WorldWideScience

Sample records for homo sapiens sapiens

  1. The Emergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, Boyce

    1980-01-01

    Describes chronologically the evolution of the human race on earth so as to refute Darwin's theory of descent from animals. Skull fragments from sites around the world suggest at least two possible routes toward the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens. (Author/SK)

  2. From Homo Economicus to Homo Sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    In responding to a request for predictions about the future of economics, I predict that Homo Economicus will evolve into Homo Sapiens, or, more simply put, economics will become more related to human behavior. My specific predictions are that Homo Economicus will start to lose IQ, will become a slower learner, will start interacting with other species, and that economists will start to study human cognition, human emotion, and will distinguish more clearly between normative and descriptive t...

  3. A comparison of tooth structure in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens sapiens: a radiographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, U; Smith, P

    1992-01-01

    Tooth components of 1st and 2nd erupted permanent molars were measured from standardised radiographs of Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Enamel height was greater in Homo sapiens sapiens but pulp height and width and the height of the enamel to floor of the pulp chamber were greater in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Dentine height, crown width and enamel width showed similar results in the two groups. Unerupted first molars were measured to analyse the influence of func...

  4. Paleoclimatic setting for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, N. T.; Ninkovich, D.; Rossignol-Strick, M.

    1982-01-01

    A paleoclimatic hypothesis is presented to account for the evolution and eventual replacement of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Neandertal populations in the European Late Pleistocene were largely isolated by geographic barriers. Populations of modern Homo sapiens replaced Neandertals at 34000 years ago, near the end of the relatively cold oxygen isotope stage 3. These population were pushed into Europe by conditions brought on by increasing aridity affecting North Africa and southwestern Asia, and their dispersal was facilitated by lowered sea level.

  5. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approx...

  6. Diagnosing Homo sapiens in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christopher Brian; Buck, Laura Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing Homo sapiens is a critical question in the study of human evolution. Although what constitutes living members of our own species is straightforward, in the fossil record this is still a matter of much debate. The issue is complicated by questions of species diagnoses and ideas about the mode by which a new species is born, by the arguments surrounding the behavioural and cognitive separateness of the species, by the increasing appreciation of variation in the early African H. sapiens record and by new DNA evidence of hybridization with extinct species. This study synthesizes thinking on the fossils, archaeology and underlying evolutionary models of the last several decades with recent DNA results from both H. sapiens and fossil species. It is concluded that, although it may not be possible or even desirable to cleanly partition out a homogenous morphological description of recent H. sapiens in the fossil record, there are key, distinguishing morphological traits in the cranium, dentition and pelvis that can be usefully employed to diagnose the H. sapiens lineage. Increasing advances in retrieving and understanding relevant genetic data provide a complementary and perhaps potentially even more fruitful means of characterizing the differences between H. sapiens and its close relatives.

  7. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 8. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Human Evolution. Sindhu Radhakrishna. General Article Volume 11 Issue 8 August 2006 pp 69-80. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary History. Sindhu Radhakrishna. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned. Thus, it is likely that the African fossil record will document early members of the sapiens lineage showing only some of the derived features of late members of the lineage. On that basis, I argue that human fossils such as those from Jebel Irhoud, Florisbad, Eliye Springs and Omo Kibish 2 do represent early members of the species, but variation across the African later middle Pleistocene/early Middle Stone Age fossils shows that there was not a simple linear progression towards later sapiens morphology, and there was chronological overlap between different 'archaic' and 'modern' morphs. Even in the late Pleistocene within and outside Africa, we find H. sapiens specimens which are clearly outside the range of Holocene members of the species, showing the complexity of recent human evolution. The impact on species recognition of late Pleistocene gene flow between the lineages of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans is also discussed, and finally, I reconsider the nature of the middle Pleistocene ancestor of these lineages, based on recent morphological and genetic data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1. Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan dos dilemas éticos: la violencia y el incestoEste artigo reflete sobre os encontros e desencontros entre o ser humano e os demais animais, enquanto membros de sistemas em permanente interação(1. Seu principal objetivo é abordar a definição de Homo, traçar um panorama de sua evolução biológica e cultural e refletir sobre os resquícios da animalidade que permanecem no comportamento social do Homo sapiens-sapiens. Busca-se refletir sobre os dilemas morais que acompanham o homem enquanto ser cultural, o que para isso são considerados como dilemas éticos: a violência e o incestoThis paper reflects on the similarities and differences between human beings and animals as members of systems in permanent interaction. The main goal is to define Homo, reviewing his/her biological and cultural evolution and reflecting on the animal social behaviors that still remain in Homo sapiens-sapiens. The paper reflect on the moral dilemmas present in humans as cultural beings, taking as example the ethical dilemmas of violence and incest

  11. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  12. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    .... sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh...

  13. Yawn contagion and empathy in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The ability to share others' emotions, or empathy, is crucial for complex social interactions. Clinical, psychological, and neurobiological clues suggest a link between yawn contagion and empathy in humans (Homo sapiens). However, no behavioral evidence has been provided so far. We tested the effect of different variables (e.g., country of origin, sex, yawn characteristics) on yawn contagion by running mixed models applied to observational data collected over 1 year on adult (>16 years old) human subjects. Only social bonding predicted the occurrence, frequency, and latency of yawn contagion. As with other measures of empathy, the rate of contagion was greatest in response to kin, then friends, then acquaintances, and lastly strangers. Related individuals (r≥0.25) showed the greatest contagion, in terms of both occurrence of yawning and frequency of yawns. Strangers and acquaintances showed a longer delay in the yawn response (latency) compared to friends and kin. This outcome suggests that the neuronal activation magnitude related to yawn contagion can differ as a function of subject familiarity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that yawn contagion is primarily driven by the emotional closeness between individuals and not by other variables, such as gender and nationality.

  14. Yawn contagion and empathy in Homo sapiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    Full Text Available The ability to share others' emotions, or empathy, is crucial for complex social interactions. Clinical, psychological, and neurobiological clues suggest a link between yawn contagion and empathy in humans (Homo sapiens. However, no behavioral evidence has been provided so far. We tested the effect of different variables (e.g., country of origin, sex, yawn characteristics on yawn contagion by running mixed models applied to observational data collected over 1 year on adult (>16 years old human subjects. Only social bonding predicted the occurrence, frequency, and latency of yawn contagion. As with other measures of empathy, the rate of contagion was greatest in response to kin, then friends, then acquaintances, and lastly strangers. Related individuals (r≥0.25 showed the greatest contagion, in terms of both occurrence of yawning and frequency of yawns. Strangers and acquaintances showed a longer delay in the yawn response (latency compared to friends and kin. This outcome suggests that the neuronal activation magnitude related to yawn contagion can differ as a function of subject familiarity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that yawn contagion is primarily driven by the emotional closeness between individuals and not by other variables, such as gender and nationality.

  15. What constitutes Homo sapiens? Morphology versus received wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2016-06-20

    Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H. sapiens? When in 1950 Mayr collapsed all human fossils into Homo, he not only denied humans a diverse evolutionary past, he also shifted the key to identifying its species from morphology to geological age - a practice most paleoanthropologists still follow. Thus, for example, H. erectus is the species that preceded H. sapiens, and H. sapiens is the species into which H. erectus morphed. In order to deal with a growing morass of morphologically dissimilar specimens, the non-taxonomic terms "archaic" (AS) and "anatomically modern" (AMS) were introduced to distinguish between the earlier and later versions of H. sapiens, thereby making the species impossible to define. In attempting to disentangle fact from scenario, I begin from the beginning, trying to delineate features that may be distinctive of extant humans (ES), and then turning to the fossils that have been included in the species. With the exception of Upper Paleolithic humans - e.g. from Cro-Magnon, Dolni Vestonice, Mladeč - I argue that many specimens regarded as AMS, and all those deemed AS, are not H. sapiens. The features these AMS do share with ES suggest the existence of a sapiens clade. Further, restudy of near-recent fossils, especially from southwestern China (∼11-14.5 ka), reinforces what discoveries such as H. floresiensis indicate: "If it's recent, it's not necessarily H. sapiens".

  16. Stravovacích návyky z hlediska fylogeneze Homo sapiens sapiens.

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis on the synthesis of literature, is attempting to create an overview of our human ancestor's dietary habits. The time frame is from the oldest representative of the hominoid family, genus Ardipithecus ramidus, to neolithic Homo sapiens.This will show the connection between the changing food spectrum and the phylogeny of our species.

  17. Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D; Bailey, Geoff; Scerri, Eleanor M L; Parton, Ash; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Jennings, Richard P; Lewis, Laura; Blinkhorn, James; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul S; Inglis, Robyn H; Devès, Maud H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew; Boivin, Nicole; Thomas, Mark G; Scally, Aylwyn

    2015-01-01

    Current fossil, genetic, and archeological data indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa in the late Middle Pleistocene. By the end of the Late Pleistocene, our species was distributed across every continent except Antarctica, setting the foundations for the subsequent demographic and cultural changes of the Holocene. The intervening processes remain intensely debated and a key theme in hominin evolutionary studies. We review archeological, fossil, environmental, and genetic data to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa. The emerging picture of the dispersal process suggests dynamic behavioral variability, complex interactions between populations, and an intricate genetic and cultural legacy. This evolutionary and historical complexity challenges simple narratives and suggests that hybrid models and the testing of explicit hypotheses are required to understand the expansion of Homo sapiens into Eurasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sacral Variability in Tailless Species: Homo sapiens and Ochotona princeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Homo sapiens is variable in number of sacral vertebrae, and this variability can lead to obstetrical complication. This study uses the comparative method to test the hypothesis that sacral variability in H. sapiens is associated with absence of a tail. Three species of lagomorphs are studied: Ochotona princeps (N = 271), which is tailless, and Lepus californicus (N = 212) and Sylvilagus audubonii (N = 206), which have tails. Results show that O. princeps has (1) higher diversity index for number of sacral vertebrae (0.49) compared to L. californicus (0.25) and S. audubonii (0.26) and (2) significantly higher percentage of individuals with the species-specific nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (43.9%) compared to L. californicus (14.2%) and S. audubonii (15.5%). Comparison of H. sapiens (N = 1,030; individuals of age 20-39 years) with O. princeps shows similarities between the species in diversity index (also 0.49 in H. sapiens) and percentage of individuals with nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (37.3% in H. sapiens). Homeotic transformation best explains the results. H. sapiens and O. princeps show propensity for caudal shift at the sacral-caudal border (i.e., homeotic transformation of the first caudal vertebra to a sacral vertebra). Caudal and cranial shift among presacral vertebrae increases or decreases this propensity, respectively. Increase in number of sacral vertebrae in H. sapiens by homeotic transformation reduces pelvic outlet capacity and can be obstetrically hazardous. Anat Rec, 300:798-809, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    .... However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years...

  20. Fossil evidence for the origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Our species Homo sapiens has never received a satisfactory morphological definition. Deriving partly from Linnaeus's exhortation simply to "know thyself," and partly from the insistence by advocates of the Evolutionary Synthesis in the mid-20th Century that species are constantly transforming ephemera that by definition cannot be pinned down by morphology, this unfortunate situation has led to huge uncertainty over which hominid fossils ought to be included in H. sapiens, and even over which of them should be qualified as "archaic" or as "anatomically modern," a debate that is an oddity in the broader context of paleontology. Here, we propose a suite of features that seems to characterize all H. sapiens alive today, and we review the fossil evidence in light of those features, paying particular attention to the bipartite brow and the "chin" as examples of how, given the continuum from developmentally regulated genes to adult morphology, we might consider features preserved in fossil specimens in a comparative analysis that includes extant taxa. We also suggest that this perspective on the origination of novelty, which has gained a substantial foothold in the general field of evolutionary developmental biology, has an intellectual place in paleoanthropology and hominid systematics, including in defining our species, H. sapiens. Beginning solely with the distinctive living species reveals a startling variety in morphologies among late middle and late Pleistocene hominids, none of which can be plausibly attributed to H. sapiens/H. neanderthalensis admixture. Allowing for a slightly greater envelope of variation than exists today, basic "modern" morphology seems to have appeared significantly earlier in time than the first stirrings of the modern symbolic cognitive system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2010-02-08

    LOC79017 (MW 21.0 kDa, residues 1-188) was annotated as a hypothetical protein encoded by Homo sapiens chromosome 7 open reading frame 24. It was selected as a target by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG) because it did not share more than 30% sequence identity with any protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known. The biological function of the protein has not been established yet. Parts of LOC79017 were identified as members of uncharacterized Pfam families (residues 1-95 as PB006073 and residues 104-180 as PB031696). BLAST searches revealed homologues of LOC79017 in many eukaryotes, but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the crystal structure of H. sapiens protein LOC79017 (UniGene code Hs.530024, UniProt code O75223, CESG target number go.35223).

  2. The evolution of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis miRNA targeting genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, Konstantin V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Rogaev, Eugeny I

    2015-01-01

    As the evolution of miRNA genes has been found to be one of the important factors in formation of the modern type of man, we performed a comparative analysis of the evolution of miRNA genes in two archaic hominines, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova, and elucidated the expression of their target mRNAs in bain. A comparative analysis of the genomes of primates, including species in the genus Homo, identified a group of miRNA genes having fixed substitutions with important implications for the evolution of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova. The mRNAs targeted by miRNAs with mutations specific for Homo sapiens denisova exhibited enhanced expression during postnatal brain development in modern humans. By contrast, the expression of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs bearing variations specific for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis was shown to be enhanced in prenatal brain development. Our results highlight the importance of changes in miRNA gene sequences in the course of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis evolution. The genetic alterations of miRNAs regulating the spatiotemporal expression of multiple genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain may contribute to the progressive evolution of brain function, which is consistent with the observations of fine technical and typological properties of tools and decorative items reported from archaeological Denisovan sites. The data also suggest that differential spatial-temporal regulation of gene products promoted by the subspecies-specific mutations in the miRNA genes might have occurred in the brains of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, potentially contributing to the cultural differences between these two archaic hominines.

  3. A Comprehensive Exploration of Java Man: Bio-Cultural Evolution from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono, Samuel J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An overlap of time period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens has not been confirmed. In the history of man, there have been two missing links: one between man and ape, and one between progressive Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens.  Specimen dating on Java Man has been discrepant among research groups, and the use of molecular biology in ancient specimens has been a novelty. This study intends to use fossilised specimens, to harvest DNA to be sequenced for ribosomal DNA anal...

  4. Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Gastaldon, Simone; O'Rourke, Thomas; Samuels, Bridget D; Messner, Angela; Martins, Pedro Tiago; Delogu, Francesco; Alamri, Saleh; Boeckx, Cedric

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest.

  5. Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Theofanopoulou

    Full Text Available This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest.

  6. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Human taxonomic diversity and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The term race is a traditional synonym for subspecies, however it is frequently asserted that Homo sapiens is monotypic and that what are termed races are nothing more than biological illusions. In this manuscript a case is made for the hypothesis that H. sapiens is polytypic, and in this way is no different from other species exhibiting similar levels of genetic and morphological diversity. First it is demonstrated that the four major definitions of race/subspecies can be shown to be synonymous within the context of the framework of race as a correlation structure of traits. Next the issue of taxonomic classification is considered where it is demonstrated that H. sapiens possesses high levels morphological diversity, genetic heterozygosity and differentiation (F(ST)) compared to many species that are acknowledged to be polytypic with respect to subspecies. Racial variation is then evaluated in light of the phylogenetic species concept, where it is suggested that the least inclusive monophyletic units exist below the level of species within H. sapiens indicating the existence of a number of potential human phylogenetic species; and the biological species concept, where it is determined that racial variation is too small to represent differentiation at the level of biological species. Finally the implications of this are discussed in the context of anthropology where an accurate picture of the sequence and timing of events during the evolution of human taxa are required for a complete picture of human evolution, and medicine, where a greater appreciation of the role played by human taxonomic differences in disease susceptibility and treatment responsiveness will save lives in the future.

  7. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...significantly attacked. Citation: Shakarian P, Wickiser JK (2012) Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. A Comprehensive Exploration of Java Man: Bio-Cultural Evolution from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Haryono

    2017-02-01

    An overlap of time period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens has not been confirmed. In the history of man, there have been two missing links: one between man and ape, and one between progressive Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens.  Specimen dating on Java Man has been discrepant among research groups, and the use of molecular biology in ancient specimens has been a novelty. This study intends to use fossilised specimens, to harvest DNA to be sequenced for ribosomal DNA analysis for comparative phylogeny among ancient and modern man and other hominids. Dental calculus will be analysed to identify starch, carbohydrate, and protein to illustrate paleo dietary pattern. Soil samples will be examined for pollen and phytoliths to elaborate on ancient ecosystem. Blood samples will be procured from indigenous people along the riverflow region of Bengawan Solo to analyse modern human DNA. We hope that we may reconstruct the evolution pathway, construct the phylogenetic tree between ancient and modern hominids, and discover the uniqueness of Homo sapiens sapiens. Keywords: Java Man, Ribosomal DNA, Hominid Phylogenetic,

  9. Genetic, physiologic and ecogeographic factors contributing to variation in Homo sapiens: Homo floresiensis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    A new species, Homo floresiensis, was recently named for Pleistocene hominid remains on Flores, Indonesia. Significant controversy has arisen regarding this species. To address controversial issues and refocus investigations, I examine the affinities of these remains with Homo sapiens. Clarification of problematic issues is sought through an integration of genetic and physiological data on brain ontogeny and evolution. Clarification of the taxonomic value of various 'primitive' traits is possible given these data. Based on this evidence and using a H. sapiens morphological template, models are developed to account for the combination of features displayed in the Flores fossils. Given this overview, I find substantial support for the hypothesis that the remains represent a variant of H. sapiens possessing a combined growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis modification and mutation of the MCPH gene family. Further work will be required to determine the extent to which this variant characterized the population.

  10. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  11. Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shara E; Benazzi, Stefano; Souday, Caroline; Astorino, Claudia; Paul, Kathleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    A significant number of Middle to Late Pleistocene sites contain primarily (and sometimes only) deciduous teeth (e.g., Grotta del Cavallo, Mezmaiskaya, Blombos). Not surprisingly, there has been a recent renewed interest in deciduous dental variation, especially in the context of distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Most studies of the deciduous dentition of fossil hominins have focused on standard metrical variation but morphological (non-metric and morphometric) variation also promises to shed light on long standing taxonomic questions. This study examines the taxonomic significance of the crown outline of the deciduous upper second molar through principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We examine whether or not the crown shape of the upper deciduous second molar separates H. neanderthalensis from H. sapiens and explore whether it can be used to correctly assign individuals to taxa. It builds on previous studies by focusing on crown rather than cervical outline and by including a large sample of geographically diverse recent human populations. Our samples include 17 H. neanderthalensis, five early H. sapiens, and 12 Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens. In addition, we include two Homo erectus specimens in order to evaluate the polarity of crown shape differences observed between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Our results show that crown outline shape discriminates H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis quite well, but does not do well at distinguishing H. erectus from H. sapiens. We conclude that the crown outline shape observed in H. sapiens is a primitive retention and that the skewed shape observed in H. neanderthalensis is a derived condition. Finally, we explore the phylogenetic implications of the results for the H. erectus molars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone strength and athletic ability in hominids: Ardipithecus ramidus to Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of the femur to resist bending stresses is determined by its midlength cross-sectional geometry, its length and the elastic properties of the mineral part of the bone. The animal's athletic ability, determined by a ``bone strength index,'' is limited by this femoral bending strength in relation to the loads on the femur. This analysis is applied to the fossil record for Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus afarensis and Ardipithecus ramidus. Evidence that the femoral bone strength index of modern Homo sapiens has weakened over the last 50,000 years is found.

  13. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the palatal size in Pan troglodytes, Hominids and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W H; Zoellner, A; Sebastian, T

    2004-12-01

    As the hard palate plays an important role in speech production it was the aim of this study whether similarities or dissimilarities in palatal size may allow conclusions about the ability to produce speech in the extant investigated species. The palatal size of Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis and Cro-Magnon has been investigated using euclidian distance matrix analysis (EDMA) and thin-plate-spline analysis. The results show that the palatal size of all australopithecine specimens and H. erectus is very similar to that of P toglodytes, whereas the palatal size of H. neanderthalensis more closely resembles that of H. sapiens. Postnatal development of palatal size in P troglodytes is different from that of H. sapiens. In P troglodytes not only the size of the palate changes but also the form. In H. sapiens there is little change in form, but a continuos uniform growth from infantile to adult specimens. From the results we conclude that in all australopithecine samples which have been investigated, the palatal size is similar to that of P troglodytes. Therefore, it is unlikely that austraopithecine individuals were capable of producing vowels and consonants. The palatal size of H. neandethalensis and Cro-Magnon is similar to that of H. sapiens which may indicate the possibility that they were capable of speech production.

  16. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, C C; Rink, W J; Antón, S C; Schwarcz, H P; Curtis, G H; Suprijo, A; Widiasmoro

    1996-12-13

    Hominid fossils from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, are considered the most morphologically advanced representatives of Homo erectus. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and mass spectrometric U-series dating of fossil bovid teeth collected from the hominid-bearing levels at these sites gave mean ages of 27 +/- 2 to 53.3 +/- 4 thousand years ago; the range in ages reflects uncertainties in uranium migration histories. These ages are 20,000 to 400,000 years younger than previous age estimates for these hominids and indicate that H. erectus may have survived on Java at least 250,000 years longer than on the Asian mainland, and perhaps 1 million years longer than in Africa. The new ages raise the possibility that H. erectus overlapped in time with anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens) in Southeast Asia.

  18. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed ...

  19. The evolution of the anatomically modern or advanced Homo sapiens: time, place, process, affinities and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, P; Pathmanathan, G; Talwar, I

    2009-06-01

    This paper surveys the opinions expressed in the recent literature on the origins of the anatomically- modern Homo sapiens, and reviews the evidence from cranial and dental morphology argued by proponents of opposing views to support their case. It also critically analyses problems facing the interpretation of the evidence in arriving at a definitive conclusion to the debate.

  20. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM. Classical SVM Classifier. Support Vector Machine is an important machine learning technique proposed by Vapnik and co-workers. 1. SVM has been already applied to lots of pattern.

  1. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E; Freidline, Sarah E; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-06-07

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day 'modern' morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years. Here we report newly discovered human fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and interpret the affinities of the hominins from this site with other archaic and recent human groups. We identified a mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology. In combination with an age of 315 ± 34 thousand years (as determined by thermoluminescence dating), this evidence makes Jebel Irhoud the oldest and richest African Middle Stone Age hominin site that documents early stages of the H. sapiens clade in which key features of modern morphology were established. Furthermore, it shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.

  2. Hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, W T; Peters, C R

    1993-10-01

    In the early 1970s, excavation at the King site, a contact period Mississippian village in northwest Georgia, yielded the skeletal remains of a robust male (King 65) possessing marked hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress. The buttress is morphologically similar to that of Plio-Pleistocene Homo but it is accompanied by an anatomically modern degree of thickening of the gluteal table of the ilium. Although the degree of cortical thickness of the gluteal table of the ilium is apparently species-specific, hypertrophy of the acetabulo-cristal buttress is developmental and may be expressed in all species of Homo.

  3. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Homo sapiens as physician and patient: a view from Darwinian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Franco, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere. That human microecosystem is composed of constituents derived from the archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryan domains via endosymbiotic, commensalistic and mutualistic interactions. This amalgamation of 100 trillion cells and viral elements is regulated by a composite genome aggregated over the 3.8 billion years of evolutionary history of organic life. No component of H. sapiens or its genome can be identified as irreducibly and exclusively human. H. sapiens' humanity is an emergent property of the microecosystem. Ironically as H. sapiens is viewed by evolutionary science in a highly integrated manner medicine approaches it as a balkanized, deaggregated entity through the eye of 150 different specialties. To effectively address the needs of H sapiens in its role as patient by the same species in its role as physician the disparate views must be harmonized. Here I review some conceptual elements that would assist a physician in addressing the needs of the patient in integrum, as a microecosystem, by the former address the latter as a historical gestalt being. The optimal way to recover the harmony between patient and physician is through a revitalization of the clinical encounter via an ecological and Darwinian epistemology.

  5. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  6. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Gilbert, Sandra L; Evans, Patrick D; Vallender, Eric J; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Hudson, Richard R; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Lahn, Bruce T

    2005-09-09

    The gene ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) is a specific regulator of brain size, and its evolution in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens was driven by strong positive selection. Here, we show that one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose merely about 5800 years ago and has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection. These findings, especially the remarkably young age of the positively selected variant, suggest that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution.

  7. Prediction of host - pathogen protein interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens using sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tong; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yu; Yang, Cheng; Lin, Jianping; Rao, Zihe

    2015-03-26

    Emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) threatens to derail global efforts aimed at reigning in the pathogen. Co-infections of M. tuberculosis with HIV are difficult to treat. To counter these new challenges, it is essential to study the interactions between M. tuberculosis and the host to learn how these bacteria cause disease. We report a systematic flow to predict the host pathogen interactions (HPIs) between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens based on sequence motifs. First, protein sequences were used as initial input for identifying the HPIs by 'interolog' method. HPIs were further filtered by prediction of domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Functional annotations of protein and publicly available experimental results were applied to filter the remaining HPIs. Using such a strategy, 118 pairs of HPIs were identified, which involve 43 proteins from M. tuberculosis and 48 proteins from Homo sapiens. A biological interaction network between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens was then constructed using the predicted inter- and intra-species interactions based on the 118 pairs of HPIs. Finally, a web accessible database named PATH (Protein interactions of M. tuberculosis and Human) was constructed to store these predicted interactions and proteins. This interaction network will facilitate the research on host-pathogen protein-protein interactions, and may throw light on how M. tuberculosis interacts with its host.

  8. The Homo sapiens 'hemibun': its developmental pattern and the problem of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, W; Kuźmiński, L

    2009-01-01

    The occipital bun is widely considered a Neanderthal feature. Its homology to the 'hemibun' observed in some European Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans is a current problem. This study quantitatively evaluates the degree of occipital plane convexity in African and Australian modern human crania to analyse a relationship between this feature and some neurocranial variables. Neanderthal and European Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens crania were included in the analysis as well. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the degree of occipital plane convexity and the following two features in the examined crania of modern humans: the ratio of the maximum neurocranial height to the maximum width of the vault and the ratio of bregma-lambda chord to bregma-lambda arc. The results also revealed that some H. sapiens crania (modern and fossil) show the Neanderthal shape of the occipital plane and that the neurocranial height and shape of parietal midsagittal profile has an influence on occipital plane convexity in the hominins included in this study. This study suggests that the occurrence of the great convexity of the occipital plane in the Neanderthals and H. sapiens is a "by-product" of the relationship between the same neurocranial features and there is no convincing evidence that the Neanderthal occipital bun and the similar structure in H. sapiens develop during ontogeny in the same way.

  9. Musicalidade humana sob o prisma cognitivo-evolucionista: do Homo sapiens ao Homo digitalis / Human Musicality as seen from a Cognitive-Evolutionist Prism: From Homo sapiens to Homo digitalis

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo, L.; Welch, G.F.; Maffioletti, L. D. A.; Reategui, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses human musicality from a cognitive-evolutionist perspective. It reflects on the complexity of music manifestation in a panorama that articulates the periods between the remote times of the Homo sapiens species to their interaction in the era of Digital Culture. The reflections are based on research that shows uninterrupted music making that starts at the beginnings of humanity and continues significantly until the present moment, undergoing, however, transformations that a...

  10. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  11. Earliest evidence for the structure of Homo sapiens populations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Drake, Nick A.; Jennings, Richard; Groucutt, Huw S.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the structure and variation of Homo sapiens populations in Africa is critical for interpreting multiproxy evidence of their subsequent dispersals into Eurasia. However, there is no consensus on early H. sapiens demographic structure, or its effects on intra-African dispersals. Here, we show how a patchwork of ecological corridors and bottlenecks triggered a successive budding of populations across the Sahara. Using a temporally and spatially explicit palaeoenvironmental model, we found that the Sahara was not uniformly ameliorated between ∼130 and 75 thousand years ago (ka), as has been stated. Model integration with multivariate analyses of corresponding stone tools then revealed several spatially defined technological clusters which correlated with distinct palaeobiomes. Similarities between technological clusters were such that they decreased with distance except where connected by palaeohydrological networks. These results indicate that populations at the Eurasian gateway were strongly structured, which has implications for refining the demographic parameters of dispersals out of Africa.

  12. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: New insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Viscardi, Lucas Henrique; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-12-01

    After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  13. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: new insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  14. Data of 10 SSR markers for genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K K V V V S; Raju, S Viswanadha; Someswara Rao, Chinta

    2017-06-01

    In this data, we present 10 Simple Sequence Repeat(SSR) markers TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA which are extracted from the genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys using string matching mechanism [1]. All loci showed 4 Base Pair(bp) in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that maybe useful for the detection of similarity among the genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the SSR extraction is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of genomes.

  15. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  16. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  17. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  18. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  19. Dental size reduction in Indonesian Homo erectus: Implications for the PU-198 premolar and the appearance of Homo sapiens on Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Joshua M; Marsh, Hannah E; Maddux, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The recent recovery of a hominin maxillary third premolar, PU-198, within the faunal collections from Punung Cave (East Java) has led to assertions that Homo sapiens appeared on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. The taxonomic assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens was based predominantly on the small size of the specimen, following an analysis which found little to no overlap in premolar size between Homo erectus and terminal Pleistocene/Holocene H. sapiens. Here, we re-evaluate the use of size in the taxonomic assignment of PU-198 in light of 1) new buccolingual and mesiodistal measurements taken on the fossil, 2) comparisons to a larger sample of H. erectus and H. sapiens maxillary third premolars, and 3) evidence of a diachronic trend in post-canine dental size reduction among Javan H. erectus. Our results demonstrate PU-198 to be slightly larger than previously suggested, reveal substantial overlap in premolar size between H. erectus and H. sapiens, and indicate a statistically significant reduction in premolar size between early and late Javan H. erectus. Our findings cast doubt on the assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens, and accordingly, question the appearance of H. sapiens on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The success of failed Homo sapiens dispersals out of Africa and into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabett, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The evidence for an early dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into the Levant during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS-5) 126-74 ka (thousand years ago) was characterized for many years as an 'abortive' expansion: a precursor to a sustained dispersal from which all extant human populations can be traced. Recent archaeological and genetic data from both western and eastern parts of Eurasia and from Australia are starting to challenge that interpretation. This Perspective reviews the current evidence for a scenario where the MIS-5 dispersal encompassed a much greater geographic distribution and temporal duration. The implications of this for tracking and understanding early human dispersal in Southeast Asia specifically are considered, and the validity of measuring dispersal success only through genetic continuity into the present is examined.

  1. The mystery of the seven spheres how homo sapiens will conquer space

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2015-01-01

    In this book, Giovanni Bignami, the outstanding Italian scientist and astronomer, takes the reader on a journey through the “seven spheres”, from our own planet to neighboring stars. The author offers a gripping account of the evolution of Homo Sapiens to the stage where our species is developing capabilities, in the form of new energy propulsion systems, that will enable us to conquer space. The reader will learn how we first expanded our activities to reach beyond our planet, to the Moon, and how nuclear energy, nuclear fusion, and matter–antimatter annihilation will enable us to extend our exploration. After Mars and Jupiter we shall finally reach the nearest stars, which we now know are surrounded by numerous planets, some of which are bound to be habitable. The book includes enticing descriptions of such newly discovered planets and also brings alive key historical characters in our story, such as Jules Verne and Werner von Braun.

  2. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  3. Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanippayoor, Rachelle L; Alpern, Joshua H M; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-04-01

    The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

  4. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  5. Creativity as a Determinant of Intraspecific Aggressive Properties of the Psyche of Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A sharp and non-linear qualitative change event, namely, the emergence of creativity in the structure of the psyche of Homo sapiens (HS about 50,000 years ago, created developmental bifurcations, as a result of which HS attained extraspecific and intraspecific domination. Creativity, a new quality of HS psyche, for the first time in the history of hominids enabled HS to separate the image of the goal (IG from the reactive behavior, transforming IG into an abstract, symbolic object. The emergence of this creative construct, the ambivalent structure existing in the interpretive environment, created a new need for hominids: a relationship with the virtual product of the psyche, a symbol, which has the signs of objective reality in PERCEPTION. Thus, a fundamentally unsolvable frustration was created: a frustration caused by the inability to achieve equilibrium relations with the CONTROLLING symbolic image. Behavior aimed at satisfying needs and eliminating frustration, accompanied by the ordering and structuring of society, acquires under certain conditions the elements of aggression, transforming into sheer aggression. We believe that in the periods preceding the aggression, there is a deliberate deformation of the psychological image of the enemy, the future victim, resulting in the aggressor perceiving the enemy as lacking in human qualities, those qualities that are the attributes of species identity. In this process, the aggressor’s psycho-filters and ethical restrictions are eliminated. We understand intraspecific aggression as the antagonistic contact between the frustration constructs, aimed at reducing the tension caused by frustration.

  6. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Do humans (Homo sapiens) and fish (Pterophyllum scalare) make similar numerosity judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian; Izard, Véronique; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that many animal species can be trained to discriminate between stimuli differing in numerosity. However, in the absence of generalization tests with untrained numerosities, what decision criterion was used by subjects remains unclear: the subjects may succeed by selecting a specific number of items (a criterion over absolute numerosities), or by applying a more general relative numerosity rule, for example, selecting the larger/smaller quantity of items. The latter case may require more powerful representations, supporting judgments of order ("more/less") beyond simple "same/different" judgments, but a relative numerosity rule may also be more adaptive. In previous research, we showed that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) spontaneously prefer relative numerosity rules. To date it is unclear whether this preference is shared by other fish and, more broadly, other species. Here we compared the performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) with that of human adults (Homo sapiens) in a task in which subjects were initially trained to select arrays containing 10 dots (either in 5 vs. 10 or 10 vs. 20 comparisons). Subsequently they were tested with the previously trained numerosity and a novel numerosity (respectively, 20 or 5). In the absence of explicit instructions, both species spontaneously favored a relative rule, selecting the novel numerosity. These similarities demonstrate that, beyond shared representations for numerical quantities, vertebrate species may also share a system for taking decisions about quantities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gustavo G; Gutiérrez, María A; Rafuse, Daniel J; Blasi, Adriana

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America.

  9. Normalization of Complete Genome Characteristics: Application to Evolution from Primitive Organisms to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Okayasu, Teiji; Ohhira, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Normalized nucleotide and amino acid contents of complete genome sequences can be visualized as radar charts. The shapes of these charts depict the characteristics of an organism's genome. The normalized values calculated from the genome sequence theoretically exclude experimental errors. Further, because normalization is independent of both target size and kind, this procedure is applicable not only to single genes but also to whole genomes, which consist of a huge number of different genes. In this review, we discuss the applications of the normalization of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid contents of complete genomes to the investigation of genome structure and to evolutionary research from primitive organisms to Homo sapiens. Some of the results could never have been obtained from the analysis of individual nucleotide or amino acid sequences but were revealed only after the normalization of nucleotide and amino acid contents was applied to genome research. The discovery that genome structure was homogeneous was obtained only after normalization methods were applied to the nucleotide or predicted amino acid contents of genome sequences. Normalization procedures are also applicable to evolutionary research. Thus, normalization of the contents of whole genomes is a useful procedure that can help to characterize organisms.

  10. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L

    2015-08-21

    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  12. Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N

    2015-01-13

    The postcranial skeleton of modern Homo sapiens is relatively gracile compared with other hominoids and earlier hominins. This gracility predisposes contemporary humans to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Explanations for this gracility include reduced levels of physical activity, the dissipation of load through enlarged joint surfaces, and selection for systemic physiological characteristics that differentiate modern humans from other primates. This study considered the skeletal remains of four behaviorally diverse recent human populations and a large sample of extant primates to assess variation in trabecular bone structure in the human hip joint. Proximal femur trabecular bone structure was quantified from microCT data for 229 individuals from 31 extant primate taxa and 59 individuals from four distinct archaeological human populations representing sedentary agriculturalists and mobile foragers. Analyses of mass-corrected trabecular bone variables reveal that the forager populations had significantly higher bone volume fraction, thicker trabeculae, and consequently lower relative bone surface area compared with the two agriculturalist groups. There were no significant differences between the agriculturalist and forager populations for trabecular spacing, number, or degree of anisotropy. These results reveal a correspondence between human behavior and bone structure in the proximal femur, indicating that more highly mobile human populations have trabecular bone structure similar to what would be expected for wild nonhuman primates of the same body mass. These results strongly emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise for bone health and the attenuation of age-related bone loss.

  13. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gustavo G.; Gutiérrez, María A.; Blasi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America. PMID:27683248

  15. Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick D; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Vallender, Eric J; Hudson, Richard R; Lahn, Bruce T

    2006-11-28

    At the center of the debate on the emergence of modern humans and their spread throughout the globe is the question of whether archaic Homo lineages contributed to the modern human gene pool, and more importantly, whether such contributions impacted the evolutionary adaptation of our species. A major obstacle to answering this question is that low levels of admixture with archaic lineages are not expected to leave extensive traces in the modern human gene pool because of genetic drift. Loci that have undergone strong positive selection, however, offer a unique opportunity to identify low-level admixture with archaic lineages, provided that the introgressed archaic allele has risen to high frequency under positive selection. The gene microcephalin (MCPH1) regulates brain size during development and has experienced positive selection in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens. Within modern humans, a group of closely related haplotypes at this locus, known as haplogroup D, rose from a single copy approximately 37,000 years ago and swept to exceptionally high frequency (approximately 70% worldwide today) because of positive selection. Here, we examine the origin of haplogroup D. By using the interhaplogroup divergence test, we show that haplogroup D likely originated from a lineage separated from modern humans approximately 1.1 million years ago and introgressed into humans by approximately 37,000 years ago. This finding supports the possibility of admixture between modern humans and archaic Homo populations (Neanderthals being one possibility). Furthermore, it buttresses the important notion that, through such adminture, our species has benefited evolutionarily by gaining new advantageous alleles. The interhaplogroup divergence test developed here may be broadly applicable to the detection of introgression at other loci in the human genome or in genomes of other species.

  16. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  17. Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Ronald K; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Wood, David A; Webb, John G

    2012-09-01

    Building on the established success with the SAPIEN, SAPIEN XT and earlier prototypic transcatheter heart valves (THV) the newest balloon-expandable valve incorporates a number of new and enhanced features intended to reduce the risk of vascular injury, to reduce paravalvular regurgitation, and to facilitate rapid and accurate positioning and implantation. The SAPIEN 3 THV incorporates a cobalt chromium stent, bovine pericardial leaflets, and both an inner and new outer polyethylene terephthalate sealing cuff. The delivery system incorporates an active three-dimensional coaxial positioning catheter, and is compatible with a 14 Fr expandable sheath.

  18. Homo Sapiens to Robo Sapiens

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083520

    1997-01-01

    Is it possible for engineers to build robots that will be more intelligent than humans?Could such robots become conscious?Could Artificial Life be engineered?If so,how long will it be before this is achieved?

  19. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Gibbons

    Full Text Available Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1 expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162 are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases.Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders.Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2 and without diabetes (n = 170 were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2 and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234. Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI were done. Statistical analyses of short (32 repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis.The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016. Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008. Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23 as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12, P = 0.022.Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  20. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L; Hasler, William L; Koch, Kenneth L; McCallum, Richard W; Nguyen, Linda A B; Parkman, Henry P; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  1. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  2. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for enhanced gene exchange

  3. Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific gene family and chromosome 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, Xander; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Duyzend, Michael H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Sudmant, Peter H; Penn, Osnat; Chiatante, Giorgia; Malig, Maika; Huddleston, John; Benner, Chris; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Stessman, Holly A F; Marchetto, Maria C N; Denman, Laura; Harshman, Lana; Baker, Carl; Raja, Archana; Penewit, Kelsi; Janke, Nicolette; Tang, W Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Banci, Lucia; Antonacci, Francesca; Akey, Joshua M; Amemiya, Chris T; Gage, Fred H; Reymond, Alexandre; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-08-11

    Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 (BOLA2) as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens. We estimate that a 95-kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately 282 thousand years ago (ka), one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. All humans examined carried one or more copies of the duplication, which nearly fixed early in the human lineage--a pattern unlikely to have arisen so rapidly in the absence of selection (P sapiens-specific duplication. In summary, the duplicative transposition of BOLA2 at the root of the H. sapiens lineage about 282 ka simultaneously increased copy number of a gene associated with iron homeostasis and predisposed our species to recurrent rearrangements associated with disease.

  4. Dating Of Remains Of Neanderthals And Homo Sapiens From Anatolian Region By ESR-US Combined Methods Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Farkh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tried in the present study to apply the electron spin resonance method ESR combined with uranium-series method US for dating fossilized human teeth and found valuable archaeological sites such as Karain Cave in Anatolia. Karain Cave is a crucial site in a region that has yielded remains of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens our direct ancestors. The dating of these remains allowed us to trace the history since the presence of man on earth. Indeed Anatolia in Turkey is an important region of the world because it represents a passage between Africa the Middle East and Europe. Our study was conducted on faunal teeth found near human remains. The combination of ESR and US data on the teeth provides an understanding of their complex geochemical evolution and get better estimated results. Our samples were taken from the central cutting where geological layers are divided into archaeological horizons each 10 cm. The AH4 horizon of I.3 layer which represents the boundary between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic is dated to 29 4 ka by the ESR-US model. Below two horizons AH6 and AH8 in the same layer I.4 are dated respectively 40 6 and 45 7 ka using the ESR-US model. In layer II where a stalagmite floor was taken we made two U-Th dating at the base and on the top ages oscillated around 120 ka. Since human remains were collected from AH3 horizon for Homo sapiens and AH5 and AH7 horizons for the Neanderthal man so the dates obtained in AH4 AH6 and AH8 represent maximum ages. Thus they provide the disappearance of Neanderthal man between 45 and 40 ka and the appearance of Homo sapiens in 29 ka in Anatolia region. Undoubtedly there is a chronological gap between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic represented by the disappearance of Neanderthals and the appearance of sapiens and none of our results confirm the contemporaneity of these two species in this region.

  5. Transitions or turnovers? Climatically-forced extinctions of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the east Mediterranean Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John J.

    2008-11-01

    The East Mediterranean Levant is a focal point for debate about evolutionary continuity among Late Pleistocene hominin populations. Changes in the Levantine Middle and Upper Palaeolithic archaeological records are almost invariably described in terms of adaptive shifts and behavioural transitions, rather than as changes in hominin populations. This paper examines evidence for hominin evolutionary continuity in the Levant between 130 and 25 ka. Two inflection points, one within the Middle Palaeolithic ca 75 ka and the other between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic ca 45 ka, are examined in light of recently-discovered evidence for rapid climate change and environmental deterioration. It is proposed that both periods mark regional extinctions and turnovers of hominin populations. The first of these occurred among early Homo sapiens, the second among Neanderthals. Each event was followed by dispersal of hominin populations into the Levant from adjacent regions. Differences in Middle vs. Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens' long-term success in the Levant may reflect recently-evolved strategies for coping with rapid climate change and with colder arid habitats.

  6. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Susan; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Horn, Thomas; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome (coverage of 1.3-fold) suggested defective leukotriene signaling in this archaic human subspecies since expression of essential proteins appeared to be corrupted. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies (H. neanderthalensis, Homo denisovan) and completion of the human 1000 genome project provided a comprehensive database characterizing the genetic variability of the human genome. For this study we extracted the nucleotide sequences of selected eicosanoid relevant genes (ALOX5, ALOX15, ALOX12, ALOX15B, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, COX1, COX2, LTA4H, LTC4S, ALOX5AP, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, BLTR1, BLTR2) from the corresponding databases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril: a homology model for homo sapiens type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Thomas A; Nash, Anthony; Birch, Helen L; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2018-02-15

    Type I collagen is an essential extracellular protein that plays an important structural role in tissues that require high tensile strength. However, owing to the molecule's size, to date no experimental structural data are available for the Homo sapiens species. Therefore, there is a real need to develop a reliable homology model and a method to study the packing of the collagen molecules within the fibril. Through the use of the homology model and implementation of a novel simulation technique, we have ascertained the orientations of the collagen molecules within a fibril, which is currently below the resolution limit of experimental techniques. The longitudinal orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril has a significant effect on the mechanical and biological properties of the fibril, owing to the different amino acid side chains available at the interface between the molecules.

  8. Acoustic classification of alarm calls by vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and humans (Homo sapiens): I. Natural calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owren, M J

    1990-03-01

    A 2-choice, operant-conditioning-based classification procedure was developed in which vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) categorized species-typical snake and eagle alarm calls recorded from individually identified free-ranging animals. After preliminary training with a pair of calls from a single animal, 2 vervets were tested with novel exemplars produced by a variety of callers. Experiment 1 combined testing with continued training in routine classification of 14 new calls. In Experiment 2, the subjects were tested with 48 novel calls in rapid succession. Human (Homo sapiens) control subjects participated in the first study without extended preliminary training. Monkey and human subjects both showed immediate transfer to classification of unfamiliar alarm calls, despite variations both in voice characteristics and reproduction quality.

  9. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E.M.; Alberdi, A.; Gunther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A.R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M.G.; Rua, C. de la

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we

  10. Variability in first Homo: Analysis of the ratio between the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813 based on sexual dimorphism of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, S W Ferreira; Lorenzo, C

    2015-10-01

    The study of the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813, considered the first members of the genus Homo, has raised some debates. While some of researchers maintain that there is only one species, another group argues that there are two species. On one hand these two fossils are still taxonomically undetermined, on the other hand they bring up another problem related to the existence of a genus with multiple species since its beginning, according to the last discoveries. In this paper, we have compared the size ratio between these fossils with ratios established in populations of Homo sapiens, in order to know if they fit into the human standard, considering intra-sexual and inter-sexual variation. Results help to establish whether these fossils correspond to different species or their differences could be related to sexual dimorphism within a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Human species and mating systems: Neandertal-Homo sapiens reproductive isolation and the archaeological and fossil records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examined the assumption of strong reproductive isolation (RI) between Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, as well as the question of what form it might have taken, using insights from the parallel case of chimpanzee–bonobo hybridization. RI from hybrid sterility or inviability was thought unlikely based on the short separation-to-introgression timeline. The forms of RI that typically develop in primates have relatively short timelines (especially for partial implementation); they generally preclude mating or influence hybrid survival and reproduction in certain contexts, and they have the potential to skew introgression directionality. These RI barriers are also consistent with some interpretations of the archaeological and fossil records, especially when behavioral, cognitive, morphological, and genetic differences between the two human species are taken into consideration. Differences potentially influencing patterns of survival and reproduction include interspecies violence, Neandertal xenophobia, provisioning behavior, and ontogenetic, morphological, and behavioral differences affecting matters such as kin and mate recognition, infanticide, and sexual selection. These factors may have skewed the occurrence of interbreeding or the survival and reproduction of hybrids in a way that might at least partially explain the pattern of introgression.

  12. Before the Emergence of Homo sapiens: Overview on the Early-to-Middle Pleistocene Fossil Record (with a Proposal about Homo heidelbergensis at the subspecific level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Manzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of H. sapiens has deep roots, which include two crucial nodes: (1 the emergence and diffusion of the last common ancestor of later Homo (in the Early Pleistocene and (2 the tempo and mode of the appearance of distinct evolutionary lineages (in the Middle Pleistocene. The window between 1,000 and 500 thousand years before present appears of crucial importance, including the generation of a new and more encephalised kind of humanity, referred to by many authors as H. heidelbergensis. This species greatly diversified during the Middle Pleistocene up to the formation of new variants (i.e., incipient species that, eventually, led to the allopatric speciation of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. The special case furnished by the calvarium found near Ceprano (Italy, dated to 430–385 ka, offers the opportunity to investigate this matter from an original perspective. It is proposed to separate the hypodigm of a single, widespread, and polymorphic human taxon of the Middle Pleistocene into distinct subspecies (i.e., incipient species. The ancestral one should be H. heidelbergensis, including specimens such as Ceprano and the mandible from Mauer.

  13. Azole affinity of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes from Candida albicans and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, Andrew G; Parker, Josie E; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) (Erg11), full-length Homo sapiens CYP51 (HsCYP51), and truncated Δ60HsCYP51 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. CaCYP51 and both HsCYP51 enzymes bound lanosterol (K(s), 14 to 18 μM) and catalyzed the 14α-demethylation of lanosterol using Homo sapiens cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH as redox partners. Both HsCYP51 enzymes bound clotrimazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole tightly (dissociation constants [K(d)s], 42 to 131 nM) but bound fluconazole (K(d), ~30,500 nM) and voriconazole (K(d), ~2,300 nM) weakly, whereas CaCYP51 bound all five medical azole drugs tightly (K(d)s, 10 to 56 nM). Selectivity for CaCYP51 over HsCYP51 ranged from 2-fold (clotrimazole) to 540-fold (fluconazole) among the medical azoles. In contrast, selectivity for CaCYP51 over Δ60HsCYP51 with agricultural azoles ranged from 3-fold (tebuconazole) to 9-fold (propiconazole). Prothioconazole bound extremely weakly to CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51, producing atypical type I UV-visible difference spectra (K(d)s, 6,100 and 910 nM, respectively), indicating that binding was not accomplished through direct coordination with the heme ferric ion. Prothioconazole-desthio (the intracellular derivative of prothioconazole) bound tightly to both CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51 (K(d), ~40 nM). These differences in binding affinities were reflected in the observed 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values, which were 9- to 2,000-fold higher for Δ60HsCYP51 than for CaCYP51, with the exception of tebuconazole, which strongly inhibited both CYP51 enzymes. In contrast, prothioconazole weakly inhibited CaCYP51 (IC(50), ~150 μM) and did not significantly inhibit Δ60HsCYP51.

  14. Sapiens: Hayvanlar insanar

    OpenAIRE

    Yalı, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Bu yazıda sizlere satış rekorları kıran bir tarihkitabından bahsetmek istiyorum. Kitap, 2011'de ibranice, 2014'te ingilizceyayımlandı ve şimdiye dek otuz civarında dile çevrildi. “Sapiens: İnsan Türünün Kısa Bir Tarihi” başlığı ile dilimizeçevrilen kitapta insanlık tarihinin serüvenine 70 bin yıllık zaman sürecindenbakılmaya çalışılıyor. Öyle bir kitap ki Amerika Başkanı Obama halkına bukitabı okumasını tavsiye ediyor. Öyle etkili bir kitap ki Facebook’un kurucusuMark Zuckerberg sos...

  15. Comparative chromosome G-banding analysis of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis and relationship to human (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alongkoad Tanomtong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first report of the comparative chromosome between long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis and human (Homo sapiens using G-banding. Blood samples from four male and three female macaques were used. Their chromosomes were prepared using lymphocyte cultures at 37oC, 72 hours and detected using G-banding. The results showed the diploid chromosome number of 42, 18 metacentric and 22 submetacentric chromosomes. The satellite chromosome was on the short arm of chromosome 13. The X chromosome was a medium submetacentric and the Y was the smallest telocentric chromosome. By using G-banding, the macaque chromosome 5, 12, 13, 19 and X are identical to those of humans. The short arm and long arm of chromosome 13 of macaque were similar to chromosome 22 and 15 of human respectively. We indicate that macaque chromosome was split to two human chromosomes. The macaque and human chromosomes 1, 3, 6-11, 14, 17 and 20 were relatively similar. The macaque and human chromosome 1 is a pericentric inversion chromosome, indicating that the alternative construction of the chromosome cooperates with the centomere. There were 6 macaque chromosomes which were from different human, 2, 4, 15, 16, 18 and Y. All results demonstrate that the long-tailed macaque and human have are evolutionary relationship.

  16. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  18. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  19. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  20. A comparative of G-banded chromosome of Assam Macaque (Macaca assamensis and relationship to human (Homo sapiens

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    Bunjongrat, R.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first to report a comparative analysis of G-banded chromosome of Assam macaque, Macaca assamensis (Primate, Cercopithecidae and relationship to human, Homo sapiens (Primate, Hominidae. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females held captive in Nakhonratchasima Zoo and Songkla Zoo. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr in presence of colchicine, metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. G-banding technique was applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Assam macaque was 2n = 42. The type of autosomes are 18 metacentric and 22 submetacentric chromosomes. In addition, a pair of short arm chromosome 13 showed clearly observable satellite chromosome. X-chromosome was the submetacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest telocentric chromosome. We found that chromosome 5, 12, 13, 19 and X had the same G-banding patterns as those of human chromosomes. The short arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 22 of human as indicated by G-banding techniques. In addition, the long arm of chromosome 13 is similar to the chromosome 15 of human. These results indicate that the chromosome 13 of the Assam macaque was split into 2 chromosomes. Chromosome 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 20 are similar to those of human chromosomes. This study suggest that the chromosome 1 is a pericentric inversion of human chromosome 1. Chromosomes 2, 4, 15, 16, 18 and Y are different from those of human chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Assam macaque and human.

  1. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paleoneurology: neurodegenerative diseases are age-related diseases of specific brain regions recently developed by Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghika, J

    2008-11-01

    Bipedal locomotion and fine motility of hand and larynx of humans introduced musculoskeletal adaptations, new pyramidal, corticostriatal, corticobulbar, nigrostriatal, and cerebellar pathways and expansions of prefrontal, cingular, parieto-temporal and occipital cortices with derived new brain capabilities. All selectively degenerate in aged homo sapiens following 16 syndromic presentations: (1) Parkinsonism: nigrostriatal control for fast automatic movements of hand, larynx, bipedal posture and gait ("simian gait and hand"). (2) Frontal (highest level) gait disorders (lower body parkinsonism, gait apraxia, retropulsion): prefrontostriatal executive control of bipedal locomotion. (3) ataxia: new synergistic coordination of bipedal gait and fine motility. (4) Dyskinesias (chorea, dystonia, tremor...): intrusions of simian basal ganglia motor subroutines. (5) motoneuron diseases: new proximo-distal and bulbar motoneurones, preserving older ones (oculomotor, abdominal...). (6) Archaic reflexes: prefrontal disinhibition of old mother/tree-climbing-oriented reflexes (sucking, grasping, Babinski/triple retraction, gegenhalten), group alarms (laughter, crying, yawning, grunting...) or grooming (tremor=scratching). (7) Dysautonomia: contextual regulation (orthostatism...). (8) REM sleep disorders of new cortical functions. (9) Corticobasal syndrome: melokinetic control of hand prehension-manipulation and language (retrocession to simian patterns). (10) Frontal/temporal lobe degeneration: medial-orbitofrontal behavioural variant: self monitoring of internal needs and social context: apathy, loss of personal hygiene, stereotypia, disinhibition, loss of concern for consequences of acts, social rules, danger and empathy; dorsolateral executive variant: inadequacy to the context of action (goal, environmental changes...); progressive non-fluent aphasia: executive and praxic processing of speech; temporal variant: abstract concepts for speech, gestures and vision (semantic

  3. Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Maués Serra Freire

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Serra-Freire N.M., Amorim M. & Gazêta G.S. Diagnostic of Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae in Brazil: immigration on Homo sapiens - Case report. [Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:97-99, 2015. Laboratório de Referência Nacional para Vetores das Riquetsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, RJ 21045-900, Brasil. E-mail: nmsf@ioc.fiocruz.br One nymph of Ixodes wood (Ixodidae: Ixodinae was self-collected from a woman that had just arrived in Rio de Janeiro after a holiday period in Norway, Europe. She traveled by plane presenting a skin irritation on right leg and preserved the parasite that was in her skin. This is the first brazilian record of I. woodi. Also, in South America Ixodes wood hadn’t been previously reported. In United State of America, rodents appear to be the main hosts for immature stages, although there are other records from members of Mammalia class. I. woodi doesn’t seem to be a threat to men and domestic mammals, from which has seldom been reported, but there is quoting of his relationship between trophic and rickettsiae bacteria, but no transmission.

  4. Protein-protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwastava, Brijesh Kumar; Basu, Subhadip; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-10-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) site prediction aids to ascertain the interface residues that participate in interaction processes. Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance of the classical SVM can be enhanced with the help of an interaction-affinity based fuzzy membership function. The performances of both SVM and F-SVM on the PPI databases of the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms are evaluated and estimated the statistical significance of the developed method over classical SVM and other fuzzy membership-based SVM methods available in the literature. Our membership function uses the residue-level interaction affinity scores for each pair of positive and negative sequence fragments. The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed F-SVM method improves the performances obtained by the corresponding classical SVM and the other classifiers, available in the literature.

  5. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, M; Svensson, E M; Alberdi, A; Günther, T; Izagirre, N; Munters, A R; Alonso, S; Ioana, M; Ridiche, F; Soficaru, A; Jakobsson, M; Netea, M G; de-la-Rua, C

    2016-05-19

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans. The derived U6 haplotypes are predominantly found in present-day North-Western African populations. Concomitantly, those found in Europe have been attributed to recent gene-flow from North Africa. The presence of the basal haplogroup U6* in South East Europe (Romania) at 35 ky BP confirms a Eurasian origin of the U6 mitochondrial lineage. Consequently, we propose that the PM1 lineage is an offshoot to South East Europe that can be traced to the Early Upper Paleolithic back migration from Western Asia to North Africa, during which the U6 lineage diversified, until the emergence of the present-day U6 African lineages.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Liwen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2006-05-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content.

  7. La pédagogie des langues-cultures comme science et comme art ; Homo sapiens, faber, loquens, ludens : l’intérité humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demorgon

    2014-04-01

    Homo sapiens, faber, loquens, ludens: The human interity Abstract: The most common attitude consists in separating techniques, sciences, arts and languages. Unfortunately, by losing sight of their common origin, we lose the means of associating them in our learning processes and our teaching practices. These have to base themselves in human “interity” (between-ness. It makes anthropological references necessary to human adaptation and historical and geographical references to their joint developments. It is on these bases that sciences and educational arts are going to allow the appropriate exchanges between the singular persons in interaction in and outside the class. This new pedagogy of the languages-cultures places them in a humanity in progress: competitive, conflicting, and complementary. It can be better understood and reinforced with works as those of Giorgio Agamben, François Jullien and Henri Van Lier.

  8. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  9. The Watinglo mandible: a second terminal Pleistocene Homo sapiens fossil from tropical Sahul with a test on existing models for the human settlement of the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, D; O'Connor, S

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses a fossil human mandible, dated to circa 10ka, from Watinglo rockshelter on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The fossil is metrically and morphologically similar to male mandibles of recent Melanesians and Australian Aborigines. It is distinguished from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek male mandibles (Murray Valley, terminal Pleistocene) by being smaller and having different shape characteristics, as well as smaller teeth and a slower rate of tooth wear. It pairs with the Liang Lemdubu female (Late Glacial Maximum, Aru Islands) in suggesting that the morphology of the terminal Pleistocene inhabitants of tropical Sahul was gracile compared to their contemporaries within the southern Murray drainage. An explanatory scenario for this morphological contrast is developed in the context of the Homo sapiens early fossil record, Australasian mtDNA evidence, terminal Pleistocene climatic variation, and the possibility of multiple entry points into Sahul. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  12. Sapiens a brief history of humankind

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Yuval Noah

    2015-01-01

    From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also comp...

  13. What Meaning Means for Same and Different: Analogical Reasoning in Humans (Homo sapiens), Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M.; Beran, Michael J.; Thompson, Roger K. R.; Kleider, Heather M.; Washburn, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PMID:18489233

  14. Structural Exploration and Conformational Transitions in MDM2 upon DHFR Interaction from Homo sapiens: A Computational Outlook for Malignancy via Epigenetic Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-01-01

    Structural basis for exploration into MDM2 and MDM2-DHFR interaction plays a vital role in analyzing the obstruction in folate metabolism, nonsynthesis of purines, and further epigenetic regulation in Homo sapiens. Therefore, it leads to suppression of normal cellular behavior and malignancy. This has been earlier documented via yeast two-hybrid assays. So, with a novel outlook, this study explores the molecular level demonstration of the best satisfactory MDM2 model selection after performing manifold modeling techniques. Z-scores and other stereochemical features were estimated for comparison. Further, protein-protein docking was executed with MDM2 and the experimentally validated X-ray crystallographic DHFR. Residual disclosure from the best suited simulated protein complex disclosed 18 side chain and 3 ionic interactions to strongly accommodate MDM2 protein into the pocket-like zone in DHFR due to the positive environment by charged residues. Lysine residues from MDM2 played a predominant role. Moreover, evaluation from varied energy calculations, folding rate, and net area for solvent accessibility implied the active participation of MDM2 with DHFR. Fascinatingly, conformational transitions from coils to helices and β-sheets after interaction with DHFR affirm the conformational strength and firmer interaction of human MDM2-DHFR. Therefore, this probe instigates near-future clinical research and interactive computational investigations with mutations.

  15. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  18. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Homo sapiens Kynureninase-3-Hydroxyhippuric Acid Inhibitor Complex: Insights into the Molecular Basis Of Kynureninase Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima,Santiago; Kumar,Sunil; Gawandi,Vijay; Momany,Cory; Phillips,Robert S.; (Georgia)

    2009-02-23

    Homo sapiens kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxykynurenine to yield 3-hydroxyanthranilate and L-alanine as part of the tryptophan catabolic pathway leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +}. This pathway results in quinolinate, an excitotoxin that is an NMDA receptor agonist. High levels of quinolinate have been correlated with the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as AIDS-related dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We have synthesized a novel kynureninase inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippurate, cocrystallized it with human kynureninase, and solved the atomic structure. On the basis of an analysis of the complex, we designed a series of His-102, Ser-332, and Asn-333 mutants. The H102W/N333T and H102W/S332G/N333T mutants showed complete reversal of substrate specificity between 3-hydroxykynurenine and L-kynurenine, thus defining the primary residues contributing to substrate specificity in kynureninases.

  20. Analysis of protein targets in pathogen-host interaction in infectious diseases: a case study on Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sovan; Sengupta, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Mita

    2017-09-23

    Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors. In this article, we attempt to investigate characteristics of host-pathogen protein interactions by presenting a comprehensive review of computational approaches applied on different infectious diseases. As an illustration, we have analyzed a case study on infectious disease malaria, with its causative agent Plasmodium falciparum acting as 'Bait' and host, Homo sapiens/human acting as 'Prey'. In this pathogen-host interaction network based on some interconnectivity and centrality properties, proteins are viewed as central, peripheral, hub and non-hub nodes and their significance on infection process. Besides, it is observed that because of sparseness of the pathogen and host interaction network, there may be some topologically unimportant but biologically significant proteins, which can also act as Bait/Prey. So, functional similarity or gene ontology mapping can help us in this case to identify these proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analysis of movement kinematics on analogous spatial learning tasks demonstrates conservation of direction and distance estimation across humans (Homo sapiens) and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Jenny R; Winter, Shawn S; Loda, Eileah L; Apger, Brianne P; Grimelli, Danielle; Hamilton, Derek A; Wallace, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    This series of experiments evaluates the nature of the representation that mediates human (Homo sapiens) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) movement characteristics on analogous spatial learning tasks. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that self-movement cues were sufficient to guide the performance of human participants during place training and matching-to-place testing tasks adapted to tabletop or manipulatory scale. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of manipulating access to environmental cues during place training on the nature of the representation used to guide performance. Blindfolded human participants appeared to encode the absolute location of the goal, whereas participants with access to environmental cues appeared to encode the relative location of the goal. The results of Experiment 3 demonstrated that human participants with access to environmental cues exhibited a similar response tendency (as observed in Experiment 2) after half as many trials of place training. During Experiment 4, rats exhibited movement characteristics in the water maze that were similar to movement characteristics observed in human participants who were provided access to environmental cues. These observations provide evidence that direction and distance estimation processes mediate performance on spatial tasks that are conserved across humans and rats.

  2. Face and eye scanning in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo abelii), and humans (Homo sapiens): unique eye-viewing patterns in humans among hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies comparing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with humans (Homo sapiens), this study used the eye-tracking method to directly compare the patterns of face and eye scanning by humans, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii). Human and ape participants freely viewed pictures of whole bodies and full faces of conspecifics and allospecifics under the same experimental conditions. All species were strikingly similar in that they viewed predominantly faces and eyes. No particular difference was identified between gorillas and orangutans, and they also did not differ from the chimpanzees tested in previous studies. However, humans were somewhat different from apes, especially with respect to prolonged eye viewing. We also examined how species-specific facial morphologies, such as the male flange of orangutans and the black-white contrast of human eyes, affected viewing patterns. Whereas the male flange of orangutans affected viewing patterns, the color contrast of human eyes did not. Humans showed prolonged eye viewing independently of the eye color of presented faces, indicating that this pattern is internally driven rather than stimulus dependent. Overall, the results show general similarities among the species and also identify unique eye-viewing patterns in humans.

  3. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridla Bakri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔGbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA. That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6, which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. The association between mid-facial morphology and climate in northeast Europe differs from that in north Asia: Implications for understanding the morphology of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evteev, Andrej A; Movsesian, Alla A; Grosheva, Alexandra N

    2017-06-01

    The climate of northeastern Europe is likely to resemble in many ways Late Pleistocene periglacial conditions in Europe, but there have been relatively few studies exploring the association between climate and morphology in the mid-face of modern northeastern European populations. To fill this gap, we sampled 540 male skulls from 22 European and Near Eastern groups, including 314 skulls from 11 populations from northeastern Europe, to test for possible climate-morphology association at the continental scale. Our results found a moderate and highly significant association (R = 0.48, p = 0.0013, Mantel test) between sets of 23 mid-facial measurements and eight climatic variables. A partial least squares analysis revealed this association to be mostly driven by differences between groups from northeastern Europe and populations from the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. Matrices of between-group genetic distances based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers, as well as cranial non-metric and geographic distance matrices, were used to control for the possible influence of shared population history. Irrespective of which measure of neutral between-population distances is taken into account, the association between cranial variables and climate remains significant. The pattern of association between climate and morphology of the mid-face in western Eurasia was then compared to that in east and north Asia. Although differences between the two were found, there were also similarities that support existing functional interpretations of morphology for the bony parts of the upper airways. Last, in a preliminary analysis using a reduced set of measurements, mid-facial morphology of several Upper Paleolithic European Homo sapiens specimens was found to be more similar to groups from northern and northeastern Europe than to southern European populations. Thus, the population of northeastern Europe rather than east and north Asian groups should be used as a model when studying

  5. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenbin [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, You [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mysore, Raghavendra [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chang, Mau-Sun [Institute of Biochemical Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M. [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang, E-mail: tydg@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  6. Karyotype evolution of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting with Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and human (Homo sapiens) paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Nesterenko, A; Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

    2008-01-01

    Considering the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis, GCA, 2n = 30) as a primitive species, its comparative genomic data are critical for our understanding of the karyotype evolution of pecorans. Here, we have established genome-wide chromosomal homologies between giraffe, Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, MRE, 2n = 46) and human (Homo sapiens, HSA, 2n = 46) with whole sets of chromosome-specific paints from Chinese muntjac and human, in addition to providing a high-resolution G-banding karyotype of giraffe. Chinese muntjac and human chromosome paints detected 32 and 45 autosomal homologs in the genome of giraffe, respectively. Our results suggest that it would require at least thirteen fissions, six fusions and three intrachromosomal rearrangements to 'transform' the 2n = 44 eutherian ancestral karyotype to the 2n = 58 pecoran ancestral karyotype. During giraffe evolution, some ancestral eutherian syntenies (i.e. association of HSA3/21, 4/8, 7/16, 14/15, 16/19 and two forms of 12/22) have been retained, while several derived syntenies (i.e. associations of human homologous segments 2/1, 2/9, 5/19, 4/12/22, 8/9, and 10/20) have been produced. The reduction of chromosome number in giraffe from the 2n = 58 pecoran ancestral karyotype could be primarily attributed to extensive Robertsonian translocations of ancestral chromosomal segments. More complex chromosomal rearrangements (including tandem fusion, centromere repositioning and pericentric inversion) have happened during the evolution of GCA2 and GCA8. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Metacarpal head biomechanics: a comparative backscattered electron image analysis of trabecular bone mineral density in Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeininger, Angel; Richmond, Brian G; Hartman, Gideon

    2011-06-01

    Great apes and humans use their hands in fundamentally different ways, but little is known about joint biomechanics and internal bone variation. This study examines the distribution of mineral density in the third metacarpal heads in three hominoid species that differ in their habitual joint postures and loading histories. We test the hypothesis that micro-architectural properties relating to bone mineral density reflect habitual joint use. The third metacarpal heads of Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens were sectioned in a sagittal plane and imaged using backscattered electron microscopy (BSE-SEM). For each individual, 72 areas of subarticular cortical (subchondral) and trabecular bone were sampled from within 12 consecutive regions of the BSE-SEM images. In each area, gray levels (representing relative mineralization density) were quantified. Results show that chimpanzee, orangutan, and human metacarpal III heads have different gray level distributions. Weighted mean gray levels (WMGLs) in the chimpanzee showed a distinct pattern in which the 'knuckle-walking' regions (dorsal) and 'climbing' regions (palmar) are less mineralized, interpreted to reflect elevated remodeling rates, than the distal regions. Pongo pygmaeus exhibited the lowest WMGLs in the distal region, suggesting elevated remodeling rates in this region, which is loaded during hook grip hand postures associated with suspension and climbing. Differences among regions within metacarpal heads of the chimpanzee and orangutan specimens are significant (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001). In humans, whose hands are used for manipulation as opposed to locomotion, mineralization density is much more uniform throughout the metacarpal head. WMGLs were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in subchondral compared to trabecular regions in all samples except humans. This micro-architectural approach offers a means of investigating joint loading patterns in primates and shows significant differences in

  8. Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Martin; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Genomes can be compared at different levels of divergence, either between species or within species. Within species genomes can be compared between different subpopulations, such as human subpopulations from different continents. Investigating the genomic differences between different human subpopulations is important when studying complex diseases that are affected by many genetic variants, as the variants involved can differ between populations. The 1000 Genomes Project collected genome-scale variation data for 2504 human individuals from 26 different populations, enabling a systematic comparison of variation between human subpopulations. In this chapter, we present step-by-step a basic protocol for the identification of population-specific variants employing the 1000 Genomes data. These variants are subsequently further investigated for those that affect the proteome or RNA splice sites, to investigate potentially biologically relevant differences between the populations.

  9. Homo Sapiens as Geological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Caldeira, K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Kelley, G.; Rosenzweig, C.; Caldeira, K.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Holloway, T.; Purdy, J. S.; Vince, G.; Syvitski, J. A.; Bondre, N. R.; Kelly, J.; Vince, G.; Seto, K. C.; Steffen, W.; Oreskes, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, earth scientists came to understand the magnitude and power of geological and geophysical processes. In comparison, the activities of humans seemed paltry if not insignificant. With the development of radiometric dating in the 20th century, scientists realized that human history was but a miniscule part of Earth history. Metaphors to this effect abounded, and filled textbooks: If Earth history were a 24-hour day, human history would not occupy even the final second. If Earth history were a yardstick, the human portion would not even be visible to the naked eye. Generations of scientists were taught that one of the principal contributions of geology, qua science, was the demonstration of our insignificance. The Anthropocene concept disrupts this. To affirms its existence is to insist that human activities compete in scale and significance with other Earth processes, and may threaten to overwhelm them. It also inverts our relation to normative claims. For more than a century earth scientists and evolutionary biologists insisted that their theories were descriptive and not normative—that there was no moral conclusion to be drawn from either planetary or human evolution. Now, we confront the suggestion that there is a moral component to our new paradigm: we can scarcely claim that humans are disrupting the climate, destroying biodiversity, and acidifying the oceans without implying that there is something troubling about these developments. Thus, the Anthropocene concept suggests both a radical redefinition of the scope of Earth science, and a radical reconsideration of the place of normative judgments in scientific work.

  10. Mechanistically Distinct Pathways of Divergent Regulatory DNA Creation Contribute to Evolution of Human-Specific Genomic Regulatory Networks Driving Phenotypic Divergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-09-19

    Thousands of candidate human-specific regulatory sequences (HSRS) have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that unique to human phenotypes result from human-specific alterations of genomic regulatory networks. Collectively, a compendium of multiple diverse families of HSRS that are functionally and structurally divergent from Great Apes could be defined as the backbone of human-specific genomic regulatory networks. Here, the conservation patterns analysis of 18,364 candidate HSRS was carried out requiring that 100% of bases must remap during the alignments of human, chimpanzee, and bonobo sequences. A total of 5,535 candidate HSRS were identified that are: (i) highly conserved in Great Apes; (ii) evolved by the exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA; (iii) defined by either the acceleration of mutation rates on the human lineage or the functional divergence from non-human primates. The exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA pathway seems mechanistically distinct from the evolution of regulatory DNA segments driven by the species-specific expansion of transposable elements. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of HSRS revealed that a small fraction of topologically associating domains (TADs) contain more than half of HSRS from four distinct families. TADs that are enriched for HSRS and termed rapidly evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) comprise 0.8-10.3% of 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome. RevTADs manifest distinct correlation patterns between placements of human accelerated regions, human-specific transcription factor-binding sites, and recombination rates. There is a significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (P Homo sapiens is driven by the evolution of human-specific genomic regulatory networks via at least two mechanistically distinct pathways of

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  12. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chico-Ponce de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present qualitative studywas to analyze the morphological aspects of theinner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates,using magnetic resonance images (MRI:spider monkey (A. geoffroyi and human (H.sapiens, on the basis of a comparative study ofthe cerebral structures of the two species, focusingupon the brain of the spider monkey and,primarily, its limbic system. In spite of beingan endemic Western hemisphere species, a factwhich is by its own right interesting for researchdue to this animal’s social organization and motorfunctions, the spider monkey (A. geoffroyihas hardly been studied in regard to its neuroanatomy.MRI was carried out, in one spidermonkey, employing a General Electric Signa1.5 T scanner. This investigation was carried inaccordance to international regulations for theprotection of animals in captivity, taking intoaccount all protective means utilized in experimentalhandling, and not leaving behind any residualeffects, either physiological or behavioral.From a qualitative point of view, the brains ofthe spider monkey and the human were found to have similar structures. In reference to shape,the most similar structures were found in thelimbic system; proportionally, however, cervical curvature, amygdala, hippocampus, anteriorcommissure and the colliculi, were larger in thespider monkey than in the human.

  13. In Silico Molecular Modeling and Docking Studies on Novel Mutants (E229V, H225P and D230C) of the Nucleotide-Binding Domain of Homo sapiens Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elengoe, Asita; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of determining the synergistic interactions between nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Homo sapiens heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) and E1A 32 kDa of adenovirus serotype 5 motif (PNLVP) in the efficiency of killing of tumor cells in cancer treatment. At present, the protein interaction between NBD and PNLVP motif is still unknown, but believed to enhance the rate of virus replication in tumor cells. Three mutant models (E229V, H225P and D230C) were built and simulated, and their interactions with PNLVP motif were studied. The PNLVP motif showed the binding energy and intermolecular energy values with the novel E229V mutant at -7.32 and -11.2 kcal/mol. The E229V mutant had the highest number of hydrogen bonds (7). Based on the root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, secondary structure, surface-accessible solvent area, potential energy and distance matrices analyses, it was proved that the E229V had the strongest and most stable interaction with the PNLVP motif among all the four protein-ligand complex structures. The knowledge of this protein-ligand complex model would help in designing Hsp70 structure-based drug for cancer therapy.

  14. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  15. The 3 S's of the Sapien balloon expandable valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornowski, Ran

    2016-09-01

    The Sapien 3 (S3) balloon expandable aortic valve equipped with an outer skirt to minimize paravalvular leakage (PVL) was built upon the predecessor Sapien XT (SXT) valve. There is scant comparative data of transcatheter aortic valve replacement using S3 versus SXT valve. The study shows that S3 valve is associated with reduced PVL rate compared with SXT, which is an important clinical advantage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ranking U-Sapiens 2010-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Roberto Peña-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos de esta investigación son los siguientes: (1 que la comunidad científica nacional e internacional y la sociedad en general co-nozcan los resultados del Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia 2010_2, el cual clasifica a cada institución de educación superior colombiana según puntaje, posición y cuartil; (2 destacar los movimientos más importantes al comparar los resultados del ranking 2010_1 con los del 2010_2; (3 publicar las respuestas de algunos actores de la academia nacional con respecto a la dinámica de la investigación en el país; (4 reconocer algunas instituciones, medios de comunicación e investigadores que se han interesado a modo de reflexión, referenciación o citación por esta investigación; y (5 dar a conocer el «Sello Ranking U-Sapiens Colombia» para las IES clasificadas. El alcance de este estudio en cuanto a actores abordó todas y cada una de las IES nacionales (aunque solo algunas lograran entrar al ranking y en cuanto a tiempo, un periodo referido al primer semestre de 2010 con respecto a: (1 los resultados 2010-1 de revistas indexadas en Publindex, (2 los programas de maestrías y doctorados activos durante 2010-1 según el Ministerio de Educación Nacional, y (3 los resultados de grupos de investigación clasificados para 2010 según Colciencias. El método empleado para esta investigación es el mismo que para el ranking 2010_1, salvo por una especificación aún más detallada en uno de los pasos del modelo (las variables α, β, γ; es completamente cuantitativo y los datos de las variables que fundamentan sus resultados provienen de Colciencias y el Ministerio de Educación Nacional; y en esta ocasión se darán a conocer los resultados por variable para 2010_1 y 2010_2. Los resultados más relevantes son estos: (1 entraron 8 IES al ranking y salieron 3; (2 las 3 primeras IES son públicas; (3 en total hay 6 instituciones universitarias en el ranking; (4 7 de las 10 primeras IES son

  17. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    continents and huge expansions of the polar ice caps, while the warm phases, called interglacials, are when the ice sheets recede and the sea level rises. The most recent glaciation began about. 65,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago. Tropical forests appear to have shrunk and expanded with alternating.

  18. Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mark; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2013-08-13

    We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level. SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively. Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes. There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.

  19. Homo Sapiens, All Too Homo Sapiens: Wise Man, All Too Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, Amaris

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis on STEM education should not be interpreted as an omen of the death of humanities; art, literature, history, and philosophy can inform and enlighten STEM studies if the walls of academic silos are broken down and taught in combination. Where the physical universe collides with the fanciful and flawed human experience of life, there is…

  20. A novel mechanical mitral valve replacement using Sapien XT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehle, Megan; Strote, Justin A; Guadagnoli, Mark; Oldemeyer, J Bradley

    2017-06-09

    We report the case of a 66 year old female who presented to our institution fourteen years after receiving a St. Jude Mechanical Mitral Valve Replacement. She presented in refractory NYHA class IV congestive heart failure with comorbidities of acute renal failure, liver failure, and mental status changes. She was found to have immobility of one of the mitral valve disks with resultant severe mitral stenosis with a mean pressure gradient of 12 mmHg. The patient was found to have an STS predicted mortality of 39% with redo surgical MVR, and evaluation by the valve team led to a recommendation of a hybrid surgical and transcatheter procedure. The patient underwent femoral bypass and hypothermia with a sternotomy and left atrial approach. The mechanical discs were removed utilizing needle drivers without removal of the St. Jude ring. Subsequently, a 26 mm Edwards Sapien XT valve was deployed under direct and fluoroscopic visualization. The patient had an event free post-operative course, and one year following the procedure has had an outstanding clinical response with NYHA class II congestive heart failure. Her echocardiogram reveals normal valve function with a MPG of 4 mmHg without mitral regurgitation. Transatrial hybrid TMVR within the ring of a St. Jude mechanical mitral valve appears to be a feasible procedure which may be used in the future to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with high-risk redo-MVR in patients with mechanical mitral valve prostheses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The minerals and the light: Mineralogy and astronomy in the history of the homo sapiens sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanna Giovine, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of the '90s, when the concept of competence was introduced in the education world, the debate on teaching assessment of competences is going on in the Italian school system. Nonetheless, first cycle and second cycle State Exams and national tests (INVALSI), yet have a focus on knowledge and skills. In the education field competence is defined as the capability to face requests and complex tasks effectively, using knowledge and skills acquired by study, research, observation and experience. The proposal formulated here is directed to turn disciplinary knowledge and skills to personal competences through educational and unitary teaching, in order to overcome the discontinuities between Primary school - Secondary school - Universities - the world of work. The ultimate goal is to preserve throughout the didactic course of teaching the wholeness and unitarily of personal competence of the student, who uses acquired disciplinary knowledge and skills in a personal fashion, neither mnemonic nor mechanical. The course of study may begin in the first class of lower secondary school and go on up to the fifth class of upper secondary school, with didactic laboratorial strategies and teaching strategies for competences, involving multiple disciplines. The recipients are the classes where a greater difficulty for students to integrate into the life of the School is registered, or the learned input-skills are of low or inadequate level, possibly with the presence of students with Special Educational Needs. In involved classes the collaboration and sharing of all teachers of the Class Council has been requested, in order to build an educational unitary course, centered on the concept of competence. Contents of the course: • The materials of the solid earth: minerals (physical and chemical properties, classification) • Percentages, graphics, angles, geometric solids, symmetry • Measurement units, speed and acceleration, mass and weight, pressure, energy, heat, temperature, density • States of matter: solid state and liquid state • The periodic table of elements, atoms and molecules • Mixtures Introduction to the course: • History informs sciences: newspapers and books dating back to the First World War are read in the classroom, mineral resources used in everyday life and the their mining locations, in cooperation with Geohistory and Italian teachers. • Discussion groups and "questioning" by the test "Is it useful to study the Mineralogy?" and input test with open-ended questions. • Experiments in the laboratory shared with Physics teacher: we observe a mineral (recognition, classification, chemical composition) • Theoretical lesson: natural sciences, physics and chemistry, with the support of the textbook and using material found by students in the Internet • Visit to the local museum with the teacher of Geometric Design or Art History or Technology or Geohistory • Brainstorming and project with support of LIM to view video-on lab and specific software • Experiments in the laboratory shared with the teacher of Mathematics: growing crystals (shape and symmetry, recognition and classification, chemical composition and structure of atoms) • Final report on experiments, possibly with research hypotheses.

  2. On the homogeneity and heterogeneity of cortical thickness profiles in Homo sapiens sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, Jan Willem; Schüppen, André; Morozova, Maria; Lehofer, Agnes; Koschutnig, Karl; Wood, Guilherme

    2017-12-20

    Cortical thickness has been investigated since the beginning of the 20th century, but we do not know how similar the cortical thickness profiles among humans are. In this study, the local similarity of cortical thickness profiles was investigated using sliding window methods. Here, we show that approximately 5% of the cortical thickness profiles are similarly expressed among humans while 45% of the cortical thickness profiles show a high level of heterogeneity. Therefore, heterogeneity is the rule, not the exception. Cortical thickness profiles of somatosensory homunculi and the anterior insula are consistent among humans, while the cortical thickness profiles of the motor homunculus are more variable. Cortical thickness profiles of homunculi that code for muscle position and skin stimulation are highly similar among humans despite large differences in sex, education, and age. This finding suggests that the structure of these cortices remains well preserved over a lifetime. Our observations possibly relativize opinions on cortical plasticity.

  3. ¿Homo Sapiens u Ogro Sapiens? Los jefes duros de roer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lotito Catino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del pésimo ambiente laboral reinante en la empresa France Télécom, entre los años 2008 y 2010, esta compañía perdió a 49 de sus trabajadores quienes, en función de las malsanas condiciones laborales, optaron por suicidarse. Uno de los objetivos de este artículo es poner en evidencia la existencia de los llamados jefes ogros, razón por la cual, se busca alertar a los directivos de empresas con respecto a lo que ellos deben identificar, controlar y/o deshacerse –en la medida de lo posible– de este tipo de jefaturas tóxicas. Por oposición, el segundo objetivo, es destacar que también existen jefes que han desarrollado su Inteligencia Emocional y que pueden hacer las cosas de una manera muy distinta. Es decir, podemos tener una empresa donde prevalece un ambiente grato y se practica el buen humor, sin que por ello se pierdan las metas de productividad y eficiencia necesarias para que una organización pueda tener éxito y competir en mercados nacionales e internacionales; basándonos en premisas básicas de buen trato, comportamiento ético y un norte que apunte a la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial, en que la práctica del buen trato y del buen humor por parte de un jefe en una empresa, no es en absoluto, enemiga de la buena administración y del verdadero liderazgo. La metodología consistió en una revisión de la literatura disponible y atingente al tema desarrollado. As a consequence of the terrible work environment prevailing in France Télécom, between 2008 and 2010, the company lost 49 of its workers, who, chose to commit suicide given the unhealthy work conditions they were subjected to. The main objective of this articles is to alert upper management of the need to identifying, controlling and getting rid of the so called “ogre bosses”. The second objective is to show examples of good bosses who have developed their emotional intelligence and that can do things in a very different way; i.e. It is possible to create a pleasant and friendly work environment without risking productivity and efficiency which an organization needs to be successful and compete on a national and international level. It is based on the premiss of good treatment, ethical behavior, and Corporate Social Responsibility in which good nature and fair treatment by upper management is by no means the enemy of good administration, but rather an exercise of true leadership. The methodology consisted in examination of the related literature available.

  4. Molecular modeling, dynamics studies and density functional theory approaches to identify potential inhibitors of SIRT4 protein from Homo sapiens : a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sanjay K; Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Nachiappan, Mutharasappan; Biswal, Jayshree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges in the world and WHO projects it to be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. It is a chronic condition affecting the way our body metabolizes sugar. Insulin resistance is high risk factor marked by expression of Lipoprotein Lipases and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor that predisposes to type 2 diabetes. AMP-dependent protein kinase in AMPK signaling pathway is a central sensor of energy status. Deregulation of AMPK signaling leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and deactivation of autophagy which are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance. SIRT4 protein deactivates AMPK as well as directly inhibits insulin secretion. SIRT4 overexpression leads to dyslipidimeia, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and lipogenesis which are the characteristic features of insulin resistance promoting type 2 diabetes. This makes SIRT4 a novel therapeutic target to control type 2 diabetes. Virtual screening and molecular docking studies were performed to obtain potential ligands. To further optimize the geometry of protein-ligand complexes Quantum Polarized Ligand Docking was performed. Binding Free Energy was calculated for the top three ligand molecules. In view of exploring the stereoelectronic features of the ligand, density functional theory approach was implemented at B3LYP/6-31G* level. 30 ns MD simulation studies of the protein-ligand complexes were done. The present research work proposes ZINC12421989 as potential inhibitor of SIRT4 with docking score (-7.54 kcal/mol), docking energy (-51.34 kcal/mol), binding free energy (-70.21 kcal/mol), and comparatively low energy gap (-0.1786 eV) for HOMO and LUMO indicating reactivity of the lead molecule.

  5. CatSper ion channels: Bioinformatics analysis in Homo sapiens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Docking of CatSper protein family with calcium ion has been performed for structure validity. In future, Pocket identification and biomolecular docking of these predicted structures will help to know interactomics of the CatSper protein family with other proteins in different pathways. Biomolecular drug targets.

  6. Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Daniela; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an obligate pathogen that evolved to exclusively persist in human populations. For M. tuberculosis to transmit from person to person, it has to cause pulmonary disease. Therefore, M. tuberculosis virulence has likely been a significant determinant of the association between M. tuberculosis and humans. Indeed, the evolutionary success of some M. tuberculosis genotypes seems at least partially attributable to their increased virulence. The latter possibly evolved as a consequence of human demographic expansions. If co-evolution occurred, humans would have counteracted to minimize the deleterious effects of M. tuberculosis virulence. The fact that human resistance to infection has a strong genetic basis is a likely consequence of such a counter-response. The genetic architecture underlying human resistance to M. tuberculosis remains largely elusive. However, interactions between human genetic polymorphisms and M. tuberculosis genotypes have been reported. Such interactions are consistent with local adaptation and allow for a better understanding of protective immunity in TB. Future ‘genome-to-genome’ studies, in which locally associated human and M. tuberculosis genotypes are interrogated in conjunction, will help identify new protective antigens for the development of better TB vaccines. PMID:25703549

  7. CatSper ion channels: Bioinformatics analysis in Homo sapiens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the availability of huge amount of molecular biology data, our main focus was to determine the protein structures, functions and their role in different molecular pathways. The 3-D structure prediction of protein is important in medicine and biotechnology. Molecular docking not only finds the interaction between ...

  8. Seksuaalsus ja Homo sapiens / Mari Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvelaid, Mari, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Miks kujunes inimene evolutsioonis partenogeneesi asemel sugulisel teel paljunevaks? Kultuuri mõju seksuaalsusele. Seksuaalsed tavad ja hoiakud Eestis. Inimese seksuaalfunktsioon teaduslikus ja arstlikus käsitluses

  9. A "g" beyond "Homo Sapiens"? Some Hints and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that a complete account of cognitive evolution may have to accommodate a domain-general source of variance in mental abilities accounting for differences among primate taxa. Deaner, van Schaik, and Johnson [Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. and Johnson, V.E. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others?…

  10. Homo Sapiens 1.0: Human Development and Policy Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Pam

    2017-01-01

    Nearly a century of psychological research and recent advances in neuropsychology suggest that there is a "learning to learn" stage in early childhood, during which children need to create the foundations of human cognition, which relies upon the ability to logically categorise incoming information. Mid-twentieth-century psychologists…

  11. Are We Reaching the Limits of Homo sapiens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Marck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Echoing scientific and industrial progress, the Twentieth century was an unprecedented period of improvement for human capabilities and performances, with a significant increase in lifespan, adult height, and maximal physiological performance. Analyses of historical data show a major slow down occurring in the most recent years. This triggered large and passionate debates in the academic scene within multiple disciplines; as such an observation could be interpreted as our upper biological limits. Such a new phase of human history may be related to structural and functional limits determined by long term evolutionary constraints, and the interaction between complex systems and their environment. In this interdisciplinary approach, we call into question the validity of subsequent forecasts and projections through innovative and related biomarkers such as sport, lifespan, and height indicators. We set a theoretical framework based on biological and environmental relevance rather than using a typical single-variable forecasting approach. As demonstrated within the article, these new views will have major social, economical, and political implications.

  12. Are We Reaching the Limits of Homo sapiens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Antero, Juliana; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Saulière, Guillaume; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Boeuf, Gilles; Spedding, Michael; Le Bourg, Éric; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Echoing scientific and industrial progress, the Twentieth century was an unprecedented period of improvement for human capabilities and performances, with a significant increase in lifespan, adult height, and maximal physiological performance. Analyses of historical data show a major slow down occurring in the most recent years. This triggered large and passionate debates in the academic scene within multiple disciplines; as such an observation could be interpreted as our upper biological limits. Such a new phase of human history may be related to structural and functional limits determined by long term evolutionary constraints, and the interaction between complex systems and their environment. In this interdisciplinary approach, we call into question the validity of subsequent forecasts and projections through innovative and related biomarkers such as sport, lifespan, and height indicators. We set a theoretical framework based on biological and environmental relevance rather than using a typical single-variable forecasting approach. As demonstrated within the article, these new views will have major social, economical, and political implications.

  13. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-07-14

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.

  14. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  15. Unravelling the (arte)fact of increased pacemaker rate with the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Giuseppe; Mojoli, Marco; Purita, Paola; Napodano, Massimo; D'Onofrio, Augusto; Frigo, Annachiara; Covolo, Elisa; Facchin, Michela; Isabella, Giambattista; Gerosa, Gino; Iliceto, Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Early data on the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve (S3-THV) have shown low rates of paravalvular leaks and vascular complications but relatively high 30-day permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) rates. No direct comparisons on clinical outcomes including PPMI rates are available for the S3-THV and the Edwards SAPIEN XT (XT-THV). We aimed to compare the 30-day PPMI rates in patients treated with the two prostheses and to assess the interplay among valve type, depth of implantation and PPMI rate. Two hundred and nine patients treated by TAVI were considered. The S3-THV was associated with higher PPMI rates compared to the XT-THV, both overall and in subgroups matched for several predictors of PPMI. However, in the S3-THV group, 30-day PPMI was strictly associated with deep valve implantation, and PPMI risk of high-implanted S3-THVs was similar to that of the overall XT-THV matched group. No cases of significant paravalvular leak were observed in the S3-THV group. The S3-THV was associated with a higher incidence of PPMI compared to the XT-THV. In the S3-THV group, pacemaker implantation was strictly associated with deep valve implantation. An implantation technique involving higher initial placement of the central marker (from 0 to 3 mm above the base of the aortic cusps) and, as a consequence, higher final valve depth might help in preventing post-TAVI PPMI with the S3-THV, without affecting the risk of paravalvular leak.

  16. Do homo sapiens ao homo convergente. É tempo de coisas e pessoas integradas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Fernanda Feitosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquidade do mundo digital fornece a nós a possibilidade de uma transformação do estilo de vida, extensível à vida do consumo. Entendemos que esse processo já está consolidado, embora não esteja implantado, pois esse estilo de vida será exercido pela geração que já incorporou a computação ubíqua com parte integrante das suas vidas. Porém, uma tecnologia em fase de desenvolvimento promete integrar e digitalizar o planeta e muito do que há nele, construindo cidades inteligentes, espaços e coisas que dialogam continuamente para o câmbio de informações. Tudo indica que esta será a era pós-digital, dominada pela “Internet das Coisas”, mas sempre manipulada pelas habilidades e inteligência inerentes ao homem.

  17. Do homo sapiens ao homo convergente. É tempo de coisas e pessoas integradas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Feitosa, Deisy; Bairon, Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    A ubiquidade do mundo digital fornece a nós a possibilidade de uma transformação do estilo de vida, extensível à vida do consumo. Entendemos que esse processo já está consolidado, embora não esteja implantado, pois esse estilo de vida será exercido pela geração que já incorporou a computação ubíqua com parte integrante das suas vidas. Porém, uma tecnologia em fase de desenvolvimento promete integrar e digitalizar o planeta e muito do que há nele, construindo cidades inteligentes, espaços e co...

  18. From Homo Sapiens to Homo Cosmicus - Astronautics, Darwinism abd Historical Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkowsky, G.

    Since its inception in late-nineteenth century, astronautics has been viewed as a historical outcome of human evolution as well as a future driver thereof. The history of astronautics-related, evolutionary thought reveals a tension between the Darwinian notion of natural selection and that of homocosmic predestination - be it of dialectical materialistic or theological nature. One can detect the influence of this ideological diversity on the American and Soviet space programs.

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with either CoreValve or SAPIEN XT devices in patients with a single coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbets, Emmanuel; Choby, Michael; Tchetche, Didier

    2012-07-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with a risk of coronary obstruction. This complication is potentially lethal when the origin of the coronary arteries is anomalous. We describe two cases of TAVI with the SAPIEN XT (Edwards Lifesciences) and CoreValve devices (Medtronic) in patients with a single coronary artery. The tools and techniques used to anticipate the risk of acute coronary occlusion are discussed.

  20. First Reported Successful Femoral Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Edwards Sapien 3 Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Stephane; Monney, Pierre; Roguelov, Christan; Zuffi, Andrea; Iglesias, Juan F; Qanadli, Salah D; Courbon, Cecile; Eeckhout, Eric; Muller, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Management of degenerated aortic valve bioprosthesis classically requires redo surgery, but transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is becoming a valid alternative in selected cases. In the case of a degenerated Mitroflow bioprosthesis, TAVR is associated with an additional challenge due to a specific risk of coronary occlusion. We aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of transfemoral valve-in-valve implantation of the new Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences) in a degenerated Mitroflow bioprosthesis (Sorin Group, Inc). We report here the safety and feasibility of transfemoral valve-in-valve implantation of a 23 mm Edwards Sapien 3 in a degenerated 25 mm Mitroflow valve and describe the specific assessment of the risk of coronary obstruction using a multi-imaging modality. The final result showed an absence of aortic regurgitation and a mean transvalvular gradient of 14 mm Hg. The patient had no major adverse cardiovascular events at 30-day follow-up. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation of an Edwards Sapien 3 in a degenerated Mitroflow is feasible and safe, considering a careful assessment of the risk of coronary obstruction with Mitroflow bioprosthesis due to leaflets mounted externally to the stent.

  1. Global and Local Processing in Adult Humans (Homo sapiens), 5-Year Old Children (Homo sapiens), and Adult Cotton Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)

    OpenAIRE

    Neiworth, Julie J.; Gleichman, Amy J.; Olinick, Anne S.; Lamp, Kristen E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared adults, young children, and adult tamarins while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. Subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements, and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. Adult humans showed a global bias in testing which was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. Children showed a global bias with dense displays, but discrimination by...

  2. Investigation of Flow Structures Downstream of SAPIEN 3, CoreValve, and PERIMOUNT Magna Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Mohammed; Lengsfeld, Corinne; Dvir, Danny; Azadani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves provide superior systolic hemodynamic performance in terms of valvular pressure gradient and effective orifice area compared with equivalent size surgical bioprostheses. However, in depth investigation of the flow field structures is of interest to examine the flow field characteristics and provide experimental evidence necessary for validation of computational models. The goal of this study was to compare flow field characteristics of the three most commonly used transcatheter and surgical valves using phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV). 26mm SAPIEN 3, 26mm CoreValve, and 25mm PERIMOUNT Magna were examined in a pulse duplicator with input parameters matching ISO-5840. A 2D PIV system was used to obtain the velocity fields. Flow velocity and shear stress were obtained during the entire cardiac cycle. In-vitro testing showed that mean gradient was lowest for SAPIEN 3, followed by CoreValve and PERIMOUNT Magna. In all the valves, the peak jet velocity and maximum viscous shear stress were 2 m/s and 2 MPa, respectively. In conclusion, PIV was used to investigate flow field downstream of the three bioprostheses. Viscous shear stress was low and consequently shear-induced thrombotic trauma or shear-induced damage to red blood cells is unlikely.

  3. A case of SAPIEN XT valve fallen into left ventricle during valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shigeki; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Nishiya, Kenta; Koyama, Tadaaki

    2017-06-24

    Late transcatheter heart valve embolization is a rare but life-threatening complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Surgical intervention is performed for most cases, but some cases were treated by valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We describe a patient in whom a 29-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve migrated into the left ventricular outflow tract 41 days after the initial implantation. We tried to perform valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation using a transfemoral approach. As soon as the second transcatheter heart valve touched the first implanted valve, it fell into the left ventricle. Immediate surgical intervention was required. The first valve was removed, and surgical aortic valve replacement was successfully performed. In conclusion, we should choose surgical aortic valve replacement for late transcatheter heart valve embolization. Even if we need to treat by catheter intervention, transapical approach may be better.

  4. Protein–Protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance ... Fuzzy support vector machine; interaction affinity; protein–protein interaction. Supplementary ... not a balanced learning/classification problem. Therefore, the optimal ...

  5. homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Ongeti

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... with greater adult bodily asymmetry, as is genetic, inability to deal with the stress (e.g. inbred vs. outbred). This led to the notion that fluctuating asymmetry (FA), deviations from bilateral symmetry in paired traits, randomly distributed to the left and right side, is a measure of developmental instability, i.e.,.

  6. HOMO SAPIENS ¿HACIA DONDE VAS? El reto para el futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    * Discurso de posesión como Miembro Honorario de la Corporación. Sesión solemne de Agosto 13 de 2009.

    El hombre, trasformado en el depredador más grande del mundo, que en el fugaz lapso de 50 años ha aumentado su número sobre la tierra de tres mil a seis mil quinientos millones de habitantes, en nuestra época, demandando elementos para su subsistencia en forma tal, que al contaminar su ambiente en forma exponencial, disminuye gradualmente su capacidad de subsistencia, agravada por la prolongación de su promedio de vida, que en ese mismo lapso ha alcanzado alrededor de los 80 años, haciendo prácticamente insostenible su espacio vital sobre este pequeño planeta en el que le tocó habitar.

    El acelerado desarrollo del hombre lo llevó, a mediados del Siglo XVIII a iniciar la llamada “Revolución Industrial”, que, al mismo tiempo que producía inmensos adelantos en sus medios de movilización, comunicación, relaciones internacionales, los separaba cada vez más ostensiblemente de los llamados países subdesarrollados, o del tercer mundo, que no sólo no se equiparaban a los pueblos desarrollados, sino que se constituían en el origen de mayor incidencia de desnutrición, de enfermedad y de muerte.

    Separación cada vez más notable, al extremo de llegar, en nuestro tiempo a programar reuniones de los representantes de los ocho o de los seis países más ricos del mundo como ha sucedido en los últimos tiempos, para equilibrar sus finanzas y para trazar sus metas de desarrollo y, como complemento, debatir las ayudas que puedan dar, misericordiosamente, a los indigentes de ese tercer mundo, para mejorar su desnutrición, sus epidemias, su ignorancia, su elevada morbimortalidad y su triste vida sin futuro ni esperanza.

     

  7. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonob...

  8. Side biases in humans ( Homo sapiens): three ecological studies on hemispheric asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Tommasi, Luca

    2009-09-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries and side biases have been studied in humans mostly in laboratory settings, and evidence obtained in naturalistic settings is scarce. We here report the results of three studies on human ear preference observed during social interactions in noisy environments, i.e., discotheques. In the first study, a spontaneous right-ear preference was observed during linguistic exchange between interacting individuals. This lateral bias was confirmed in a quasi-experimental study in which a confederate experimenter evoked an ear-orienting response in bystanders, under the pretext of approaching them with a whispered request. In the last study, subjects showed a greater proneness to meet an experimenter’s request when it was directly addressed to the right rather than the left ear. Our findings are in agreement both with laboratory studies on hemispheric lateralization for language and approach/avoidance behavior in humans and with animal research. The present work is one of the few studies demonstrating the natural expression of hemispheric asymmetries, showing their effect in everyday human behavior.

  9. Pathological alterations in the archaic Homo sapiens cranium from Eliye Springs, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Günter; Groden, Christoph; Delling, Günter; Kupczik, Kornelius; Mbua, Emma; Schultz, Michael

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a first computerized tomography (CT)-based study of the Middle Pleistocene matrix-filled skull KNM-ES 11693 from Eliye Springs at Lake Turkana. Ectocranially, the hominid cranium exhibits a remarkable enlargement of the vault symmetrical to the sagittal suture and a porotic surface covering most of the vault. CT analysis further revealed a strong thickening of the cranial vault as well as other relevant aspects. Differential diagnosis suggests that the changes of the Eliye Springs cranium were probably caused by chronic anemia in the childhood or youth of this individual. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others' performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Crystal Structure of Homo Sapiens PTD012 Reveals a Zinc-Containing Hydrolase Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjasetty,B.; Bussow, K.; Fieber-ErdMan, M.; Roske, Y.; Gobam, J.; Scheich, C.; Gotz, F.; Niesen, F.; Heinemann, U.

    2006-01-01

    The human protein PTD012 is the longer product of an alternatively spliced gene and was described to be localized in the nucleus. The X-ray structure analysis at 1.7 Angstroms resolution of PTD012 through SAD phasing reveals a monomeric protein and a novel fold. The shorter splice form was also studied and appears to be unfolded and non-functional. The structure of PTD012 displays an {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} four-layer topology. A metal ion residing between the central {beta}-sheets is partially coordinated by three histidine residues. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identifies the PTD012-bound ion as Zn{sup 2+}. Tetrahedral coordination of the ion is completed by the carboxylate oxygen atom of an acetate molecule taken up from the crystallization buffer. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to PTD012 is reminiscent of zinc-containing enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and {beta}-lactamase. Biochemical assays failed to demonstrate any of these enzyme activities in PTD012. However, PTD012 exhibits ester hydrolase activity on the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate.

  12. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study)

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  13. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  14. Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others' performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan...

  15. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP (APICOMPLEXA : CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HOMO SAPIENS. (R826138)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Comparing children's Homo sapiens and chimpanzees' Pan troglodytes quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets of items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. BERAN, Julie S. JOHNSON-PYNN, Christopher READY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We presented a quantity judgment task that involved comparing two sequentially presented sets of items to preschoolers and chimpanzees using nearly identical procedures that excluded verbal instructions to children. Trial difficulty in this task reflected the ratio difference between sets of discrete items where larger ratios (e.g., 0.80 as from comparing 4 to 5 were more difficult than smaller ones (e.g., 0.50 as from comparing 4 to 8. Children also completed verbal-based tasks probing the relationship between counting proficiency and performance on the quantity judgment task of sequentially presented identical sized items. Both species’ performance was best when ratios between comparison sets were small regardless of set size in all types of tasks. Generally, chimpanzees and older children performed better than younger children except at larger ratios. Children’s counting proficiency was not related to success in choosing the larger of two quantities of identical-sized items. These results indicate that chimpanzees and children share an approximate number sense that is reflected through analog magnitude estimation when comparing quantities [Current Zoology 57 (4: 419–428, 2011].

  18. Similar pathogen targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and homo sapiens protein networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Shakarian

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities. Specifically, we preform [Formula: see text]-shell decomposition analysis on these networks - which groups the proteins into various "shells" based on network structure. We observe that shells with a higher average degree are more highly targeted (with a power-law relationship and that highly targeted nodes lie in shells closer to the inner-core of the network. Additionally, we also note that the inner core of the network is significantly under-targeted. We show that these core proteins may have a role in intra-cellular communication and hypothesize that they are less attacked to ensure survival of the host. This may explain why certain high-degree proteins are not significantly attacked.

  19. Homology modeling of Homo sapiens lipoic acid synthase: Substrate docking and insights on its binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ezhilarasi; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Padmalayam, Indira; Rajaram, Rama; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-05-07

    Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role. A homology model for LIAS protein was generated using X-ray crystallographic structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (PDB ID: 4U0P). The predicted structure has 93% of the residues in the most favour region of Ramachandran plot. The active site of LIAS protein was mapped and docked with S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) using GOLD software. The LIAS-SAM complex was further refined using molecular dynamics simulation within the subsite 1 and subsite 3 of the active site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a reliable homology model of LIAS protein. This study will facilitate a better understanding mode of action of the enzyme-substrate complex for future studies in designing drugs that can target LIAS protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Deepal H; Smith, Heather F

    2015-01-01

    The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5-18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13-18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites.

  1. Comparative in vivo forefoot kinematics of Homo sapiens and Pan paniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nicole L; D'Août, Kristiaan; Richmond, Brian; Gordon, Adam; Aerts, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The human metatarsophalangeal joints play a key role in weight transmission and propulsion during bipedal gait, but at present, the identification of when a habitual, human-like metatarsi-fulcrimating mechanism first appeared in the fossil record is debated. Part of this debate can be attributed to the absence of certain detailed quantitative data distinguishing human and great ape forefoot form and function. The aim of this study is to quantitatively test previous observations that human metatarsophalangeal joints exhibit greater amounts of dorsal excursion (i.e., dorsiflexion) than those of Pan at the terminal stance phase of terrestrial locomotion. Video recordings were made in order to measure sagittal excursions of the medial metatarsophalangeal joints in habitually shod/unshod adult humans and adult bonobos (Pan paniscus). Results indicate that the human first and second metatarsophalangeal joints usually dorsiflex more than those of bonobos. When timing of maximum excursion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is coupled with existing plantar pressure data, the unique role of the human forefoot as a key site of leverage and weight transmission is highlighted. These results support hypotheses that significant joint functional differences between great apes and humans during gait underlie taxonomic distinctions in trabecular bone architecture of the forefoot. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neanderthal paintings? Production of prototypical human (Homo sapiens) faces shows systematic distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wirth, Benedikt Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    People's sketches of human faces seem to be systematically distorted: the eye position is always higher than in reality. This bias was experimentally analyzed by a series of experiments varying drawing conditions. Participants either drew prototypical faces from memory (studies 1 and 2: free reconstruction; study 3: cued reconstruction) or directly copied average faces (study 4). Participants consistently showed this positioning bias, which is even in accord with facial depictions published in influential research articles by famous face researchers (study 5). We discuss plausible explanations for this reliable and stable bias, which is coincidentally similar to the morphology of Neanderthals.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses. PMID:27270140

  4. The use of interval ratios in consonance perception by rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific cooperation in human (Homo sapiens) hunting: the benefits of a barking dog (Canis familiaris)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vesa Ruusila; Mauri Pesonen

    2004-01-01

    The first wild animal humans domesticated was the wolf (Canis lupus). The benefits of dog presence for human hunting success is often mentioned as a probable factor initiating the domestication of the wolf...

  6. Should the study of Homo sapiens be part of cognitive science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark Barrett, H; Stich, Stephen; Laurence, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin argue that a reconciliation between anthropology and cognitive science seems unlikely. We disagree. In our view, Beller et al.'s view of the scope of what anthropology can offer cognitive science is too narrow. In focusing on anthropology's role in elucidating cultural particulars, they downplay the fact that anthropology can reveal both variation and universals in human cognition, and is in a unique position to do so relative to the other subfields of cognitive science. Indeed, without cross-cultural research, the universality of any aspect of human cognition cannot truly be established. Therefore, if the goal of cognitive science is to understand the cognitive capacities of our species as a whole, then it cannot do without anthropology. We briefly review a growing body of anthropological work aimed at answering questions about human cognition and offer suggestions for future work. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Focusing and shifting attention in human children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Humans often must coordinate co-occurring activities, and their flexible skills for doing so would seem to be uniquely powerful. In 2 studies, we compared 4- and 5-year-old children and one of humans' nearest relatives, chimpanzees, in their ability to focus and shift their attention when necessary. The results of Study 1 showed that 4-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their ability to monitor two identical devices and to sequentially switch between the two to collect a reward, and that they were less successful at doing so than 5-year-old children. In Study 2, which required subjects to alternate between two different tasks, one of which had rewards continuously available whereas the other one only occasionally released rewards, no species differences were found. These results suggest that chimpanzees and human children share some fundamental attentional control skills, but that such abilities continue to develop during human ontogeny, resulting in the uniquely human capacity to succeed at complex multitasking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Comment on "Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fuli; Hill, R Sean; Schaffner, Stephen F; Sabeti, Pardis C; Wang, Eric T; Mignault, Andre A; Ferland, Russell J; Moyzis, Robert K; Walsh, Christopher A; Reich, David

    2007-04-20

    Mekel-Bobrov et al. (Reports, 9 September 2005, p. 1720) suggested that ASPM, a gene associated with microcephaly, underwent natural selection within the last 500 to 14,100 years. Their analyses based on comparison with computer simulations indicated that ASPM had an unusual pattern of variation. However, when we compare ASPM empirically to a large number of other loci, its variation is not unusual and does not support selection.

  9. Discrimination of holograms and real objects by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia; Steurer, Michael M; Aust, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    The type of stimulus material employed in visual tasks is crucial to all comparative cognition research that involves object recognition. There is considerable controversy about the use of 2-dimensional stimuli and the impact that the lack of the 3rd dimension (i.e., depth) may have on animals' performance in tests for their visual and cognitive abilities. We report evidence of discrimination learning using a completely novel type of stimuli, namely, holograms. Like real objects, holograms provide full 3-dimensional shape information but they also offer many possibilities for systematically modifying the appearance of a stimulus. Hence, they provide a promising means for investigating visual perception and cognition of different species in a comparative way. We trained pigeons and humans to discriminate either between 2 real objects or between holograms of the same 2 objects, and we subsequently tested both species for the transfer of discrimination to the other presentation mode. The lack of any decrements in accuracy suggests that real objects and holograms were perceived as equivalent in both species and shows the general appropriateness of holograms as stimuli in visual tasks. A follow-up experiment involving the presentation of novel views of the training objects and holograms revealed some interspecies differences in rotational invariance, thereby confirming and extending the results of previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that holograms may not only provide a promising tool for investigating yet unexplored issues, but their use may also lead to novel insights into some crucial aspects of comparative visual perception and categorization.

  10. Occlusal wear pattern analysis of functional morphology in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorenza, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Very little is known about the occlusal wear pattern in the Neanderthal posterior dentition. Usually dental wear is closely related to the physical properties of the ingested food, and consequently can be used to obtain information about diet. Neanderthal dietary reconstructions have been mostly based on the analysis of accompanying faunal remains and isotopic signatures of bones and tooth enamel, suggesting that they exploited larger portions of animal proteins from large and medium-sized he...

  11. HOMO SAPIENS, ¿HACIA DÓNDE VAS? EL RETO PARA EL FUTURO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Señor Presidente:

    Permítame usted ante todo, manifestar la emoción que me han producido los amables, inmerecidos y exagerados elogios que ha hecho usted de mi vida como persona, como cirujano, como amigo y, por supuesto, como miembro de esta ilustre Institución. Le agradezco hondamente esta presentación que sé sincera y bondadosa y, repito: inmerecida.

    Quiero asimismo expresar mis sinceros agradecimientos al personal de empleados de la Academia quienes, con gran amabilidad y cortesía, me han ayudado a conr el presente trabajo: Carmiña, Susana, Sylvia, Gilberto: muchas gracias, y a Martha, artista del computador, gracias por su paciencia y su colaboración insuperable; así como a las Señoritas colaboradoras de la Clínica de Marly, Astrid y Luz Mery.

    Y, desde luego y más que a nadie, a mi querida familia.

    Héme aquí ante ustedes, queridos colegas, distinguido auditorio, embargado por la emoción y la gratitud que ojalá me permitan manifestar el agradecimiento inmenso por esta distinción, la más importante que otorga la ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA, por el querer y el voto voluntario de sus miembros, que me enaltece y premia mi larga trayectoria que se inició en febrero de 1966, como Asociado, para ocupar en estos 43 años, posiciones en la Honorable Junta Directiva y haber gozado de todos los privilegios y enseñanzas que esta ilustre institución otorga.

  12. Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Brian

    2017-01-03

    The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human self-domestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution. As a by-product of this selection, humans are predicted to show traits of the domestication syndrome observed in other domestic animals. In reviewing comparative, developmental, neurobiological, and paleoanthropological research, compelling evidence emerges for the predicted relationship between unique human mentalizing abilities, tolerance, and the domestication syndrome in humans. This synthesis includes a review of the first a priori test of the self-domestication hypothesis as well as predictions for future tests.

  13. Finding genes on the X chromosome by which homo may have become sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-06-01

    The map of the X chromosome is now littered, from one telomere to the other, with genes for mental handicap, alone or in combination with other features. In this issue of the journal, report such an entity from the Scottish Highlands, which they give the catchy title of {open_quotes}PPM-X syndrome,{close_quotes} denoting the association of pyramidal tract signs, psychosis, and macroorchidism with mental handicap (XLMR). They have localized this to Xq28 and discuss other genes in the same area, which include L1CAM (associated with MASA [mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs] and X-linked hydrocephalus) and two genes for nonspecific XLMR-MRX3 and MRX25. It is also the localization of the gene for G6PD deficiency, which, in earlier studies, had demonstrated linkage to bipolar affective disorders, although this has been questioned in more recent studies. There may well be other families with this pattern of abnormalities who have remained undescribed because depression is so often not diagnosed in those with moderate mental handicap. The occurrence, in this family, of mental handicap with a bipolar disorder may be the chance association of two common disorders, or it may a significant association; at this stage, one cannot judge. 8 refs.

  14. Generalization of Category Knowledge and Dimensional Categorization in Humans (Homo sapiens) and Nonhuman Primates (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Johnston, Jennifer J. R.; Roeder, Jessica L.; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F. Gregory; Church, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans’ implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the question of 1) how closely macaques’ dimensional categorization verges on humans’ explicit/declarative categorization, and 2) how far macaques’ dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species. PMID:26167774

  15. The Learning of Exclusive-Or Categories by Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Couchman, Justin J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in categorization research concerns the categories that animals and humans learn naturally and well. Here, the authors examined monkeys’ and humans’ learning of the important class of exclusive-or (XOR) categories. Both species exhibited—through a sustained level of ongoing errors—substantial difficulty learning XOR category tasks at three stimulus dimensionalities. Clearly, both species brought a linear-separability constraint to XOR category learning. This constraint illuminates the primate category-learning system from which that of humans arose, and it has theoretical implications concerning the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. The present data also clarify the role of exemplar-specific processes in fully explaining XOR category learning, and suggest that humans sometimes overcome their linear-separability constraint through the use of language and verbalization. PMID:20718556

  16. Mechanisms of Inferential Order Judgments in Humans (Homo sapiens) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2010-01-01

    If A > B, and B > C, it follows logically that A > C. The process of reaching that conclusion is called transitive inference (TI). Several mechanisms have been offered to explain transitive performance. Scanning models claim that the list is scanned from the ends of the list inward until a match is found. Positional discrimination models claim that positional uncertainty accounts for accuracy and reaction time patterns. In Experiment 1, we trained rhesus monkeys and humans on adjacent pairs (e.g. AB, BC, CD, DE, EF) and tested them with previously untrained nonadjacent pairs (e.g. BD). In Experiment 2, we trained a second list, and tested with nonadjacent pairs selected between lists (e.g. B from list 1, D from list 2). We then introduced associative competition between adjacent items in Experiment 3 by training two items per position (e.g. B1C1, B2C2) before testing with untrained nonadjacent items. In all three Experiments, humans and monkeys showed distance effects in which accuracy increased, and reaction time decreased, as the distance between items in each pair increased (e.g. BD vs. BE). In Experiment 4, we trained adjacent pairs with separate 9- list and 5-item lists. We then tested with nonadjacent pairs selected between lists to determine whether list items were chosen according to their absolute position (e.g. D, 5-item list > E, 9-item list), or their relative position (e.g. D, 5-item list humans’ choices were most consistent with a relative positional organization. PMID:21341909

  17. Homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A digital Vernier caliper was used to obtain direct linear measurements of the toe length of both feet; hallux (1T), second toe (2T), third toe (3T), fourth toe (4T), and the fifth toe (5T). Ten (10) possible toe-length ratios were also determined and named as follows; 1T/2T, 1T/3T, 1T/4T, 1T/5T, 2T/3T, 2T/4T, 2T/5T, 3T/4T, 3T/5T, ...

  18. She more than he: gender bias supports the empathic nature of yawn contagion in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Demuru, Elisa; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    Psychological, clinical and neurobiological findings endorse that empathic abilities are more developed in women than in men. Because there is growing evidence that yawn contagion is an empathy-based phenomenon, we expect that the female bias in the empathic abilities reflects on a gender skew in the responsiveness to others' yawns. We verified this assumption by applying a linear model on a dataset gathered during a 5 year period of naturalistic observations on humans. Gender, age and social bond were included in the analysis as fixed factors. The social bond and the receiver's gender remained in the best model. The rates of contagion were significantly lower between acquaintances than between friends and family members, and significantly higher in women than in men. These results not only confirm that yawn contagion is sensitive to social closeness, but also that the phenomenon is affected by the same gender bias affecting empathy. The sex skew, also found in other non-human species, fits with the female social roles which are likely to require higher empathic abilities (e.g. parental care, group cohesion maintenance, social mediation). The fact that female influence in social dynamics also relies on face-to-face emotional exchange raises concerns on the negative repercussions of having women's facial expressions forcibly concealed.

  19. AMS radiocarbon dating at Oxford and its contribution to issues of the extinction of Neanderthals and the spread of Homo sapiens sapiens across Eurasia

    CERN Document Server

    Pettitt, P B; Hedges, R E M; Hodgins, G W L

    2000-01-01

    The Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit has participated in a number of projects central to the question of the evolutionary fate of the Neanderthals and the spread of our own species across Eurasia. This paper outlines some of the key issues in this field and reports on some dating projects which have refined our knowledge of these momentous events in human history.

  20. Del Big Bang a l'Homo Sapiens Sapiens. Una visió evolutiva global de la Història de l'Univers

    OpenAIRE

    Castells i Guardiola, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Crec que un resum lleugerament informal pot animar al lector a endinsar-se en el seriós contingut del llibre. S'aixeca el teló (fa uns tretze mil set cents milions d'anys) amb un "chupinazo" que deixa en ridícul als dels "sanfermines". L' entropia comença a augmentar ... i ja no pararà! L'empat inicial entre la matèria i l' antimateria es decanta a favor de la matèria, encara que per molt poc! Matèria i antimatèria s'anihilen, però el lleuger excés de matèria fa que en l'...

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating at Oxford and its contribution to issues of the extinction of Neanderthals and the spread of Homo sapiens sapiens across Eurasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettitt, P.B. E-mail: paul.pettitt@archaeology-research.ox.ac.uk; Bronk Ramsey, C.; Hedges, R.E.M.; Hodgins, G.W.L

    2000-10-01

    The Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit has participated in a number of projects central to the question of the evolutionary fate of the Neanderthals and the spread of our own species across Eurasia. This paper outlines some of the key issues in this field and reports on some dating projects which have refined our knowledge of these momentous events in human history.

  2. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  3. Predictors for permanent pacemaker implantation in patients undergoing transfemoral aortic valve implantation with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonska, Birgid; Seeger, Julia; Keßler, Mirjam; von Keil, Alexander; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Predictors for the need of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are not well defined yet. We evaluated the impact of conduction disturbances, calcium volume of the device landing zone, oversizing and implantation depth on PPMI after TAVI with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3). 335 consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with the ES3 for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis were included (clinicaltrials NCT02162069). Rate of PPMI after TAVI was 18.4%, excluding patients with permanent pacemakers prior to TAVI or valve-in-valve implantations. Patients requiring PPMI more often had first degree atrioventricular block (AVB) at baseline (48.7 vs. 16.5%, p < 0.01), preprocedural complete right bundle branch block (RBBB; 25.0 vs. 3.9%, p < 0.01) and higher calcium volume of the aortic valve (258.5 ± 317.3 vs. 163.6 ± 178.8 mm³, p < 0.01). There was a trend towards higher rate of PPMI in patients with new-onset left bundle branch block after TAVI (32.7 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.06). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that baseline first degree AVB (odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 1.73-9.10, p < 0.01) and preprocedural complete RBBB (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.50-13.21, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of PPMI. Of note, neither oversizing nor implantation depth were independent predictors for need of PPMI with the ES3. In patients treated with the ES3 for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis first degree AVB and complete RBBB at baseline were independently associated with higher rates of postprocedural PPMI, whereas implantation depth and oversizing did not have an impact on PPMI.

  4. Valve-in-valve outcome: design impact of a pre-existing bioprosthesis on the hydrodynamics of an Edwards Sapien XT valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Christian; Kütting, Maximilian; Egron, Sandrine; Farhadi Ghalati, Pejman; Schmitz, Christoph; Utzenrath, Marc; Sedaghat, Alexander; Fujita, Buntaro; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Ensminger, Stephan; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Bioprosthetic aortic heart valves are increasingly implanted in younger patients. Therefore, a strategy for potential valve failure should be developed before implanting the 'first valve'. The goal of this in vitro study was to provide insight into the effects of the design of a bioprosthesis on a valve-in-valve implanted Sapien XT valve. The hydrodynamic performance of a 23-mm Sapien XT valve implanted in Vascutek Aspire, Edwards Perimount, Medtronic Mosaic and St. Jude Medical Trifecta heart valves was investigated in a left heart simulator. In addition to the hydrodynamic results, the leaflet dynamics were analysed in high-speed video recordings of the tests. All valve-in-valve combinations in this study fulfilled the minimum acceptance criteria defined by relevant approval standards (e.g. ISO 5840) but displayed significant differences in their performances. Small inner diameters of the bioprostheses were associated with increased mean pressure gradients, decreased effective orifice areas and geometric opening areas as well as with pin-wheeling and uneven leaflet motion. In addition, implantation in bioprostheses with internally mounted leaflets was associated with lower paravalvular leakage. The results of this study suggest that a surgical bioprosthesis with a large inner diameter and internally mounted leaflets improves the heamodynamics and potentially the durability of a valve-in-valve combination. These results should give the attending physicians critical information to consider when deciding on a bioprosthesis for younger patients.

  5. Successful transfemoral aortic Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) bioprosthesis implantation without using iodinated contrast media in a woman with severe allergy to contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Lionel; Dijos, Marina; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Severe anaphylactoid reaction after the use of iodinated contrast media are rare but can contraindicate the use of contrast agent. It was the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, recused for cardiac surgery because of deleterious effects of chest-wall irradiation, with porcelain aorta. We decided to implant a 23-mm Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) transcatheter aortic valve via a femoral route without using any contrast media. The implantation was successful after surgical approach of the femoral artery, transesophageal echocardiography guiding, and localization of native leaflets and coronary trunk with catheters. Immediate and one month post-interventional follow-up was favorable and echocardiography showed a good functioning of the aortic bioprosthesis. Although conventional angiography is the best way to visualize the good positioning of the valve before deployment, our case suggests that, in special situations, transfemoral implantation of an Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) aortic bioprosthesis is feasible without any contrast injection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New dates for the Fontéchevade (Charente, France) Homo remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Philip G; Debénath, André; Dibble, Harold L; McPherron, Shannon P; Schwarcz, Henry P; Stafford, Thomas W; Tournepiche, Jean-François

    2007-02-01

    Homo I from the site of Fontéchevade, France, has long been an anomaly in the European fossil record. The specimen is a fragment of human frontal bone that lacks a supraorbital torus and appears to belong to an anatomically modern Homo sapiens. However, the level from which it was recovered in 1947 was dated on the basis of associated faunal and lithic material to the last interglacial or earlier. As a result, Homo I has been interpreted, among other things, as a representative of a pre-sapiens lineage in Europe. This paper reports on recent ESR and radiocarbon dates that indicate that the specimen almost certainly dates to oxygen isotope stage 3, which brings it in line with other evidence for the entry of modern Homo sapiens into Europe.

  7. Genome-wide screening reveals the emergence and divergence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Q16832. Homo sapiens. ROR1 HUMAN. Q01973. Homo sapiens. ROR2 HUMAN. Q01974. Homo sapiens. RYK HUMAN. P34925. Homo sapiens. INSR HUMAN. P06213. Homo sapiens. FGR1 DROME. Q07407. Drosophila melanogaster.

  8. Spatial working memory in immersive virtual reality foraging: path organization, traveling distance and search efficiency in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Kirby, Melissa; James, Frances C

    2014-05-01

    Search and serial recall tasks were used in the present study to characterize the factors affecting the ability of humans to keep track of a set of spatial locations while traveling in an immersive virtual reality foraging environment. The first experiment required the exhaustive exploration of a set of locations following a procedure previously used with other primate and non-primate species to assess their sensitivity to the geometric arrangement of foraging sites. The second experiment assessed the dependency of search performance on search organization by requiring the participants to recall specific trajectories throughout the foraging space. In the third experiment, the distance between the foraging sites was manipulated in order to contrast the effects of organization and traveling distance on recall accuracy. The results show that humans benefit from the use of organized search patterns when attempting to monitor their travel though either a clustered "patchy" space or a matrix of locations. Their ability to recall a series of locations is dependent on whether the order in which they are explored conformed or did not conform to specific organization principles. Moreover, the relationship between search efficiency and search organization is not confounded by effects of traveling distance. These results indicate that in humans, organizational factors may play a large role in their ability to forage efficiently. The extent to which such dependency may pertain to other primates and could be accounted for by visual organization processes is discussed on the basis of previous studies focused on perceptual grouping, search, and serial recall in non-human species. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Describing the hexapeptide identity platform between the influenza A H5N1 and Homo sapiens proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Kanduc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Darja KanducDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, ItalyAbstract: We searched the primary sequence of influenza A H5N1 polyprotein for hexamer amino acid sequences shared with human proteins using the Protein International Resource database and the exact peptide matching analysis program. We find that the viral polyprotein shares numerous hexapeptides with the human proteome. The human proteins involved in the viral overlap are represented by antigens associated with basic cell functions such as proliferation, development, and differentiation. Of special importance, many human proteins that share peptide sequences with influenza A polyprotein are antigens such as reelin, neurexin I-a, myosin-IXa, Bardet–Biedl syndrome 10 protein, Williams syndrome transcription factor, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 protein, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 chromosomal region candidate gene 17 protein, fragile X mental retardation 2 protein, and jouberin. That is, the viral-vs-human overlap involves human proteins that, when altered, have been reported to be potentially associated with multiple neurological disorders that can include autism, epilepsy, obesity, dystonia, ataxia–telangiectasia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sensorineural deafness, sudden infant death syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and myelination. The present data are discussed as a possible molecular basis for understanding influenza A viral escape from immunosurveillance and for defining anti-influenza immune-therapeutic approaches devoid of collateral adverse events.Keywords: peptide sharing, neurological disorders, host-pathogen relationships, viral escape from immunosurveillance

  10. Should autism be considered a canary bird telling that Homo sapiens may be on its way to extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Albert Christophersen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic enhancement of the reported incidence of autism in different parts of the world over the last 30 years. This can apparently not be explained only as a result of improved diagnosis and reporting, but may also reflect a real change. The causes of this change are unknown, but if we shall follow T.C. Chamberlin's principle of multiple working hypotheses, we need to take into consideration the possibility that it partly may reflect an enhancement of the average frequency of responsible alleles in large populations. If this hypothesis is correct, it means that the average germline mutation rate must now be much higher in the populations concerned, compared with the natural mutation rate in hominid ancestors before the agricultural and industrial revolutions. This is compatible with the high prevalence of impaired human semen quality in several countries and also with what is known about high levels of total exposure to several different unnatural chemical mutagens, plus some natural ones at unnaturally high levels. Moreover, dietary deficiency conditions that may lead to enhancement of mutation rates are also very widespread, affecting billions of people. However, the natural mutation rate in hominids has been found to be so high that there is apparently no tolerance for further enhancement of the germline mutation rate before the Eigen error threshold will be exceeded and our species will go extinct because of mutational meltdown. This threat, if real, should be considered far more serious than any disease causing the death only of individual patients. It should therefore be considered the first and highest priority of the best biomedical scientists in the world, of research-funding agencies and of all medical doctors to try to stop the express train carrying all humankind as passengers on board before it arrives at the end station of our civilization.

  11. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens) know when they are ignorant about the location of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Collier-Baker, Emma; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decade, the metacognitive abilities of nonhuman primates and the developmental emergence of metacognition in children have become topics of increasing research interest. In the current study, the performance of three adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; Experiment 1) and forty-four 3.5- and 5.5-year-old human children (Experiment 2) was assessed on a behavioral search paradigm designed to assess metacognition. Subjects either directly observed the baiting of a large reward into one cup among an array of four, or had the baiting occluded from their view. In half of the trials, subjects were also presented with an additional distinctive cup that was always visibly baited with a small reward. This cup allowed subjects the opportunity to escape from making a guess about the location of the bigger reward. All three chimpanzees and both age groups of children selected the escape cup more often when the baiting of the large reward was concealed, compared to when it was visible. This demonstrates that both species can selectively choose a guaranteed smaller reward when they do not know the location of a larger reward and provides insight into the development of metacognition.

  12. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  14. Structure of putative CutA1 from Homo sapiens determined at 2.05 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin, E-mail: bagautdi@spring8.or.jp; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide [Protein Structure Analysis Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The X-ray structure of human CutA1 was solved in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The structure of human brain CutA1 (HsCutA1) has been determined using diffraction data to 2.05 Å resolution. HsCutA1 has been implicated in the anchoring of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal cell membranes, while its bacterial homologue Escherichia coli CutA1 is involved in copper tolerance. Additionally, the structure of HsCutA1 bears similarity to that of the signal transduction protein PII, which is involved in regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Although several crystal structures of CutA1 from various sources with different rotation angles and degrees of interaction between trimer interfaces have been reported, the specific functional role of CutA1 is still unclear. In this study, the X-ray structure of HsCutA1 was determined in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 Å and six molecules per asymmetric unit. HsCutA1 is a trimeric molecule with intertwined antiparallel β-strands; each subunit has a molecular weight of 14.6 kDa and contains 135 amino-acid residues. In order to obtain clues to the possible function of HsCutA1, its crystal structure was compared with those of other CutA1 and PII proteins.

  15. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  16. Simulations of simple Bovine and Homo sapiens outer cortex ocular lens membrane models with a majority concentration of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark; Wang, Eric; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-11-21

    The lipid composition of bovine and human ocular lens membranes has been probed, and a variety of lipids have been found including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) with cholesterol being present in particularly high concentrations. In this study, we use the all-atom CHARMM36 force field to simulate binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures as models of the ocular lens. High concentration of cholesterol, in combination with different and varying diversity of phospholipids (PL) and sphingolipids (SL), affect the structure of the ocular lens lipid bilayer. The following analyses were done for each simulation: surface area per lipid, component surface area per lipid, deuterium order parameters (S CD ), electron density profiles (EDP), membrane thickness, hydrogen bonding, radial distribution functions, clustering, and sterol tilt angle distribution. The S CD show significant bilayer alignment and packing in cholesterol-rich bilayers. The EDP show the transition from liquid crystalline to liquid ordered with the addition of cholesterol. Hydrogen bonds in our systems show the tendency for intramolecular interactions between cholesterol and fully saturated lipid tails for less complex bilayers. But with an increased number of components in the bilayer, the acyl chain of the lipids becomes a less important characteristic, and the headgroup of the lipid becomes more significant. Overall, cholesterol is the driving force of membrane structure of the ocular lens membrane where interactions between cholesterol, PL, and SL determine structure and function of the biomembrane. The goal of this work is to develop a baseline for further study of more physiologically realistic ocular lens lipid membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully functionally characterized. On the basis of prior work, we predicted that cTHAP4 is composed of a heme-binding nitrobindin domain, making THAP4 the only human THAP protein predicted to bind a cofactor. Nitrobindin, a recently characterized protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, is structurally similar and exhibits nitric oxide (NO)-binding properties that resemble the heme-binding nitrophorins. Nitrophorins use a heme moiety to store, transport, and release NO in a pH-specific manner. Although the exact function of nitrobindin is not fully known, the similarities between the well-characterized nitrophorins imply a role in NO transport, sensing, or metabolism. To better elucidate the possible function of THAP4, we solved the hemebound structure of cTHAP4 to a resolution of 1.79 {angstrom}.

  18. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  19. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs using human multicolor banding (MCB probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA, Callithrix jacchus (CJA, Cebus apella (CAP, Saimiri sciureus (SSC, and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE, respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107 NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99 NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA and 66.3% (71/107 NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS. Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  20. Identification of a better Homo sapiens Class II HDAC inhibitor through binding energy calculations and descriptor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Wulandari, Evi Kristin

    2010-10-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common on sexually transmitted viruses in the world. HPVs are responsible for a large spectrum of deseases, both benign and malignant. The certain types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cancer. In attemps to find additional drugs in the treatment of cervical cancer, inhibitors of the histone deacetylases (HDAC) have received much attention due to their low cytotoxic profiles and the E6/E7 oncogene function of human papilomavirus can be completely by passed by HDAC inhibition. The histone deacetylase inhibitors can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. HDAC class I and class II are considered the main targets for cancer. Therefore, the six HDACs class II was modeled and about two inhibitors (SAHA and TSA) were docked using AutoDock4.2, to each of the inhibitor in order to identify the pharmacological properties. Based on the results of docking, SAHA and TSA were able to bind with zinc ion in HDACs models as a drug target. SAHA was satisfied almost all the properties i.e., binding affinity, the Drug-Likeness value and Drug Score with 70% oral bioavailability and the carbonyl group of these compound fits well into the active site of the target where the zinc is present. Hence, SAHA could be developed as potential inhibitors of class II HDACs and valuable cervical cancer drug candidate.

  1. Gestalt principle use in college students, children with autism, toddlers (Homo sapiens), and cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiworth, Julie J; Whillock, Katherine M; Kim, Seo Hyun; Greenberg, Julia R; Jones, Katherine B; Patel, Anushka R; Steefel-Moore, David L; Shaw, Allyson J; Rupert, Deborah D; Gauer, Jacqueline L; Kudura, Aisha G

    2014-05-01

    The use of Gestalt principles of proximity, similarity, and closure to recognize objects by configural superiority was examined in college students, low- and high-functioning children with autism, toddlers, and adult cotton top tamarin monkeys. At issue was whether the monkeys showed differences from humans in perceptual processing and whether they showed any similarities with clinical or developmental groups. The method required a pointing response to discriminate an odd item in a 4-item visual display. All subjects were trained to a high accuracy to point to the odd item before being tested with graphic stimuli that differentiated feature changes based on configural superiority. The results were that college students and high-functioning children with autism responded faster and more accurately to trials in which the odd item was easily noticed by the use of Gestalt principles and configural superiority. Toddlers also responded more accurately to the Gestalt trials, but without being faster at making the response. Low-functioning children with autism and tamarins showed no advantage to Gestalt trials but exhibited different processing styles. The implications of these findings to track the evolution of human perception and to develop a primate model for the perceptual deficits of autism are discussed. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of a relational spatial strategy in learning the centre of enclosures in human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Luca; Giuliano, Alda

    2014-07-01

    Three- to five-year-old children were trained to localize a sensor hidden underneath the floor, in the centre of a square-shaped enclosure (1.5m×1.5m). Walking over the sensor caused a pleasant music to be played in the environment, thus engaging children in a playful spatial search. Children easily learned to find the centre of the training environment starting from random positions. After training, children were tested in enclosures of different size and/or shape: a larger square-shaped enclosure (3m×3m), a rectangle-shaped enclosure (1.5m×3m), an equilateral triangle-shaped enclosure (side 3m) and an isosceles triangle-shaped enclosure (base 1.5m; sides 3m). Children searched in the central region of the enclosures, their precision varying as a function of the similarity of the testing enclosure's shape to the shape of the training enclosure. This suggests that a relational spatial strategy was used, and that it depended on the encoding of geometrical shape. This result highlights a distinctive role of the geometric centre of enclosed spaces in place learning in children, as already observed in nonhuman species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cashing Out: The Decisional Flexibility of Uncertainty Responses in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals’ performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans’ and animals’ uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals’ uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility. PMID:25546106

  4. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  5. Homo Ethicus : Understanding the Human Nature that Underlies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is followed by a section containing an updated working hypothesis about homo sapiens stemming from earlier research by the author on human nature, arguing that it exhibits a drive to maximize well-being. The fifth section links the hypothesis to the ethical dimension of human nature, while the final section provides ...

  6. Transfemoral aortic valve implantation is more successful with the Edwards Sapien 3 compared with the Edwards XT for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonska, Birgid; Seeger, Julia; Junker, Alexander; Rodewald, Christoph; Trepte, Ulrike; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-08

    Residual aortic regurgitation (AR) after transfemoral aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with increased mortality. The new Edwards Sapien 3 valve (ES3) is designed to reduce paravalvular AR. To compare a new-generation and a late-generation balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve. In this study, 100 consecutive patients treated with the ES3 for symptomatic native severe aortic stenosis were compared with 100 consecutive patients treated with the Edwards Sapien XT valve (EXT); all valves were implanted via transfemoral access. We compared residual AR, rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, device success according to the second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2) criteria and 30-day follow-up. With the ES3, the risk of moderate/severe AR was lower (0% vs 3%), the risk of mild AR was lower (31% vs 40%) and the final result with no AR was higher (P=0.07). The mean aortic gradient was significantly higher with the ES3 (12.2±4.6 vs 9.4±3.9mmHg; P<0.01). Device success according to the VARC-2 criteria was high with the ES3 and the EXT (97% vs 95%; P=0.48). Pacemaker implantation because of higher-grade atrioventricular block was similar: 9.3% after ES3 implantation and 6.9% after EXT implantation (P=0.56). There was significantly less major or life-threatening bleeding with the ES3: 5% vs 14% (P=0.03) and 0% vs 8% (P<0.01), respectively. After 30 days, the VARC-2 early-safety endpoint was significantly lower with the ES3 (P<0.01). In conclusion, TAVI with the ES3 in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis was associated with no moderate/severe AR, a trend towards a lower rate of mild AR, a significantly lower rate of major or life-threatening bleeding and early safety according to VARC-2 criteria within 30 days compared with the EXT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of X-ray beam distortion on the Edwards Sapien XT(™) trans-catheter aortic valve replacement prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, James A; Poon, Karl K; Murdoch, Dale; Incani, Alexander; Raffel, Owen C; Liddicoat, Annelise; Walters, Darren

    2015-12-01

    Profiling the Aortic root perpendicular to the fluoroscopic image plane will achieve a more successful implant position for trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This study aimed to investigate whether the divergent nature of the X-ray beam from the C-arm altered the appearance of the TAVR device. Under bench-top testing, a 23, 26 and 29 mm Edwards Sapien XT valve was positioned coaxially at the bottom of a fluoroscopic image utilising 22 and 32 cm fields of view (FOV). The table was then moved so that the valve was positioned at the top of the image. The valve's appearance was scored using a previously published three tier classification tool (excellent, satisfactory and poor) and quantified with measurements. The number of degrees of C-arm rotation that were required to bring the valve back to a coaxial appearance was recorded. When using the 32 cm FOV, the valve's appearance changes from excellent to satisfactory. When a 22 cm FOV was used, the change is less marked. More C-arm rotation is required to bring the appearance back to coaxial with the 32 cm FOV. Not maintaining the valve in the centre of the image can distort the valves appearance. This has the potential to affect the final implantation depth.

  8. Fracturing a dysfunctional Edwards Perimount bioprosthetic valve to facilitate percutaneous valve-in-valve placement of SAPIEN 3 valve with modified delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanavaz, Shabana; Rockefeller, Toby; Nicolas, Ramzi; Balzer, David

    2017-10-10

    Pulmonary valve replacement via surgical implantation of a bioprosthetic valve (BPV) is a well-established treatment for patients with dysfunctional RV outflow tracts. BPVs are prone to structural deterioration, and will eventually require replacement. Recently, percutaneous valve-in-valve (VIV) placement of transcatheter valves has established itself as a safe and effective alternative to surgical revision. Unfortunately, VIV therapy is inherently limited by the inner diameter of the BPV, which restricts the number of eligible patients. Other centers have reported on the feasibility of cracking certain BPVs with ultra high-pressure balloons in bench testing. We now report cracking an Edwards Perimount BPV in the pulmonary position to facilitate VIV placement of an Edwards SAPIEN 3. The ability to crack the Perimount valve allowed placement of a larger valve than previously considered and minimized the final valve gradient. In an effort to avoid the morbidity and mortality of surgical pulmonary valve replacement, this new strategy will expand the number of patients eligible for percutaneous VIV therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Rationale and design of the Edwards SAPIEN-3 periprosthetic leakage evaluation versus Medtronic CoreValve in transfemoral aortic valve implantation (ELECT) trial : A randomised comparison of balloon-expandable versus self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawi, M; Agostoni, P; Kooistra, N H M; Samim, M; Nijhoff, F; Voskuil, M; Nathoe, H; Doevendans, P A; Chamuleau, S A; Urgel, K; Hendrikse, J; Leiner, T; Abrahams, A C; van der Worp, B; Stella, P R

    2017-05-01

    Periprosthetic aortic regurgitation (PPR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains an important issue associated with impaired long-term outcomes. The current randomised study aims to evaluate potential differences between the balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN-3 and the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve system with the main focus on post-TAVI PPR by means of novel imaging endpoints, and an additional focus on other clinical endpoints. The primary endpoint of this study is quantitative assessment of the severity of post-procedural PPR using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Several other novel imaging modalities (X-ray contrast angiography, echocardiography) are used as secondary imaging modalities for the assessment of PPR following TAVI. Secondary objectives of the study include clinical outcomes such as cerebral and kidney injury related to TAVI, and quality of life. The ELECT study is a single-centre, prospective, two-armed randomised controlled trial. For the purpose of this study, 108 consecutive adult patients suitable for transfemoral TAVI will be randomly allocated to receive the SAPIEN-3 (n = 54) or the CoreValve system (n = 54). The ELECT trial is the first randomised controlled trial to quantitatively compare the extent of post-TAVI PPR between the SAPIEN-3 and CoreValve. Furthermore, it will evaluate potential differences between the two prostheses with regard to mid-term clinical outcome and quality of life.

  10. Outcome With the Repositionable and Retrievable Boston Scientific Lotus Valve Compared With the Balloon-Expandable Edwards Sapien 3 Valve in Patients Undergoing Transfemoral Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    New generation devices for transfemoral aortic valve replacement were optimized on valve positioning and reduction of residual aortic regurgitation. We compared 30-day, 12-month, and 24-month outcomes of the Boston Scientific Lotus valve (Lotus) and the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3) valve. Primary end point was all-cause mortality or disabling stroke within 12 months. Between 2014 and 2016, 537 patients were enrolled at our center, and 202 patients received Lotus and 335 ES3. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation was lower with the repositionable and retrievable Lotus valve compared with the ES3. Rate of pacemaker implantation was significantly higher with the Lotus valve compared with the ES3 valve (36.1% versus 14.9%, P<0.01). Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 early safety end point at 30 days was 7.4% with both devices with no difference in all-cause mortality (Lotus, 1.9%; ES3, 1.8%; P=0.87), rate of disabling stroke (Lotus, 1.5%; ES3, 2.1%; P=0.62), or major vascular complications (Lotus, 2.9%; ES3, 2.4%; P=0.69). The primary end point at 12 months was similar between groups. In a propensity score-matched comparison, there was no difference in the primary end point within 12 months (Lotus, 15.5%; ES3, 18.6%; P=0.69) and 24 months (Lotus, 21.9%; ES3, 26.4%; P=0.49). Transfemoral aortic valve replacement with the ES3 and the Lotus were associated with similar 30-day, 12-month, and 24-month clinical outcomes. Need for permanent pacemaker implantation was significantly higher with the repositionable Lotus device. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02162069. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Transient and persistent conduction abnormalities following transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the Edwards-Sapien prosthesis: a comparison between antegrade vs. retrograde approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Solomon J; Damluji, Abdulla A; Cohen, Joshua A; Shah, Sachil; O'Neill, Brian P; Alfonso, Carlos E; Martinez, Claudia A; Myerburg, Robert J; Heldman, Alan W; Cohen, Mauricio G; Williams, Donald B; Carrillo, Roger G

    2016-11-01

    Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Edwards-Sapien valve (ESV) are not uncommon and may be transient. We sought to examine the clinical time-course of conduction abnormalities after TAVR with ESV and determine risk factors for persistent abnormalities. In this single-center prospective study, 116 consecutive patients underwent implantation of the ESV after approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Demographic, clinical, and intra-procedural variables were collected in a registry, including ECGs before, immediately after, and at discharge from hospital. Conduction abnormalities were analyzed including PR interval lengthening, QRS widening, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and high-grade AV block. There were 92 patients included in the analysis. A total of 41 new conduction abnormalities were observed in 31 (34 %) patients: 7 new PR prolongation, 14 QRS widening, 14 new LBBB, and 5 high-grade AV block requiring permanent pacemaker. Of the 41 new CAs, 11 (27 %) were transient; of the transient abnormalities, 9 (82 %) resolved within 24 h of the index procedure. Chronic kidney disease was a risk factor for the development of a persistent abnormality and for need for PPM. Antegrade approach was associated with the development of persistent LBBB and persistent QRS widening. A significant proportion of conduction abnormalities after ESV implantation improved prior to discharge from the hospital, usually within 24 h. CKD is associated with persistence of abnormalities and with need for PPM. Antegrade approach increases risk for new intraventricular conduction delays, including LBBB.

  12. The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Groves, Colin P; Lee, Michael S Y; Jungers, William L

    2017-06-01

    Although the diminutive Homo floresiensis has been known for a decade, its phylogenetic status remains highly contentious. A broad range of potential explanations for the evolution of this species has been explored. One view is that H. floresiensis is derived from Asian Homo erectus that arrived on Flores and subsequently evolved a smaller body size, perhaps to survive the constrained resources they faced in a new island environment. Fossil remains of H. erectus, well known from Java, have not yet been discovered on Flores. The second hypothesis is that H. floresiensis is directly descended from an early Homo lineage with roots in Africa, such as Homo habilis; the third is that it is Homo sapiens with pathology. We use parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to test these hypotheses. Our phylogenetic data build upon those characters previously presented in support of these hypotheses by broadening the range of traits to include the crania, mandibles, dentition, and postcrania of Homo and Australopithecus. The new data and analyses support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis is an early Homo lineage: H. floresiensis is sister either to H. habilis alone or to a clade consisting of at least H. habilis, H. erectus, Homo ergaster, and H. sapiens. A close phylogenetic relationship between H. floresiensis and H. erectus or H. sapiens can be rejected; furthermore, most of the traits separating H. floresiensis from H. sapiens are not readily attributable to pathology (e.g., Down syndrome). The results suggest H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown migration out of Africa, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seleção de tecnologias de comunicações no exército brasileiro utilizando os métodos multicritério de análise hierárquica, TODIM e software Sapiens Selection of communication technologies in the Brazilian Army using AHP,TODIM and Sapiens software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Souza Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No Exército Brasileiro, as redes de comunicações apresentam características especiais. Um sistema tático de comunicação deve ser uma única estrutura lógica que integra múltiplas tecnologias, como os Subsistemas de Rádio de Combate e de Dados. Este trabalho mostra um estudo de caso para a seleção de tecnologia que atenda aos critérios descritos pelo Exército. Para priorizar seis alternativas, são aplicados dois métodos que auxiliam a tomada de decisão: o método AHP Clássico e o TODIM. No estudo com o AHP, é mostrado cada passo da metodologia até a conclusão do resultado. Com o TODIM, é usado um software de apoio ao uso do método, o Sapiens. Foram realizadas entrevistas com especialistas da área de comunicações para o levantamento das informações necessárias. Considera-se que o principal resultado desse trabalho é a construção de um processo estruturado para essa seleção e não a obtenção dos resultados em si.The communication networks in the Brazilian Army have special characteristics. A tactical system of communication should have a unique logical structure integrating multiple technologies. These logical structures for tactical activities are named, in Brazil, Combat Radio Subsystem and Data Radio Subsystem - each one with its specific purposes. There are some alternatives regarding the combat manuals requirements. This paper developed a multi-criteria ranking case study where the main matter was to choose the best technology for each subsystem. Two methodologies were employed: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and TODIM. A decision support software (based on TODIM called Sapiens was used to implement the results for this method. The main objective of this paper was to build a framework for this kind of ranking problem.

  14. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Homo Abilis to Homo Rationalis through Analytic Perception and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lenzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stage of “Homo habilis” man has gained - in the course  of about two million years during which he has undergone a gradual evolution from the initial animal stage - its status as “Homo rationalis”. However, not all individuals are able to satisfactorily activate the skill of reasoning. It is undeniable that a fundamental step towards this activation is the development of mathematical skills, which are a common heritage of all human beings. Hence the need for more concrete and better coordinateddidactic approaches, ultimately leading to the basic concepts of this discipline, which has an essential role in the acquisition of rationality.   Dall’Homo Abilis all’Homo Rationalis tramite la Percezione Analitica e la Matematica A partire dall’Homo abilis, l’uomo ha conquistato – nel corso di circa 2 milioni di anni, in cui si è progressivamente allontanato da uno stadio bestiale – il suo status di Homo rationalis. Però non tutti gli individui sono in grado di attivare in modo soddisfacente le abiltà di ragionamento. È innegabile che una tappa fondamentale verso quest’attivazione sia costituita dallo sviluppo delle abilità matematiche, che sono patrimonio di ogni essere umano. Da ciò deriva la necessità di impostazioni didattiche più concrete e meglio coordinate, da cui far scaturire in modo comprensibile i concetti fondamentali di tale disciplina, che ha un ruolo essenziale per l’acquisizione della razionalità.  Paole Chiave: filogenesi; memoria di specie; Homo sapiens sapiens; percezione

  16. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in comparison with human (Homo sapiens): quantitative and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5) µm(3) and 7.02×10(5) µm(3) respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  17. The Advantage of Throwing the First Stone: How Understanding the Evolutionary Demands of Homo sapiens Is Helping Us Understand Carpal Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Rachel S.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the “wrist joint” is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones with...

  18. The advantage of throwing the first stone: how understanding the evolutionary demands of Homo sapiens is helping us understand carpal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rachel S; Crisco, Joseph J; Wolfe, Scott W

    2010-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the "wrist joint" is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones within the two carpal rows during different planes of motion. Recent investigations have suggested that traditional explanations of carpal bone motion may not entirely account for carpal motion in all planes. Better understanding of the complexities of carpal motion through the use of advanced imaging techniques and simultaneous appreciation of human anatomic and functional evolution have led to the hypothesis that the "dart thrower's motion" of the wrist is uniquely human. Carpal kinematic research and current developments in both orthopaedic surgery and anthropology underscore the importance of the dart thrower's motion in human functional activities and the clinical implications of these concepts for orthopaedic surgery and rehabilitation.

  19. Structural insight with mutational impact on tyrosinase and PKC-β interaction from Homo sapiens: Molecular modeling and docking studies for melanogenesis, albinism and increased risk for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-10-30

    Human tyrosinase, is an important protein for biosynthetic pathway of melanin. It was studied to be phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase-C, β-subunit (PKC-β) through earlier experimentations with in vivo evidences. Documentation documents that mutation in two essentially vital serine residues in C-terminal end of tyrosinase leads to albinism. Due to the deficiency of protective shield like enzyme; melanin, albinos are at an increased peril for melanoma and other skin cancers. So, computational and residue-level insight including a mutational exploration with evolutionary importance into this mechanism lies obligatory for future pathological and therapeutic developments. Therefore, functional tertiary models of the relevant proteins were analyzed after satisfying their stereo-chemical features. Evolutionarily paramount residues for the activation of tyrosinase were perceived via multiple sequence alignment phenomena. Mutant-type tyrosinase protein (S98A and S102A) was thereby modeled, maintaining the wild-type proteins' functionality. Furthermore, this present comparative study discloses the variation in the stable residual participation (for mutant-type and wild-type tyrosinase-PKCβ complex). Mainly, an increased number of polar negatively charged residues from the wild-type tyrosinase participated with PKC-β, predominantly. Fascinatingly supported by evaluation of statistical significances, mutation even led to a destabilizing impact in tyrosinase accompanied by conformational switches with a helix-to-coil transition in the mutated protein. Even the allosteric sites in the protein got poorly hampered upon mutation leading to weaker tendency for binding partners to interact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. L'enseignement des origines d'Homo sapiens, hier et aujourd'hui, en France et ailleurs : programmes, manuels scolaires, conceptions des enseignants.

    OpenAIRE

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Our research analyses how the origins of humankind were taught in France during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and are now taught in 19 countries. The interactions between science and society, specifically between scientific knowledge, values and social practices are analyzed. Firstly, the scientists' conceptions are identified from an epistemological approach since Linnaeus in the eighteenth century to categorize the main epistemological obstacles on this theme. The analysis of the h...

  1. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Homo sapiens exhibit a distinct pattern of CNV genes regulation: an important role of miRNAs and SNPs in expression plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweep, Harsh; Kubikova, Nada; Gretz, Norbert; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Felekkis, Kyriacos

    2015-07-16

    Gene expression regulation is a complex and highly organized process involving a variety of genomic factors. It is widely accepted that differences in gene expression can contribute to the phenotypic variability between species, and that their interpretation can aid in the understanding of the physiologic variability. CNVs and miRNAs are two major players in the regulation of expression plasticity and may be responsible for the unique phenotypic characteristics observed in different lineages. We have previously demonstrated that a close interaction between these two genomic elements may have contributed to the regulation of gene expression during evolution. This work presents the molecular interactions between CNV and non CNV genes with miRNAs and other genomic elements in eight different species. A comprehensive analysis of these interactions indicates a unique nature of human CNV genes regulation as compared to other species. By using genes with short 3' UTR that abolish the "canonical" miRNA-dependent regulation, as a model, we demonstrate a distinct and tight regulation of human genes that might explain some of the unique features of human physiology. In addition, comparison of gene expression regulation between species indicated that there is a significant difference between humans and mice possibly questioning the effectiveness of the latest as experimental models of human diseases.

  4. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  5. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  8. Genome-wide identification and functional annotation of miRNAs in anti-inflammatory plant and their cross-kingdom regulation in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Sahu, Sarika; Kumari, Pooja; Gopi, Soundhara Rajan; Malhotra, Rajesh; Biswas, Sagarika

    2017-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered non-coding small (~17-24 nucleotide) RNAs that regulate gene expression of its target mRNA at the post-transcriptional levels. In this study, total 12,593 ESTs of Curcuma longa were taken from database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST) and clustered into 2821 contigs using EGassembler web server. Precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) were predicted from these contigs that folded into stem-loop structure using MFold server. Thirty-four mature C. longa miRNAs (clo-miRNAs) were identified from pre-miRNAs having targets involved in various important functions of plant such as self-defence, growth and development, alkaloid metabolic pathway and ethylene signalling process. Sequence analysis of identified clo-miRNAs indicated that 56% miRNAs belong to ORF and 44% belong to non-ORF region. clo-mir-5 and clo-mir-6 were established as the conserved miRNAs, whereas clo-mir-20 was predicted to be the most stable miRNA. Phylogenetic analysis carried out by molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software indicated close evolutionary relationship of clo-mir-5075 with osa-MIR5075. Further, identified clo-miRNAs were checked for their cross-kingdom regulatory potential. clo-mir-14 was found to regulate various gene transcripts in humans that has been further investigated for its biostability in foetal bovine serum (FBS). The results indicated higher degree of stability of clo-mir-14 (48 h) in FBS. Thus, contribution of this miRNA to the cellular immune response during the inflamed condition of rheumatoid arthritis and adequate stability may make it a good choice for the therapeutic agent in near future.

  9. The processing of positional information in a two-item sequence limits the emergence of symmetry in baboons (Papio papio), but not in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Joël; Malassis, Raphaelle; Medam, Tiphaine

    2017-08-04

    When trained to associate Stimulus A to Stimulus B, humans can derive the untrained symmetrical B to A relation while nonhuman animals have much more difficulties. Urcuioli (2008, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90, 257--282; 2015, Conductal, 3, 4--25) proposed that the apparent difficulty of animals in symmetry testing reflects their double encoding of the information on the stimuli (identity and relation) and their positional (i.e., spatial and temporal/ordinal) characteristics. This comparative study tested the emergence of symmetry in humans and baboons in a task in which the position of the stimuli was manipulated independently of their relation. Humans and baboons initially learned to associate pairs of visual shapes on a touch screen in a specific order. Three pairs of (A-B, C-D, and E-F) stimuli were used in training. After training, the two species were tested with the B-A, F-C, and E-D pairs. The B-A pairs preserved the association initially learned with A-B but reversed the positional information relative to training. The F-C pair neither preserved the association nor the positional information of the training pairs, and positional information were the only cues preserved in the E-D pair. Humans showed a response time advantage for B-A, suggesting symmetry, but also for E-D, suggesting that they also process positional information. In baboons, the advantage was found only for E-D, suggesting that they only process positional information. These results confirm that the processing of stimulus pairs differ between nonhuman animals to humans.

  10. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  11. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Mendes, Natacha; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water) in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1) and the successful (Experiment 2) chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  12. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 'Contextual areas' of early Homo sapiens and their significance for human dispersal from Africa into Eurasia between 200 ka and 70 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, J.; Hauck, T.; Vogelsang, R.; Widlok, T.; Tensorer, J.M. le; Schmid, P.

    2012-01-01

    The African origin of our species has essentially been accepted as a scientific fact, but evolutionary advantages connected with the reasons and circumstances of modern human dispersal remain widely unexplained or controversial. Consequently, this paper provides an overview of the natural and

  14. Is the cultural transmission of irrelevant tool actions in adult humans (Homo sapiens best explained as the result of an evolved conformist bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGuigan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies of social learning have revealed that adult humans are "over-imitators" who frequently reproduce a model's causally irrelevant tool actions to the detriment of task efficiency. At present our knowledge of adult over-imitation is limited to the fact that adults do over-imitate, we know very little about the causes of this behavior. The current study aimed to provide novel insights into adult over-imitation by extending a paradigm recently used with human children to explore social aspects of over-imitation. In the child study observers saw two models demonstrate a tool-use task using the same inefficient approach, or two models demonstrate different approaches to the task (one inefficient and one efficient. The manipulation of social influence came in the testing phase where the observer completed the task in the presence of either an inefficient model or an efficient model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted the paradigm used in the child study to provide the first systematic exploration of factors which may lead to adult over-imitation including: 1 the presence of the model(s during testing, 2 the presence of a competing efficient task demonstration, 3 the presence of a majority displaying the inefficient approach, and 4 the 'removal' of the experimental context during task completion. We show that the adult participants only over-imitated in conditions where the inefficient strategy was the majority approach witnessed. This tendency towards over-imitation was almost entirely eliminated when the participants interacted with the task when they believed the experiment to be complete. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adult over-imitation is best explained as a result of an evolved 'conformist bias' argued to be crucial to the transmission of human cultural behavior and one which may be unique in the animal kingdom.

  15. Comment on "Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens" and "Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currat, Mathias; Excoffier, Laurent; Maddison, Wayne; Otto, Sarah P; Ray, Nicolas; Whitlock, Michael C; Yeaman, Sam

    2006-07-14

    Mekel-Bobrov et al. and Evans et al. (Reports, 9 Sept. 2005, p. 1720 and p. 1717, respectively) examined sequence data from modern humans within two gene regions associated with brain development, ASPM and microcephalin, and concluded that selection of these genes must be ongoing. We show that models of human history that include both population growth and spatial structure can generate the observed patterns without selection.

  16. Значение биологических, поведенческих, социальных и жилищно-бытовых факторов в формировании системы «Паразит – хозяин» (enterobius vermicularis – Homo sapiens), характеризующейся разной интенсивностью инвазии

    OpenAIRE

    Е. М. Бутенкова

    2010-01-01

    Осуществлена количественная оценка биологических, поведенческих, социальных и жилищно-бытовых факторов в формировании системы «паразит – хозяин» (Enterobius vermicularis – Homo sapiens). Приведены прогностические коэффициенты и информативность наиболее значимых факторов в развитии у детей Гомельско- го региона энтеробиозной инвазии, характеризующейся низкой, средней и высокой интенсивностью инвазии. На основе полученных данных выделены группы риска по развитию энтеробиозной инвази...

  17. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  18. The balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien 3 valve is superior to the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonska, Birgid; Seeger, Julia; Baarts, Justus; Rodewald, Christoph; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    Residual paravalvular moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) has been an independent risk factor for mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The design of the third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valve was optimized with an outer skirt to address the issue of paravalvular AR. We compared 100 consecutive patients treated with the ES3 for severe aortic stenosis with 100 patients treated with the Medtronic CoreValve (CV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) (Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02162069). We evaluated post-procedural AR, rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, device success, and 30-day clinical outcome according to the criteria of the Second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). Frequency of post-procedural moderate or severe AR was significantly lower with ES3 compared to CV (0% vs. 20%, p<0.01), none or trace AR significantly higher with ES3 (69% vs. 38%, p<0.01) as well as device success (97% vs. 73%, p<0.01). There was a significantly lower need for permanent pacemaker implantation with ES3 compared with CV (14% vs. 31%, p<0.01). Cardiovascular mortality at 30 days was significantly lower with ES3 (0% vs. 6%, p=0.01), and the combined endpoint "early safety" was met significantly less with ES3 (10% vs. 21% with CV, p=0.03). Transfemoral TAVI with the ES3 compared with the CV was associated with a significantly lower rate of moderate or severe AR, significantly lower need for pacemaker implantation, and a significantly higher rate of device success according to VARC-2. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Erdoes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI, by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES system. BACKGROUND: Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD as HITS, or not is not clear. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7% displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16. With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD, whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001 or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001. PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  20. The self-expanding Symetis Acurate does not increase cerebral microembolic load when compared to the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien prosthesis: a transcranial Doppler study in patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoes, Gabor; Huber, Christoph; Basciani, Reto; Stortecky, Stefan; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter; Carrel, Thierry; Eberle, Balthasar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify potential differences in count, frequency and pattern of high-intensity transient signals (HITS) during transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI), by comparing the Symetis Acurate TA (SA) with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien XT (ES) system. Recently, the Symetis Acurate TA revalving system has been introduced for TA-TAVI. The Symetis Acurate TA aortic bioprosthesis is self-expanding and is deployed by a specific two-step implantation technique. Whether this novel method increases the load of intraprocedural emboli, detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) as HITS, or not is not clear. Twenty-two patients (n = 11 in each study arm, median logistic EuroScore 20%, median STS score 7%) displayed continuous TCD signals of good quality throughout the entire TA-TAVI procedure and were included in the final analysis. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges. No significant differences were detected in total procedural or interval-related HITS load (SA: 303 [200; 594], ES: 499 [285; 941]; p = 0.16). With both devices, HITS peaked during prosthesis deployment (PD), whereas significantly fewer HITS occurred during instrumentation (SA: p = 0.002; ES: < 0.001) or post-implantation PI (SA: p = 0.007; ES: < 0.001). PD-associated HITS amounted to almost half of the total HITS load. One patient suffered new disabling stroke at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality amounted to 13.6% (3 of 22 patients). Simplified transapical delivery using the self-expanding SA device does not increase HITS, despite of a two-step deployment technique with more interactions with the native aortic valve, when compared to the balloon-expandable ES valve. The similarity in HITS count, frequency and pattern with the two systems suggests a common mechanism for the release of cerebral microemboli.

  1. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oxnard

    Full Text Available Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo, some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens, and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis. Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit. They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P0.999. We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  2. Further morphological evidence on South African earliest Homo lower postcanine dentition: Enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Dumoncel, Jean; de Beer, Frikkie; Hoffman, Jakobus; Thackeray, John Francis; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Braga, José

    2016-07-01

    The appearance of the earliest members of the genus Homo in South Africa represents a key event in human evolution. Although enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction (EDJ) morphology preserve important information about hominin systematics and dietary adaptation, these features have not been sufficiently studied with regard to early Homo. We used micro-CT to compare enamel thickness and EDJ morphology among the mandibular postcanine dentitions of South African early hominins (N = 30) and extant Homo sapiens (N = 26), with special reference to early members of the genus Homo. We found that South African early Homo shows a similar enamel thickness distribution pattern to modern humans, although three-dimensional average and relative enamel thicknesses do not distinguish australopiths, early Homo, and modern humans particularly well. Based on enamel thickness distributions, our study suggests that a dietary shift occurred between australopiths and the origin of the Homo lineage. We also observed that South African early Homo postcanine EDJ combined primitive traits seen in australopith molars with derived features observed in modern human premolars. Our results confirm that some dental morphological patterns in later Homo actually occurred early in the Homo lineage, and highlight the taxonomic value of premolar EDJ morphology in hominin species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0248 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0314 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0149 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0881 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0881 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0861 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0861 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0928 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0928 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0433 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0433 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2281 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2281 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0010 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1495 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1495 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0625 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0625 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1452 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1452 ref|NP_000943.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_001158193.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158194.1| platelet-activ...ating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ref|NP_001158195.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] ...et activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAA01050.1| platelet-activating fa...ctor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAB25755.1| platelet-activating factor receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAA60002.1| platelet

  15. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo (including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group 'distinctness values') was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of 'distinctness values' was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of 'distinctness values' test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups among the

  16. Absolute and relative endocranial size in Neandertals and later Pleistocene Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Eurasian Neandertals encompass the entire observed range of recent and fossil Homo sapiens in absolute, but not relative endocranial volume, and Neandertals attest an average EQ significantly lower than their Upper Pleistocene successors. While the cognitive, social, and evolutionary implications of this phenomenon have been emphasised, the statistical basis of a mean inference of EQ in the Neandertal hypodigm has not been appropriately demonstrated. A demonstrable male bias in the available postcranial, not cranial, series has skewed perceptions of Neandertal brain-to-body size scaling towards a rejection of the null hypothesis. A simple resolution to this problem is a concise assessment of paired associated covariates against a suitable recent human comparator series. Permutations of Fisher's z and Student's t statistics are valid metrics in tests of significance in single datum hypotheses. Bootstrapped single observation tests determined significance in body size, absolute and relative endocranial volume in Pleistocene archaic, early modern, and late Pleistocene H. sapiens. With respect to absolute ECV, all current Middle-Upper Pleistocene crania fall within the substantial recent Homo range. Nevertheless, simple indices derived from raw and modified data in normal and logarithmic space reveal that Western European Neandertal males approach the lower extremes of our observed size range in relative ECV, yet none exceed statistical significance. Results confirm that relative ECV/brain size in Neandertals was not significantly depressed relative to recent and fossil H. sapiens and this is consistent with a substantial body of data from living humans dismissing any simple correspondence of relative brain size with intelligence and, by extension, evolutionary success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0741 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94002.1| Skin aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94000.1| Skin... aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW99836.1| Skin ASpartic Protease [Homo sapiens] NP_690005.1 0.023 29% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0600 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 67.1| unnamed protein product [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94002.1| Skin aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH94000.1| Skin... aspartic protease [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW99836.1| Skin ASpartic Protease [Homo sapiens] NP_690005.1 0.014 27% ...

  19. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-0724 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTED: hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] 2e-31 45% MCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYIYHISVDIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTL...YVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCIYISYICRYIYRYTLYVCMSVCAYIFTYLEIFVTLF ...

  20. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1435 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7 [Homo sapiens] 2e-14 67% MSPIVPMAHGVFPGGSIQPAFFGSWLLILSMTWPWVGPLASLSLDLLLWKTRIDKSVHPKGLLLLSSWDYRCKPPCLANFSIFFVETLSHCVAQAGLELLASSDPLASTSESTWITGVSHCTCPLNSMFSSNRFSVLALAFRATRPAPMMAC ...

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Prostate Cancer Field Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    collagen synthesis , and protein translation functions. Those decreased in abundance in CaP were related to cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments...Homo sapiens] ribosomal protein SS [Homo sapiens] diazepam binding inhibitor isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] S1 00 calcium-binding protein A6 [Homo sapiens

  2. Gene : CBRC-CJAC-01-0698 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available unknown [Homo sapiens] 2e-28 37% MWHVRVDVCMCVFVMCGHVACACGCVHEYLCRMGMWHVHVCRVGMWHVCGCVHICVMCGHVACACGCVHEFVSCVGMWHMHVDVCMNICVRCGHVAC...ACVCVCMSVFVSGVGMWHVRVGVCMSDMSCVGMWHVHVCVHECVMCGHVACVWMCACVYLCRVGMWHVCGCVHECVFVSGVGMCMCVHECICVCAWAEAVLFPCVHE ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-02-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-02-0014 emb|CAH70043.1| KIAA0133 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI22017.1| KIAA0133 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAI14964.1| KIAA0133 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI14560.1| KIAA0133 protein [Homo sapiens] CAH70043.1 8e-49 26% ...

  4. Gene : CBRC-MMUR-01-1456 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophosphoprotein variant C [Homo sapiens] 3e-28 39% MIAIAIADIVAPAAVAVVIIVAIVIVAADAAVAIAIVDTAVIVDAAVAATIVVATAAAIVAMAIAVAAVIAAV...DMATVAIAVFDIAAAAVAAAVAIVDYYIVVAAAAAAVAVATAIVAVSTIAAVFALSVVATAAIAIAVAAVVTVVDSDAVISAVAAADIAAVAAVVADVAVGPAIAATLAAVAVVVTVVAFVAAILAGSVAAAIVAAAVVVAIETMRAQQT ...

  5. Gene : CBRC-MMUR-01-0277 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein product [Homo sapiens] 4e-25 32% MNYFMFSKVCALGKAFATFFTFVVFLSTMSYFMLSKVCFLGKSFATFLTFVWFLSFMNSFMSIEVSKLD...KGFATFLTFVWFLSTMNYFMLSKVFALGKGFATFFTFLGFLSTVNSFMFSKVCALGKVFATFFTFVGFLSSMNSFMLCKLCALYKGFATFLTFVGFLSCMNSFMSIDMFNPDKGFATFFTFVWFLSSMNSFMLSKVCALGKGFATFFTFVRFLSTMNSFM ...

  6. Gene : CBRC-MMUR-01-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein product [Homo sapiens] 3e-28 33% MNSFMLSKVYAPGIGFSTFFTFVGFLCTMNSFMLSKVCVLGKGFVTFLTFVWFLSCMNYFMSSKVSEPDKGFATFFTF...VGFLSSMNSFMLSKVYAPGIGFSTFFTFVGFLCTMNSFMSSKVCVLGKGFVTFLTFVWFLSCMNYFMSSKVSEPDKGFVTFFTFVGFLSTMNSFMLSKICTLGKGFSTFFTF

  7. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TED: hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] 2e-10 35% MPCLAFPCLALCLGFPCLAFYIALPYLVPCLVPCLALCCALPCAMSCLAFRLALPCLAFCLFLLFLAMPCALPCLAL...PCLVPCLALTCALICLALLLAFPWLVACLALPCALLVPCLCLGLPYLVPYLVLPCLALYLALPCLVPYLVPSLPLPCLVPSLALPCNLPCLAL ...

  8. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein product [Homo sapiens] 3e-16 32% MTVLVVFEDQLAFPELSRMALLMNFEAAFLDITLPTFQAFIWFISSVIHLMPIETSPVSKAFPTLQACV...GFLSRVGVLVSLEFSLLAKPFPTLQASVRLLSCVGPTVSVEVSVPMEAFPALGALIRLLSHVLFFVRLETCFPTESLPTLGACVRVLFRVTIQVSFEDKFAAEALPAL...HALIRLVSPVVHFMRNEIHLVRKAFATLQALIWFLFHVGERVSTEVSSLMEAFPTLRAFVGFLFHVGVLVPTQVFFPMEAFPTIQAFIWLVHNLGFFIVCKVCTRSKAFFQLMTLRLSFLCFVCDIIIQV ...

  9. Gene : CBRC-ACAR-01-0755 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical protein FLJ13236 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH33236.1| Hypothetical protein FLJ13236 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW5806...6.1| hypothetical protein FLJ13236, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW58067.1| hypothetical protein FLJ1323...LGGPVGLHHLYLGRDNHALLWMLTLGGFGFGWLWELWMLPGWVAQANHPLEKRHNDPPSFNPVRFLGQALVGIYFGLVALVGLSTLPGFYILALPLAVGLGVHLVSAVGNQTSDLQATLMAAFVTAPI...6, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] 2e-95 61% MWDATFYYSFLLRTSASQQDVPPFTVMAKRLLVAVAFWA

  10. Gene : CBRC-TBEL-01-0545 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein product [Homo sapiens] 2e-24 33% MCVCIWCIYTICVCILCMFVYYICVYILYVCVYTICVYILYMCIYYMCVFVYGVYILCVCVWCIYTIC...VCVYGVYILYVCVYYVCVCIYYICVYILYVCICYMCVYILCVYYMCVYTIYVCIYYAYVCIYYMCVYYILYTIYMCVCILYVCIYYMYMCVDMVHIYYVCVYYICVCVYMVYIHTICVYI ...

  11. Gavilán, M. (2006), La transformación de la orientación vocacional. Hacia un nuevo paradigma : Rosario: Editorial Homo Sapiens (213 páginas)

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2007-01-01

    El libro desarrolla una teoría comprensiva y explicativa bien sistematizada, que recurre de continuo a la apoyatura empírica brindada por numerosas investigaciones realizadas por la autora y su equipo de trabajo, en la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Contribuye a la construcción teórica del dilatado espacio de la orientación, en el cual se entrecruzan diversos saberes inter y transdisciplinarios, y diversos campos de conocimientos, reflexiones y prácticas: la educación, la salud mental, ...

  12. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Human [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_L.png Homo_sapiens_NL.png Homo_sapiens_S.png Homo_sapiens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=157 ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0019 emb|CAM14406.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM22281.1| astrota...ctin 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM22956.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM22873.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sa...piens] emb|CAM15244.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM20037.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM16458.1| astrotactin 2 [Homo sapiens] CAM14406.1 9.4 38% ...

  15. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Melián, Angel; Rosas, Antonio; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2011-08-01

    The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral occipito-petalias, point out a slightly differential configuration of the neandertal brain when compared to other Homo species, especially H. sapiens. The neandertal dural sinus drainage pattern is organized in a more asymmetric mode, in such a way that the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) drains either to the right or to the left transverse sinuses, but in no case in a confluent mode (i.e. simultaneous continuation of SSS with both right (RTS) and left (LTS) transverse sinuses). Besides, the superior sagittal sinus shows an accentuated deviation from of the mid-sagittal plane in its way to the RTS in 35% of neandertals. This condition, which increases the asymmetry of the system, is almost nonexistent neither in the analyzed Homo fossil species sample nor in that of anatomically modern humans. Regarding the cerebral occipito-petalias, neandertals manifest one of the lowest percentages of left petalia of the Homo sample (including modern H. sapiens). As left occipito-petalia is the predominant pattern in hominins, it seems as if neandertals would have developed a different pattern of brain hemispheres asymmetry. Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0657 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0657 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-153 95% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0673 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0673 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-49 48% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2401 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-84 56% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2332 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2332 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-59 59% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0035 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-64 63% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-11-0146 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0146 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 0.0 99% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0512 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-88 53% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1110 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1110 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 56% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0525 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0525 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-36 45% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1096 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1096 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-30 36% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0121 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-81 55% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0639 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0639 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 7e-57 61% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0844 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-59 65% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0268 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0268 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 8e-48 60% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0913 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0913 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-50 41% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0125 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-64 46% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2458 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-45 49% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0472 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-93 59% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1400 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1400 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-34 52% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-14-0114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-14-0114 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-173 90% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0125 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-85 67% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0007 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-57 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1201 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1201 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-49 56% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-12-0131 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 0.0 95% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0433 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0433 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-176 92% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-11-0137 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-69 49% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0061 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 59% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0191 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-100 59% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0442 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-101 58% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-12-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-12-0079 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 0.0 96% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0632 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 9e-93 57% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1154 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-34 53% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1667 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-159 84% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1685 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1685 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-38 44% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1930 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-98 58% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1309 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1309 gb|AAY78477.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78481.1| TLR10 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAY78489.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78490.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY78491.1| TLR10 [Homo sapiens] AAY78477.1 0.0 71% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1127 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 7e-94 56% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1086 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-43 59% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1442 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1442 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-77 54% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0101 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0101 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-93 58% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1264 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1264 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-92 58% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1413 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1413 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-79 50% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0013 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-45 40% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0291 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0291 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-69 57% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0279 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0279 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 5e-68 64% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1119 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-52 63% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2856 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2856 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-41 47% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1283 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1283 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 4e-90 57% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0487 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0487 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-34 52% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0756 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0756 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-66 52% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0902 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0902 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 6e-58 43% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0029 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 1e-100 59% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1335 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1335 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 9e-77 50% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0123 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0123 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-66 57% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1150 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 3e-94 57% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1968 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1968 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-79 52% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0127 gb|AAW70053.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70054.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapie...ns] gb|AAW70055.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70070.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAW70083.1| MRGX2 [Homo sapiens] AAW70053.1 2e-63 60% ...

  13. Gene : CBRC-OGAR-01-0843 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |NP_000674.2| alpha-2C-adrenergic receptor [Homo sapiens] sp|P18825|ADA2C_HUMAN Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor...280399_1 alpha 2C adrenergic receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAT02221.1| alpha2C adrenergic receptor [Homo sapi...ens] gb|AAY41059.1| unknown [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI42626.1| Adrenergic, alpha-2C-, receptor [Homo sapi...ens] 1e-166 86% MGVGCPSGCSALYVCSSVWVFVRVWCVYTCARCALCTSSSCTCAHQLTLLVVTQVVEYTSAHARRVKAPIVAVWL

  14. Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul H G M; Berger, Lee R; Roberts, Eric M; Kramers, Jan D; Hawks, John; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S; Elliott, Marina; Musiba, Charles M; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Schmid, Peter; Backwell, Lucinda R; Belyanin, Georgy A; Boshoff, Pedro; Hunter, K Lindsay; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Gurtov, Alia; Harrison, James du G; Hunter, Rick; Kruger, Ashley; Morris, Hannah; Makhubela, Tebogo V; Peixotto, Becca; Tucker, Steven

    2015-09-10

    We describe the physical context of the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave, South Africa, which contains the fossils of Homo naledi. Approximately 1550 specimens of hominin remains have been recovered from at least 15 individuals, representing a small portion of the total fossil content. Macro-vertebrate fossils are exclusively H. naledi, and occur within clay-rich sediments derived from in situ weathering, and exogenous clay and silt, which entered the chamber through fractures that prevented passage of coarser-grained material. The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins. Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition. Hominins accumulated over time as older laminated mudstone units and sediment along the cave floor were eroded. Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date.

  15. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joordens, Josephine C A; d'Errico, Francesco; Wesselingh, Frank P; Munro, Stephen; de Vos, John; Wallinga, Jakob; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Reimann, Tony; Wijbrans, Jan R; Kuiper, Klaudia F; Mücher, Herman J; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Prié, Vincent; Joosten, Ineke; van Os, Bertil; Schulp, Anne S; Panuel, Michel; van der Haas, Victoria; Lustenhouwer, Wim; Reijmer, John J G; Roebroeks, Wil

    2015-02-12

    The manufacture of geometric engravings is generally interpreted as indicative of modern cognition and behaviour. Key questions in the debate on the origin of such behaviour are whether this innovation is restricted to Homo sapiens, and whether it has a uniquely African origin. Here we report on a fossil freshwater shell assemblage from the Hauptknochenschicht ('main bone layer') of Trinil (Java, Indonesia), the type locality of Homo erectus discovered by Eugène Dubois in 1891 (refs 2 and 3). In the Dubois collection (in the Naturalis museum, Leiden, The Netherlands) we found evidence for freshwater shellfish consumption by hominins, one unambiguous shell tool, and a shell with a geometric engraving. We dated sediment contained in the shells with (40)Ar/(39)Ar and luminescence dating methods, obtaining a maximum age of 0.54 ± 0.10 million years and a minimum age of 0.43 ± 0.05 million years. This implies that the Trinil Hauptknochenschicht is younger than previously estimated. Together, our data indicate that the engraving was made by Homo erectus, and that it is considerably older than the oldest geometric engravings described so far. Although it is at present not possible to assess the function or meaning of the engraved shell, this discovery suggests that engraving abstract patterns was in the realm of Asian Homo erectus cognition and neuromotor control.

  16. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1033 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1033 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0855 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0855 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2477 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2477 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0074 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0944 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0944 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0104 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0104 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1526 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1526 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0082 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-01-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-01-0086 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1275 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1285 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1285 gb|AAU47275.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47278.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47284.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47287.1| Duffy blood gr...oup [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47290.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47293.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sa...piens] gb|AAU47296.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47299.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47302.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47305.1| Duffy blood group [Homo

  8. Trabecular architecture in the thumb of Pan and Homo: implications for investigating hand use, loading, and hand preference in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas B; Kivell, Tracy L; Gross, Thomas; Pahr, Dieter H; Lazenby, Richard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Hershkovitz, Israel; Skinner, Matthew M

    2016-12-01

    Humans display an 85-95% cross-cultural right-hand bias in skilled tasks, which is considered a derived behavior because such a high frequency is not reported in wild non-human primates. Handedness is generally considered to be an evolutionary byproduct of selection for manual dexterity and augmented visuo-cognitive capabilities within the context of complex stone tool manufacture/use. Testing this hypothesis requires an understanding of when appreciable levels of right dominant behavior entered the fossil record. Because bone remodels in vivo, skeletal asymmetries are thought to reflect greater mechanical loading on the dominant side, but incomplete preservation of external morphology and ambiguities about past loading environments complicate interpretations. We test if internal trabecular bone is capable of providing additional information by analyzing the thumb of Homo sapiens and Pan. We assess trabecular structure at the distal head and proximal base of paired (left/right) first metacarpals using micro-CT scans of Homo sapiens (n = 14) and Pan (n = 9). Throughout each epiphysis we quantify average and local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), and elastic modulus (E) to address bone volume patterning and directional asymmetry. We find a right directional asymmetry in H. sapiens consistent with population-level handedness, but also report a left directional asymmetry in Pan that may be the result of postural and/or locomotor loading. We conclude that trabecular bone is capable of detecting right/left directional asymmetry, but suggest coupling studies of internal structure with analyses of other skeletal elements and cortical bone prior to applications in the fossil record. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0028 ref|NP_115497.3| implantation-associated protein [Homo sapiens] s...) emb|CAB66571.1| hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89054.1| implantation-associated protein [Homo s....1| novel protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY18811.1| MAGT1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98609.1| implantation-associated ...protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98610.1| implantation-associated protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_115497.3 5e-89 52% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0944 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0944 ref|NP_001116423.1| Duffy blood group antigen isoform a [Homo sap...iens] gb|AAB33239.1| glycoprotein D [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47282.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17896.1| Duffy blood... group, chemokine receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10407.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10413.1| Duffy bloo...d group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10416.1| Duffy blood group ...[Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10419.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10422.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapien

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0393 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0393 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 6e-59 44% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0392 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 5e-59 41% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0623 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0623 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 8e-30 31% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1197 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1197 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-76 86% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1282 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1282 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-47 46% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0207 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0207 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 98% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0131 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-40 43% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1481 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1481 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-49 40% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0966 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0966 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN... RecName: Full=MAS proto-oncogene gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [H...omo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG...47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene..., isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 5e-77 85% ...

  20. Study of a temporal bone of Homo heildelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Rafael; Botella, Miguel; Ciges, Miguel

    2005-05-01

    The characteristic features of the Hh specimen conformed to those of other Pleistocene human fossils, indicating strong cranial structures and a heavy mandible. The mastoid was large and suggested a powerful sternocleidomastoid muscle. The inner ear and tympanic cavities were similar in size and orientation, suggesting that their functions were probably similar. Our observations suggest that the left ear of this Hh specimen was healthy. The large canaliculo-fenestral angle confirms that this ancestor was bipedal. It also strongly suggests that Hh individuals were predisposed to develop certain pathologies of the labyrinth capsule associated with bipedalism, in particular otosclerosis. We studied a temporal bone of Homo heidelbergensis (Hh) in order to investigate the clinical and physiological implications of certain morphological features, especially those associated with the evolutionary reorganization of the inner ear. The bone, found in a breach of a cave near MAáaga in southern Spain, together with Middle Upper Pleistocene faunal remains, is >300000 years old. Four analytical methods were employed. A 3D high-resolution surface laser scan was used for anatomical measurements. For the sectional analysis of the middle and inner ears of Hh we used high-resolution CT, simultaneously studying a normal temporal bone from Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss). To study the middle and inner ear spaces we used 3D reconstruction CT preceded by an intra-bone air shielding technique. To examine the tympanic cavities and measure the canaliculo fenestral angle, we used a special minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. The surface, sectional and 3D CT examinations showed that the Hh specimen was generally more robust and larger than the Hss specimen. It had a large glenoid fossa. The external meatus was wide and deep. The middle ear, and especially the mastoid, was large and widely pneumatized. There were no appreciable differences in the position and size of the labyrinthine spaces

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0860 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0860 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 1e-178 83% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0633 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0633 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 0.0 86% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2780 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2780 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 6e-78 81% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0673 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0673 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 0.0 87% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0614 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0614 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 1e-88 85% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0886 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0886 ref|NP_005963.3| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens]...polypeptide receptor 1; Short=PP1 gb|AAC50280.1| neuropeptide Y4 receptor protein [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA91433.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor PP1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP23199.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13318.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAV68197.1| pancreatic... polypeptide receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAG74162.1| pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 [synthetic construct] NP_005963.3 0.0 98% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 76% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1679 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ning 1 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9Y239|NOD1_HUMAN Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (Caspase recruitment...6897.1| unknown [Homo sapiens] gb|EAL24453.1| caspase recruitment domain family, member 4 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93945.1| caspase recru...itment domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93946.1| caspase recruitment... domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93947.1| caspase recruitment... domain family, member 4, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW93949.1| caspase recruitment

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0404 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0404 ref|NP_000134.2| fumarate hydratase precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|P...e hydratase [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP88841.1| fumarate hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI15144.1| fumarate... hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13908.1| fumarate hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14951.1| fumarate... hydratase [Homo sapiens] gb|AAX32244.1| fumarate hydratase [synthetic construct] gb|AAX32245.1| fumarate... hydratase [synthetic construct] gb|EAW70092.1| fumarate hydratase, isofo

  10. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-0100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98% ref|NP_001004479.1| olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] sp|Q8NGC9|O11H4_...transmembrane helix receptor [Homo sapiens] tpg|DAA04853.1| TPA_inf: olfactory receptor OR14-36 [Homo sapi...ens] gb|EAW66484.1| olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapi...ens] gb|AAI37056.1| Olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI37055.1| Olfac...tory receptor, family 11, subfamily H, member 4 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAI47453.1| ol

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15901-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 46 5.6 1 ( DB536931 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 46 5.6 1 ( DB532602 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...full-length ... 46 5.6 1 ( DB530266 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 46 5.6 1 ( DB527514

  12. Gene : CBRC-TSYR-01-0335 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ute carrier family 46, member 3 isoform b [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH60850.1| SLC46A3 protein [Homo sapiens] emb|C...AI17158.1| novel protein [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX08438.1| hypothetical protein LOC283537, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapi...YMLFKNASGRQRSLLCLLLFTMITYFFLVVGVAPIFILYELDSPLCWSEVFIGYGSALGSASFFTSFLGIWLFSYCMEDIHMAFIGIFTTMVGMAVIAFARTTLMMFLGEFQM ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13475-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens haplotype 31 dentin s... 39 0.089 EU278664_1( EU278664 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 25 dentin...sapiens haplotype 38A dentin ... 39 0.089 EU278636_1( EU278636 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 36A dentin...sapiens haplotype 36 dentin s... 39 0.089 EU278644_1( EU278644 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 5 dentin...sapiens haplotype 20A dentin ... 39 0.089 EU278671_1( EU278671 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 32 dentin...sapiens haplotype 38 dentin s... 39 0.089 EU278633_1( EU278633 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 20B dentin

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFC769 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens haplotype 31 dentin s... 39 0.32 EU278664_1( EU278664 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 25 dentin...sapiens haplotype 38A dentin ... 39 0.32 EU278636_1( EU278636 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 36A dentin...sapiens haplotype 36 dentin s... 39 0.32 EU278644_1( EU278644 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 5 dentin...sapiens haplotype 20A dentin ... 39 0.32 EU278671_1( EU278671 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 32 dentin...sapiens haplotype 38 dentin s... 39 0.32 EU278633_1( EU278633 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 20B dentin

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05554-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 44 4.0 1 ( DB547675 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 44 4.0 1 ( DB546905 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 44 4.0 1 ( DB545134 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 44 4.0 1 ( DB537051 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN...sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN full-length ... 44 4.0 1 ( DB533568 ) Homo sapiens hippocampus cDNA, RIKEN

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-01-0082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-01-0082 ref|NP_002027.2| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] sp|Q16570|DUFFY...) (CD234 antigen) emb|CAB56228.1| Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47281.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10406.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10412.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10415.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10418.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10421.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10424.1| Duffy blood gro

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0630 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0630 ref|NP_002027.2| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] sp|Q16570|DUFFY...) (CD234 antigen) emb|CAB56228.1| Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47281.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10406.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10412.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10415.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10418.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10421.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10424.1| Duffy blood gro

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0074 ref|NP_002027.2| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] sp|Q16570|DUFFY...) (CD234 antigen) emb|CAB56228.1| Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|AAU47281.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10406.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10412.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10415.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10418.1| Duffy blood... group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10421.1| Duffy blood group [Homo sapiens] gb|ABA10424.1| Duffy blood gro

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0190 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-55 39% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1195 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-37 31% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-07-0096 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0096 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 99% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3198 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3198 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 5e-39 35% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0230 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-39 40% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0217 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0217 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-36 32% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1188 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1188 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-11 27% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-03-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-03-0020 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-104 58% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0069 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-50 40% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0223 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0223 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 98% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0389 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0389 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 3e-41 36% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0299 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0299 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 8e-41 34% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1161 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1161 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-21 26% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1156 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1156 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 3e-34 32% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1155 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1155 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 8e-51 38% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1157 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1157 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-32 31% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-17-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-17-0014 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-63 44% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0323 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0323 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-43 33% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-04-0070 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0070 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 98% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0234 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0234 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-55 42% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0352 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0352 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 3e-45 33% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0119 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-140 79% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1113 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1113 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-151 84% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0539 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0539 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-142 78% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0394 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0394 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-42 36% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2845 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2845 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-136 76% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1159 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1159 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-23 28% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0036 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-42 36% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0797 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0797 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-116 88% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-17-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-17-0013 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-166 90% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0920 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0920 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 6e-37 34% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0011 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-40 37% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3229 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3229 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-39 33% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0274 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0274 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-40 32% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0204 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0204 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-48 45% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0117 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0117 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 8e-37 30% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-08-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-08-0005 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 7e-43 39% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0329 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0329 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-44 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0312 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0312 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-40 34% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2963 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2963 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-161 85% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-05-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0022 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-103 57% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-05-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0021 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 3e-66 57% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1162 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1162 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 3e-33 32% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-01-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-01-0010 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-165 89% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-06-0105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0105 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 100% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1158 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1158 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-32 31% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0032 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-31 30% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0381 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0381 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 8e-40 35% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1005 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-165 88% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-01-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-01-0086 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-167 90% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0233 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0233 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 4e-33 33% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-07-0083 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-07-0083 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 0.0 98% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1194 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1194 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 9e-42 33% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1191 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-11 24% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0464 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0464 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-150 79% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3117 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3117 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-51 38% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3213 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3213 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-41 33% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0195 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 1e-60 81% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0138 ref|NP_002368.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] sp|P04201|MAS_HUMAN MAS proto-oncogene... gb|AAA36199.1| mas protein emb|CAB72444.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69142.1| MAS1 oncogene... [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69581.1| MAS1 oncogene [Homo sapiens] emb|CAG47057.1| MAS1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI10455.1| MAS1 oncog...ene [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47610.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform... CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47611.1| MAS1 oncogene, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_002368.1 2e-37 31% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1325 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1325 ref|NP_115497.3| implantation-associated protein [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9H0U3|IAG2_HUMAN Impla...) emb|CAB66571.1| hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89054.1| implantation-associated protein [Homo s...apiens] gb|AAH60842.1| Implantation-associated protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH41014.1| Implantation....1| novel protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY18811.1| MAGT1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98609.1| implantation-associated ...protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98610.1| implantation-associated protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_115497.3 1e-79 48% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0125 ref|NP_115497.3| implantation-associated protein [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9H0U3|IAG2_HUMAN Impla...) emb|CAB66571.1| hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89054.1| implantation-associated protein [Homo s...apiens] gb|AAH60842.1| Implantation-associated protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH41014.1| Implantation....1| novel protein [Homo sapiens] gb|AAY18811.1| MAGT1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98609.1| implantation-associated ...protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW98610.1| implantation-associated protein, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_115497.3 1e-88 52% ...

  20. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1520 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e G-protein coupled receptor [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW87607.1| hCG2044627 [Homo sapiens] 5e-38 37% MVVVPCGESPLWRESPVGRVLCGESPLWRESSVGESP...LWRESSVGESPLWGQSSVGESPLWRESSVGESPLWGRVLCGESPLWGRVLCGGESSVGESPLWESPLGESPLWRESSVESPLWRESSVGESP...LWRESSVERVLCGGESSVERVLCGGESSVERVLCGRESSVGESPLWRESSVGDSPLWESPLWGRVLCGRVLCGGESSVERVLCGESPLWGESSVGESP...LWESPLWGRVLCGGESSVGESPLWESPLWGRVLCGESPLWGRVLCGRVLCGGESSVERVLCGGESSVERVLCGGESSVGESSVGESSVGESPLWRESSVERVLCGESP...LWGTVLCGESPLWGRVLCGGESSVGESPLWGRVLCGGESSVGESPLWESPLWGRVLCGESPLWGRVLCGRVLCGRVLCGGESS

  1. Gclust Server: 107587 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(80) 540 similar to autoimmune regulator isoform 3 [Homo sapiens], closer 1...length 540 Representative annotation similar to autoimmune regulator isoform 3 [Homo sapiens], closer Number

  2. Gene : CBRC-TBEL-01-2483 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTED: hypothetical protein [Homo sapiens] 3e-54 42% MCNTHAHIYLHTYMDIGNAHIHSHTYIHGHTCICNTHAYTYILTHIYSWIYVYVIH...MYIYILTYTYMDIHICNTQIHIYTYTHIWIYVIHNTHIHSHTYIHGYTCICDTHAYTYILTHIYSWIYVYVIHTYIYILTYTYMDIHICNTQIHIYTYTHIWIYVIHN...THIHSHTYIHGYTCICDTHAYTYILTHIYSWIYVYVIHTYIYILTYTYMDIHICNTQIHIYTYTHIWIYVIHNTHIHSHTYIHGHTCICDTHAYTYILTHIYSWIYVYVIHSTYIYLHIPTWIYIYVIHKYIYILTHIYKSKIYLFLDLTEDTC ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1550 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1550 ref|NP_114419.2| FKSG83 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07051.1| FKSG83 protein [Homo sapie...ns] gb|EAX03091.1| FKSG83, isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX03092.1| FKSG83, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_114419.2 1e-90 89% ...

  4. Gene : CBRC-MEUG-01-0263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophosphoprotein variant A [Homo sapiens] 1e-36 40% MLLMMVCCCCFSATAALAVTALAVAAVTAFAVAAVAVVAAVPISVAVSLATTALAVAAAV...NAAALAVAAAASGVTVVSVAALTVVAVAALAVAAGAAVVAAVLATVALAVAALAVVAAVPISVAVSLATVALAVAALAVAAGAAVVAAVVAVGLVAALATVALPLAALAVVAAV...PISVAVSLATVALAVAALAVAAVTAFAVAAVAVVAAVPISVAVSLATTALAVAAAIDAATLAVVTTAFAVPVLVAVAAVAAADLPVAAAAAIGVTVVAVATDALAVAVVVTAFAVAAESVA ...

  5. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-0109 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available similar to hCG1732289 [Homo sapiens] 8e-28 50% MVRMVRMVRRMVVMVMVVMVVMVRMVVMVRMVRMVGMVGMVRMVMVRMVRMVVMVRMVRTVRMMVMVRMVRTVRMMVRMVRMMVR...MVRMVRMVRRMVVMVMVVMVVMVRMVVMVRMVRMVMVRMVRMVVMVRMVMVMVRMVRMVVMVMVMVRMVRMMVMVRMVVMMVMMVVMVMVVMVMMVMVVMVRMVVMVR...MVMVVMVRMVVMMVMMMVVMVMVVMIMMVMAVMVRMVVMMMVVMVRMMVTTYDTMCQELC ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0027 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-157 86% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-08-0011 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-08-0011 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-179 97% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0079 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-175 94% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2281 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2281 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-153 86% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-29-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-29-0001 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-162 88% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-04-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-04-0055 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 2e-95 57% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-09-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-09-0028 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-142 82% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-01-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-01-0004 ref|NP_005276.2| G protein-coupled receptor 7 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH69117.1| Neuropeptides... B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAI07102.1| Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sap...iens] gb|EAW86722.1| neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 [Homo sapiens] NP_005276.2 1e-156 85% ...

  14. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1144 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 [Homo sapiens] 1e-39 43% MYANRRLEMKMTTYCPNSRPCTDANASSPSPLSLPPSSLSPTSLSSPSLPLSPSSPPPSSPSSSSLSPSSPSLPLSPSSSPPPSPSS...SSSSLSPHHHHYHHHIITIITTFTIVTIIIIIIITIITVTTTITIITITAIITIITTTSITITIIIVTTITITAIITIIIVTNITITAIITIIITTFITIIIITVVITSSPSLSSPSS...PLSPPSPLSLSSSSSSSLSPPPSLSSPSLPLSPSSLSPTSLSSPSLPLSPSSSPPPSLSSLSPTSLSLPLSPSSPPPPSPSS...SSLSLSPHHHHYHHHYHHLHIITVIIIITITVVTVTIAIIIVTNITITAIITIITTSITIIIIIVIITSSPSLSPPLSSPLSPPSPSSPSSSLSLSLSPSPSS...LSPPSLSPSLPPLSPSSSSLSLSLSPHHYHYHHHHYHHLHHHHCHHHHYYCHYHHHHYHCHHLHHYHHCHQHHYHCHYHHHHHLHHHHDHHYHCLY

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0643 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0643 ref|NP_001034674.1| prostaglandin F receptor isoform b precursor ...[Homo sapiens] gb|AAR84381.1| FP prostanoid receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI23426.1| prostaglandin F receptor... (FP) [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX06351.1| prostaglandin F receptor (FP), isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] NP_001034674.1 1e-129 94% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_001258.2| chondroadherin precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|O15335|CHAD_HUMAN Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAK51556.1|AF371328_1 chondroadher...in [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH36360.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH73974.1| Chondroadherin [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW94613.1| chondroad

  17. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-0869 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Homo sapiens] 9e-73 57% MHPSIHASIHPFIHSSMHPSIHSSIHLSTIPSMHPSMNPCVHPSMH...PSIHASIHPFVHPSMHPFIHACIHPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIQPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESTHPSIHPFIHPFIHSSMRPSIHSSIHLSTIPSMHPSMN...PCTHPSVHPSIHSSIHLFVHPSMHPSIHSSIHPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIHPCIHPSVYHSIHAPI...HESMHPSIHASIQPFIHPSVYHSIHAPIHESMHPSIHAPIHESMHPSIHASIHPSIYPSLLGLSRQDPTETPLSRVDKEKLTSPRGFPKRYGRSANTSVMQSMLSELTQSTLSERPCSQRHTVSPEWGVRGRVP ...

  18. Gene : CBRC-CJAC-01-0134 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D: similar to CG31901-PA [Homo sapiens] 1e-29 53% MGSSATMWDPGDDPGLTALCGSNVPSALRSGPTTRVLGDDSNSSALGGSTAPSALGSG...STSWEFSDDPSSSAFDDCTNTSALGSHPTTADIGDDPSSSALEDGTTPSALGSGPTNWGPGDDHTPQPWVAALSPQPGTLAITSPPQPWMTAPISQPWAVIPLIGTLV...MTPGLQPWVSAPPPQHWAVVLRSGTLGMTSRSQPWMTALISQPWAVVPLLGTLGMTPAAQPWMAAPIGQPWTVVPQHGTLV

  19. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-16-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein product [Homo sapiens] 3e-18 30% MQNGLRNLSFKFLWLVCILFCLFFSFFLPPCFLPSLFPFSHFSFHSSFSLSLHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSLHPSLFPVI...LLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVI...LLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLF...XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSLFLLILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVI...LLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPFILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPFILLSFPSSFSLSLHPSLFPVILLSFPSSFSLSRHPSLFPVI

  20. Gene : CBRC-CJAC-01-1097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein product [Homo sapiens] 2e-38 39% MFPTLFPTLFPTRFPLSFPLCFPLCFPLCFPLCFPLCFPLCFPLCFPLFPTLFPTLFPTLFPILFPT...LFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTVSHSFPILFPTLFPTRFPLFPILFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTLFPTVSHSFPLCFPLCFPFCFPLCFPLCFPLFPTVSHCFPLCFPLFPTVSHSVSHSFPICFPLC...FPLCFLLCFPLCFPLSVSHSVSHSLFPTLCFPLCFPLFPTLFPTLFPTVSHSVSHSVSH...SVSHSLFPTLCFPLFPTLFLTVSHCFPLIFPLCFPLFPTLFPTLFPTVSHSVSHSLFPTLFPTVTHTVSHSVSHCFPLCFPLSVSHSVSHCSPLFPTFSHSVSHRFPLCVPLLHLSLCLFLNPFSAIWVGVSTTKLVSAVQELSAVGRVH ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1031 gb|AAC64943.1| transmembrane protein [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW82396.1| Wolf...ram syndrome 1 (wolframin), isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW82397.1| Wolfram syndrome 1 (wolframin)..., isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW82398.1| Wolfram syndrome 1 (wolframin), isoform CRA_a [Homo sapiens] AAC64943.1 0.0 93% ...

  2. "Homo analogia"

    OpenAIRE

    Nieborak, Stefan

    1994-01-01

    "Homo analogia" : zur philosoph.-theolog. Bedeutung d. "analogia entis" im Rahmen d. existenziellen Frage bei Erich Przywara S.J. (1889-1972). - Frankfurt am Main u.a. : Lang, 1994. - XVIII, 633 S. - (Theologie im Übergang ; 13). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 1993/94

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHR152 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens haplotype 1D dentin s... 40 0.086 EU278639_1( EU278639 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 38A dentin...EU278636_1( EU278636 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 36A dentin ... 40 0.086 EU284752_1( EU284752 |pid:none)...EU278620_1( EU278620 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1A dentin s... 40 0.086 (Q9NZW4) RecName: Full=Dentin...sapiens haplotype 37A dentin ... 40 0.086 EU278621_1( EU278621 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1B dentin

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHQ367 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens haplotype 1D dentin s... 40 0.060 EU278639_1( EU278639 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 38A dentin...EU278636_1( EU278636 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 36A dentin ... 40 0.060 EU284752_1( EU284752 |pid:none)...EU278620_1( EU278620 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1A dentin s... 40 0.060 (Q9NZW4) RecName: Full=Dentin...sapiens haplotype 37A dentin ... 40 0.060 EU278621_1( EU278621 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1B dentin

  5. Dicty_cDB: CFF350 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sapiens haplotype 1D dentin s... 40 0.031 EU278639_1( EU278639 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 38A dentin...EU278636_1( EU278636 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 36A dentin ... 40 0.031 EU284752_1( EU284752 |pid:none)...EU278620_1( EU278620 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1A dentin s... 40 0.031 (Q9NZW4) RecName: Full=Dentin...sapiens haplotype 37A dentin ... 40 0.031 EU278621_1( EU278621 |pid:none) Homo sapiens haplotype 1B dentin

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0500 ref|NP_005520.4| heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 [Homo sapiens] em...b|CAH71870.1| heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI12125.1| heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 [Homo sapiens] NP_005520.4 4e-24 49% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1447 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1447 ref|NP_065734.5| adenosine A3 receptor isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89007.1| adenosine... receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM21993.1| adenosine A3 receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_065734.5 7e-49 90% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1477 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1477 ref|NP_065734.5| adenosine A3 receptor isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89007.1| adenosine... receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM21993.1| adenosine A3 receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_065734.5 6e-50 85% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1099 ref|NP_065734.5| adenosine A3 receptor isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAQ89007.1| adenosine... receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAM21993.1| adenosine A3 receptor [Homo sapiens] NP_065734.5 7e-53 92% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-08-0083 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-08-0083 dbj|BAD98119.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98120.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98121.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] BAD98119.1 1e-167 97% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-08-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0060 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 1e-176 97% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0718 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0718 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 2e-68 54% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1613 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1613 dbj|BAD98002.1| bitter taste receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98003.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98004.1| bitter taste receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] BAD98002.1 1e-27 40% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-1134 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1134 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 1e-125 72% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1326 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1326 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 3e-92 70% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0396 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0396 dbj|BAD98002.1| bitter taste receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98003.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98004.1| bitter taste receptor T2R14 [Homo sapiens] BAD98002.1 1e-159 98% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-07-0088 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-07-0088 dbj|BAD98119.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98120.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98121.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] BAD98119.1 1e-172 100% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0150 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0150 dbj|BAD98119.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98120.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98121.1| bitter taste receptor T2R56 [Homo sapiens] BAD98119.1 1e-75 49% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0158 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0158 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 1e-62 56% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-07-0085 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-07-0085 dbj|BAD98035.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98036.1| bitter taste... receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] dbj|BAD98037.1| bitter taste receptor T2R39 [Homo sapiens] BAD98035.1 0.0 100% ...