including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) with cholesterol being present in particularly high concentrations. In this study, we use the all-atom CHARMM36 force field to simulate binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures as models of the ocular lens. High concentration of cholesterol, in combination with different and varying diversity of phospholipids (PL) and sphingolipids (SL), affect the structure of the ocular lens lipid bilayer. The following analyses were done for each simulation: surface area per lipid, component surface area per lipid, deuterium order parameters (S CD ), electron density profiles (EDP), membrane thickness, hydrogen bonding, radial distribution functions, clustering, and sterol tilt angle distribution. The S CD show significant bilayer alignment and packing in cholesterol-rich bilayers. The EDP show the transition from liquid crystalline to liquid ordered with the addition of cholesterol. Hydrogen bonds in our systems show the tendency for intramolecular interactions between cholesterol and fully saturated lipid tails for less complex bilayers. But with an increased number of components in the bilayer, the acyl chain of the lipids becomes a less important characteristic, and the headgroup of the lipid becomes more significant. Overall, cholesterol is the driving force of membrane structure of the ocular lens membrane where interactions between cholesterol, PL, and SL determine structure and function of the biomembrane. The goal of this work is to develop a baseline for further study of more physiologically realistic ocular lens lipid membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The attribution of navigational- and goal-directed agency in dogs (Canis familiaris) and human toddlers (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Tibor; Csík, Andor; Lovas, Kata; Gergely, György; Topál, József

    2017-02-01

    Both human infants and nonhuman primates can recognize unfamiliar entities as instrumental agents ascribing to them goals and efficiency of goal-pursuit. This competence relies on movement cues indicating distal sensitivity to the environment and choice of efficient goal-approach. Although dogs' evolved sensitivity to social cues allow them to recognize humans as communicative agents, it remains unclear whether they have also evolved a basic concept of instrumental agency. We used a preferential object-choice procedure to test whether adult pet dogs and human toddlers can identify unfamiliar entities as agents based on different types of movement cues that specify different levels of agency. In the navigational agency condition, dogs preferentially chose an object that modified its pathway to avoid collision with obstacles over another object showing no evidence of distal sensitivity (regularly bumping into obstacles). However, in the goal-efficiency condition where neither object collided with obstacles as it navigated toward a distal target, but only 1 of them exhibited efficient goal-approach as well, toddlers, but not dogs, showed a preference toward the efficient goal-directed agent. These findings indicate that dogs possess a limited concept of environmentally sensitive navigational agency that they attribute to self-propelled entities capable of modifying their movement to avoid colliding with obstacles. Toddlers, in contrast, demonstrated clear sensitivity to cues of efficient variability of goal-approach as the basis for differentiating, attributing, and showing preference for goal-directed instrumental agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Spatial representation of magnitude in humans (Homo sapiens), Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Vonk, Jennifer

    2018-05-04

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is the tendency for humans to respond faster to relatively larger numbers on the left or right (or with the left or right hand) and faster to relatively smaller numbers on the other side. This effect seems to occur due to a spatial representation of magnitude either in occurrence with a number line (wherein participants respond to relatively larger numbers faster on the right), other representations such as clock faces (responses are reversed from number lines), or culturally specific reading directions, begging the question as to whether the effect may be limited to humans. Given that a SNARC effect has emerged via a quantity judgement task in Western lowland gorillas and orangutans (Gazes et al., Cog 168:312-319, 2017), we examined patterns of response on a quantity discrimination task in American black bears, Western lowland gorillas, and humans for evidence of a SNARC effect. We found limited evidence for SNARC effect in American black bears and Western lowland gorillas. Furthermore, humans were inconsistent in direction and strength of effects, emphasizing the importance of standardizing methodology and analyses when comparing SNARC effects between species. These data reveal the importance of collecting data with humans in analogous procedures when testing nonhumans for effects assumed to bepresent in humans.

  3. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  4. Can chimpanzee infants (Pan troglodytes) form categorical representations in the same manner as human infants (Homo sapiens)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-05-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object while touching it as a measure. During the familiarization phase, participants were presented with four familiarization objects from one of three categories (e.g. mammals). Then, they were tested with a pair of novel objects, one was a familiar-category object and another was a novel-category object (e.g. vehicle) in the test phase. The chimpanzee infants did not show significant habituation, whereas human infants did. However, most important, both species showed significant novelty-preference in the test phase. This indicates that not only human infants, but also chimpanzee infants formed categorical representations of a global-like level. Implications for the shared origins and species-specificity of categorization abilities, and the cognitive operations underlying categorization, are discussed.

  5. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  6. Understanding of visual attention by adult humans (Homo sapiens): a partial replication of Povinelli, Bierschwale, and Cech (1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily; Murphy, Mary; Pitt, Rebecca; Rivers, Angela; Leavens, David A

    2008-11-01

    Povinelli, Bierschwale, and Cech (1999) reported that when tested on a visual attention task, the behavior of juvenile chimpanzees did not support a high-level understanding of visual attention. This study replicates their research using adult humans and aims to investigate the validity of their experimental design. Participants were trained to respond to pointing cues given by an experimenter, and then tested on their ability to locate hidden objects from visual cues. Povinelli et al.'s assertion that the generalization of pointing to gaze is indicative of a high-level framework was not supported by our findings: Training improved performance only on initial probe trials when the experimenter's gaze was not directed at the baited cup. Furthermore, participants performed above chance on such trials, the same result exhibited by chimpanzees and used as evidence by Povinelli et al. to support a low-level framework. These findings, together with the high performance of participants in an incongruent condition, in which the experimenter pointed to or gazed at an unbaited container, challenge the validity of their experimental design. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Kirby, Melissa; James, Frances C

    2014-05-01

    Search and serial recall tasks were used in the present study to characterize the factors affecting the ability of humans to keep track of a set of spatial locations while traveling in an immersive virtual reality foraging environment. The first experiment required the exhaustive exploration of a set of locations following a procedure previously used with other primate and non-primate species to assess their sensitivity to the geometric arrangement of foraging sites. The second experiment assessed the dependency of search performance on search organization by requiring the participants to recall specific trajectories throughout the foraging space. In the third experiment, the distance between the foraging sites was manipulated in order to contrast the effects of organization and traveling distance on recall accuracy. The results show that humans benefit from the use of organized search patterns when attempting to monitor their travel though either a clustered "patchy" space or a matrix of locations. Their ability to recall a series of locations is dependent on whether the order in which they are explored conformed or did not conform to specific organization principles. Moreover, the relationship between search efficiency and search organization is not confounded by effects of traveling distance. These results indicate that in humans, organizational factors may play a large role in their ability to forage efficiently. The extent to which such dependency may pertain to other primates and could be accounted for by visual organization processes is discussed on the basis of previous studies focused on perceptual grouping, search, and serial recall in non-human species. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Should autism be considered a canary bird telling that Homo sapiens may be on its way to extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Albert Christophersen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic enhancement of the reported incidence of autism in different parts of the world over the last 30 years. This can apparently not be explained only as a result of improved diagnosis and reporting, but may also reflect a real change. The causes of this change are unknown, but if we shall follow T.C. Chamberlin's principle of multiple working hypotheses, we need to take into consideration the possibility that it partly may reflect an enhancement of the average frequency of responsible alleles in large populations. If this hypothesis is correct, it means that the average germline mutation rate must now be much higher in the populations concerned, compared with the natural mutation rate in hominid ancestors before the agricultural and industrial revolutions. This is compatible with the high prevalence of impaired human semen quality in several countries and also with what is known about high levels of total exposure to several different unnatural chemical mutagens, plus some natural ones at unnaturally high levels. Moreover, dietary deficiency conditions that may lead to enhancement of mutation rates are also very widespread, affecting billions of people. However, the natural mutation rate in hominids has been found to be so high that there is apparently no tolerance for further enhancement of the germline mutation rate before the Eigen error threshold will be exceeded and our species will go extinct because of mutational meltdown. This threat, if real, should be considered far more serious than any disease causing the death only of individual patients. It should therefore be considered the first and highest priority of the best biomedical scientists in the world, of research-funding agencies and of all medical doctors to try to stop the express train carrying all humankind as passengers on board before it arrives at the end station of our civilization.

  9. Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda A; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Merriam, Renée L; Morris, R Curtis

    2002-12-01

    Natural selection has had diet resulting from the inventions of agriculture and animal husbandry. The objective was to estimate the net systemic load of acid (net endogenous acid production; NEAP) from retrojected ancestral preagricultural diets and to compare it with that of contemporary diets, which are characterized by an imbalance of nutrient precursors of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions that induces a lifelong, low-grade, pathogenically significant systemic metabolic acidosis. Using established computational methods, we computed NEAP for a large number of retrojected ancestral preagricultural diets and compared them with computed and measured values for typical American diets. The mean (+/- SD) NEAP for 159 retrojected preagricultural diets was -88 +/- 82 mEq/d; 87% were net base-producing. The computational model predicted NEAP for the average American diet (as recorded in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) as 48 mEq/d, within a few percentage points of published measured values for free-living Americans; the model, therefore, was not biased toward generating negative NEAP values. The historical shift from negative to positive NEAP was accounted for by the displacement of high-bicarbonate-yielding plant foods in the ancestral diet by cereal grains and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods in the contemporary diet-neither of which are net base-producing. The findings suggest that diet-induced metabolic acidosis and its sequelae in humans eating contemporary diets reflect a mismatch between the nutrient composition of the diet and genetically determined nutritional requirements for optimal systemic acid-base status.

  10. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs using human multicolor banding (MCB probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA, Callithrix jacchus (CJA, Cebus apella (CAP, Saimiri sciureus (SSC, and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE, respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107 NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99 NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA and 66.3% (71/107 NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS. Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  11. Comparative study of enzyme activity and heme reactivity in Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens cystathionine β-synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Majtan, Tomas; Freeman, Katherine M; Linck, Rachel; Ponter, Sarah; Kraus, Jan P; Burstyn, Judith N

    2013-01-29

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway, which is critical for the synthesis of cysteine from methionine in eukaryotes. CBS uses coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for catalysis, and S-adenosylmethionine regulates the activity of human CBS, but not yeast CBS. Human and fruit fly CBS contain heme; however, the role for heme is not clear. This paper reports biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of CBS from fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (DmCBS) and the CO/NO gas binding reactions of DmCBS and human CBS. Like CBS enzymes from lower organisms (e.g., yeast), DmCBS is intrinsically highly active and is not regulated by AdoMet. The DmCBS heme coordination environment, the reactivity, and the accompanying effects on enzyme activity are similar to those of human CBS. The DmCBS heme bears histidine and cysteine axial ligands, and the enzyme becomes inactive when the cysteine ligand is replaced. The Fe(II) heme in DmCBS is less stable than that in human CBS, undergoing more facile reoxidation and ligand exchange. In both CBS proteins, the overall stability of the protein is correlated with the heme oxidation state. Human and DmCBS Fe(II) hemes react relatively slowly with CO and NO, and the rate of the CO binding reaction is faster at low pH than at high pH. Together, the results suggest that heme incorporation and AdoMet regulation in CBS are not correlated, possibly providing two independent means for regulating the enzyme.

  12. Changes in Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Measures of Ventricular Function after Percutaneous Implantation of the Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve in the Pulmonary Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Hijazi, Ziyad M.; Rhodes, John F.; Kar, Saibal; Makkar, Raj; Mullen, Michael; Cao, Qi-Ling; Mandinov, Lazar; Buckley, Jason; Pietris, Nicholas P.; Shirali, Girish S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with free pulmonary regurgitation or mixed pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation and severely dilated right ventricles (RV) show little improvement in ventricular function after pulmonary valve replacement when assessed by traditional echocardiographic markers. We evaluated changes in right and left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography in patients after SAPIEN transcatheter pulmonary valve (TPV) placement. Methods Echocardiograms were evaluated at baseline, discharge, 1 and 6 months after TPV placement in 24 patients from 4 centers. Speckle tracking measures of function included peak longitudinal strain, strain rate, and early diastolic strain rate. RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and left ventricular LV ejection fraction were assessed. Routine Doppler and tissue Doppler velocities were measured. Results At baseline, all patients demonstrated moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation; this improved following TPV placement. No significant changes were detected in conventional measures of RV or LV function at 6 months. RV longitudinal strain (−16.9% vs. −19.6%, P echocardiography may be more sensitive than traditional measures in detecting changes in systolic function after TPV implantation. (Echocardiography 2015;32:461–469) PMID:25047063

  13. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variations and asymmetries in regional brain surface in the genus Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Holloway, Ralph L; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Paleoneurology is an important field of research within human evolution studies. Variations in size and shape of an endocast help to differentiate among fossil hominin species whereas endocranial asymmetries are related to behavior and cognitive function. Here we analyse variations of the surface of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes among different species of Homo, including 39 fossil hominins, ten fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens and 100 endocasts of extant modern humans. We also test for the possible asymmetries of these features in a large sample of modern humans and observe individual particularities in the fossil specimens. This study contributes important new information about the brain evolution in the genus Homo. Our results show that the general pattern of surface asymmetry for the different regional brain surfaces in fossil species of Homo does not seem to be different from the pattern described in a large sample of anatomically modern H. sapiens, i.e., the right hemisphere has a larger surface than the left, as do the right frontal, the right parieto-temporal and the left occipital lobes compared with the contra-lateral side. It also appears that Asian Homo erectus specimens are discriminated from all other samples of Homo, including African and Georgian specimens that are also sometimes included in that taxon. The Asian fossils show a significantly smaller relative size of the parietal and temporal lobes. Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens, who share the largest endocranial volume of all hominins, show differences when considering the relative contribution of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes. These results illustrate an original variation in the pattern of brain organization in hominins independent of variations in total size. The globularization of the brain and the enlargement of the parietal lobes could be considered derived features observed uniquely in anatomically modern H. sapiens. Copyright

  15. Alometría y dimorfismo sexual del fémur de Homo sapiens y Homo neanderthalensis en un contexto evolutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya García, Noelia; Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Rasilla, Marco de la; Pastor, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en el XIII Encuentro en Jóvenes Investigadores en Paleontología (XIII EJIP) - XIII Meeting of Early-Stage Researchers in Paleontology (XIII EJIP): Cercedilla, 15 - 18 de Abril de 2015

  16. Do homo sapiens ao homo cibernéticus: uma reflexão sobre a relação homem-tecnologia

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Aldo

    2001-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta um panorama da relação homem-tecnologia através do tempo e que, em uma perspectiva semiótica, pode ser dividida em três momentos. Começando na fase Muscular Motor", quando a máquina substitui a força muscular, passa pela "Sensório Motor", onde as máquinas ampliam os sentidos humanos e chega a terceira fase, chamada de "Cerebral", na qual vê-se a revolução tecnológica marcando profundamente o desenvolvimento sócio-político-econômico-cultural do homem, o que coloca a...

  17. From Homo Abilis to Homo Rationalis through Analytic Perception and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lenzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stage of “Homo habilis” man has gained - in the course  of about two million years during which he has undergone a gradual evolution from the initial animal stage - its status as “Homo rationalis”. However, not all individuals are able to satisfactorily activate the skill of reasoning. It is undeniable that a fundamental step towards this activation is the development of mathematical skills, which are a common heritage of all human beings. Hence the need for more concrete and better coordinateddidactic approaches, ultimately leading to the basic concepts of this discipline, which has an essential role in the acquisition of rationality.   Dall’Homo Abilis all’Homo Rationalis tramite la Percezione Analitica e la Matematica A partire dall’Homo abilis, l’uomo ha conquistato – nel corso di circa 2 milioni di anni, in cui si è progressivamente allontanato da uno stadio bestiale – il suo status di Homo rationalis. Però non tutti gli individui sono in grado di attivare in modo soddisfacente le abiltà di ragionamento. È innegabile che una tappa fondamentale verso quest’attivazione sia costituita dallo sviluppo delle abilità matematiche, che sono patrimonio di ogni essere umano. Da ciò deriva la necessità di impostazioni didattiche più concrete e meglio coordinate, da cui far scaturire in modo comprensibile i concetti fondamentali di tale disciplina, che ha un ruolo essenziale per l’acquisizione della razionalità.  Paole Chiave: filogenesi; memoria di specie; Homo sapiens sapiens; percezione

  18. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Sutikna, Thomas; Morwood, Michael J; Kubo, Daisuke; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokhus Due; Djubiantono, Tony

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes in detail the external morphology of LB1/1, the nearly complete and only known cranium of Homo floresiensis. Comparisons were made with a large sample of early groups of the genus Homo to assess primitive, derived, and unique craniofacial traits of LB1 and discuss its evolution. Principal cranial shape differences between H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are also explored metrically. The LB1 specimen exhibits a marked reductive trend in its facial skeleton, which is comparable to the H. sapiens condition and is probably associated with reduced masticatory stresses. However, LB1 is craniometrically different from H. sapiens showing an extremely small overall cranial size, and the combination of a primitive low and anteriorly narrow vault shape, a relatively prognathic face, a rounded oval foramen that is greatly separated anteriorly from the carotid canal/jugular foramen, and a unique, tall orbital shape. Whereas the neurocranium of LB1 is as small as that of some Homo habilis specimens, it exhibits laterally expanded parietals, a weak suprameatal crest, a moderately flexed occipital, a marked facial reduction, and many other derived features that characterize post-habilis Homo. Other craniofacial characteristics of LB1 include, for example, a relatively narrow frontal squama with flattened right and left sides, a marked frontal keel, posteriorly divergent temporal lines, a posteriorly flexed anteromedial corner of the mandibular fossa, a bulbous lateral end of the supraorbital torus, and a forward protruding maxillary body with a distinct infraorbital sulcus. LB1 is most similar to early Javanese Homo erectus from Sangiran and Trinil in these and other aspects. We conclude that the craniofacial morphology of LB1 is consistent with the hypothesis that H. floresiensis evolved from early Javanese H. erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the

  19. Allometric scaling of infraorbital surface topography in Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Scott D; Franciscus, Robert G

    2009-02-01

    Infraorbital morphology is often included in phylogenetic and functional analyses of Homo. The inclusion of distinct infraorbital configurations, such as the "canine fossa" in Homo sapiens or the "inflated" maxilla in Neandertals, is generally based on either descriptive or qualitative assessments of this morphology, or simple linear chord and subtense measurements. However, the complex curvilinear surface of the infraorbital region has proven difficult to quantify through these traditional methods. In this study, we assess infraorbital shape and its potential allometric scaling in fossil Homo (n=18) and recent humans (n=110) with a geometric morphometric method well-suited for quantifying complex surface topographies. Our results indicate that important aspects of infraorbital shape are correlated with overall infraorbital size across Homo. Specifically, individuals with larger infraorbital areas tend to exhibit relatively flatter infraorbital surface topographies, taller and narrower infraorbital areas, sloped inferior orbital rims, anteroinferiorly oriented maxillary body facies, posteroinferiorly oriented maxillary processes of the zygomatic, and non-everted lateral nasal margins. In contrast, individuals with smaller infraorbital regions generally exhibit relatively depressed surface topographies, shorter and wider infraorbital areas, projecting inferior orbital rims, posteroinferiorly oriented maxillary body facies, anteroinferiorly oriented maxillary processes, and everted lateral nasal margins. These contrasts form a continuum and only appear dichotomized at the ends of the infraorbital size spectrum. In light of these results, we question the utility of incorporating traditionally polarized infraorbital morphologies in phylogenetic and functional analyses without due consideration of continuous infraorbital and facial size variation in Homo. We conclude that the essentially flat infraorbital surface topography of Neandertals is not unique and can be

  20. Homo floresiensis: microcephalic, pygmoid, Australopithecus, or Homo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Donlon, Denise; Groves, Colin; Wright, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The remarkable partial adult skeleton (LB1) excavated from Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia, has been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, based upon a unique mosaic of primitive and derived features compared to any other hominin. The announcement precipitated widespread interest, and attention quickly focused on its possible affinities. LB1 is a small-bodied hominin with an endocranial volume of 380-410 cm3, a stature of 1m, and an approximate geological age of 18,000 years. The describers [Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatmiko, Wayhu Saptomo, E., Awe Due, R., 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431, 1055-1061] originally proposed that H. floresiensis was the end product of a long period of isolation of H. erectus or early Homo on a small island, a process known as insular dwarfism. More recently Morwood, Brown, and colleagues [Morwood, M.J., Brown, P., Jatmiko, Sutikna, T., Wahyu Saptomo, E., Westaway, K.E., Awe Due, R., Roberts, R.G., Maeda, T., Wasisto, S., Djubiantono, T., 2005. Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437, 1012-1017] reviewed this assessment in light of new material from the site and concluded that H. floresiensis is not likely to be descended from H. erectus, with the genealogy of the species remaining uncertain. Other interpretations, namely that LB1 is a pygmy or afflicted with microcephaly, have also been put forward. We explore the affinities of LB1 using cranial and postcranial metric and non-metric analyses. LB1 is compared to early Homo, two microcephalic humans, a 'pygmoid' excavated from another cave on Flores, H. sapiens (including African pygmies and Andaman Islanders), Australopithecus, and Paranthropus. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that it is unlikely that LB1 is a microcephalic human, and it cannot be attributed to any known species. Its attribution to a new

  1. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxnard, Charles; Obendorf, Peter J; Kefford, Ben J

    2010-09-27

    Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit). They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P0.999). We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  2. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oxnard

    Full Text Available Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo, some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens, and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis. Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit. They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P0.999. We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  3. Craniometric ratios of microcephaly and LB1, Homo floresiensis, using MRI and endocasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Robert C.; Barron, Todd F.; Holloway, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    The designation of Homo floresiensis as a new species derived from an ancient population is controversial, because the type specimen, LB1, might represent a pathological microcephalic modern Homo sapiens. Accordingly, two specific craniometric ratios (relative frontal breadth and cerebellar protrusion) were ascertained in 21 microcephalic infants and children by using MRI. Data on 118 age-equivalent control (normocephalic) subjects were collected for comparative purposes. In addition, the same craniometric ratios were determined on the endocasts of 10 microcephalic individuals, 79 normal controls (anatomically modern humans), and 17 Homo erectus specimens. These ratios were then compared with those of two LB1 endocasts. The findings showed that the calculated cerebral/cerebellar ratios of the LB1 endocast [Falk D, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:2513–2518] fall outside the range of living normocephalic individuals. The ratios derived from two LB1 endocasts also fall largely outside the range of modern normal human and H. erectus endocasts and within the range of microcephalic endocasts. The findings support but do not prove the contention that LB1 represents a pathological microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species, (i.e., H. floresiensis). PMID:21825126

  4. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Comparative analysis of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes p16 (MTS1) and p15 (MTS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P; Stone, S; Wagner, R; Wang, S; Dayananth, P; Kozak, C A; Wold, B; Kamb, A

    1995-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are a growing family of molecules that regulate important transitions in the cell cycle. At least one of these molecules, p16, has been implicated in human tumorigenesis while its close homolog, p15, is induced by cell contact and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). To investigate the evolutionary and functional features of p15 and p16, we have isolated mouse (Mus musculus) homologs of each gene. Comparative analysis of these sequences provides evidence that the genes have similar functions in mouse and human. In addition, the comparison suggests that a gene conversion event is part of the evolution of the human p15 and p16 genes.

  6. Homo sapiens exhibit a distinct pattern of CNV genes regulation: an important role of miRNAs and SNPs in expression plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweep, Harsh; Kubikova, Nada; Gretz, Norbert; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Felekkis, Kyriacos

    2015-07-16

    Gene expression regulation is a complex and highly organized process involving a variety of genomic factors. It is widely accepted that differences in gene expression can contribute to the phenotypic variability between species, and that their interpretation can aid in the understanding of the physiologic variability. CNVs and miRNAs are two major players in the regulation of expression plasticity and may be responsible for the unique phenotypic characteristics observed in different lineages. We have previously demonstrated that a close interaction between these two genomic elements may have contributed to the regulation of gene expression during evolution. This work presents the molecular interactions between CNV and non CNV genes with miRNAs and other genomic elements in eight different species. A comprehensive analysis of these interactions indicates a unique nature of human CNV genes regulation as compared to other species. By using genes with short 3' UTR that abolish the "canonical" miRNA-dependent regulation, as a model, we demonstrate a distinct and tight regulation of human genes that might explain some of the unique features of human physiology. In addition, comparison of gene expression regulation between species indicated that there is a significant difference between humans and mice possibly questioning the effectiveness of the latest as experimental models of human diseases.

  7. Mutations at the S1 sites of methionine aminopeptidases from Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens reveal the residues critical for substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Ya; Cui, Yong-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Gu, Min; Li, Jia; Nan, Fa-Jun; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2004-05-14

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the removal of methionine from newly synthesized polypeptides. MetAP carries out this cleavage with high precision, and Met is the only natural amino acid residue at the N terminus that is accepted, although type I and type II MetAPs use two different sets of residues to form the hydrophobic S1 site. Characteristics of the S1 binding pocket in type I MetAP were investigated by systematic mutation of each of the seven S1 residues in Escherichia coli MetAP type I (EcMetAP1) and human MetAP type I (HsMetAP1). We found that Tyr-65 and Trp-221 in EcMetAP1, as well as the corresponding residues Phe-197 and Trp-352 in HsMetAP1, were essential for the hydrolysis of a thiopeptolide substrate, Met-S-Gly-Phe. Mutation of Phe-191 to Ala in HsMetAP1 caused inactivity in contrast to the full activity of EcMetAP1(Y62A), which may suggest a subtle difference between the two type I enzymes. The more striking finding is that mutation of Cys-70 in EcMetAP1 or Cys-202 in HsMetAP1 opens up the S1 pocket. The thiopeptolides Leu-S-Gly-Phe and Phe-S-Gly-Phe, with previously unacceptable Leu or Phe as the N-terminal residue, became efficient substrates of EcMetAP1(C70A) and HsMetAP1(C202A). The relaxed specificity shown in these S1 site mutants for the N-terminal residues was confirmed by hydrolysis of peptide substrates and inhibition by reaction products. The structural features at the enzyme active site will be useful information for designing specific MetAP inhibitors for therapeutic applications.

  8. 'Contextual areas' of early Homo sapiens and their significance for human dispersal from Africa into Eurasia between 200 ka and 70 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, J.; Hauck, T.; Vogelsang, R.; Widlok, T.; Le Tensorer, J.M.; Schmid, P.

    2012-01-01

    The African origin of our species has essentially been accepted as a scientific fact, but evolutionary advantages connected with the reasons and circumstances of modern human dispersal remain widely unexplained or controversial. Consequently, this paper provides an overview of the natural and

  9. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SET/TAF-Iß δN from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yang, Weili; Shi, Nuo; Gao, Yongxiang; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2010-08-01

    The histone chaperone SET encoded by the SET gene, which is also known as template-activating factor Iß (TAF-Iß), is a multifunctional molecule that is involved in many biological phenomena such as histone binding, nucleosome assembly, chromatin remodelling, replication, transcription and apoptosis. A truncated SET/TAF-Iß ΔN protein that lacked the first 22 residues of the N-terminus but contained the C-terminal acidic domain and an additional His6 tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium acetate as precipitant at 283 K. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2.

  10. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfer between local and global processing levels by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens) in exemplar- and rule-based categorization tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ulrike; Braunöder, Elisabeth

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment investigated pigeons' and humans' processing styles-local or global-in an exemplar-based visual categorization task in which category membership of every stimulus had to be learned individually, and in a rule-based task in which category membership was defined by a perceptual rule. Group Intact was trained with the original pictures (providing both intact local and global information), Group Scrambled was trained with scrambled versions of the same pictures (impairing global information), and Group Blurred was trained with blurred versions (impairing local information). Subsequently, all subjects were tested for transfer to the 2 untrained presentation modes. Humans outperformed pigeons regarding learning speed and accuracy as well as transfer performance and showed good learning irrespective of group assignment, whereas the pigeons of Group Blurred needed longer to learn the training tasks than the pigeons of Groups Intact and Scrambled. Also, whereas humans generalized equally well to any novel presentation mode, pigeons' transfer from and to blurred stimuli was impaired. Both species showed faster learning and, for the most part, better transfer in the rule-based than in the exemplar-based task, but there was no evidence of the used processing mode depending on the type of task (exemplar- or rule-based). Whereas pigeons relied on local information throughout, humans did not show a preference for either processing level. Additional tests with grayscale versions of the training stimuli, with versions that were both blurred and scrambled, and with novel instances of the rule-based task confirmed and further extended these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary Study to Test the Feasibility of Sex Identification of Human (Homo sapiens) Bones Based on Differences in Elemental Profiles Determined by Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2016-09-01

    Sex assignment of human remains is a crucial step in forensic anthropological studies. The aim of this study was to examine elemental differences between male and female bones using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and determine if elemental profiling could be used for sex discrimination. Cranium, humerus, and os coxae of 60 skeletons (30 male, 30 female) from the Chiang Mai University Skeletal Collection were scanned by XRF and differences in elemental profiles between male and female bones determined using discriminant analysis. In the cranium, three elements (S, Ca, Pb) were significantly higher in males and five elements (Si, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag) plus light elements (atomic number lower than 12) were higher in females. In humerus and os coxae, nine elements were significantly higher in male and one element was higher in female samples. The accuracy rate for sex estimation was 60, 63, and 61 % for cranium, humerus, and os coxae, respectively, and 67 % when data for all three bones were combined. We conclude that there are sex differences in bone elemental profiles; however, the accuracy of XRF analyses for discriminating between male and female samples was low compared to standard morphometric and molecular methods. XRF could be used on small samples that cannot be sexed by traditional morphological methods, but more work is needed to increase the power of this technique for gender assignment.

  15. First comparative approach to touchscreen-based visual object-location paired-associates learning in humans (Homo sapiens) and a nonhuman primate (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Joly, Marine; Zimmermann, Elke

    2018-05-10

    A recent study suggests that a specific, touchscreen-based task on visual object-location paired-associates learning (PAL), the so-called Different PAL (dPAL) task, allows effective translation from animal models to humans. Here, we adapted the task to a nonhuman primate (NHP), the gray mouse lemur, and provide first evidence for the successful comparative application of the task to humans and NHPs. Young human adults reach the learning criterion after considerably less sessions (one order of magnitude) than young, adult NHPs, which is likely due to faster and voluntary rejection of ineffective learning strategies in humans and almost immediate rule generalization. At criterion, however, all human subjects solved the task by either applying a visuospatial rule or, more rarely, by memorizing all possible stimulus combinations and responding correctly based on global visual information. An error-profile analysis in humans and NHPs suggests that successful learning in NHPs is comparably based either on the formation of visuospatial associative links or on more reflexive, visually guided stimulus-response learning. The classification in the NHPs is further supported by an analysis of the individual response latencies, which are considerably higher in NHPs classified as spatial learners. Our results, therefore, support the high translational potential of the standardized, touchscreen-based dPAL task by providing first empirical and comparable evidence for two different cognitive processes underlying dPAL performance in primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  17. Use of redundant sets of landmark information by humans (Homo sapiens) in a goal-searching task in an open field and on a computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Katsuo; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Sawa, Kosuke

    2018-05-01

    Landmark-based goal-searching tasks that were similar to those for pigeons (Ushitani & Jitsumori, 2011) were provided to human participants to investigate whether they could learn and use multiple sources of spatial information that redundantly indicate the position of a hidden target in both an open field (Experiment 1) and on a computer screen (Experiments 2 and 3). During the training in each experiment, participants learned to locate a target in 1 of 25 objects arranged in a 5 × 5 grid, using two differently colored, arrow-shaped (Experiments 1 and 2) or asymmetrically shaped (Experiment 3) landmarks placed adjacent to the goal and pointing to the goal location. The absolute location and directions of the landmarks varied across trials, but the constant configuration of the goal and the landmarks enabled participants to find the goal using both global configural information and local vector information (pointing to the goal by each individual landmark). On subsequent test trials, the direction was changed for one of the landmarks to conflict with the global configural information. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that participants used vector information from a single landmark but not configural information. Further examinations revealed that the use of global (metric) information was enhanced remarkably by goal searching with nonarrow-shaped landmarks on the computer monitor (Experiment 3) but much less so with arrow-shaped landmarks (Experiment 2). The General Discussion focuses on a comparison between humans in the current study and pigeons in the previous study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The processing of positional information in a two-item sequence limits the emergence of symmetry in baboons (Papio papio), but not in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Malassis, Raphaelle; Medam, Tiphaine

    2018-03-01

    When trained to associate Stimulus A to Stimulus B, humans can derive the untrained symmetrical B to A relation while nonhuman animals have much more difficulties. Urcuioli (2008, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90, 257--282; 2015, Conductal, 3, 4--25) proposed that the apparent difficulty of animals in symmetry testing reflects their double encoding of the information on the stimuli (identity and relation) and their positional (i.e., spatial and temporal/ordinal) characteristics. This comparative study tested the emergence of symmetry in humans and baboons in a task in which the position of the stimuli was manipulated independently of their relation. Humans and baboons initially learned to associate pairs of visual shapes on a touch screen in a specific order. Three pairs of (A-B, C-D, and E-F) stimuli were used in training. After training, the two species were tested with the B-A, F-C, and E-D pairs. The B-A pairs preserved the association initially learned with A-B but reversed the positional information relative to training. The F-C pair neither preserved the association nor the positional information of the training pairs, and positional information were the only cues preserved in the E-D pair. Humans showed a response time advantage for B-A, suggesting symmetry, but also for E-D, suggesting that they also process positional information. In baboons, the advantage was found only for E-D, suggesting that they only process positional information. These results confirm that the processing of stimulus pairs differ between nonhuman animals to humans.

  19. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  20. Genome-wide identification and functional annotation of miRNAs in anti-inflammatory plant and their cross-kingdom regulation in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Sahu, Sarika; Kumari, Pooja; Gopi, Soundhara Rajan; Malhotra, Rajesh; Biswas, Sagarika

    2017-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered non-coding small (~17-24 nucleotide) RNAs that regulate gene expression of its target mRNA at the post-transcriptional levels. In this study, total 12,593 ESTs of Curcuma longa were taken from database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST) and clustered into 2821 contigs using EGassembler web server. Precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) were predicted from these contigs that folded into stem-loop structure using MFold server. Thirty-four mature C. longa miRNAs (clo-miRNAs) were identified from pre-miRNAs having targets involved in various important functions of plant such as self-defence, growth and development, alkaloid metabolic pathway and ethylene signalling process. Sequence analysis of identified clo-miRNAs indicated that 56% miRNAs belong to ORF and 44% belong to non-ORF region. clo-mir-5 and clo-mir-6 were established as the conserved miRNAs, whereas clo-mir-20 was predicted to be the most stable miRNA. Phylogenetic analysis carried out by molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software indicated close evolutionary relationship of clo-mir-5075 with osa-MIR5075. Further, identified clo-miRNAs were checked for their cross-kingdom regulatory potential. clo-mir-14 was found to regulate various gene transcripts in humans that has been further investigated for its biostability in foetal bovine serum (FBS). The results indicated higher degree of stability of clo-mir-14 (48 h) in FBS. Thus, contribution of this miRNA to the cellular immune response during the inflamed condition of rheumatoid arthritis and adequate stability may make it a good choice for the therapeutic agent in near future.

  1. Structural insight with mutational impact on tyrosinase and PKC-β interaction from Homo sapiens: Molecular modeling and docking studies for melanogenesis, albinism and increased risk for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-10-30

    Human tyrosinase, is an important protein for biosynthetic pathway of melanin. It was studied to be phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase-C, β-subunit (PKC-β) through earlier experimentations with in vivo evidences. Documentation documents that mutation in two essentially vital serine residues in C-terminal end of tyrosinase leads to albinism. Due to the deficiency of protective shield like enzyme; melanin, albinos are at an increased peril for melanoma and other skin cancers. So, computational and residue-level insight including a mutational exploration with evolutionary importance into this mechanism lies obligatory for future pathological and therapeutic developments. Therefore, functional tertiary models of the relevant proteins were analyzed after satisfying their stereo-chemical features. Evolutionarily paramount residues for the activation of tyrosinase were perceived via multiple sequence alignment phenomena. Mutant-type tyrosinase protein (S98A and S102A) was thereby modeled, maintaining the wild-type proteins' functionality. Furthermore, this present comparative study discloses the variation in the stable residual participation (for mutant-type and wild-type tyrosinase-PKCβ complex). Mainly, an increased number of polar negatively charged residues from the wild-type tyrosinase participated with PKC-β, predominantly. Fascinatingly supported by evaluation of statistical significances, mutation even led to a destabilizing impact in tyrosinase accompanied by conformational switches with a helix-to-coil transition in the mutated protein. Even the allosteric sites in the protein got poorly hampered upon mutation leading to weaker tendency for binding partners to interact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  3. Homo erectus in Salkhit, Mongolia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    In 2006, a skullcap was discovered in Salkhit, Mongolia. The Salkhit skullcap has a mostly complete frontal, two partially complete parietals, and nasals. No chronometric dating has been published yet, and suggested dates range from early Middle Pleistocene to terminal Late Pleistocene. While no chronometric date has been published, the presence of archaic features has led to a potential affiliation with archaic hominin species. If it is indeed Homo erectus or archaic Homo sapiens, Salkhit implies a much earlier spread of hominins farther north and inland Asia than previously thought. In this paper, the nature of the archaic features in Salkhit is investigated. The Salkhit skullcap morphology and metrics were compared with Middle and Late Pleistocene hominin fossils from northeast Asia: Zhoukoudian Locality 1, Dali, and Zhoukoudian Upper Cave. Results show an interesting pattern: on one hand, the archaic features that Salkhit shares with the Zhoukoudian Locality 1 sample also are shared with other later hominins; on the other hand, Salkhit is different from the Middle Pleistocene materials in the same way later hominins differ from the Middle Pleistocene sample, in having a broader frontal and thinner supraorbital region. This may reflect encephalization and gracilization, a modernization trend found in many places. It is concluded that the archaic features observed in Salkhit are regionally predominant features rather than diagnostic features of an archaic species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Further morphological evidence on South African earliest Homo lower postcanine dentition: Enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Dumoncel, Jean; de Beer, Frikkie; Hoffman, Jakobus; Thackeray, John Francis; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Braga, José

    2016-07-01

    The appearance of the earliest members of the genus Homo in South Africa represents a key event in human evolution. Although enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction (EDJ) morphology preserve important information about hominin systematics and dietary adaptation, these features have not been sufficiently studied with regard to early Homo. We used micro-CT to compare enamel thickness and EDJ morphology among the mandibular postcanine dentitions of South African early hominins (N = 30) and extant Homo sapiens (N = 26), with special reference to early members of the genus Homo. We found that South African early Homo shows a similar enamel thickness distribution pattern to modern humans, although three-dimensional average and relative enamel thicknesses do not distinguish australopiths, early Homo, and modern humans particularly well. Based on enamel thickness distributions, our study suggests that a dietary shift occurred between australopiths and the origin of the Homo lineage. We also observed that South African early Homo postcanine EDJ combined primitive traits seen in australopith molars with derived features observed in modern human premolars. Our results confirm that some dental morphological patterns in later Homo actually occurred early in the Homo lineage, and highlight the taxonomic value of premolar EDJ morphology in hominin species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative skeletal features between Homo floresiensis and patients with primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Kornreich, Liora; Laron, Zvi

    2007-10-01

    Comparison between the skeletal remains of Homo floresiensis and the auxological and roentgenological findings in a large Israeli cohort of patients with Laron Syndrome (LS, primary or classical GH insensitivity or resistance) revealed striking morphological similarities, including extremely small stature and reduced cranial volume. LS is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a molecular defect of the Growth Hormone (GH) receptor or in the post-receptor cascades. Epidemiological studies have shown that LS occurs more often in consanguineous families and isolates, and it has been described in several countries in South East Asia. It is our conclusion that the findings from the island of Flores, which were attributed to a new species of the genus Homo, may in fact represent a local, highly inbred, Homo sapiens population in whom a mutation for the GH receptor had occurred. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris; Nunn, Charles L; Machanda, Zarin; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-08-30

    Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. Here, we assess the inferred evolutionary consequences of food processing in the human lineage by applying a Bayesian phylogenetic outlier test to a comparative dataset of feeding time in humans and nonhuman primates. We find that modern humans spend an order of magnitude less time feeding than predicted by phylogeny and body mass (4.7% vs. predicted 48% of daily activity). This result suggests that a substantial evolutionary rate change in feeding time occurred along the human branch after the human-chimpanzee split. Along this same branch, Homo erectus shows a marked reduction in molar size that is followed by a gradual, although erratic, decline in H. sapiens. We show that reduction in molar size in early Homo (H. habilis and H. rudolfensis) is explicable by phylogeny and body size alone. By contrast, the change in molar size to H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens cannot be explained by the rate of craniodental and body size evolution. Together, our results indicate that the behaviorally driven adaptations of food processing (reduced feeding time and molar size) originated after the evolution of Homo but before or concurrent with the evolution of H. erectus, which was around 1.9 Mya.

  7. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo (including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group 'distinctness values') was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of 'distinctness values' was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of 'distinctness values' test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups among the

  8. Emergence of Darwinian theories on evolution of Homo sapiens (Catarrhini: Hominidae and their relevance for social sciences Origen de las teorías darwinianas de la evolución de Homo sapiens (Catarrhini: Hominidae y su importancia para las ciencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN MANRÍQUEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great impact that the Darwinian theories on organic evolution have had in the development and consolidation of biology as an autonomous scientific discipline, their relevance in social sciences, and particularly in archaeology and anthropology still remain ambiguous. This ambiguity is reflected in the classical interpretation of Darwin's work pervading Social Sciences during more than one century, according to which the same ideas that contributed to the understanding of natural processes from a scientific perspective would be at the basis of a misleading interpretation of the evolution of human societies due to the application of the principie of natural selection to the social processes. Here we show how the works of T.H. Huxley and A.R. Wallace positively stimulated Darwin to answer to the question about the origin of human populations considering culture from an evolutionary perspective as a factor opposed to the negative action of natural selection on human societies, thus refuting the classical interpretation of Darwin's work made by Social Sciences. The role played by the biocultural approach in understanding human evolution as well as in promoting the integrative thinking in Social Sciences is also discussed.A pesar del enorme impacto que las teorías de Darwin sobre la evolución orgánica han tenido en el desarrollo y la consolidación de la biología como disciplina científica autónoma, su pertinencia en ciencias sociales, y particularmente en arqueología y antropología sigue siendo ambigua. Esta ambigüedad se refleja en la interpretación clásica de la obra de Darwin que ha permanecido en las ciencias sociales durante más de un siglo, según la cual las mismas ideas que contribuyeron a la comprension de los procesos naturales desde una perspectiva científica estarían en la base de una interpretación errónea de la evolución de las sociedades humanas debido a la aplicación del principio de la selección natural a los procesos sociales. Se muestra cómo la obra de T.H. Huxley y AR. Wallace estimularon positivamente a Darwin para responder a la pregunta sobre el origen de las poblaciones humanas. Esta respuesta consideró a la cultura desde una perspectiva evolutiva y como un factor opuesto a la acción negativa de la selección natural en las sociedades humanas, rechazándose así la interpretación clásica de la obra de Darwin formulada desde las ciencias sociales. Se discute el rol que juega el enfoque biocultural en la comprension de la evolución humana así como en promover el pensamiento integrativo en las ciencias sociales.

  9. Fractal dimension of the middle meningeal vessels: variation and evolution in Homo erectus, Neanderthals, and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Mantini, Simone; Perna, Agostino; Maffei, Carlotta; Manzi, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The middle meningeal vascular network leaves its traces on the endocranial surface because of the tight relationship between neurocranial development and brain growth. Analysing the endocast of fossil specimens, it is therefore possible to describe the morphology of these structures, leading inferences on the cerebral physiology and metabolism in extinct human groups. In this paper, general features of the meningeal vascular traces are described for specimens included in the Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens hypodigms. The complexity of the arterial network is quantified by its fractal dimension, calculated through the box-counting method. Modern humans show significant differences from the other two taxa because of the anterior vascular dominance and the larger fractal dimension. Neither the fractal dimension nor the anterior development are merely associated with cranial size increase. Considering the differences between Neanderthals and modern humans, these results may be interpreted in terms of phylogeny, cerebral functions, or cranial structural network.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0600 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94002.1| Skin aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94000.1| Skin... aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW99836.1| Skin ASpartic Protease [Homo sapiens] NP_690005.1 0.014 27% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0741 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94002.1| Skin aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94000.1| Skin... aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW99836.1| Skin ASpartic Protease [Homo sapiens] NP_690005.1 0.023 29% ...

  12. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0755 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical protein FLJ13236 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH33236.1| Hypothetical protein FLJ13236 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW5806...6.1| hypothetical protein FLJ13236, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW58067.1| hypothetical protein FLJ1323...LGGPVGLHHLYLGRDNHALLWMLTLGGFGFGWLWELWMLPGWVAQANHPLEKRHNDPPSFNPVRFLGQALVGIYFGLVALVGLSTLPGFYILALPLAVGLGVHLVSAVGNQTSDLQATLMAAFVTAPI...6, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] 2e-95 61% MWDATFYYSFLLRTSASQQDVPPFTVMAKRLLVAVAFWA

  13. Sapiens nihil affirmat quod non probat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carchedi, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to Ernesto Screpanti's critique of Guglielmo Carchedi's approach to Marx's transformation procedure. It argues that there is no logical inconsistency in that procedure once one introduces time, rather than denying it as Marx's critics do. Further, it examines Screpanti's critique

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-69 49% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1442 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-77 54% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0433 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0433 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-176 92% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1335 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1335 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 9e-77 50% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1413 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1413 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-79 50% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0007 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-57 52% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0525 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0525 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-36 45% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-159 84% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-64 46% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2856 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2856 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-41 47% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-94 57% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0756 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0756 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-66 52% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1400 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1400 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-34 52% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1283 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1283 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-90 57% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1264 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1264 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-92 58% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-100 59% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0913 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0913 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-50 41% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1096 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1096 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-30 36% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-88 53% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1086 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-43 59% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0125 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-85 67% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1154 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-34 53% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0013 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-45 40% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-101 58% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0279 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0279 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-68 64% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1309 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1309 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 71% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0639 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0639 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 7e-57 61% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0127 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-63 60% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1119 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-52 63% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-45 49% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-98 58% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0061 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 59% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0121 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-81 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1201 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1201 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-49 56% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1110 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1110 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 56% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0101 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0101 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-93 58% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0487 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0487 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-34 52% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0472 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-93 59% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0268 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0268 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 8e-48 60% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-59 65% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-100 59% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 0.0 95% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0123 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0123 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-66 57% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-12-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-12-0079 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 0.0 96% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0902 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0902 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-58 43% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1685 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1685 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-38 44% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 7e-94 56% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0227 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0227 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 91% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2981 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2981 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 90% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0022 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 97% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2099 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 1e-122 73% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1933 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1933 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 82% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1563 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1563 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 88% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-02-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-02-0020 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 93% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1953 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1953 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 82% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1463 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1463 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 93% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0835 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0835 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 6e-90 91% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0025 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 91% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-04-0069 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 91% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1293 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1293 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 93% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-01-0038 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-01-0038 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 100% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0950 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0950 gb|AAG28020.1| hypocretin receptor-1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL47214.1| hypocretin... receptor 1; orexin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL50221.1| hypocretin receptor 1 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAH74796.1| Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX07602.1| hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1, isoform CRA_c [Homo sapiens] AAG28020.1 0.0 76% ...

  16. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain shape in human microcephalics and Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wayhu; Imhof, Herwig; Seidler, Horst; Prior, Fred

    2007-02-13

    Because the cranial capacity of LB1 (Homo floresiensis) is only 417 cm(3), some workers propose that it represents a microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species. This hypothesis is difficult to assess, however, without a clear understanding of how brain shape of microcephalics compares with that of normal humans. We compare three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions of the internal braincases (virtual endocasts that reproduce details of external brain morphology, including cranial capacities and shape) from a sample of 9 microcephalic humans and 10 normal humans. Discriminant and canonical analyses are used to identify two variables that classify normal and microcephalic humans with 100% success. The classification functions classify the virtual endocast from LB1 with normal humans rather than microcephalics. On the other hand, our classification functions classify a pathological H. sapiens specimen that, like LB1, represents an approximately 3-foot-tall adult female and an adult Basuto microcephalic woman that is alleged to have an endocast similar to LB1's with the microcephalic humans. Although microcephaly is genetically and clinically variable, virtual endocasts from our highly heterogeneous sample share similarities in protruding and proportionately large cerebella and relatively narrow, flattened orbital surfaces compared with normal humans. These findings have relevance for hypotheses regarding the genetic substrates of hominin brain evolution and may have medical diagnostic value. Despite LB1's having brain shape features that sort it with normal humans rather than microcephalics, other shape features and its small brain size are consistent with its assignment to a separate species.

  18. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Melián, Angel; Rosas, Antonio; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2011-08-01

    The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral occipito-petalias, point out a slightly differential configuration of the neandertal brain when compared to other Homo species, especially H. sapiens. The neandertal dural sinus drainage pattern is organized in a more asymmetric mode, in such a way that the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) drains either to the right or to the left transverse sinuses, but in no case in a confluent mode (i.e. simultaneous continuation of SSS with both right (RTS) and left (LTS) transverse sinuses). Besides, the superior sagittal sinus shows an accentuated deviation from of the mid-sagittal plane in its way to the RTS in 35% of neandertals. This condition, which increases the asymmetry of the system, is almost nonexistent neither in the analyzed Homo fossil species sample nor in that of anatomically modern humans. Regarding the cerebral occipito-petalias, neandertals manifest one of the lowest percentages of left petalia of the Homo sample (including modern H. sapiens). As left occipito-petalia is the predominant pattern in hominins, it seems as if neandertals would have developed a different pattern of brain hemispheres asymmetry. Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo(including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group ‘distinctness values’) was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of ‘distinctness values’ was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of ‘distinctness values’ test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups

  20. Cranial base morphology and temporal bone pneumatization in Asian Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2006-10-01

    The external morphological features of the temporal bone are used frequently to determine taxonomic affinities of fossils of the genus Homo. Temporal bone pneumatization has been widely studied in great apes and in early hominids. However, this feature is rarely examined in the later hominids, particularly in Asian Homo erectus. We provide a comparative morphological and quantitative analysis of Asian Homo erectus from the sites of Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Zhoukoudian, and of Neandertals and anatomically modern Homo sapiens in order to discuss causes and modalities of temporal bone pneumatization during hominid evolution. The evolution of temporal bone pneumatization in the genus Homo is more complex than previously described. Indeed, the Zhoukoudian fossils have a unique pattern of temporal bone pneumatization, whereas Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Neandertals, more closely resemble the modern human pattern. Moreover, these Chinese fossils are characterized by a wide midvault and a relatively narrow occipital bone. Our results support the point of view that cell development does not play an active role in determining cranial base morphology. Instead, pneumatization is related to available space and to temporal bone morphology, and its development is related to correlated morphology and the relative disposition of the bones and cerebral lobes. Because variation in pneumatization is extensive within the same species, the phyletic implications of pneumatization are limited in the taxa considered here.

  1. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complementation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Clones with Lentivirus Expression Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Description HRAS Homo sapiens v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS), transcript 1 CDC25C Homo sapiens cell division cycle 25...homolog C (CDC25C), transcript variant 1 MYC Homo sapiens v-myc myeloctomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) (MYC) MAP3K7 Homo sapiens mitogen...activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) MAP3K8 Homo sapiens mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) SF3B1 Homo sapiens

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 76% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1207 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 87% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0677 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0677 ref|NP_055456.2| mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapien...tor with BRCT domains 1 emb|CAI17440.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18195.1| mediator... of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX03321.1| mediator of DNA ...damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ06814.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ06770.1| mediator... of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ07572.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoi

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1679 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ning 1 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9Y239|NOD1_HUMAN Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (Caspase recruitment...6897.1| unknown [Homo sapiens] gb|EAL24453.1| caspase recruitment domain family, member 4 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93945.1| caspase recru...itment domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93946.1| caspase recruitment... domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93947.1| caspase recruitment... domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93949.1| caspase recruitment

  8. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-0100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98% ref|NP_001004479.1| olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q8NGC9|O11H4_...transmembrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] tpg|DAA04853.1| TPA_inf: olfactory receptor OR14-36 [Homo sapi...ens] gb|EAW66484.1| olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapi...ens] gb|AAI37056.1| Olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI37055.1| Olfac...tory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAI47453.1| ol

  9. A new Homo erectus (Zhoukoudian V) brain endocast from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujie; Schepartz, Lynne A; Liu, Wu

    2010-01-22

    A new Homo erectus endocast, Zhoukoudian (ZKD) V, is assessed by comparing it with ZKD II, ZKD III, ZKD X, ZKD XI, ZKD XII, Hexian, Trinil II, Sambungmacan (Sm) 3, Sangiran 2, Sangiran 17, KNM-ER 3733, KNM-WT 15 000, Kabwe, Liujiang and 31 modern Chinese. The endocast of ZKD V has an estimated endocranial volume of 1140 ml. As the geological age of ZKD V is younger than the other ZKD H. erectus, evolutionary changes in brain morphology are evaluated. The brain size of the ZKD specimens increases slightly over time. Compared with the other ZKD endocasts, ZKD V shows important differences, including broader frontal and occipital lobes, some indication of fuller parietal lobes, and relatively large brain size that reflect significant trends documented in later hominin brain evolution. Bivariate and principal component analyses indicate that geographical variation does not characterize the ZKD, African and other Asian specimens. The ZKD endocasts share some common morphological and morphometric features with other H. erectus endocasts that distinguish them from Homo sapiens.

  10. Gene : CBRC-TSYR-01-0335 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ute carrier family 46, member 3 isoform b [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH60850.1| SLC46A3 protein [Homo sapiens] emb|C...AI17158.1| novel protein [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX08438.1| hypothetical protein LOC283537, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapi...YMLFKNASGRQRSLLCLLLFTMITYFFLVVGVAPIFILYELDSPLCWSEVFIGYGSALGSASFFTSFLGIWLFSYCMEDIHMAFIGIFTTMVGMAVIAFARTTLMMFLGEFQM ...

  11. Study of a temporal bone of Homo heildelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Rafael; Botella, Miguel; Ciges, Miguel

    2005-05-01

    The characteristic features of the Hh specimen conformed to those of other Pleistocene human fossils, indicating strong cranial structures and a heavy mandible. The mastoid was large and suggested a powerful sternocleidomastoid muscle. The inner ear and tympanic cavities were similar in size and orientation, suggesting that their functions were probably similar. Our observations suggest that the left ear of this Hh specimen was healthy. The large canaliculo-fenestral angle confirms that this ancestor was bipedal. It also strongly suggests that Hh individuals were predisposed to develop certain pathologies of the labyrinth capsule associated with bipedalism, in particular otosclerosis. We studied a temporal bone of Homo heidelbergensis (Hh) in order to investigate the clinical and physiological implications of certain morphological features, especially those associated with the evolutionary reorganization of the inner ear. The bone, found in a breach of a cave near MAáaga in southern Spain, together with Middle Upper Pleistocene faunal remains, is >300000 years old. Four analytical methods were employed. A 3D high-resolution surface laser scan was used for anatomical measurements. For the sectional analysis of the middle and inner ears of Hh we used high-resolution CT, simultaneously studying a normal temporal bone from Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss). To study the middle and inner ear spaces we used 3D reconstruction CT preceded by an intra-bone air shielding technique. To examine the tympanic cavities and measure the canaliculo fenestral angle, we used a special minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. The surface, sectional and 3D CT examinations showed that the Hh specimen was generally more robust and larger than the Hss specimen. It had a large glenoid fossa. The external meatus was wide and deep. The middle ear, and especially the mastoid, was large and widely pneumatized. There were no appreciable differences in the position and size of the labyrinthine spaces

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0948 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0948 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1066 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0999 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0999 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2029 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0964 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0964 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1968 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1968 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1663 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1663 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0265 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-11-0146 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0146 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2275 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0573 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0573 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0995 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0995 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-18-0231 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-18-0231 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-14-0114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-14-0114 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2889 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2889 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0606 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0606 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2401 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-21-0240 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-21-0240 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0162 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0162 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0007 ref|NP_473371.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q96...LB1|MRGX2_HUMAN Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 gb|AAK91805.1| G protein-coupled receptor [Homo sapiens...] dbj|BAB89339.1| putative G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAC06030.1| seven trans...membrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH63450.1| MAS-related GPR, member X2 [Homo sapiens...] gb|AAW70056.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70057.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70058.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0131 ref|NP_149421.1| central cannabinoid receptor isoform b [Homo sap...iens] emb|CAA57019.1| central cannabinoid receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI19916.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (br...ain) [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW48575.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain), isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_149421.1 6e-31 29% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-08-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-08-0011 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-179 97% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0079 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-175 94% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1539 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1539 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-136 88% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0888 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0888 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-146 83% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0216 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0216 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 6e-97 55% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0027 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-157 86% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0338 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0338 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-166 91% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-29-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-29-0001 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-162 88% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-09-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-09-0018 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 0.0 100% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_001258.2| chondroadherin precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|O15335|CHAD_HUMAN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAK51556.1|AF371328_1 chondroadher...in [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH36360.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH73974.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW94613.1| chondroad

  16. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1144 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 [Homo sapiens] 1e-39 43% MYANRRLEMKMTTYCPNSRPCTDANASSPSPLSLPPSSLSPTSLSSPSLPLSPSSPPPSSPSSSSLSPSSPSLPLSPSSSPPPSPSS...SSSSLSPHHHHYHHHIITIITTFTIVTIIIIIIITIITVTTTITIITITAIITIITTTSITITIIIVTTITITAIITIIIVTNITITAIITIIITTFITIIIITVVITSSPSLSSPSS...PLSPPSPLSLSSSSSSSLSPPPSLSSPSLPLSPSSLSPTSLSSPSLPLSPSSSPPPSLSSLSPTSLSLPLSPSSPPPPSPSS...SSLSLSPHHHHYHHHYHHLHIITVIIIITITVVTVTIAIIIVTNITITAIITIITTSITIIIIIVIITSSPSLSPPLSSPLSPPSPSSPSSSLSLSLSPSPSS...LSPPSLSPSLPPLSPSSSSLSLSLSPHHYHYHHHHYHHLHHHHCHHHHYYCHYHHHHYHCHHLHHYHHCHQHHYHCHYHHHHHLHHHHDHHYHCLY

  17. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-0869 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Homo sapiens] 9e-73 57% MHPSIHASIHPFIHSSMHPSIHSSIHLSTIPSMHPSMNPCVHPSMH...PSIHASIHPFVHPSMHPFIHACIHPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIQPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESTHPSIHPFIHPFIHSSMRPSIHSSIHLSTIPSMHPSMN...PCTHPSVHPSIHSSIHLFVHPSMHPSIHSSIHPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIHPCIHPSVYHSIHAPI...HESMHPSIHASIQPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIHPSIYPSLLGLSRQDPTETPLSRVDKEKLTSPRGFPKRYGRSANTSVMQSMLSELTQSTLSERPCSQRHTVSPEWGVRGRVP ...

  18. Gene : CBRC-CJAC-01-0134 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D: similar to CG31901-PA [Homo sapiens] 1e-29 53% MGSSATMWDPGDDPGLTALCGSNVPSALRSGPTTRVLGDDSNSSALGGSTAPSALGSG...STSWEFSDDPSSSAFDDCTNTSALGSHPTTADIGDDPSSSALEDGTTPSALGSGPTNWGPGDDHTPQPWVAALSPQPGTLAITSPPQPWMTAPISQPWAVIPLIGTLV...MTPGLQPWVSAPPPQHWAVVLRSGTLGMTSRSQPWMTALISQPWAVVPLLGTLGMTPAAQPWMAAPIGQPWTVVPQHGTLV

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1073 ref|NP_000675.1| beta-1-adrenergic receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA51667.1| beta-1-adrenergi...c receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16920.1| adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_000675.1 1e-132 85% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1521 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1521 ref|NP_000675.1| beta-1-adrenergic receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA51667.1| beta-1-adrenergi...c receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16920.1| adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_000675.1 0.0 88% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0094 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0094 ref|NP_000675.1| beta-1-adrenergic receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA51667.1| beta-1-adrenergi...c receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16920.1| adrenergic, beta-1-, receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_000675.1 0.0 75% ...

  2. Technologies and Species Transitions: Polanyi, on a Path to Posthumanity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doede, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Polanyi and Transhumanism both place technologies in pivotal roles in bringing about "Homo sapiens"' species transitions. The question is asked whether Polanyi's emphasis on the role of technology in "Homo sapiens"' rise out of mute beasthood indicates that he might have been inclined to embrace the Transhumanist vision of "Homo sapiens"'…

  3. RNA Chimeras as a Gene Signature of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    www.plosone.org 11 August 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 8 | e41659 Human genes Human ACTB mRNA: >gi|168480144|ref|NM_001101.3| Homo sapiens actin, beta...TCCCCCTTTTTTGTCCCCCAACTTGAGATGTATGAAGGCTTTTGGTCTCCCTGGGAGTGGGTGGAGGCAGCCAGGGCTTACCTGTACACTGACTTGAGACCAGTTGAATAAA AGTGCACACCTTAAAAATGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Human GAPDH mRNA: >gi|83641890|ref|NM_002046.4| Homo sapiens ...Homo sapiens hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), mRNA

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1207 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72782.1| polycystic ...kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16677.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...ney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_733842.2 0.0 87% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72782.1| polycystic ...kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16677.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...ney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_733842.2 0.0 76% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1349 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1349 dbj|BAC11282.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ10191.1| caspase recruitment... domain family, member 10 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ08761.1| caspase recruitment domain family, member 10 [Homo sapiens] BAC11282.1 9.1 29% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0810 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0810 gb|AAF78563.1|AF224751_1 corneodesmosin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAF78564.1|AF224752_1 corn...eodesmosin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAG02419.1|AF286165_1 corneodesmosin [Homo sapiens] AAF78563.1 1e-149 83% ...

  8. Gene : CBRC-TSYR-01-0985 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available receptor OR19-18 [Homo sapiens] 2e-49 76% MEVTKGWVLRVGFFFGLFLSLYLIIVLGNLLIILAPISDSHLHTPMYFLLLNLSFVDISLVSTTIPKMLVSIQTHNKIITYAGCITQIYLFLLCVGLDSCLLTVMAYDWFVAICHPLKYLIIMIPRLCGLLVLIGGLVT ... ...1e-50 76% ref|NP_001005190.1| olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily A, member 10 [Homo sapiens] sp|O76100|...ST027 gb|AAC25627.1| BC85395_3 [Homo sapiens] tpg|DAA04620.1| TPA_inf: olfactory

  9. Description, new reconstruction, comparative anatomy, and classification of the Sterkfontein Stw 53 cranium, with discussions about the taxonomy of other southern African early Homo remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Tobias, Phillip V

    2006-01-01

    Specimen Stw 53 was recovered in 1976 from Member 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation. Since its incomplete initial description and comparison, the partial cranium has figured prominently in discussions about the systematics of early Homo. Despite publication of a preliminary reconstruction in 1985, Stw 53 has yet to be compared comprehensively to other Plio-Pleistocene fossils or assessed systematically. In this paper, we report on a new reconstruction of this specimen and provide a detailed description and comparison of its morphology. Our reconstruction differs in important respects from the earlier one, especially in terms of neurocranial length, breadth, and height. However, given that Stw 53 exhibits extensive damage, these dimensions are most likely prone to much error in reconstruction. In areas of well-preserved bone, Stw 53 shares many cranial features with Homo habilis, and we propose retaining it within this species. We also consider the affinities of dental remains from Sterkfontein Member 5, along with those from Swartkrans and Drimolen previously assigned to Homo. We find evidence for sympatry of H. habilis and Australopithecus robustus and possibly Plio-Pleistocene Homo sapiens sensu lato in Sterkfontein Member 5. At Swartkrans and Drimolen, we find evidence of H. habilis. We also compare the morphologies of Stw 53 and SK 847 and find compelling evidence to assign the latter specimen to H. habilis, as has been proposed.

  10. Spatial determinants of the mandibular curve of Spee in modern and archaic Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Myra F; Holton, Nathan E; Scott, Jill E; Franciscus, Robert G; Marshall, Steven D; Southard, Thomas E

    2016-10-01

    The curve of Spee (COS) is a mesio-distally curved alignment of the canine through distal molar cusp tips in certain mammals including modern humans and some fossil hominins. In humans, the alignment varies from concave to flat, and previous studies have suggested that this difference reflects craniofacial morphology, including the degree of alveolar prognathism. However, the relationship between prognathism and concavity of the COS has not been tested in craniofacially variant populations. We tested the hypothesis that greater alveolar prognathism covaries with a flatter COS in African-American and European-American populations. We further examined this relationship in fossil Homo including Homo neanderthalensis and early anatomically modern Homo sapiens, which are expected to extend the amount of variation in the COS from the extant sample. These hypotheses were tested using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Landmarks were recorded from the skulls of 166 African-Americans, 123 European-Americans, and 10 fossil hominin mandible casts. Landmarks were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis, principal components analysis, and two-block partial least squares analysis. We documented covariation between the COS and alveolar prognathism such that relatively prognathic individuals have a flatter COS. Mandibular data from the fossil hominin taxa generally confirm and extend this correlation across a greater range of facial size and morphology in Homo. Our results suggest that the magnitude of the COS is related to a suite of features associated with alveolar prognathism in modern humans and across anthropoids. We also discuss the implications for spatial interactions between the dental arches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Determinants and outcomes of acute transcatheter valve-in-valve therapy or embolization: a study of multiple valve implants in the U.S. PARTNER trial (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve Trial Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Raj R; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Chakravarty, Tarun; Fontana, Gregory P; Kapadia, Samir; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Cheng, Wen; Thourani, Vinod H; Bavaria, Joseph; Svensson, Lars; Kodali, Susheel; Shiota, Takahiro; Siegel, Robert; Tuzcu, E Murat; Xu, Ke; Hahn, Rebecca T; Herrmann, Howard C; Reisman, Mark; Whisenant, Brian; Lim, Scott; Beohar, Nirat; Mack, Michael; Teirstein, Paul; Rihal, Charanjit; Douglas, Pamela S; Blackstone, Eugene; Pichard, Augusto; Webb, John G; Leon, Martin B

    2013-07-30

    This study investigated the determinants and outcomes of acute insertion of a second transcatheter prosthetic valve (TV) within the first (TV-in-TV) or transcatheter valve embolization (TVE) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). TAVR failure can occur with both TV-in-TV and TVE as a consequence of TAVR malpositioning. Only case reports and limited series pertaining to these complications have been reported to date. Patients undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve Trial Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve) randomized trial (cohorts A and B) and accompanying registries were studied. Data were dichotomized for those with and without TV-in-TV or TVE, respectively. From a total of 2,554 consecutive patients, 63 (2.47%) underwent TV-in-TV and 26 (1.01%) TVE. The indication for TV-in-TV was significant aortic regurgitation in most patients, often due not only to malpositioning but also to leaflet dysfunction. Despite similar aortic valve function on follow-up echoes, TV-in-TV was an independent predictor of 1-year cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 3.38, p = 0.041), with a nonsignificant trend toward greater all-cause mortality (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 0.88 to 2.33, p = 0.15). Technical and anatomical reasons accounted for most cases of TVE. A multivariable analysis found TVE to be an independent predictor of 1-year mortality (HR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.34 to 5.36, p = 0.0055) but not cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.52, p = 0.60). Acute TV-in-TV and TVE are serious sequelae of TAVR, often resulting in multiple valve implants. They carry an excess of mortality and are caused by anatomic and technical factors, which may be avoidable with judicious procedural planning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early stone technology on Flores and its implications for Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Aziz, Fachroel; van den Bergh, Gert D; Morwood, Michael J; Moore, Mark W; Kurniawan, Iwan; Hobbs, Douglas R; Fullagar, Richard

    2006-06-01

    In the Soa Basin of central Flores, eastern Indonesia, stratified archaeological sites, including Mata Menge, Boa Lesa and Kobatuwa (Fig. 1), contain stone artefacts associated with the fossilized remains of Stegodon florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and various other taxa. These sites have been dated to 840-700 kyr bp (thousand years before present). The authenticity of the Soa Basin artefacts and their provenance have been demonstrated by previous work, but to quell lingering doubts, here we describe the context, attributes and production modes of 507 artefacts excavated at Mata Menge. We also note specific similarities, and apparent technological continuity, between the Mata Menge stone artefacts and those excavated from Late Pleistocene levels at Liang Bua cave, 50 km to the west. The latter artefacts, dated to between 95-74 and 12 kyr ago, are associated with the remains of a dwarfed descendent of S. florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and a small-bodied hominin species, Homo floresiensis, which had a brain size of about 400 cubic centimetres. The Mata Menge evidence negates claims that stone artefacts associated with H. floresiensis are so complex that they must have been made by modern humans (Homo sapiens).

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1316 ref|NP_057167.2| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001013035.1| cann...abinoid receptor 1 [Pan troglodytes] ref|NP_001027997.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 [Mac...aca mulatta] ref|NP_001153698.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153730.1| cannabi...noid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153731.1| cannabinoid receptor... 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001153732.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 isoform a [Homo sapiens] sp|P21554|CN

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0837 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0837 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-120 69% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-20-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-20-0025 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 0.0 100% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-10-0000 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 0.0 94% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1084 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-133 73% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1154 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-124 69% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0001 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 3e-78 62% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1614 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1614 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-150 79% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-23-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-23-0007 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-126 70% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-02-0427 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-02-0427 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 2e-71 53% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0572 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-171 89% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-12-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-12-0035 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-117 69% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-21-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-21-0026 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 0.0 96% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-23-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-23-0032 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-116 68% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0089 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0089 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-47 72% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0788 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0788 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-109 61% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0580 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0580 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-121 68% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-03-0524 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-03-0524 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 3e-41 55% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2114 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-129 76% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-07-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-07-0045 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-121 68% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0023 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-119 71% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-21-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-21-0027 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 0.0 99% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-26-0050 ref|NP_005277.2| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAC17004.1| neuropeptides... B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH67481.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAH67482.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW75161.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005277.2 1e-122 71% ...

  16. Gene : CBRC-PABE-12-0253 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1e-160 92% ref|NP_001002918.1| olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily D, member 2 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9GZM6|... receptor-like protein JCG2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAG43386.1| olfactory receptor-like protein JCG2 [Homo sapi...ens] tpg|DAA04600.1| TPA_inf: olfactory receptor OR11-303 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW67579....1| olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily D, member 2 [Homo sapiens] 1e-159 92% MTTSNHSSGAEFNLAGLTQRPELQLP...VIAEGYLLTAMAYDCCVAICRPLLYNIVMFHRVCSIMLAVVYSLGFLGATVHTTRMSVLSFCRSHTVSHYFCDILPLLTLSCSSTHINEILLFIIGGVNTLAPIMAVL

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-29-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-29-0009 ref|NP_068741.1| Fanconi anemia, complementation group E [Homo sa...piens] sp|Q9HB96|FANCE_HUMAN Fanconi anemia group E protein (Protein FACE) gb|AAG16743.1|AF265210_1 fanconi anemia... protein E [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH46359.1| Fanconi anemia, complementation group E [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD92504.1| Fanconi anemia..., complementation group E [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY26395.1| Fanconi anemia..., complementation group E [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX03830.1| Fanconi anemia, complementation group E

  18. "H. Sapiens" as Ecologically Special: What Does Language Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Don

    2007-01-01

    This paper inquires into the extent to which humans are specially constituted relative to other animals by their language. First a principled concept of evolutionary specialness is operationalized. Then it is agreed that humans satisfy the criteria for this sort of specialness in consequence of the kind of cultural evolution in which they have…

  19. New wrist bones of Homo floresiensis from Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Burnett, Scott E; Awe, Rokus Due; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Wasisto, Sri; Morwood, Michael J; Jungers, William L

    2013-02-01

    The carpals from the Homo floresiensis type specimen (LB1) lack features that compose the shared, derived complex of the radial side of the wrist in Neandertals and modern humans. This paper comprises a description and three-dimensional morphometric analysis of new carpals from at least one other individual at Liang Bua attributed to H. floresiensis: a right capitate and two hamates. The new capitate is smaller than that of LB1 but is nearly identical in morphology. As with capitates from extant apes, species of Australopithecus, and LB1, the newly described capitate displays a deeply-excavated nonarticular area along its radial aspect, a scaphoid facet that extends into a J-hook articulation on the neck, and a more radially-oriented second metacarpal facet; it also lacks an enlarged palmarly-positioned trapezoid facet. Because there is no accommodation for the derived, palmarly blocky trapezoid that characterizes Homo sapiens and Neandertals, this individual most likely had a plesiomorphically wedge-shaped trapezoid (like LB1). Morphometric analyses confirm the close similarity of the new capitate and that of LB1, and are consistent with previous findings of an overall primitive articular geometry. In general, hamate morphology is more conserved across hominins, and the H. floresiensis specimens fall at the far edge of the range of variation for H. sapiens in a number of metrics. However, the hamate of H. floresiensis is exceptionally small and exhibits a relatively long, stout hamulus lacking the oval-shaped cross-section characteristic of human and Neandertal hamuli (variably present in australopiths). Documentation of a second individual with primitive carpal anatomy from Liang Bua, along with further analysis of trapezoid scaling relative to the capitate in LB1, refutes claims that the wrist of the type specimen represents a modern human with pathology. In total, the carpal anatomy of H. floresiensis supports the hypothesis that the lineage leading to the

  20. Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, C E; Burgess, G W

    2015-05-01

    As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-3215 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-3215 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2154 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0353 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0353 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1608 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1608 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0282 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0282 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-16-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-16-0022 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0133 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0133 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0569 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0569 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2431 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1511 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1511 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-3054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-3054 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0015 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-23-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-23-0008 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-01-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-01-0032 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-02-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-02-0024 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0237 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0237 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0019 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1293 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1293 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-26-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-26-0004 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1490 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1490 ref|NP_001832.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapien...s] sp|P34972|CNR2_HUMAN Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (CB-2) (CX5) emb|CAA52376.1| CB2 (peripheral) cannabino...id receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22548.1| peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD22549.1| peripheral cann...abinoid receptor CB2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAO92299.1| cannabinoid r...eceptor 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14799.1| cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAJ42137.1| cann