Full Text Available Gregory Reardon,1 Naushira Pandya,2 Robert A Bailey31Informagenics, LLC and The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Horsham, PA, USAPurpose: Falls are common among nursing home residents and have potentially severe consequences, including fracture and other trauma. Recent evidence suggests anemia may be independently related to these falls. This study explores the relationship between the use of anemia-related pharmacotherapies and falls among nursing home residents.Methods: Forty nursing homes in the United States provided data for analysis. All incidents of falls over the 6-month post-index follow-up period were used to identify the outcomes of falls (≥1 fall and recurrent falls (>1 fall. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between falls and recurrent falls with each of the anemia pharmacotherapies after adjusting for potential confounders.Results: A total of 632 residents were eligible for analysis. More than half (57% of residents were identified as anemic (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL females, or <13 g/dL males. Of anemic residents, 50% had been treated with one or more therapies (14% used vitamin B12, 10% folic acid, 38% iron, 0.3% darbepoetin alfa [DARB], and 1.3% epoetin alfa [EPO]. Rates of falls/recurrent falls were 33%/18% for those receiving vitamin B12, 40%/16% for folic acid, 27%/14% for iron, 38%/8% for DARB, 18%/2% for EPO, and 22%/11% for those receiving no therapy. In the adjusted models, use of EPO or DARB was associated with significantly lower odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio = 0.06; P = 0.001. Other significant covariates included psychoactive medication use, age 75–84 years, age 85+ years, worsened balance score, and chronic kidney disease (P < 0.05 for all.Conclusion: Only half of the anemic residents were found to be using anemia
Manu, Erika R; Mody, Lona; McNamara, Sara E; Vitale, Caroline A
Research shows variable success as to whether care provided aligns with individual patient preferences as reflected in their advance directives (AD). We aimed to study AD status and subsequent care received in older nursing home (NH) residents deemed at risk for infections and care transitions: those with a urinary catheter (UC), feeding tube (FT), or both. Design/participants/measurements: A subgroup analysis of a prospective cohort of 90 residents with a UC and/or FT from 15 NHs in southeast Michigan. Outcomes assessed at enrollment and at 30-day intervals were hospitalizations and antibiotic use. The ADs were divided as follows: (1) comfort oriented: comfort measures only, no hospital transfer; (2) palliative oriented: comfort focused, allowing hospital transfer (except intensive care unit), antibiotic use, but no cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (3) usual care: full code, no limitations to care. We calculated incidences for these outcomes. Seventy-eight (87%) residents had ADs: 18 (23%) comfort oriented, 32 (41%) palliative oriented, and 28 (36%) usual care. The groups did not differ regarding demographics, comorbidity, function, device presence, or time in study. Using the usual care group as comparison, the comfort-oriented group was hospitalized at a similar rate (Incidence rate [IR] = 15.6/1000 follow-up days vs IR = 8.8/1000 follow-up days, Incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.6 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.3 -1.1], P value .09) but received fewer antibiotics (IR = 18.9/1000 follow-up days vs IR = 7.5/1000 follow-up days, IRR 0.4 [95% CI, 0.2-0.8], P value .005). Nursing home residents with comfort-oriented ADs were hospitalized at a rate similar to those with usual-care ADs but received fewer antibiotics, although the small sample size of this analysis suggests these findings deserve further study.
Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Hall, Yoshio N; Katz, Ronit; O'Hare, Ann M
Little is known about the relation between the content of advance directives and downstream treatment decisions among patients receiving maintenance dialysis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of advance directives specifying treatment limitations and/or surrogate decision-makers in the last year of life and their association with end-of-life care among nursing home residents. Using national data from 2006 to 2007, we compared the content of advance directives among 30,716 nursing home residents receiving dialysis to 30,825 nursing home residents with other serious illnesses during the year before death. Among patients receiving dialysis, we linked the content of advance directives to Medicare claims to ascertain site of death and treatment intensity in the last month of life. In the last year of life, 36% of nursing home residents receiving dialysis had a treatment-limiting directive, 22% had a surrogate decision-maker, and 13% had both in adjusted analyses. These estimates were 13%-27%, 5%-11%, and 6%-13% lower, respectively, than for decedents with other serious illnesses. For patients receiving dialysis who had both a treatment-limiting directive and surrogate decision-maker, the adjusted frequency of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intensive procedures, and inpatient death were lower by 13%, 17%, 13%, and 14%, respectively, and hospice use and dialysis discontinuation were 5% and 7% higher compared with patients receiving dialysis lacking both components. Among nursing home residents receiving dialysis, treatment-limiting directives and surrogates were associated with fewer intensive interventions and inpatient deaths, but were in place much less often than for nursing home residents with other serious illnesses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Hermans, Kirsten; De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Spruytte, Nele; Cohen, Joachim; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Declercq, Anja
Nursing homes become important locations for palliative care. By means of comprehensive geriatric assessments (CGAs), an evaluation can be made of the different palliative care needs of nursing home residents. This review aims to identify all CGAs that can be used to assess palliative care needs in long-term care settings and that have been validated for nursing home residents receiving palliative care. The CGAs are evaluated in terms of psychometric properties and content comprehensiveness. A systematic literature search in electronic databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo was conducted for the years 1990 to 2012. Nursing homes. Nursing home residents with palliative care needs. Psychometric data on validity and reliability were extracted from the articles. The content comprehensiveness of the identified CGAs was analyzed, using the 13 domains for a palliative approach in residential aged care of the Australian Government Department of Health and Aging. A total of 1368 articles were identified. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, describing 5 different CGAs that have been validated for nursing home residents with palliative care needs. All CGAs demonstrate moderate to high psychometric properties. The interRAI Palliative Care instrument (interRAI PC) covers all domains for a palliative approach in residential aged care of the Australian Government Department of Health and Aging. The McMaster Quality of Life Scale covers nine domains. All other CGAs cover seven domains or fewer. The interRAI PC and the McMaster Quality of Life Scale are considered to be the most comprehensive CGAs to evaluate the needs and preferences of nursing home residents receiving palliative care. Future research should aim to examine the effectiveness of the identified CGAs and to further validate the CGAs for nursing home residents with palliative care needs. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published
Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Rendahl, Aaron; Reicks, Marla
To test the effectiveness of behavioral economics strategies for increasing vegetable intake, variety, and liking among children residing in homes receiving food assistance. A randomized controlled trial with data collected at baseline, once weekly for 6 weeks, and at study conclusion. Family homes. Families with a child (9-12 years) will be recruited through community organizations and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 36) or control (n = 10) group. The intervention group will incorporate a new behavioral economics strategy during home dinner meal occasions each week for 6 weeks. Strategies are simple and low-cost. The primary dependent variable will be child's dinner meal vegetable consumption based on weekly reports by caregivers. Fixed independent variables will include the strategy and week of strategy implementation. Secondary dependent variables will include vegetable liking and variety of vegetables consumed based on data collected at baseline and study conclusion. Mean vegetable intake for each strategy across families will be compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance with a random effect for child. In additionally, overall mean changes in vegetable consumption, variety, and liking will be compared between intervention and control groups. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hermans, Kirsten; De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Spruytte, Nele; Cohen, Joachim; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Declercq, Anja
This study aimed to evaluate whether using the interRAI Palliative Care instrument (the interRAI PC) in nursing homes is associated with reduced needs and symptoms in residents nearing the end of their lives. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study using the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS) was conducted to compare the needs and symptoms of residents nearing the end of their lives in the control and intervention nursing homes. Care professionals at the intervention nursing homes filled out the interRAI PC over the course of a year for all residents aged 65 years and older who were nearing the end of their lives. This intervention was not implemented in the control nursing homes. At baseline, POS scores in the intervention nursing homes were lower (more favorable) than in the control nursing homes on the items "pain", "other symptoms", "family anxiety", and the total POS score. Posttest POS scores for "wasted time" were higher (less favorable) than pretest scores in the intervention nursing homes. In the intervention nursing homes where care professionals did not have prior experience with the interRAI Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF) assessment instrument (n = 8/15), total POS scores were lower (more favorable) at posttest. One year after introducing the interRAI PC, no reduction in residents' needs and symptoms were detected in the intervention nursing homes. However, reductions in needs and symptoms were found in the subgroup of intervention nursing homes without prior experience with the interRAI LTCF instrument. This may suggest that the use of an interRAI instrument other than the interRAI PC specifically can improve care. Future research should aim at replicating this research with a long-term design in order to evaluate the effect of integrating the use of the interRAI PC in the day-to-day practices at nursing homes.
Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Bershadsky, Julie; Degenholtz, Howard B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing home staffing level, care received by individual residents, and resident quality-related care processes and functional outcomes. Design and Methods: Nurses recorded resident care time for 5,314 residents on 156 units in 105 facilities in four states (Colorado,…
Nakrem, Sigrid; Vinsnes, Anne G; Harkless, Gene E; Paulsen, Bård; Seim, Arnfinn
Residential care in nursing homes continues to be necessary for those individuals who are no longer able to live at home. Uncovering what nursing home residents' view as quality of care in nursing homes will help further understanding of how best to provide high quality, person-centred care. To describe residents' experiences of living in a nursing home related to quality of care. The study utilises a descriptive exploratory design. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 15 residents who were not cognitively impaired, aged 65 and over and living in one of four nursing homes. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by categorising of meaning. Residents perceived the nursing home as their home, but at the same time not 'a home'. This essential ambiguity created the tension from which the categories of perceptions of quality emerged. Four main categories of quality of care experience were identified: 'Being at home in a nursing home', 'Paying the price for 24-hour care', 'Personal habits and institutional routines', and 'Meaningful activities for a meaningful day'. Ambiguities concerning the nursing home as a home and place to live, a social environment in which the residents experience most of their social life and the institution where professional health service is provided were uncovered. High-quality care was when ambiguities were managed well and a home could be created within the institution. Implication for practice. Achieving quality care in nursing homes requires reconciling the ambiguities of the nursing home as a home. This implies helping residents to create a private home distinct from the professional home, allowing residents' personal habits to guide institutional routines and supporting meaningful activities. Using these resident developed quality indicators is an important step in improving nursing home services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high
Boillat, M.; Boulet, S.; Poulin de Courval, L.
A growing elderly population suffering from chronic and debilitating diseases, the rising cost of institutional care, and increasing demand from patients for home visits indicate that home care will become a more important part of family physicians' practice in the future. We describe a model for teaching family medicine residents how to provide home services.
Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C
's Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent......Purpose To characterise the prescription pattern of psychotropics in Danish nursing homes and to identify diagnostic, behavioural, cognitive and performance characteristics associated with prevalent psychotropic drug use. Methods Prescribed daily medication was recorded from nurses' files. Based...... of the residents received a psychotropic, 21% received neuroleptics, 38% received benzodiazepines and 24% received antidepressants. In the multivariate analysis, staff assessment of the resident's mental health was a determinant for the use of all types of specific psychotropics, whereas a GMS–AGECAT diagnosis...
deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...
Zickafoose, Joseph S; Greenberg, Stuart; Dearborn, Dorr G
Healthy Homes programs seek to integrate the evaluation and management of a multitude of health and safety risks in households. The education of physicians in the identification, evaluation, and management of these home health and safety issues continues to be deficient. Healthy Homes programs represent a unique opportunity to educate physicians in the home environment and stimulate ongoing, specific patient-physician discussions and more general learning about home environmental health. The Case Healthy Homes and Patients Program addresses these deficiencies in physician training while providing direct services to high-risk households. Pediatric and family practice resident physicians participate in healthy home inspections and interventions for their primary care patients and follow up on identified risks during health maintenance and acute illness visits.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Who may reside in a group home. 982.610 Section 982.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Housing Types Group Home § 982.610 Group home: Who may reside in a group home. (a) An elderly person or a...
Verweij, Hanne; van Hooff, Madelon L M; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; Prins, Jelle T; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E M
Work engagement is important for medical residents and the healthcare organizations they work for. However, relatively little is known about the specific predictors of work engagement in medical residents. Therefore, we examined the associations of work and home characteristics, and work-home interference with work engagement in male and female residents. This study was conducted on a nationwide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between the potential predictors and work engagement. In total, 2115 (41.1%) residents completed the questionnaire. Job characteristics, home characteristics and work-home interference were associated with work engagement. Important positive contributing factors of work engagement were opportunities for job development, mental demands at work, positive work-home interference and positive home-work interference. Important negative contributing factors were emotional demands at work and negative home-work interference. The influence of these factors on work engagement was similar in male and female residents. Opportunities for job development and having challenging work are of high relevance in enhancing work engagement. Furthermore, interventions that teach how to deal skilfully with emotional demands at work and home-work interference are expected to be the most effective interventions to enhance work engagement in medical residents.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I eligible to receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.3 Section 302-14.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME...
Achterberg, Wilco; Pot, Anne Margriet; Kerkstra, Ada; Ribbe, Miel
To study the relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms in newly admitted nursing home residents and their previous place of residence. In 65 nursing homes in the Netherlands trained physicians assessed 562 residents (mean age 78.5, range 28-101, 64.6% female) within 10 days after admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Depression Rating Scale (DRS), and the MDS items: 'diagnosis of major or minor depression', 'change in depression' and 'indicators of persistent depressed, sad or anxious mood disorder present'. Previous place of residence was categorized as 'own home', 'hospital' or 'sheltered living facility'. Adjustments were performed for demographic and health related factors measured with the MDS. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (DRS > or = 3) for all 562 residents was 26.9%; it was higher in residents admitted from their own home (34.3%) than in residents admitted from the hospital (19.7%) (p = 0.002). Residents who were admitted from the hospital have an adjusted Odds Ratio for having many depressive symptoms of 0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.94) compared to residents admitted from their own home. There is, after adjustment, no statistical significant difference between residents admitted from their own home, or residents admitted from a sheltered living facility. Depressive symptoms are very prevalent in nursing homes. Residents who are admitted from their own home, or from a residential facility, have more depressive symptoms than residents admitted from the hospital. This may reflect different conceptualizations or different adjustment patterns for those groups. For a better understanding of the factors associated with nursing home depression, future studies in detection, prevention and management of depressive symptoms should start prior to or directly after admission, especially for those who have no prior institutional history.
Brown, Lisa M; Hyer, Kathryn; Schinka, John A; Mando, Ahed; Frazier, Darvis; Polivka-West, Lumarie
A growing body of research supports the value of mental health intervention to treat people affected by disasters. This study used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate pre- and posthurricane mental health service use in Florida nursing homes. A questionnaire was administered to 258 directors of nursing, administrators, and owners of nursing homes, representing two-thirds of Florida's counties, to identify residents' mental health needs and service use. In four subsequent focus group meetings with 22 nursing home administrators, underlying factors influencing residents' use of services were evaluated. Although most nursing homes provided some type of mental health care during normal operations, disaster-related mental health services were not routinely provided to residents. Receiving facilities were more likely than evacuating facilities to provide treatment to evacuated residents. Nursing home staff should be trained to deliver disaster-related mental health intervention and in procedures for making referrals for follow-up evaluation and formal intervention.
Lolk, Annette; Andersen, Kjeld
The population of older adults will increase in the coming years and the number of elderly in nursing homes is expected to rise considerably. The most frequent psychiatric diseases among nursing home residents are depression and dementia. We examined the prevalence of depression and dementia in nursing home populations reported in literature reviews. The included studies were published from 1986 to 2014. At least one out of ten persons living in a nursing home seems to have depression and more have depressive symptoms. Three out of four residents in nursing homes suffer from dementia.
Joost van Hoof; Janssen B.M.; H.R. Marston; Eveline Wouters; M.D. Rijnaard; M.M. Verhagen
The quality of the built environment can impact the quality of life and the sense of home of nursing home residents. This study investigated (1) which factors in the physical and social environment correlate with the sense of home of the residents and (2) which environmental factors are most
Zickafoose, Joseph S.; Greenberg, Stuart; Dearborn, Dorr G.
Healthy Homes programs seek to integrate the evaluation and management of a multitude of health and safety risks in households. The education of physicians in the identification, evaluation, and management of these home health and safety issues continues to be deficient. Healthy Homes programs represent a unique opportunity to educate physicians in the home environment and stimulate ongoing, specific patient-physician discussions and more general learning about home environmental health. The ...
Monroe, Todd B; Carter, Michael A; Feldt, Karen S; Dietrich, Mary S; Cowan, Ronald L
One condition associated with severe end-of-life pain that can lead to a poor quality of death is cancer. Cancer pain in people with dementia is of particular concern because of communication problems that occur with worsening disease. The aim of the current pilot study was to examine the association between hospice enrolment, dementia severity and pain among nursing home residents who died from advanced cancer. Between-groups cross-sectional chart audits of 55 nursing home residents with dementia who died from cancer were carried out. A total of 45% of residents were in hospice at the end-of-life. Residents in hospice were more likely to receive an opioid (80% vs 43%, P = 0.005); but less likely to show severe cognitive impairment (20% vs 50%, P = 0.050). Enrolment in hospice was associated with an increased likelihood of receiving an opioid after controlling for level of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.1-14.0, P = 0.037). Lower levels of cognitive functioning were associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving an opioid after controlling for enrolment in hospice (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8, P = 0.030). Notably, 40% of nursing home residents with dementia who died from cancer did not receive any opioid during this time. Preliminary results suggest that hospice enrolment might be influenced by the facility or region of this particular country. Hospice enrolment predicts more opioid pain treatment in residents with dementia and terminal cancer; however, no resident with very severe dementia and terminal cancer was placed in hospice care. Severely cognitively impaired nursing home residents requiring opioids are at great risk of suffering from untreated advanced cancer pain. New methods are urgently required to improve end-of-life palliative care for nursing home residents with terminal cancer and severe dementia. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Verweij, Hanne; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Prins, Jelle T; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E M
Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and work-home interferences with burnout in male and female medical residents. This study was conducted on a nation-wide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire on burnout, job and home demands and resources and work-home interference. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between job and home characteristics and work-home interference and burnout in both males and females. In total, 2115 (41.1 %) residents completed the questionnaire. In both sexes emotional demands at work and the interference between work and home were important contributors to burnout, especially when work interferes with home life. Opportunities for job development appeared to be an important protective factor. Other contributing and protective factors were different for male and female residents. In females, social support from family or partner seemed protective against burnout. In males, social support from colleagues and participation in decision-making at work seemed important. Effectively handling emotional demands at work, dealing with the interference between work and home, and having opportunities for job development are the most essential factors which should be addressed. However it is important to take gender differences into consideration when implementing preventive or therapeutic interventions for burnout in medical residents.
Boockvar, Kenneth; Signor, Daniel; Ramaswamy, Ravishankar; Hung, William
To ascertain the incidence of delirium during acute illness in nursing home residents, describe the timing of delirium after acute illness onset, describe risk factors for delirium, and explore the relationship between delirium and complications of acute illness. Prospective observational cohort study. Three nursing homes in metropolitan New York. Individuals who were expected to remain in the nursing home for at least 2 months, who, as part of a parent study, were receiving opioids, antidepressants, or antipsychotics on a routine basis, and who did not have an acute medical illness at the time of screening. Acute illness surveillance was performed twice weekly through communication with nursing home nursing staff and medical providers using established clinical criteria for incipient cases. We followed patients for 14 days after illness onset, and, if applicable, an additional 14 days each after hospital admission and hospital discharge. Delirium was assessed 3 times weekly using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Physical function decline was calculated using change in the Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living Scale (MDS-ADL) and cognitive function decline using change in the Minimum Data Set Cognitive performance scale (MDS-CPS). Falls were ascertained by record review. Among 136 nursing home patients followed for a mean of 11.7 months, 78 experienced 232 acute illnesses, of which 162 (71%) were managed in the nursing home. The most common diagnoses were urinary tract infection (20%), cellulitis (15%), and lower respiratory tract infection (9%). Subjects experienced delirium during 41 (17.7%) of 232 acute illnesses. Female sex was associated with a greater risk of delirium (odds ratio 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.43) but there were no other risk factors identified. Delirium was a risk factor for cognitive function decline (odds ratio 4.59; 95% CI 1.99-10.59; P = .0004), but not ADL function decline or falling. Delirium occurred frequently
Kharel, Mamata; Maricris, Gabutero
Promoting the wellbeing of the individual will result in high quality of life and health over the life course. The aim of this thesis was to describe the intergenerational experiences of the elderly service home residents in Kannelmäki, Helsinki, Finland and thus promote intervention in the elderly institutions. Qualitative research method was used in the study. The intergenerational experiences generated from the union of the elderly service home residents and the kindergarten children. ...
Cho, Eunhee; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Jeongah; Lee, Kyongeun; Meghani, Salimah H; Chang, Soo Jung
This study aimed to explore older adults' perceptions of their daily lives in South Korean nursing homes. We employed a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews. We conducted individual, semistructured interviews with 21 older adult residents from five nursing homes in South Korea and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Five themes related to older adults' perceptions of their daily lives in nursing homes emerged: enhanced comfort, aspiring to maintain physical and cognitive functions as human beings, desire for meaningful interpersonal relationships, feelings of confinement and limited autonomy, and acceptance of and adaptation to life in a facility. These themes indicated the positive and negative aspects of nursing home residence, and facilitators and challenges to enhancing older adult residents' quality of life (QOL). Policy, practice, and research endeavors are required to improve older adult residents' QOL, such as adequate professional nursing care for physical and psychological comfort and residents' health and functional status, sufficient activity programs and meaningful relationships, person-centered care to enhance residents' autonomy, and homelike environments. This study demonstrates that healthcare providers, researchers, and policymakers should consider nursing home residents' QOL to examine the quality of care within the setting and facilitate the development of appropriate strategies to improve QOL among this population. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Scholarship published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.
Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,
Arnetz, Judith E.; Zhdanova, Ludmila S.; Elsouhag, Dalia; Lichtenberg, Peter; Luborsky, Mark R.; Arnetz, Bengt B.
Purpose of the Study: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of safety culture in preventing costly adverse events, such as medication errors and falls, among nursing home residents. However, little is known regarding critical organizational determinants of a positive safety culture in nursing homes. The aim of this study…
H. Verbeek; A. Eijkelenboom; J.J.W.M. Sijstermans; B.M. Janssen; Joost van Hoof; E.L.M. Zwerts-Verhelst; MD E.J.M. Wouters; K.A. Nieboer; E. Felix
Background The sense of home of nursing home residents is a multifactorial phenomenon which is important for the quality of living. This purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home from the perspective of residents,
Saarnio, Lotta; Boström, Anne-Marie; Hedman, Ragnhild; Gustavsson, Petter; Öhlén, Joakim
Older people are often living the last period of their lives in institutions such as nursing homes. Knowledge of this period, specifically related to at-homeness which can be described as wellbeing in spite of illness and has been regarded as one of the goals in palliative care, has been very little researched in the context of nursing homes and the experience of nursing home staff. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of nursing home staff of how to enable at-homeness for residents. Qualitative interpretive description methodology guided the design. The data generation was conducted in winter 2014-2015, when seven repetitive reflective group discussions with staff in a nursing home were held. The results show five patterns for how healthcare staff enabled at-homeness for the residents: Striving to know the resident, Showing respect for the resident's integrity, Creating and working in family-like relationships, Helping to find a new ordinariness and Preparing and making plans to ensure continuity. Nursing home staff seem to have collegial knowledge of how to enable at-homeness for the residents in a nursing home. Close relationships with respect for the resident's integrity stand out as enabling at-homeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wachtel, Julie K; Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Smith, Amy B; Weaver, Kevin R; Kane, Bryan G
Residents play an integral role in educating junior residents, medical students, and patients. To determine how residents describe their training, proficiency, and comfort level in teaching before and after receiving instruction in clinical teaching. Emergency medicine residents at a 980-bed suburban hospital system filled out a 12-question survey on their training as teachers and their self-perceptions of themselves as teachers. The residents then participated in a 2-hour education session on adult learning principles, methods of clinical teaching, and how to give effective feedback. After the session, participants completed a second, 11-question survey on the effectiveness of the session. Thirty-seven residents completed the presession survey and 33 completed the postsession survey. In the presession survey, 23 residents (62%) identified their proficiency as a teacher and ability to give feedback as that of a novice or beginner. Fourteen (38%) felt competent or proficient as teachers. Twenty-six (70%) reported never receiving instruction in clinical teaching during their residency, and 33 (89%) were interested in learning these skills. In the postsession survey, 28 (85%) described the teaching module as very helpful to their training, and 33 (100%) reported feeling more prepared to teach. Twenty-six (79%) stated they were very likely to teach students more often, and 33 (100%) reported a better understanding of how to give effective feedback. The majority of the residents surveyed expressed an interest in learning teaching skills and felt that completing the training was helpful to their education. After instruction, this cohort of residents felt more prepared and reported they were more likely to teach.
body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... the perspective of the nursing home residents. Method. This qualitative study has an explorative design, based on qualitative individual research interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandi-navia. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur...
Ulbricht, Christine M; Rothschild, Anthony J; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L
The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment among newly admitted nursing home residents in the USA and to describe the treatment of depression by level of cognitive impairment. We identified 1,088,619 newly admitted older residents between 2011 and 2013 with an active diagnosis of depression documented on the Minimum Data Set 3.0. The prevalence of receiving psychiatric treatment was estimated by cognitive impairment status and depression symptoms. Binary logistic regression using generalized estimating equations provided adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between level of cognitive impairment and receipt of psychiatric treatment, adjusted for clustering of residents within nursing homes and resident characteristics. Twenty-six percent of newly admitted residents had depression; 47% of these residents also had cognitive impairment. Of those who had staff assessments of depression, anhedonia, impaired concentration, psychomotor disturbances, and irritability were more commonly experienced by residents with cognitive impairment than residents without cognitive impairment. Forty-eight percent of all residents with depression did not receive any psychiatric treatment. Approximately one-fifth of residents received a combination of treatment. Residents with severe cognitive impairment were less likely than those with intact cognition to receive psychiatric treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.98). Many newly admitted residents with an active diagnosis of depression are untreated, potentially missing an important window to improve symptoms. The extent of comorbid cognitive impairment and depression and lack of treatment suggest opportunities for improved quality of care in this increasingly important healthcare setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald-Mark; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Seblega, Binyam K
In this article the authors discuss the prevalence of resident abuse and reported violations of care deficiencies and resident maltreatment in nursing homes in the United States. The number of nursing homes in the United States that are cited with abuse violations has increased in recent years. While the authors recognize that treatments (both positive and negative) received by residents are sometimes related to factors other than staff's lack of knowledge and poor attitudes, their purpose in this analysis is to enhance resident integrity through the improvement of staff interpersonal communication skills. In doing so, innovative strategies and specific interpersonal communication theories are examined as educational methods to confront and resolve care deficiencies and elevate and enrich residents' integrity, satisfaction, and outcomes.
Hollaar, V.R.Y.; Putten, G.J. van der; Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.
BACKGROUND: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is a common infection among nursing home residents. There is also a high prevalence of dysphagia in nursing home residents and they suffer more often from comorbidity and multimorbidity. This puts nursing home residents at higher risk of (mortality
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetanus is a serious but vaccine-preventable disease and fatality rate of the disease is high in the neonates and the elderly. The aim of this study was to detect the tetanus antibody prevalence in the over sixty-year age residents of the nursing homes in Bolu. Methods A voluntary-based study was done in the residents of two nursing homes in Bolu, Turkey. Blood samples were taken from 71 volunteers residing in there nursing homes. Tetanus IgG antibodies were measured by a commercial ELISA kit. Results Among overall subjects, only 11 (15.7 % had the protective tetanus antibody titers at the time of the study. Totally, 10 subjects were examined in emergency rooms due to trauma or accidents within the last ten years and, four (40% of them had protective antibody levels. Of the remaining 61 subjects only 7 (11% had protective antibody levels (p Conclusions Tetanus antibody level is below the protective level in the majority of the over-sixty-year-age subjects residing in the nursing homes. Each over sixty-year age person in our country should be vaccinated. Until this is accomplished, at least, nursing home residents should be vaccinated during registration.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Lipson, Steven
This paper aims to gain insight into the medical decision-making processes undergone in a nursing home in response to troubled breathing. Participants were 20 residents of a large, nonprofit nursing home, six of whom died by the time of data collection. The mean age was 88 yr, and 70% were female. Diagnostic tests and medication were the most frequently used treatments. The most important considerations reported were the resident's quality of life, family wishes, and the relative effectiveness of alternative treatment options. In 45% of the cases, the physicians reported family involvement. In 30% of cases, the physicians would have wanted less treatment if they were in the resident's condition. Troubled breathing emerges as an end-of-life symptom for many residents. An analysis of the decision-making process and its evaluation could foster improved care of these symptoms.
Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen
To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Bright, Dana; Frintner, Mary Pat; Narayan, Aditee; Turchi, Renee M
A national, random sample of 1000 graduating pediatric residents was surveyed in 2014 on receipt of training in medical home activities and preparedness to engage in same in practice. Of 602 survey respondents (60% response), 71.8% reported being very/fairly knowledgeable about medical homes. Most residents (70.0% to 91.3%) reported they received training in 6 medical home activities; more than one fourth wished for more training in 4 of 6 activities. The majority (62.5% to 77.3%) reported very good/excellent perceived preparedness. Residents with continuity clinic experiences at 2 or more sites and with continuity clinic experience at a community health center were more likely to report very good/excellent preparedness in multiple medical home activities. Overall, residents feel knowledgeable, trained, and prepared to engage in medical home activities as they are leaving residency. Opportunities exist to further explore the influence of additional training in specific activities and the number and type of training site experiences on perceived preparedness.
Monturo, Cheryl A; Strumpf, Neville E
Nursing homes are increasingly the place where many Americans die. Thus, advance directives are critical to the preservation of the autonomous wishes at end-of-life. The purpose of this paper is to determine if preferences for artificial nutrition, as stated in the advance directives of nursing home residents, are honored in the last 2 months of life. Secondary analysis. Six Maryland community nursing homes. Fifty-seven consented residents (age 62 to 98) from the parent study who died during the study period. Retrospective document review including advance directives and clinical care provided in the last 2 months of life. Most of the nursing home residents in this sample refused feeding tubes, and these preferences were honored during the last 2 months of life (93%), despite some (17% to 26%) with documented weight loss. A small percentage (8.8%) of residents received feeding tubes at end-of-life and, of those, only 1 was consistent with advance directive preferences. Most advance directives in this study included feeding tube preferences. In this nursing home sample, advance directives were significant documents guiding decisions on artificial nutrition, and feeding tubes were in fact uncommon at the end of life. The study suggests that advance care planning, quality palliative care training, and administrative support are necessary for the honoring of preferences. Future research is needed to examine more broadly tube-feeding practices and prevalence in nursing homes.
Howard B. Degenholtz
Full Text Available The quality of life (QOL of the approximately 1.5 million nursing facility (NF residents in the US is undoubtedly lower than desired by residents, families, providers, and policy makers. Although there have been important advances in defining and measuring QOL for this population, there is a need for interventions that are tied to standardized measurement and quality improvement programs. This paper describes the development and testing of a structured, tailored assessment and care planning process for improving the QOL of nursing home residents. The Quality of Life Structured Resident Interview and Care Plan (QOL.SRI/CP builds on a decade of research on measuring QOL and is designed to be easily implemented in any US nursing home. The approach was developed through extensive and iterative pilot testing and then tested in a randomized controlled trial in three nursing homes. Residents were randomly assigned to receive the assessment alone or both the assessment and an individualized QOL care plan task. The results show that residents assigned to the intervention group experienced improved QOL at 90- and 180-day follow-up, while QOL of residents in the control group was unchanged.
Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel
Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…
van der Steen, J.T.; Heijmans, M.W.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Kruse, R.; Mehr, D.
Prognostic tools or risk scores that accurately estimate mortality risk could provide valuable information for elderly nursing home residents, their families, and physicians when establishing goals of care, such as when considering a shift to palliative care. Several Dutch and US studies found male
Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne
This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.
Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Plowman, Donde; Bailey, Donald; Corazzini, Kirsten; Utley-Smith, Queen; Ammarell, Natalie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth
Regulatory oversight is intended to improve the health outcomes of nursing home residents, yet evidence suggests that regulations can inhibit mindful staff behaviors that are associated with effective care. We explored the influence of regulations on mindful staff behavior as it relates to resident health outcomes, and offer a theoretical explanation of why regulations sometimes enhance mindfulness and other times inhibit it. We analyzed data from an in-depth, multiple-case study including field notes, interviews, and documents collected in eight nursing homes. We completed a conceptual/thematic description using the concept of mindfulness to reframe the observations. Shared facility mission strongly impacted staff perceptions of the purpose and utility of regulations. In facilities with a resident-centered culture, regulations increased mindful behavior, whereas in facilities with a cost-focused culture, regulations reduced mindful care practices. When managers emphasized the punitive aspects of regulation we observed a decrease in mindful practices in all facilities.
Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen
Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.
Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Marion F; Cobley, Christine S; Steultjens, Esther M J; Sackley, Catherine M
Stroke is a worldwide problem and is a leading cause of adult disability, resulting in dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) for around half of stroke survivors. It is estimated that up to 25% of all care home residents in the USA and in the UK have had a stroke. Stroke survivors who reside in care homes are likely to be more physically and cognitively impaired and therefore more dependent than those able to remain in their own home. Overall, 75% of care home residents are classified as severely disabled, and those with stroke are likely to have high levels of immobility, incontinence and confusion, as well as additional co-morbidities. It is not known whether this clinically complex population could benefit from occupational therapy in the same way as community-dwelling stroke survivors. The care home population with stroke differs from the general stroke population living at home, and a review was needed to examine the benefits of occupational therapy provided to this specific group. This review therefore focused on occupational therapy interventions for ADL for stroke survivors residing in care homes. To measure the effects of occupational therapy interventions (provided directly by an occupational therapist or under the supervision of an occupational therapist) targeted at improving, restoring and maintaining independence in ADL among stroke survivors residing in long-term institutional care, termed collectively as 'care homes'. As a secondary objective, we aimed to evaluate occupational therapy interventions for reducing complications such as depression and low mood. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, September 2012), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2012), EMBASE (1980 to September 2012), CINAHL (1982 to September 2012) and 10 additional bibliographic databases and six trials registers. We also handsearched seven journals, checked
van Hoof, J; Verhagen, M M; Wouters, E J M; Marston, H R; Rijnaard, M D; Janssen, B M
The quality of the built environment can impact the quality of life and the sense of home of nursing home residents. This study investigated (1) which factors in the physical and social environment correlate with the sense of home of the residents and (2) which environmental factors are most meaningful. Twelve participants engaged in a qualitative study, in which photography was as a supportive tool for subsequent interviews. The data were analysed based on the six phases by Braun and Clarke. The four themes identified are (1) the physical view; (2) mobility and accessibility; (3) space, place, and personal belongings; and (4) the social environment and activities. A holistic understanding of which features of the built environment are appreciated by the residents can lead to the design and retrofitting of nursing homes that are more in line with personal wishes.
J. van Hoof
Full Text Available The quality of the built environment can impact the quality of life and the sense of home of nursing home residents. This study investigated (1 which factors in the physical and social environment correlate with the sense of home of the residents and (2 which environmental factors are most meaningful. Twelve participants engaged in a qualitative study, in which photography was as a supportive tool for subsequent interviews. The data were analysed based on the six phases by Braun and Clarke. The four themes identified are (1 the physical view; (2 mobility and accessibility; (3 space, place, and personal belongings; and (4 the social environment and activities. A holistic understanding of which features of the built environment are appreciated by the residents can lead to the design and retrofitting of nursing homes that are more in line with personal wishes.
Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.
Kiyak, H A; Grayston, M N; Crinean, C L
The problem of dental neglect and high levels of unmet dental needs among elderly residents of long term care facilities has been widely documented in literature. A survey was conducted of 1063 residents in 31 nursing homes throughout Washington (representing 11% of all facilities in the state). The greatest single need among dentate elderly was for routine oral hygiene (72%), while for denture wearers adjustment of loose dentures was the primary need (46.4%). Periodontal problems were slightly more prevalent than root caries (43% and 36% respectively) among dentate elderly. Dry mouth was found in 10% of residents. Oral conditions were worse in larger facilities located in rural and moderate size communities, and those under a proprietary corporation. These results suggest that daily oral hygiene and regular check-ups by a dental professional are most needed by frail elderly, especially in large, proprietary homes in rural and moderate size communities. Education of nursing home staff and the elderly themselves in the importance and methods of home care are also critical needs.
Zeller, Adelheid; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Needham, Ian; Halfens, Ruud J G
Caregivers in nursing homes often experience aggressive behavior of residents. The aim of this study was to explore the caregivers' experiences with aggressive behavior from residents and to identify environmental factors as well as caregiver and resident characteristics related to aggressive behavior in Swiss nursing homes. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011 with a sample of caregivers working in various nursing homes in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. In total, 814 caregivers (response rate 51.8%) of 21 nursing homes participated in the study. Data were collected using the German version of the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff (SOVES-G-R). Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe and summarize the date. To identify risk factors related to the experience of aggression by residents, multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied. The prevalence of participants reporting an aggressive incident during the 12-month period prior to data collection was 81.6%. Of these, 76.5% had experienced verbal aggression, 27.6% threats, and 54.0% physical aggression. The predictive variables in the multiple regression model for physical aggression were: staff education level (odds ratio [OR]= 1.82), gender (OR = 1.82), age ( 45 years: OR = 2.13), and confidence in managing physical aggression (OR = 1.49). The predictive variables for threatening behavior were staff education level (registered nurses vs. non-registered nurses: OR = 1.70; nonstudent vs. student: OR = 1.89) and age ( 45 years: OR = 2.04). Caregivers in nursing homes are at high risk for experiencing aggressive behavior. The identified risk factors are in line with earlier investigations, but some contradictory results also were observed. The high risk for registered nurses exposed to aggressive behavior and the increased risk for caregivers who feel confident in managing aggressive behavior cast a critical light on the content and
Albrecht, Martina; Kupfer, Ramona; Reissmann, Daniel R; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Köpke, Sascha
Associations between nursing home residents' oral health status and quality of life, respiratory tract infections, and nutritional status have been reported. Educational interventions for nurses or residents, or both, focusing on knowledge and skills related to oral health management may have the potential to improve residents' oral health. To assess the effects of oral health educational interventions for nursing home staff or residents, or both, to maintain or improve the oral health of nursing home residents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 18 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 January 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 January 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 18 January 2016), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 18 January 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 18 January 2016. In addition, we searched reference lists of identified articles and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs comparing oral health educational programmes for nursing staff or residents, or both with usual care or any other oral healthcare intervention. Two review authors independently screened articles retrieved from the searches for relevance, extracted data from included studies, assessed risk of bias for each included study, and evaluated the overall quality of the evidence. We retrieved data about the development and evaluation processes of complex interventions on the basis of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in healthcare: revised guideline (CReDECI 2). We contacted authors of relevant studies for additional information. We included nine RCTs involving
Shah, Sunil M; Carey, Iain M; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Cook, Derek G
Influenza vaccination is recommended for older people irrespective of cognitive decline or residential setting. To examine the effect of dementia diagnosis on flu vaccination uptake in community and care home residents in England and Wales. Retrospective analysis of a primary care database with 378,462 community and 9,106 care (nursing and residential) home residents aged 65-104 in 2008-09. Predictors of vaccine uptake were examined adjusted for age, sex, area deprivation and major chronic diseases. Age and sex standardised uptake of influenza vaccine was 74.7% (95% CI: 73.7-75.8%) in community patients without dementia, 71.4% (69.3-73.5%) in community patients with dementia, 80.5% (78.9-82.2%) in care home patients without dementia and 83.3% (81.4-85.3%) in care home patients with dementia. In a fully adjusted model, compared with community patients without dementia, patients with dementia in the community were less likely to receive vaccination (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97) while care home patients with (RR: 1.06, 1.03-1.09) and without (RR: 1.03, 1.01-1.05) dementia were more likely to receive vaccination. Area deprivation and chronic diseases were, respectively, negative and positive predictors of uptake. Lower influenza vaccine uptake among community patients with dementia, compared with care home residents, suggests organisational barriers to community uptake but high uptake among patients with dementia in care homes does not suggest concern over informed consent acts as a barrier. Primary care for community patients with dementia needs to ensure that they receive all appropriate preventive interventions.
Cho, Eunhee; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Jeongah; Lee, Kyongeun; Meghani, Salimah H.
Abstract Purpose This study aimed to explore older adults’ perceptions of their daily lives in South Korean nursing homes. Design We employed a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews. Methods We conducted individual, semistructured interviews with 21 older adult residents from five nursing homes in South Korea and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Findings Five themes related to older adults’ perceptions of their daily lives in nursing homes emerged: enhanced comfort, aspiring to maintain physical and cognitive functions as human beings, desire for meaningful interpersonal relationships, feelings of confinement and limited autonomy, and acceptance of and adaptation to life in a facility. These themes indicated the positive and negative aspects of nursing home residence, and facilitators and challenges to enhancing older adult residents’ quality of life (QOL). Conclusions Policy, practice, and research endeavors are required to improve older adult residents’ QOL, such as adequate professional nursing care for physical and psychological comfort and residents’ health and functional status, sufficient activity programs and meaningful relationships, person‐centered care to enhance residents’ autonomy, and homelike environments. Clinical Relevance This study demonstrates that healthcare providers, researchers, and policymakers should consider nursing home residents’ QOL to examine the quality of care within the setting and facilitate the development of appropriate strategies to improve QOL among this population. PMID:28605167
Jorunn Drageset; Gorill Haugan; Oscar Tranvag
Meaning and purpose in life among nursing home residents without dementia are significantly related to nurse-patient interaction or to family and friends outside the nursing home or other residents [15, 16...
Rosen, Tony; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl
Evidence exists suggesting that most sexual aggression against older adults occurs in long-term care facilities. Fellow residents are the most common perpetrators, often demonstrating inappropriate hypersexual behavior caused by dementing illness. This resident-to-resident sexual aggression (RRSA) is defined as sexual interactions between long-term care residents that, in a community setting, at least one of the recipients would be likely to construe as unwelcome and that have high potential to cause physical or psychological distress in one or both of the involved residents. Although RRSA may be common, and physical and psychological consequences for victims may be significant, this phenomenon has received little direct attention from researchers. This is a review of the existing literature and relevant related research examining elder sexual abuse and hypersexual behavior that describes the epidemiological features of this phenomenon, including risk factors for perpetrators and victims. The legitimate and recognized need for nursing home residents, even those with advanced dementing illness, to express themselves sexually makes preventing and managing sexual aggression in nursing homes more challenging. This review discusses the ethical dilemma this situation creates and the need to evaluate the capacity to consent to sexual activity of residents with dementing illness and to re-evaluate capacity as the diseases progress. Suggestions are offered for managing incidents of RRSA and for future research, including the importance of designing effective interventions. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.
Palmer, Jennifer A; Parker, Victoria A; Berlowitz, Dan; Snow, A Lynn; Hartmann, Christine W
A central component of person-centered care, resident choice in daily life, has received little research attention in the U.S. This study investigated nursing home staff experiences in realizing resident choice. Twenty-six qualitative staff interviews were conducted in an opportunistic sample from two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Community Living Centers (CLCs, i.e., nursing homes) implementing the Green House Model. Thematic content analysis surfaced several key tensions at the intra-personal, inter-personal, and organizational levels. Most salient were staff mental models within the intra-personal level. Staff conveyed a lack of clarity on how to realize resident choice when faced with varying tensions, especially the competing goal of resident medical and safety needs. Staff-employed resolutions to resident choice-related tensions also emerged (e.g., preventive practices, staff reinforcement, and staff deliberation). This study offers specific and concrete insights on how resident choice in daily life, and thus resident quality of life, can be advanced. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rendina, Nicola; Brodaty, Henry; Draper, Brian; Peisah, Carmelle; Brugue, Esteve
Prescribing psychotropic medications for persons with dementia who lack capacity to give informed consent requires proxy consent under NSW Guardianship legislation. To survey current practice in complying with legislation and regulations in prescribing psychotropic medications for nursing home residents. In three Sydney nursing homes, the files of 77 residents identified as having dementia, being on a psychotropic medication and not having capacity to give informed consent, were audited. In only 6.5% of cases were all regulations adhered to; a further 6.5% attempted and partially completed substitute consent requirements. The problem and the nature of the treatment were documented in 70.1% of cases. In 16.9% of files the only documentation of the prescribed medication was in the medication chart. Doses of medications prescribed were within accepted guidelines. Current regulations and legislation are not being observed. Recommendations are made as to how to make them more practicable.
Thompson, Genevieve N; Doupe, Malcolm; Reid, R Colin; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Estabrooks, Carole A
Although examining point in time prevalence of pain among nursing home (NH) residents has value, there is a lack of evidence describing the actual changes (ie, trajectories) in pain that take place during their last 6 months of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the major pain trajectories experienced by NH residents during their last 6 months of life. Secondary analysis of Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 data captured as part of the longitudinal Translating Research in Elder Care data repository. Twenty-seven urban NHs in Western Canada. A total of 962 NH residents who died, had an MDS assessment completed within 30 days of death, and resided in a NH for at least 6 months. Pain trajectories were stratified by residents who were not severely cognitively impaired [Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) ≤3] and those with severe impairment (CPS ≥4) at death. MDS-Pain Scale; CPS. In the 6 months before death, 60.1% of residents without severe cognitive impairment experienced consistently low pain; 34.6% reported experiencing either moderate to severe pain or significant increases in pain during this same period of time, and only 5.3% experienced any degree of pain improvement. When the trajectories were examined, most residents without severe cognitive impairment experienced no to mild pain in the time before their death (65.5%); however, we identified a group of residents who exhibited a pattern of pain that worsened or remained consistently high right until death (38.2%). Although the proportion of residents with "low/mild" pain trajectories was statistically greater among those who were severely impaired vs those without severe cognitive impairment, across both cognitive impairment groups, the general trend in pain trajectories is similar; with about 60% of residents experiencing either consistent low or mild pain in their last 6 months of life, and about 34% experiencing either substantially high or increasing pain
Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk
To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.
Purpose. The overall purpose of this cross-country Nordic study was to gain further knowledge about dignity in nursing homes and the circumstances which may have an impact on it. The aim of this part of the study is to present the results, exploring nursing home residents’ experiences on how dign...... may be used as a frame-work to understand what nursing home residents tend to value and support dignity in the context of vulnerable situations in eldercare.......Purpose. The overall purpose of this cross-country Nordic study was to gain further knowledge about dignity in nursing homes and the circumstances which may have an impact on it. The aim of this part of the study is to present the results, exploring nursing home residents’ experiences on how...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...
Schulze, J; Freitag, M H; Glaeske, G; Schmiemann, G; Hoffmann, F
Pain is a highly prevalent symptom in nursing home residents. The analgesic pharmacotherapy of older adults is associated with challenges; however, studies from Germany examining the prescription pattern of analgesics in nursing home residents are rare. This study was carried out to examine the prescription of analgesics in nursing home residents with and without the diagnosis of cancer. Using health insurance claims data persons aged ≥ 65 years who were newly admitted to a nursing home between 2004 and 2009 and who survived at least the first 90 days after admission were included in the study. Cancer was identified by outpatient diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (ICD-10: C00-C97). Prescription drugs within the first 90 days after admission to a nursing home were analyzed which means that aspirin and acetaminophen were not taken into account. A total of 5549 nursing home residents were included, who were on average 81.5 years old (56.8 % females). More than half (53.5 %) were assigned to care level I and 781 (14.1 %) were diagnosed with cancer. The study cohort received on average 7.8 different medications (with vs. without cancer: 8.6 vs. 7.6, respectively) and 43.8 % had prescriptions for analgesics (with vs. without cancer: 52.5 vs. 42.3 %, respectively). A total of 37.1 % were taking WHO step 1 analgesics (step 2: 11.4 % and step 3: 9.2 %). The proportion of persons receiving metamizole (dipyrone) was 28.3 % (with vs. without cancer: 35.6 vs. 27.1 %, respectively). Regarding all prescriptions, metamizole was by far the most frequently prescribed medication in nursing homes followed by melperone and omeprazole. Approximately one third of nursing home residents received metamizole and most were long-term prescriptions. Considering that metamizole is associated with potentially life-threatening adverse effects, caution is indicated particularly when prescribed over long periods.
Reinardy, J; Kane, R A
Representative samples of 260 Oregon foster care residents and 179 cognitively intact nursing home residents were queried retrospectively about the nature and circumstances surrounding their decision to move to a foster care or nursing home, including the alternatives they considered, the circumstances leading to the move, their perception of the decision-making process and who influenced it, the characteristics important to them in choosing the care environment, and their perception of their own control over the move. Statistically significant differences were identified in the characteristics of the setting that each group deemed important, the circumstances surrounding the decision, the people influencing it, and the perceived control over the decision.
Murphy, Briony; Bugeja, Lyndal; Pilgrim, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Joseph E
To describe the frequency and nature of deaths from resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes in Australia. National population-based retrospective cohort study. Accredited nursing homes in Australia. Residents whose deaths resulted from RRA and were reported to the coroner between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors were collected through review of the paper-based coroners' files. This research identified 28 deaths from RRA over a 14-year study period (0.004 per 100,000 bed days). Most exhibitors of aggression were male (n = 24, 85.7%), and risk of death from RRA was twice as high for male as for female nursing home residents (relative risk (RR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-4.80, P = .05). Almost 90% of residents involved in RRA had a diagnosis of dementia, and three-quarters had a history of behavioral problems, including wandering and aggression. Dyad analysis showed that exhibitors of aggression were often younger and more recently admitted to the nursing home than targets. RRA incidents commonly occurred in communal areas and during the afternoon and involved a "push and fall." Seven (25%) RRA deaths had a coronial inquest; criminal charges were rarely filed. This is the first national study in Australia, and the largest internationally, to examine RRA deaths using medicolegal data. This generates hypotheses for future research on the effect of environmental and organizational factors on the frequency and preventability of RRA. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Van der Ploeg, Eva S; Walker, Helen; O'Connor, Daniel W
Nursing home residents' behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are often exacerbated by a lack of social contact and meaningful activity. Volunteers might assist in addressing this deficiency but they are often discouraged by staff from engaging with residents with challenging behaviors. As a result, some of the neediest residents receive the least social and psychological support. This project explored the implementation of personalized, one-to-one activities by nursing home volunteers to determine if volunteers were able and willing to complete a training program and undertake activities with residents with dementia and challenging behaviors. 19 nursing home volunteers in Melbourne, Australia, were trained to apply Montessori-type personalized activities with a selected resident whose dementia was complicated by a frequent, non-aggressive agitated behavior. The volunteers were asked to attend a workshop and pay six 30-min visits to the resident over a three week period. They completed knowledge and attitude rating scales before and after the intervention and were interviewed afterward regarding their experiences and perceptions. 16 volunteers completed the program and eight met or exceeded every study requirement. Most of them derived satisfaction from engaging residents' interest and were pleased to learn new skills. The scores on the dementia knowledge and attitude rating scale of those who completed the visits were higher at the study's outset than the scores of those who failed to make any visits. It is certainly feasible to train volunteers to work with residents who might otherwise be isolated. It is important to demonstrate activities to volunteers at the outset and to provide them with careful, ongoing supervision and support. Notwithstanding some difficulties and challenges, volunteers represent a growing and hitherto untapped pool of support for people with dementia and complex needs. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Godin, Judith; Keefe, Janice; Kelloway, E Kevin; Hirdes, John P
This study explores the factor structure of the interRAI self-report nursing home quality of life survey and develops a measure that will allow researchers to compare predictors of quality of life (QOL) across resident, family, and staff perspectives. Nursing home residents (N = 319), family members (N = 397), and staff (N = 862) were surveyed about their perceptions of resident QOL. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on a random half of the staff data. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for measurement equivalence across the three perspectives. The final model had a four-factor structure (i.e., care and support, food, autonomy, and activities) across all three perspectives. Each factor had at least two items that were equivalent across all three perspectives, which suggests at least partial measurement equivalence. The finding of partial measurement equivalence acknowledges there are important differences between perspectives and provides a tool that researchers can use to compare predictors of QOL, but not levels of agreement across perspectives. Targeting these four aspects is likely to have the additional benefit of improving family and staff perceptions of resident QOL in addition to the resident's own QOL.
van Hoof, J; Verbeek, H; Janssen, B M; Eijkelenboom, A; Molony, S L; Felix, E; Nieboer, K A; Zwerts-Verhelst, E L M; Sijstermans, J J W M; Wouters, E J M
The sense of home of nursing home residents is a multifactorial phenomenon which is important for the quality of living. This purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home from the perspective of residents, relatives and care professionals. A total of 78 participants (n = 24 residents, n = 18 relatives and n = 26 care professionals) from 4 nursing homes in the Netherlands engaged in a qualitative study, in which photography was as a supportive tool for subsequent interviews and focus groups. The data were analyzed based on open ended coding, axial coding and selective coding. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by a number of jointly identified factors, including the building and interior design; eating and drinking; autonomy and control; involvement of relatives; engagement with others and activities; quality of care are shared themes. Residents and relatives stressed the importance of having a connection with nature and the outdoors, as well as coping strategies. Relatives and care professionals emphasized the role the organization of facilitation of care played, as well as making residents feel like they still matter. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by a multitude of factors related to the psychology of the residents, and the social and built environmental contexts. A holistic understanding of which factors influence the sense of home of residents can lead to strategies to optimize this sense of home. This study also indicated that the nursing home has a dual nature as a place of residence and a place where people are supported through numerous care strategies.
Björk, Sabine; Lindkvist, Marie; Wimo, Anders; Juthberg, Christina; Bergland, Ådel; Edvardsson, David
To describe the prevalence of everyday activity engagement for older people in nursing homes and the extent to which engagement in everyday activities is associated with thriving. Research into residents' engagement in everyday activities in nursing homes has focused primarily on associations with quality of life and prevention and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, the mere absence of symptoms does not necessarily guarantee experiences of well-being. The concept of thriving encapsulates and explores experiences of well-being in relation to the place where a person lives. A cross-sectional survey. A national survey of 172 Swedish nursing homes (2013-2014). Resident (n = 4831) symptoms, activities and thriving were assessed by staff using a study survey based on established questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression, and linear stepwise multiple regression were performed. The most commonly occurring everyday activities were receiving hugs and physical touch, talking to relatives/friends and receiving visitors, having conversation with staff not related to care and grooming. The least commonly occurring everyday activities were going to the cinema, participating in an educational program, visiting a restaurant and doing everyday chores. Positive associations were found between activity engagement and thriving, where engagement in an activity program, dressing nicely and spending time with someone the resident likes had the strongest positive association with resident thriving. Engagement in everyday activities can support personhood and thriving and can be conceptualized and implemented as nursing interventions to enable residents to thrive in nursing homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Automated home applications are to ease the use of technology and devices around the house. Most of the electronic devices, like shutters or entertainment products (Hifi, TV and even WiFi, are constantly in a standby mode, where they consume a considerable amount of energy. The standby mode is necessary to react to commands triggered by the user, but the time the device spends in a standby mode is considered long. In our work, we present a receiver that is attached to home appliances that allows the devices to be activated while they are completely turned off in order to reduce the energy consumed in the standby mode. The receiver contains a low power wake-up module that reacts to an addressable acoustic 20-kHz sound signal that controls home devices that are connected to it. The acoustic wake-up signal can be sent by any kind of speaker that is available in commercial smartphones. The smartphones will operate as transmitters to the signals. Our wake-up receiver consists of two parts: a low power passive circuit connected to a wake-up chip microcontroller and an active micro-electromechanical system (MEMS microphone that receives the acoustic signal. A duty cycle is required to reduce the power consumption of the receiver, because the signal reception occurs when the microphone is active. The current consumption was measured to be 15 μA in sleep mode and 140 μA in active mode. An average wake-up range of 10 m using a smartphone as a sender was achieved.
Joost van Hoof; M.L. Janssen; C.M.C. Heesakkers; L.A.G. Willems; B.M. Janssen; H.R. Marston; W. van Kersbergen; M.E. Nieboer; L.E.J. Severijns
Personal possessions of nursing home residents can contribute to their sense of home. This study investigated which of the personal belongings were considered most important, and if these items indeed contributed to a sense of home. A qualitative research was conducted with 27 nursing home
Renata Alessandra Evangelista
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of the elderly residents of a long-stay nursing home on the process of institutionalization. We interviewed 14 subjects, five women and nine men, aged between 60 and 92 years. Data collection was conducted with a semi-structured sociodemographic interview, which presented the guiding question: “Tell me about how is your life, what do you do and how did you come to live here”. From the analysis, we found topics related to feelings of abandonment, loneliness, anger, ingratitude, living with chronic pain, satisfaction of property in the nursing home, productivity and social relationship. Given the thematic analysis, it was possible to group them into three categories such as: what the elderly feel, what the elderly perceive and what the elderly desire. As a result, we need public policies that addresses to the service provided by institutions regarding elderly expectations.
Duellman, M K; Barris, R; Kielhofner, G
This study examined one aspect of the hypothesis that the environment influences the adaptive status of elderly people. Specifically, it looked at the relationship between the amount of organized activities offered in three nursing homes and 44 residents' perceptions of their roles in the present and future and their future time perspective. No relationship was found between future time perspective and the amount of activity offered; however, positive relationships existed between present and future roles and the amount of activity. The study supports the premise that when activity is available, individuals are likely to form and maintain images of themselves as actively engaging with their environment.
Nordenram, G; Ljunggren, G; Cederholm, T
Chronically ill elderly persons sustain a high risk for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study we explored some of the complex associations between nutritional status, dental health and cognitive and physical function in 192 nursing home residents (mean age 84+/-8 years, 80% female). Nutrition-related data from the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) were compiled into a Nutrition Score (NuSc; 0-1 = non-PEM, 2 = risk for PEM, and 3-7 = PEM). Chewing capacity, according to number and condition of occlusal contacts, was determined by a Clinical Dental Functionality score (CDF). The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and activities of daily living (ADL) were determined according to the RAI. Fifty percent of the residents had NuSc > or = 2, and 25% had NuSc > or = 3. One third did not have the dental prerequisites for chewing. i.e., cognitive dysfunction, and over two thirds were severely limited in their ADL activities. Subjects with > or = 4 occlusal contacts, i.e., technical chewing capacity, had better NuSc (1.5+/-1.4) than those not able to chew (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.0005). In univariate logistic regression, the odds for NuSc > or = 2 increased with reduced ADL functions. inability to chew and poor cognition. In multivariate logistic regression, ADL and chewing capacity were significantly related to NuSc > or = 2. When NuSc > or = 3 was chosen as cut-off, only ADL was related to malnutrition. In conclusion, half of this group of nursing home residents appeared to be malnourished, or were at risk for PEM. Reduced physical function was the strongest predictor of PEM, while impaired chewing capacity was associated with risk for PEM.
Mroczek, Bożena; Kurpas, Donata; Gronowska, Małgorzata; Kotwas, Artur; Karakiewicz, Beata
The purpose of this study was to analyze psychosexual needs of nursing care home residents in Poland. The authors attempted to answer the question 'how do residents satisfy their psychosexual needs?' This survey-based study was performed with respect to the residents' right to privacy and intimacy. The residents were also informed that they could withdraw from the study at any stage. The history was taken from 85 subjects (60% women, 40% men). The mean age was 74.2±11.2. The most important psychosexual needs included: conversation, tenderness, emotional closeness (empathy, understanding), sexual contacts and physical closeness. As the most important elements of the relationship, respondents mentioned mutual respect and conviction that they can rely on their partners. Most respondents felt sexual tension occasionally, others once a week or less frequently. They relieved sexual tension through intimate contacts with their long-term partners, watching erotic films, masturbation, walking and diverting attention to other activities. Every fourth respondent was satisfied with his/her sexual life. The majority of seniors repeated stereotypes about sexuality of the elderly. Almost 71% claimed that sex in elderly people was taboo, 64% said that sex was for young people only, and 51% thought that sex was not important in life. Old age makes little difference to psychosexual needs. Most seniors need closeness manifesting as tenderness and conversations. Many old people are sexually active. Thus, it is worth considering whether people living in cohabitation should not have the possibility of staying together in nursing care home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyejin; Ersek, Mary; Bradway, Christine; Hickman, Susan E
Many nursing home (NH) residents with dementia receive burdensome, aggressive treatments at the end of life (EOL). The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatments (POLSTs) paradigm is a strategy to enhance EOL care. This article describes the history and features of the POLST paradigm, discusses the potential advantages of using this paradigm for NH residents with dementia, and briefly explores challenges that nurse practitioners (NPs) face in using the POLST for persons with dementia. Review of the literature. Potential advantages associated with implementation of POLST in NH residents with dementia include increased communication and documentation about residents' EOL care preferences, increased concordance between care preferences documented in POLST forms and EOL care provided to residents, and lower rates of unwanted, burdensome treatments at EOL. POLST may also guide NPs in communicating EOL care options with residents and/or their surrogates. However, difficulty interpreting and explaining POLST care options, lack of understanding of POLST, limited discussions, and issues with surrogate authority and scope of practice are challenges that NPs may face in caring for NH residents with dementia. NPs should assess and optimize their knowledge and skills to conduct goals of care discussions, including POLST discussions. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Stewart, Karen; Hargreaves, Claire; Jasper, Rowan; Challis, David; Tucker, Sue; Wilberforce, Mark
This study examined the nature, extent and perceived quality of the support provided by community mental health teams for older people (CMHTsOP) to care home residents. A postal survey was sent to all CMHTsOP in England. Information was collected about teams' staffing and their involvement in case finding, assessment, medication reviews, care planning and training as well as team managers' rating of the perceived quality of the service they provided for care home residents. Data were analysed using chi-squared tests of association and ordinal regression. Responses were received from 225 (54%) CMHTsOP. Only 18 per cent of these teams contained staff with allocated time for care home work. Services for care home residents varied considerably between teams. Two-fifths of teams provided formal training to care home staff. Team managers were more likely to perceive the quality of their service to care homes as good if they had a systematic process in place for reviewing antipsychotic drugs or routine mental health reviews, including contact with a GP. The findings suggested that more evidence is needed on the best approach for supporting care home residents with mental health needs. Areas to consider are the potential benefits of training to care home staff and regular mental health reviews, utilising links between GPs and CMHTsOP. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances will I receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.5 Section 302-14.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there tax consequences when I receive a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.7 Section 302-14.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES...
Herrmann, W J; Flick, U
Sleep disorders are common among nursing home residents. However, the possible involvement of psychological factors has been given little attention up until now. We investigated nursing home residents' perspective on psychological factors and sleep disorders within the nursing home environment. We conducted a qualitative interview study comprising episodic interviews with 30 nursing home residents in five different nursing homes. The data was analysed by thematic coding. Nursing home residents require peace of mind in order to sleep well. Ruminations and thoughts disturb inner peace and are, in turn, caused by psychological factors. Of particular relevance is the end-of-life situation of the residents. Nursing home residents possess only limited strategies to relax and achieve inner peace. Psychosocial factors play a central role in sleep disturbances among nursing home residents. Nurses and physicians who treat nursing home residents with sleep disorders should consider the possible psychosocial causes. Counselling and treatment should be given on an individual basis, for example by educating in relaxation techniques.
Hosia-Randell, Helka; Suominen, Merja; Muurinen, Seija; Pitkälä, Kaisu H
Constipation and, as a consequence, the use of laxatives are common among frail older people. The causes of and factors associated with laxative use, however, have undergone surprisingly little study. The objectives of our study were to (i) assess the prevalence of regularly administered laxatives, (ii) identify factors associated with regular use of laxatives, and (iii) determine which drug classes or medications are associated with regular laxative use in an older nursing home population in Helsinki. This study was a cross-sectional assessment of all long-term nursing home residents aged >/=65 years in Helsinki, Finland. In February 2003, the health status of these residents was assessed and data on their demographic characteristics, health and medication use were collected from medical charts. Of all nursing home residents in Helsinki, 82% (n = 1987, mean age 83.7 years) participated in the study. Of all residents, 55.3% received laxatives regularly. Factors associated with regular laxative use in univariate analysis included age >80 years, stroke, Parkinson's disease, inability to move independently, poor Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score (80 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% CI 1.03, 1.60), inability to move independently (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.42, 2.28), poor MNA score (7) of drugs other than laxatives and constipation-inducing drugs found in univariate analysis (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03, 1.09) were associated with use of laxatives. Having snacks between meals (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.60, 0.90) was associated with lower risk of laxative use. Regular laxative use in older nursing home residents in Helsinki is very common. Offering snacks between meals and regular evaluation of medication use may influence laxative use.
Kim, HyunJu; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Mi So; Choi, Jung Eun; Chang, Sung Ok
As the population ages, preserving the remaining ability of residents is emphasized in nursing homes. Establishing the nursing knowledge of nursing home-specific practice should be included in the continuing education of new nursing home nurses. This study developed a practical guide map for preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents by analyzing 144 residents' case data pertaining to the nursing care provided by 19 nurses skilled in nursing homes, as well as conducting a literature review. From the collected data, 236 nursing diagnoses were given to the 144 cases. As the residents' physical conditions and psychosocial characteristics were linked with the nursing process, various steps were needed to plan the nursing process of preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents. This practical guide map will be useful for new nurses in nursing homes to improve the quality care of elderly residents. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):73-80. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Zullo, Andrew R; Zhang, Tingting; Beaudoin, Francesca L; Lee, Yoojin; McConeghy, Kevin W; Kiel, Douglas P; Daiello, Lori A; Mor, Vincent; Berry, Sarah D
To examine the association between use of opioids versus other analgesics with death and functioning after hip fracture in older nursing home (NH) residents. Retrospective cohort using national Medicare fee-for-service claims linked to the Minimum Data Set. US NHs. NH residents aged ≥65 years who became a long-stay resident (>100 days in the NH) between January 2008 and December 2009, had a hospitalized hip fracture, and returned to the NH. New use of opioid versus nonopioid analgesics (acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) within 14 days post hip fracture. Follow-up began on the index date and continued until the first occurrence of death, significant functional decline (3-point increase on MDS Activities of Daily Living scale), or 120 days of follow-up. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated using inverse probability of treatment-weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Among the 2755 NH residents with a hip fracture included in our study, 1155 (41.9%) were opioid users, and 1600 (58.1%) were nonopioid analgesic users. The mean age was 86.3 years, 73.8% were female, and 86.0% were white. Opioid use was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.39-0.56) and a nonsignificant decrease in functional decline (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.58-1.03). A rigorous study that addresses the limitations of this study is critical to validate our preliminary findings and provide evidence about the effect of using opioid versus nonopioid analgesics to optimize acute pain in NH residents with a hip fracture. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bali, Vishal; Johnson, Michael L; Chen, Hua; Fleming, Marc L; Holmes, Holly M; Aparasu, Rajender R
Past literature suggests that the use of second-generation antidepressants improves cognition in depressed elderly patients. This study assessed the comparative cognitive profile of commonly used second-generation antidepressant classes in elderly residents with depression. A multiple propensity score adjusted retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2007-2010 Medicare Part D claims and Minimum Data Set (MDS). Elderly nursing home residents (65 years or older) with depression using a new prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tetracyclics constituted the study cohort. The outcome of interest was cognition, measured using the MDS Cognition Scale. Cognition was measured at each quarterly assessment after antidepressant initiation for a maximum of 1 year. The propensity score-adjusted repeated-measures mixed model was used to evaluate the comparative profile of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics with respect to cognition. The study cohort comprised 1518 elderly nursing home residents. Of these, 1081 received SSRIs (71.21%), 320 received tetracyclics (21.08%), and 117 received SNRIs (7.71%). The propensity score-adjusted repeated-measures mixed model did not show any statistically significant difference in cognition with the use of SSRIs (β = -0.14; 95% CI = -0.53, 0.25) or tetracyclics (β = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.80, 0.08) when compared with SNRIs, after controlling for other factors. The cognitive effect of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics was similar in elderly nursing home residents with depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term cognitive effects of second-generation antidepressants in this vulnerable population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Weerkamp, Nico J.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Tissingh, Gerrit; Poels, Petra J. E.; Munneke, Marten; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.
Objectives To examine the clinical characteristics, motor impairments, and drug treatments of nursing home residents with Parkinson's disease (PD). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Nursing homes in the southeast of the Netherlands. Participants Nursing home residents with PD and a Mini-Mental
Weerkamp, Nico J.; Tissingh, Gerrit; Poels, Petra J. E.; Zuidema, Systse U.; Munneke, Marten; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.
ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in nursing home (NH) residents with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to establish the association with quality of life. DesignCross-sectional. SettingNursing homes in the southeast of the Netherlands. ParticipantsNursing home residents
Weerkamp, N.J.; Zuidema, S.U.; Tissingh, G.; Poels, P.J.E.; Munneke, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bloem, B.R.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the clinical characteristics, motor impairments, and drug treatments of nursing home residents with Parkinson's disease (PD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nursing homes in the southeast of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents with PD and a
Hendriks, Simone A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Deliens, Luc; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Hertogh, Cees M P M; van der Steen, Jenny T
The objective was to describe end-of-life treatment decisions for patients dying with dementia in various stages of dementia in long-term care facilities in the Netherlands with elderly care physicians responsible for treatment and care. We present data collected in the nationally representative Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (2007-2011). Within 2 weeks after death, 103 physicians completed questionnaires about the last phase of life in 330 residents with dementia who resided in 1 of 34 participating long-term care facilities. We used descriptive statistics. Advance directives were rare (4.9%). A minority was hospitalized (8.0%) in the last month (mainly for fractures) or received antibiotics (24.2%) in the last week (mainly for pneumonia). Four residents received tube feeding or rehydration therapy in the last week. In almost half of the residents (42.3%), decisions were made not to start potentially life-prolonging treatment such as hospital transfer and artificial nutrition and hydration. In more than half of the residents (53.7%), decisions were made to withdraw potentially life-prolonging treatment such as artificial nutrition and hydration and medication. Antibiotics were more frequently prescribed for residents with less advanced dementia, but otherwise there were no differences in treatment decisions between residents with advanced and less advanced dementia. Physicians often withhold potentially burdensome life-prolonging treatment in nursing home residents in all stages of dementia in the Netherlands. This suggests that the physicians feel that a palliative care approach is appropriate at the end of life in dementia in long-term care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Miller, Susan C; Lima, Julie C; Intrator, Orna; Martin, Edward; Bull, Janet; Hanson, Laura C
U.S. nursing home (NH) residents with dementia have limited access to specialty palliative care beyond Medicare hospice. The objective of this study was to examine the value of expanded palliative care access for NH residents with moderate-to-very severe dementia. We merged palliative care consultation data in 31 NHs in two states to Medicare data to identify residents with consultations, moderate-to-very severe dementia, and deaths in 2006-2010. Initial palliative consultations were identified as occurring later and earlier (1-30 days and 31-180 days before death, respectively). Three controls for each consultation recipient were selected using propensity score matching. Weighted multivariate analyses evaluated the effect of consultations on hospital or acute care use seven and 30 days before death and on (potentially) burdensome transitions (i.e., hospital or hospice admission three days before death or two plus acute care transitions 30 days before death). With earlier consultation (vs. no consultation), hospitalization rates in the seven days before death were on average 13.2 percentage points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] -21.8%, -4.7%) and with later consultation 5.9 percentage points lower (95% CI -13.7%, +4.9%). For earlier consultations (vs. no consultations), rates were 18.4 percentage points lower (95% CI -28.5%, -8.4%) for hospitalizations and 11.9 lower (95% CI -20.7%, -3.1%) for emergency room visits 30 days before death; they were 20.2 percentage points lower (95% CI -28.5%, -12.0%) for burdensome transitions. Consultations appear to reduce acute care use and (potentially) burdensome transitions for dying residents with dementia. Reductions were greater when consultations were earlier. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Pei-Chao; Lin, Li-Chan; Shyu, Yea-Ing L; Hua, Mau-Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between care activities and pain and restraint and pain in residents with dementia. If pain in people with dementia is not identified or alleviated in a timely manner, it could lead to an adverse effect on their physical, mental, social health and quality of life. Care activities and restraint might cause pain, but little is known as to whether they are true risk-factors of pain in people with dementia. A cross-sectional research design was employed. One hundred and twelve people with dementia were chosen from two nursing homes located in northern Taiwan. The demographic and clinical data collected included diagnoses, analgesics, restraints, recent falls, etc. The severity of dementia was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. The researchers observed every participant immediately following instances of routine care and then recorded the level of pain using the Chinese version of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale. About 36·6% of the participants had a Chinese version of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale score above two points and an overall mean score of 1·50 (SD 1·81) with a range from 0-8. Only one resident with dementia received regular analgesic. Pain level in residents with dementia that needed assisted care was higher than in residents who were able to move about freely. It showed a positive correlation between level of pain and the severity of dementia among residents. The major predictors for pain in residents with dementia included restraint, assisted bathing and assisted transfer. The findings confirm the association between care activities and pain and between restraint and pain in residents with dementia. Formal caregivers need to minimise the triggering of pain when they assist residents' daily activities and avoid unnecessary restraints, while offering personalised, conventional nursing care to residents with late-stage dementia. © 2011 Blackwell
Maria Helen Iversen
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase knowledge of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. A qualitative approach was used. Through a focus group interview with staff in nursing homes, the aim was to reveal employees’ thoughts, experiences, and attitudes. Findings from the focus group interview show that sexual abuse of older residents is a taboo topic among health professionals. Acts of sexual abuse are difficult to imagine; it is hard to believe that it occurs. The fact that staff are not aware that it could happen, or have a hard time believing that it actually happens, can amplify the residents’ vulnerable position as potential victims of abuse, and it makes it even more challenging to report or uncover such acts. The study highlights the need for education of all health care workers in Norway as well as more research on sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step towards addressing sexual abuse of the aged in a more appropriate way. Further research must aim to reveal more about this taboo area.
Streicher, Melanie; Themessl-Huber, Michael; Schindler, Karin; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Hiesmayr, Michael; Volkert, Dorothee
Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) can be helpful for nursing home (NH) residents to prevent or treat malnutrition. Presently little is known about the use of ONS in NHs and the factors associated with its use. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe the use of ONS in NHs participating in the nutritionDay project and to determine characteristics of NH residents receiving ONS. Data from nutritionDay (nD), a cross-sectional multicenter study with standardized questionnaires on resident and NH level were analyzed. NH residents participating between 2007 and 2014 aged 65 years or older were included. Unit characteristics (2 variables), general residents' characteristics (18), residents' nutritional status (3) and residents' nutrition (4) were of interest as potential predictors of the use of ONS (no vs yes). Univariate binary logistic regression (LR) analyses were performed for all variables, and significant predictors (p < 0.05) subsequently included in a multivariate analysis (backwards LR). 13.9% of 23,689 NH residents received ONS. Univariate analysis identified all variables as predictors. After multivariate analysis 19 variables remained in the model (Nagelkerke's R(2) = 0.319). Odds ratios (OR [95% Confidence Interval]) of receiving ONS were highest in residents receiving supplementary parenteral nutrition (29.05 [14.85-56.81]; however only 1.1% of all participants) and fortified diet (11.91 [8.52-16.64]; 5.7%). The odds ratio of receiving ONS was 3.26 ([2.86-3.71]; 18.3%) for residents being classified as at risk of malnutrition and 4.56 ([3.86-5.40]; 10.0%) for malnourished residents according to NH staff. Low BMI and weight loss in the last year increased the odds of receiving ONS by 2.34 ([1.93-2.84]; 16.0%) and 1.38 ([1.23-1.54]; 32.8%), respectively. Furthermore, increasing age, cognitive and functional impairment, low food intake on nD, neurological disease and cancer were associated with an increased likelihood of the use of ONS. In NH units
Achterberg, Wilco; Pot, Anne Margriet; Kerkstra, Ada; Ooms, Marcel; Muller, Martien; Ribbe, Miel
Studies the effect of depression on social engagement among newly admitted nursing home residents. Results reveal that residents with depression were significantly more often found to have low social engagement. (Contains 26 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167348.html High-Dose Flu Shot May Help Nursing Home Residents Avoid Hospital ... July 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nobody wants the flu, but it can prove deadly for frail residents ...
Bebe, Anna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Willadsen, Tora Grauers
BACKGROUND: Many register studies make use of information about permanent nursing home residents. Statistics Denmark (StatD) identifies nursing home residents by two different indirect methods, one based on reports from the municipalities regarding home care in taken place in a nursing home......, and the other based on an algorithm created by StatD. The aim of the present study was to validate StatD's nursing home register using dedicated administrative municipality records on individual nursing home residents as gold standard. METHODS: In total, ten Danish municipalities were selected. Within each...... Danish Region, we randomly selected one municipality reporting to Stat D (Method 1) and one not reporting where instead an algorithm created by StatD was used to discover nursing home residents (Method 2). Method 1 means that municipalities reported to Stat D whether home care has taken place...
Hermans, Kirsten; Cohen, Joachim; Spruytte, Nele; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Declercq, Anja
The aims of the present study were: (i) to describe palliative care needs and symptoms of older adults anticipated to be in the last year of their life in Flemish nursing homes (Belgium); and (ii) to evaluate whether these needs differ between residents with and without dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014. Nurses and nursing assistants in 15 Flemish nursing homes (Belgium) completed the Palliative care Outcome Scale for 109 residents with palliative care needs. Pain, as well as other physical symptoms, was present in more than half of the nursing home residents according to caregivers. The most prominent needs occurred on psychosocial and spiritual domains, such as patient anxiety, support, finding life worth living and self-worth. Caregivers reported that residents with dementia experienced fewer physical symptoms apart from pain than did residents without dementia (coeffficient -0.73, 95% CI -1.18-0.84; P = 0.001. Furthermore, residents with dementia received higher scores on the items "support" (coefficient 0.75; 95% CI 0.15-1.34, P = 0.015), "life worthwhile" (coeffficient 0.58; 95% CI 0.090-1.07, P = 0.020) and "self-worth" (coefficient 0.58, 95% CI 0.13-1.03, P = 0.012). According to caregivers, residents with dementia experienced fewer other physical symptoms (e.g. nausea) than residents without dementia. This, however, might be a result of an underdetection of other symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia. Furthermore, most challenges in nursing homes lie within the spiritual and psychosocial domains of palliative care, particularly in people with dementia. These aspects should be integrated in the professional education of caregivers. Assessment tools might be of help to improve the identification of needs and symptoms. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1501-1507. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Clément, Evelyne; Vivicorsi, Bruno; Altintas, Emin; Guerrien, Alain
Despite a widespread concern with self-determined motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of pleasure" or "out of choice and valued as being important") and psychological adjustment in later life (well-being, satisfaction in life, meaning of life, or self-esteem), very little is known about the existence and nature of the links between self-determined motivation and cognitive efficiency. The aim of the present study was to investigate theses links in nursing home residents in the framework of the Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2002), in which motivational profile of a person is determined by the combination of different kinds of motivation. We hypothesized that self-determined motivation would lead to higher cognitive efficiency. Participants. 39 (32 women and 7 men) elderly nursing home residents (m= 83.6 ± 9.3 year old) without any neurological or psychiatric disorders (DSM IV) or depression or anxiety (Hamilton depression rating scales) were included in the study. Methods. Cognitive efficiency was evaluated by two brief neuropsychological tests, the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Frontal assessment battery (FAB). The motivational profile was assessed by the Elderly motivation scale (Vallerand & 0'Connor, 1991) which includes four subscales assessing self- and non-self determined motivation to engage oneself in different domains of daily life activity. Results. The neuropsychological scores were positively and significantly correlated to self-determined extrinsic motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of choice" and valued as being important), and the global self-determination index (self-determined motivational profile) was the best predictor of the cognitive efficiency. Conclusion. The results support the SDT interest for a qualitative assessment of the motivation of the elderly people and suggest that a motivational approach of cognitive efficiency could help to interpret cognitive performances exhibited during neuropsychological
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to compare the level of happiness among the elderly population living at home with that of senior home residents. Methods & Materials: This was a causative-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all 60 plus men and women residing at home and senior homes in the city of Tabriz, from whom 100 samples were selected in two groups of 50 individuals (25 females and 25 males using an availability non-random sampling method. The oxford happiness questionnaire was used in order to collect data, which were then analyzed using an independent t-test. Results: Results showed that the level of happiness among the elderly living at home was significantly higher than that of senior home residents. Furthermore, among indicators of happiness, life satisfaction levels, psychological health, positive mood, and efficiency were significantly higher among the elderly living at home. However, there was no significant difference between the two in terms of self-esteem. Conclusion: Findings indicate that, due to better social and family support, the level of happiness among the elderly living at home is significantly higher than that of senior home residents. Conversely, residing at senior homes consequent to financial and family conditions, for those who would otherwise live with family, leads to depressed mood, dissatisfaction with life, and ultimately lack of happiness.
Abbott, Katherine M; Sefcik, Justine S; Van Haitsma, Kimberly
The physical and mental health of older adults with dementia is affected by levels of social integration. The development of dementia special care units (D-SCU) arose, in part, to facilitate more meaningful social interactions among residents implying greater social integration of D-SCU residents as compared to residents in a traditional nursing home (TNH). But, it is unknown whether D-SCU residents are receiving equal or greater benefits from living on a segregated unit intended to enhance their social environment and integration through both design and staff involvement. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a comprehensive objective assessment to measure social integration among nursing home residents with dementia and to compare levels of integration of residents living on a D-SCU to those living in a TNH. A total of 29 residents participated (15 D-SCU and 14 TNH) and data were gathered from medical charts, visitor logs, and through direct observations. Over 1700 interactions were recorded during 143 h of observation. Specifically, the location, context, type, quantity, and quality of residents' interactions were recorded. Overall, the majority of resident interactions were verbal and initiated by staff. Interactions were social in context, and occurred in public areas, such as the common room with a large screen TV. Average interactions lasted less than 1 min and did not change the resident's affect. Residents spent between 10% and 17% of their time interacting with other people on average. D-SCU staff were significantly more likely to initiate interactions with residents than TNH staff. D-SCU residents also experienced more interactions in the afternoons and expressed more pleasure and anxiety than residents in the TNH. This study helps to lay the groundwork necessary to comprehensively and objectively measure social integration among people with dementia in order to evaluate care environments.
Frey, D E; Kelbley, T J; Durham, L; James, J S
This study investigated treatment procedures for enhancing the self-esteem of older adult male nursing home residents. Twenty-one subjects were assigned randomly to either a control group meeting to discuss current news events or an experimental group receiving the intervention. Self-esteem significantly increased for the experimental subjects but not before they experienced a significant decrease in feelings of self-worth. The midtreatment observation of the dependent variable was a vital factor in determining the curvilinear relationship between time and the protocol.
Maria Leopoldina de Castro Villas Bôas
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To create and validate a complexity assessment tool for patients receiving home care from a public health service. METHOD A diagnostic accuracy study, with estimates for the tool's validity and reliability. Measurements of sensitivity and specificity were considered when producing validity estimates. The resulting tool was used for testing. Assessment by a specialized team of home care professionals was used as the gold standard. In the tool's reliability study, the authors used the Kappa statistic. The tool's sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using various cut-off points. RESULTS On the best cut-off point-21-with the gold standard, a sensitivity of 75.5% was obtained, with the limits of confidence interval (95% at 68.3% and 82.8% and specificity of 53.2%, with the limits of confidence interval (95% at 43.8% and 62.7%. CONCLUSION The tool presented evidence of validity and reliability, possibly helping in service organization at patient admission, care type change, or support during the creation of care plans.
Luque Ramos, Andres; Albrecht, Katinka; Zink, Angela; Hoffmann, Falk
The purpose of this study was to investigate health care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after admission to nursing homes. Data of a German health insurance fund from persons with diagnostic codes of RA, aged ≥65 years, admitted to a nursing home between 2010 and 2014 and continuously insured 1 year before and after admission were used. The proportion of patients with ≥1 rheumatologist visit and ≥1 prescription of biologic or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs or csDMARDs), glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the year before and after admission were calculated. Predictors of rheumatologic care after admission were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Of 75,697 nursing home residents, 2485 (3.3%) had RA (90.5% female, mean age 83.8). Treatment by rheumatologists and prescription of antirheumatic drugs decreased significantly in the year after admission (rheumatologic visits: 17.6 to 9.1%, bDMARDs: 2.1 to 1.5%, csDMARDs: 22.5 to 16.5%, glucocorticoids: 46.5 to 43.1%, NSAIDs: 47.4 to 38.5%). 60.2% of patients in rheumatologic care received csDMARDs compared with 14.5% without rheumatologic care. Rheumatologic care before admission to a nursing home strongly predicted rheumatologic care thereafter (OR 33.8, 95%-CI 23.2-49.2). Younger age and lower care level (reflecting need of help) were also associated with a higher chance of rheumatologic care. Rheumatologic care is already infrequent in old patients with RA and further decreases after admission to a nursing home. Patients without rheumatologic care are at high risk of insufficient treatment for their RA. Admission to a nursing home further increases this risk.
M. D. Rijnaard
Full Text Available Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1 original and peer-reviewed research, (2 qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3 research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing, and (4 research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were included. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by 15 factors, divided into three themes: (1 psychological factors (sense of acknowledgement, preservation of one’s habits and values, autonomy and control, and coping; (2 social factors (interaction and relationship with staff, residents, family and friends, and pets and activities; and (3 the built environment (private space and (quasi-public space, personal belongings, technology, look and feel, and the outdoors and location. Conclusions. The sense of home is influenced by numerous factors related to the psychology of the residents and the social and built environmental contexts. Further research is needed to determine if and how the identified factors are interrelated, if perspectives of various stakeholders involved differ, and how the factors can be improved in practice.
Rijnaard, M. D.; van Hoof, J.; Janssen, B. M.; Verbeek, H.; Pocornie, W.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Beerens, H. C.; Molony, S. L.; Wouters, E. J. M.
Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1) original and peer-reviewed research, (2) qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3) research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing), and (4) research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were included. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by 15 factors, divided into three themes: (1) psychological factors (sense of acknowledgement, preservation of one's habits and values, autonomy and control, and coping); (2) social factors (interaction and relationship with staff, residents, family and friends, and pets) and activities; and (3) the built environment (private space and (quasi-)public space, personal belongings, technology, look and feel, and the outdoors and location). Conclusions. The sense of home is influenced by numerous factors related to the psychology of the residents and the social and built environmental contexts. Further research is needed to determine if and how the identified factors are interrelated, if perspectives of various stakeholders involved differ, and how the factors can be improved in practice. PMID:27313892
Cimarolli, Verena R; Jung, Seojung
Unaddressed functional limitations in nursing home (NH) residents can lead to unnecessary, excess disability that negatively affects residents' quality of life. In order to enhance functioning, NH residents can receive rehabilitation such as occupational therapy (OT). However, little is known about factors that may aid or hinder full therapy utilization in NH residents. Hence, our study investigated sensory impairments (vision and hearing) and other important health-related variables (eg, cognitive functioning) as predictors of intensity of OT utilization. Retrospective study with data extraction from electronic medical records (EMRs). Skilled nursing facility. A sample of newly admitted NH residents (N = 121). Single items for sociodemographic variables and clinician-rated extent of sensory difficulties (hearing and vision) as well as pain presence based on Minimum Data Set (MDS 3.0) assessments in EMRs. MDS 3.0 scales assess cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, and functional dependency. Total hours of OT received during 90 days postadmission to the NH were extracted from the EMRs. A regression analysis demonstrated that better admission hearing and cognitive functioning, fewer admission depressive symptoms, and higher admission functional dependence were associated with more intense OT utilization-more hours used-over a 90-day period. This study emphasizes the importance of assessing and addressing hearing difficulties and depression in NH residents in order to optimize utilization of beneficial OT services and to promote most optimal independent functioning and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Douglas L Polcin, Rachael KorchaAlcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Emeryville, CA, USABackground: The study of motivation in the substance abuse field has typically examined the extent to which substance users want to quit or reduce substance use. Less frequently examined is the desire to maintain sobriety after achieving abstinence. The current study examined motivation to maintain sobriety among residents of sober living houses (SLHs, a type of recovery home for individuals with alcohol and drug problems. Previous research on this population showed favorable longitudinal outcomes over 18 months. Resident views about the costs of not using substances (ie, the difficulties encountered when not using, as well as the perceived benefits of not using, were strong predictors of substance use outcomes.Methods: This study adds to these findings by conducting two focus groups with individuals familiar with the structure and day-to-day operations of SLHs, including administrators of SLH organizations, owners, and peer managersResults: Focus group results supported the importance of costs and benefits as motivational forces influencing abstinence. However, participants also emphasized characteristics of the sober living recovery environment as important factors influencing motivation. Interactions among recovering peers offer unique opportunities for feeling understood, recognizing vulnerability in others, identifying with the recovery processes of others, receiving supportive confrontation, and engaging in mutual accountability. These experiences are important elements of motivation that become activated by involvement in the SLH environment and are difficult to replicate outside of that context.Conclusion: In addition to recognizing how motivation can be enhanced by addressing costs and benefits experienced by individuals, operators of recovery homes need to understand motivation as a function of the recovery home social environment
Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.
Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…
This study assessed the relationships of assertiveness, depression, and social support among nursing home residents. The sample included 50 older nursing home residents (mean age=75 years; 75% female; 92% Caucasian). There was a significant correlation between assertiveness and depression (r=-.33), but the correlations between social support and…
Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Pasman, H.R.W.; van Gennip, I.E.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Background:Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable.Aim:To
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.
Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. To investigate if and how
Verweij, Hanne; van der Heijden, Frank M. M. A.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Prins, Jelle T.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E. M.
Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and work-home interferences with burnout in male and…
Joost van Hoof; B. Douven; M.B. Vossen; W.P.H. Bosems; B.M. Janssen; C.E. Oude Weernink
Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card
... on employer's premises or working at home. An employee who resides on his employer's premises on a... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees residing on employer's premises or working at home. 785.23 Section 785.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...
Heslin, Kevin C; Hamilton, Alison B; Singzon, Trudy K; Smith, James L; Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth
Sober living homes are group residences for people attempting to maintain abstinence from alcohol and drugs in a mutually supportive setting. Residents typically develop strong psychological and economic ties and have been referred to as "alternative families," thus evoking the anthropological concept of fictive kinship. We analyzed data from seven focus groups with sober living home residents to assess the prevalence and functions of fictive kinship in these settings. Results suggest that residents created kinship by exchanging various types of support, and by incorporating other residents into existing family relationships, particularly in homes where there were children. Residents perceived fictive kin as more supportive than actual kin, encouraging them toward greater individuation, in contrast with family backgrounds that were sometimes described as stifling. These accounts of the therapeutic qualities of fictive kin in sober living homes could inform the work of fair housing advocates and other community stakeholders.
Trinkoff, Alison M; Lerner, Nancy B; Storr, Carla L; Han, Kihye; Johantgen, Mary E; Gartrell, Kyungsook
Leadership is a key consideration in improving nursing home care quality. Previous research found nursing homes with more credentialed leaders had lower rates of care deficiencies than nursing homes with less credentialed leaders. Evidence that nursing home administrator (NHA) and director of nursing (DON) education and certification is related to resident outcomes is limited. To examine associations of education and certification among NHAs and DONs with resident outcomes. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. This study used National Nursing Home Survey data on leadership education and certification and Nursing Home Compare quality outcomes (e.g. pain, catheter use). 1142 nursing homes in the survey which represented 16628 nursing homes in the US. Leadership education and certification were assessed separately for NHAs and DONs. Nursing home resident outcomes were measured using facility-level nursing home quality indicator rates selected from the Minimum Data Set. Facility-level quality indicators were regressed onto leadership variables in models that also held constant facility size and ownership status. Nursing homes led by NHAs with both Master's degrees or higher and certification had significantly better outcomes for pain. Nursing homes led by DONs with Bachelor's degrees or higher plus certification also had significantly lower pain and catheter use. Whereas pressure ulcer rates were higher in facilities led by DONs with more education. Selected outcomes for nursing home residents might be improved by increasing the education and certification requirements for NHAs and DONs. Additional research is needed to clarify these relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Xirasagar, Sudha; Cornman, Carol B; Davis, Courtney B; Richter, Jane V E
This is an exploratory study of nursing home preparedness in South Carolina intended to: (1) examine nursing home administrators' perceptions of disaster preparedness in their facility in the absence of an immediate emergency or disaster, and changes in their views about preparedness following a large disaster; (2) study whether administrators' knowledge of shortcomings in preparedness leads them to change their views about planning; and (3) suggest ways to enhance preparedness. A descriptive survey based on interviews with public officials responsible for nursing home safety was developed and mailed to all 192 licensed nursing homes in South Carolina in July 2005, and an extensive literature review was performed. As responses to the baseline survey were received, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast. Two weeks after Katrina, a brief, post-Katrina survey was mailed, asking administrators if Katrina had influenced their preparedness plans. Quantitative responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Three researchers coded the qualitative data and conducted a thematic analysis. One hundred twelve baseline surveys and 50 post-Katrina surveys were completed (response rates 58.3% and 26%, respectively). A large number of respondents reported a high level of satisfaction with the overall ability of their facilities to protect residents during an emergency or disaster. However, many were less satisfied with their preparedness in specific, important areas, including: (1) providing shelter to evacuees from other nursing homes; (2) transportation; and (3) staffing. In the post-Katrina survey, 54% of respondents were re-evaluating their disaster plans; only 36% felt well-prepared. Those re-evaluating their plans specifically mentioned evacuation, transportation, supplies, staffing, and communication. Transportation, communication, supplies, staffing, and the ability to provide shelter to evacuees are important domains to consider when evaluating nursing home
O'Neill, Barbara J; Dwyer, Trudy; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Parkinson, Lynne
Hospital avoidance programmes aim to reduce the number of emergency transfers from nursing homes to hospitals and facilitate early discharge for hospitalised residents. Nursing staff are at the forefront of these efforts, yet little is known about how the programmes affect them and their management of the deteriorating resident. This information is needed to inform hospital avoidance programmes and better understand their work. To examine nursing home nursing staff perceptions regarding their management of the deteriorating resident after the introduction of a hospital avoidance programme. A thematic analysis was conducted of focus group data collected from nursing staff 14 to 15 months after the introduction of a pilot hospital avoidance programme at an Australian nursing home. The programme was well received and filled a gap in nursing staff management of residents with deteriorating health by providing structure and support. Staff were more confident and focused on this area of their work. Nursing assistants felt more integrated into the system and were supported and learning from nurses. Workload remained heavy and there was a shift in how time was allocated, but nursing staff preferred to keep residents at the facility. Nursing staff welcomed the programme and benefitted from its implementation. However, strategies must be explored to accommodate the staffing needs associated with providing emergency and subacute care in the nursing home setting. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Collet, Janine; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Verhey, Frans R J; Schols, Jos M G A
Nursing home residents needing both psychiatric care and nursing home care for either somatic illness or dementia combined with psychiatric disorders or severe behavioural problems are referred to as Double Care Demanding patients, or DCD patients. Integrated models of care seem to be necessary in order to improve the well-being of these residents. Two research questions were addressed. First, which integrated interventions combining both psychiatric care and nursing home care in DCD nursing home residents are described in the research literature? And second, which outcomes of integrated interventions combining both psychiatric care and nursing home care in DCD nursing home residents are reported in the literature? A critical review of studies was done that involved integrated interventions combining both psychiatric care and nursing home care on psychiatric disorders and severe behavioural problems in nursing home patients. A systematic literature search was performed in a number of international databases. Eight intervention trials, including four RCTs (2b level of evidence), were identified as relevant studies for the purpose of this review. Seven studies, three of which were RCTs, showed beneficial effects of a comprehensive, integrated multidisciplinary approach combining medical, psychiatric and nursing interventions on severe behavioural problems in DCD nursing home patients. Important elements of a successful treatment strategy for DCD nursing home patients include a thorough assessment of psychiatric, medical and environmental causes as well as programmes for teaching behavioural management skills to nurses. DCD nursing home patients were found to benefit from short-term mental hospital admission.This review underlines the need for more rigorously designed studies to assess the effects of a comprehensive, integrated multidisciplinary approach towards DCD nursing home residents. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kuru, Nilgun; Kublay, Gulumser
To evaluate the effect of Laughter therapy on the quality of life of nursing home residents. By improving the quality of life of residents living in nursing homes and allowing them to have a healthier existence, their lives can be extended. Therefore, interventions impacting the quality of life of older adults are of critical importance. Quasi-experimental design. The study was conducted between 2 March - 25 May 2015. The experimental group was composed of 32 nursing home residents from one nursing home, while the control group consisted of 33 nursing home residents from another nursing home in the capital city of Turkey. Laughter therapy was applied with nursing home residents of the experimental group two days per week (21 sessions in total). A socio-demographic form and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used for data collection. After the laughter therapy intervention, general and subscales (physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and spiritual health) quality-of-life scores of residents in the experimental group significantly increased in comparison with the pretest. Laughter therapy improved the quality of life of nursing home residents. Therefore, nursing home management should integrate laughter therapy into health care and laughter therapy should be provided as a routine nursing intervention. The results indicated that the laughter therapy programme had a positive effect on the quality of life of nursing home residents. Nurses can use laughter therapy as an intervention to improve quality of life of nursing home residents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Gómez-Calero, Cristina; Cachón-Pérez, José Miguel; Brea-Rivero, Miguel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César
To explore the relationships between residents and nurses in Spanish nursing homes. The nurses are one of the elements conditioning the life of the nursing home resident, influencing sense of security and mediating the relationships among residents. A qualitative phenomenological approach was applied. An initial purposeful sampling of Spanish residents from nursing homes in the southern area of Madrid was conducted. The study included nursing home residents, aged 60 and over, with no cognitive impairment and who were able to communicate verbally in Spanish. Data were collected using unstructured and semi-structured interviews, researcher field notes, and personal diaries and letters from the residents. Data collection was concluded once theoretical saturation was reached, and data were analysed using the Giorgi proposal. Two main themes emerged: (1) 'meeting the nursing home nurses,' residents interact with nurses and establish relationships with them. The relationship is perceived as positive yet distant, and at times it is difficult to establish a closer relationship; and (2) 'managing relationships with the nursing home nurses,' residents learn to manage their relationships with the nurses, acquiring new behaviours to get closer to them, avoiding confrontations and helping each other. Residents manage their relationships with nurses using multiple behavioural strategies. They perceive these adjustments as necessary to facilitate daily life or avoid problems and/or confrontations. Deepening the relationships between residents and nurses could improve the management of nursing homes. Dialogue and active listening with residents must be incorporated into the daily nursing care. It should be given the same attention to all residents, with special attention to residents with cognitive and functional difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Pasman, H.R.W.; van Gennip, I.E.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Background: Maintaining dignity is an important element of end-of-life care and also of the care given in nursing homes. Factors influencing personal dignity have been studied from both nursing home residents' and staff's perspective. Little is however known about the way nursing home staff perceive
Mariska G Oosterveld-Vlug
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. AIM: To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. DESIGN: A longitudinal qualitative study. METHODS: Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1 finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2 getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3 physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair; 4 being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5 being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. CONCLUSION: Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.
Joost van Hoof; H. Verbeek; M.D. Rijnaard; S.L. Molony; B.M. Janssen; A. Eijkelenboom; W. Pocornie; Eveline Wouters; H.C. Beerens
Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1) original and peer-reviewed research, (2) qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3) research
Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1 suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool, and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p p Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation.
Polcin, Douglas L; Korcha, Rachael
The study of motivation in the substance abuse field has typically examined the extent to which substance users want to quit or reduce substance use. Less frequently examined is the desire to maintain sobriety after achieving abstinence. The current study examined motivation to maintain sobriety among residents of sober living houses (SLHs), a type of recovery home for individuals with alcohol and drug problems. Previous research on this population showed favorable longitudinal outcomes over 18 months. Resident views about the costs of not using substances (ie, the difficulties encountered when not using), as well as the perceived benefits of not using, were strong predictors of substance use outcomes. This study adds to these findings by conducting two focus groups with individuals familiar with the structure and day-to-day operations of SLHs, including administrators of SLH organizations, owners, and peer managers. Focus group results supported the importance of costs and benefits as motivational forces influencing abstinence. However, participants also emphasized characteristics of the sober living recovery environment as important factors influencing motivation. Interactions among recovering peers offer unique opportunities for feeling understood, recognizing vulnerability in others, identifying with the recovery processes of others, receiving supportive confrontation, and engaging in mutual accountability. These experiences are important elements of motivation that become activated by involvement in the SLH environment and are difficult to replicate outside of that context. In addition to recognizing how motivation can be enhanced by addressing costs and benefits experienced by individuals, operators of recovery homes need to understand motivation as a function of the recovery home social environment. Additional studies are needed on motivation as a longitudinal construct in a variety of peer-oriented environments. Studies are also needed to better specify
Block, Lauren; LaVine, Nancy; Verbsky, Jennifer; Sagar, Ankita; Smith, Miriam A.; Lane, Susan; Conigliaro, Joseph; Chaudhry, Saima A.
ABSTRACT Background: Increasingly, residents are being trained in Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) settings. A set of PCMH entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for residents has been defined but not evaluated in practice. Objective: To understand whether residents trained at PCMH sites reported higher likelihood of engaging in PCMH tasks than those training in non-PCMH sites. Design: Survey and nominal group data from post-graduate trainees at three residency programs. Results: A to...
Leonard, Ralph; Tinetti, Mary E; Allore, Heather G; Drickamer, Margaret A
Physical aggression by nursing home residents is a burden to residents and staff. The identification of modifiable correlates would facilitate developing preventive strategies. The objectives of the study were to determine potentially modifiable resident characteristics that are associated with physical aggression and to correlate these characteristics with verbal aggression. This was a cross-sectional study of nursing home residents in 5 states who had at least 1 annual Minimum Data Set assessment completed during 2002. Case subjects were defined as nursing home residents 60 years and older with dementia who were reported to have been physically aggressive in the week before their assessment. Control subjects were all other residents 60 years and older with dementia. The main outcome measure was being physically aggressive during the past week. A total of 103 344 residents met study criteria, of whom 7120 (6.9%) had been physically aggressive in the week before their annual Minimum Data Set assessment. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, severity of cognitive impairment, and dependence in activities of daily living, physical aggression was associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.3; 99% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-3.6), delusions (AOR, 2.0; 99% CI, 1.7-2.4), hallucinations (AOR, 1.4; 99% CI, 1.1-1.8), and constipation (AOR, 1.3; 99% CI, 1.2-1.5). Urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, fevers, reported pain, and participation in recreational activities were not significantly associated with physical aggression in multivariate analyses (P >.01 for all). Except for constipation, the correlates of verbal aggression were similar to those of physical aggression. If the associations we have estimated are causal, then treatment of depression, delusions, hallucinations, and constipation may reduce physical aggression among nursing home residents.
Poey, Judith L; Hermer, Linda; Cornelison, Laci; Kaup, Migette L; Drake, Patrick; Stone, Robyn I; Doll, Gayle
Person-centered care (PCC) is meant to enhance nursing home residents' quality of life (QOL). Including residents' perspectives is critical to determining whether PCC is meeting residents' needs and desires. This study examines whether PCC practices promote satisfaction with QOL and quality of care and services (QOC and QOS) among nursing home residents. A longitudinal, retrospective cohort study using an in-person survey. Three hundred twenty nursing homes in Kansas enrolled or not enrolled in a pay-for-performance program, Promoting Excellent Alternatives in Kansas (PEAK 2.0), to promote PCC in nursing homes. A total of 6214 nursing home residents in 2013-2014 and 5538 residents in 2014-2015, with a Brief Interview for Mental Status score ≥8, participated in face-to-face interviews. Results were aggregated to the nursing home level. My InnerView developed a Resident Satisfaction Survey for Kansas composed of 32 questions divided into QOL, QOC, QOS, and global satisfaction subdomains. After controlling for facility characteristics, satisfaction with overall QOL and QOC was higher in homes that had fully implemented PCC. Although some individual measures in the QOS domain (eg, food) showed greater satisfaction at earlier levels of implementation, high satisfaction was observed primarily in homes that had fully implemented PCC. These findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of PCC implementation on nursing home resident satisfaction. The PEAK 2.0 program may provide replicable methods for nursing homes and states to implement PCC systematically. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de la Cruz, Maria Syl D; Kopec, Michael T; Wimsatt, Leslie A
Peer feedback is increasingly being used by residency programs to provide an added dimension to the assessment process. Studies show that peer feedback is useful, uniquely informative, and reliable compared to other types of assessments. Potential barriers to implementation include insufficient training/preparation, negative consequences for working relationships, and a perceived lack of benefit. We explored the perceptions of residents involved in peer-to-peer feedback, focusing on factors that influence accuracy, usefulness, and application of the information. Family medicine residents at the University of Michigan who were piloting an online peer assessment tool completed a brief survey to offer researchers insight into the peer feedback process. Focus groups were conducted to explore residents' perceptions that are most likely to affect giving and receiving peer feedback. Survey responses were provided by 28 of 30 residents (93%). Responses showed that peer feedback provided useful (89%, 25 of 28) and unique (89%, 24 of 27) information, yet only 59% (16 of 27) reported that it benefited their training. Focus group participants included 21 of 29 eligible residents (72%). Approaches to improve residents' ability to give and accept feedback included preparatory training, clearly defined goals, standardization, fewer and more qualitatively oriented encounters, 1-on-1 delivery, immediacy of timing, and cultivation of a feedback culture. Residents perceived feedback as important and offered actionable suggestions to enhance accuracy, usefulness, and application of the information shared. The findings can be used to inform residency programs that are interested in creating a meaningful peer feedback process.
Evans, Elizabeth A; Perkins, Elizabeth; Clarke, Pam; Haines, Alina; Baldwin, Ashley; Whittington, Richard
To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. There were three areas in which care home staff reported balancing safety and risk against the individual needs of residents. First, the physical environment created a tension between safety and accessibility to the outside world, which meant that care homes provided highly structured or limited access to outdoor space. Second, care home managers reflected a balancing act between an individual's autonomy and the need to protect their residents' dignity. Finally, care home managers highlighted the ways in which an individual's needs were framed by the needs of other residents to the extent that on some occasions an individual's needs were subjugated to the needs of the general population of a home. There was a strong, even dominant, ethos of risk management and keeping people safe. Managing individual needs while maintaining a safe care home environment clearly is a constant dynamic interpersonal process of negotiating and balancing competing interests for care home managers.
van Doorn, Carol; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Hebel, J Richard; Port, Cynthia L; Baumgarten, Mona; Quinn, Charlene C; Taler, George; May, Conrad; Magaziner, Jay
To compare rates of falling between nursing home residents with and without dementia and to examine dementia as an independent risk factor for falls and fall injuries. Prospective cohort study with 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-nine randomly selected nursing homes in Maryland, stratified by geographic region and facility size. Two thousand fifteen newly admitted residents aged 65 and older. During 2 years after nursing home admission, fall data were collected from nursing home charts and hospital discharge summaries. The unadjusted fall rate for residents in the nursing home with dementia was 4.05 per year, compared with 2.33 falls per year for residents without dementia (Pinjurious falls was higher than for residents without dementia. Dementia is an independent risk factor for falling. Although most falls do not result in injury, the fact that residents with dementia fall more often than their counterparts without dementia leaves them with a higher overall risk of sustaining injurious falls over time. Nursing home residents with dementia should be considered important candidates for fall-prevention and fall-injury-prevention strategies.
Laging, Bridget; Kenny, Amanda; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda
To explore the recognition and assessment of resident deterioration in the nursing home setting. There is a dearth of research exploring how nurses and personal-care-assistants manage a deteriorating nursing home resident. Critical ethnography. Observation and semi-structured interviews with 66 participants (residents, family, nurses, personal-care-assistants and general practitioners) in two Australian nursing homes. The study has been reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. The value of nursing assessment is poorly recognized in the nursing home setting. A lack of clarity regarding the importance of nursing assessments associated with resident care has contributed to a decreasing presence of registered nurses and an increasing reliance on personal-care-assistants who had inadequate skills and knowledge to recognize signs of deterioration. Registered nurses experienced limited organizational support for autonomous decision-making and were often expected to undertake protocol-driven decisions that contributed to potentially avoidable hospital transfers. Nurses need to demonstrate the importance of assessment, in association with day-to-day resident care, and demand standardized, regulated, educational preparation of an appropriate workforce who are competent in undertaking this role. Workforce structures that enhance familiarity between nursing home staff and residents could result in improved resident outcomes. The value of nursing assessment, in guiding decisions at the point of resident deterioration, warrants further consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mountford, Christopher G; Okonkwo, Arthur C O; Hart, Kathryn; Thompson, Nick P
This study aimed to establish prevalence of malnutrition in older adult care home residents and investigate whether a nutritional screening and intervention program could improve nutritional and clinical outcomes. A community-based cohort study was conducted in five Newcastle care homes. 205 participants entered; 175 were followed up. Residents already taking oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were excluded from interventions. Those with Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) score of 1 received dietetic advice and ≥2 received dietetic advice and were prescribed ONS (220 ml, 1.5 kcal/ml) twice daily for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI), MUST, mini nutritional assessment score (MNA)®, mid upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were recorded at baseline and 12 weeks. Malnutrition prevalence was 36.6% ± 6.6 (95% CI). A higher MUST was associated with greater mortality (p = 0.004). Type of intervention received was significantly associated with change in MUST score (p interventions. Dietitian advice may slow the progression of nutritional decline. In this study oral nutritional supplements over a 3-month period did not significantly improve nutritional status in malnourished care home residents.
... in 4 Nursing Home Residents Has Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria More infection-prevention education and policies are needed, ... TUESDAY, May 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as E. coli , can be found in ...
Anquinet, L.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Vandervoort, A.; van der Steen, J.T.; van der Stichele, R.; Deliens, L.; Block, L.
Objectives To describe the characteristics of continuous deep sedation until death and the prior decision-making process of nursing home residents dying with dementia and to evaluate this practice according to features reflecting sedation guideline recommendations. Design Epidemiological
Netten, Ann; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; Welch, Elizabeth
quality ratings of care homes are used by decision makers in the absence of direct information about outcomes. However, there is little evidence about the relationship between regulators' ratings of homes and residents' quality of life outcomes. to capture social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) outcomes for residents and investigate the relationship between outcomes and regulator quality ratings of homes. data were collected for 366 residents of 83 English care homes for older people inspected during 2008. Outcomes were measured using the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT). Multivariate multilevel modelling was used to investigate the relationship between quality of life outcomes and star ratings of homes, controlling for resident and home characteristics. care homes were delivering substantial gains in SCRQoL, but were more successful in delivering 'basic' (e.g. personal cleanliness) than higher-order domains (e.g. social participation). Outcomes were associated with quality ratings of residential homes but not of nursing homes. the approach to providing quality ratings by the regulator in England is currently under review. Future quality indicators need to demonstrate their relationship with quality of life outcomes if they are to be a reliable guide to commissioners and private individuals purchasing care.
Dwyer, Lise-Lotte; Hansebo, Görel; Andershed, Birgitta; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
To reveal nursing home employees' views on dying and death among older people they cared for. Palliative care stakeholders recently included more groups in their definition of palliative care; older people constitute one such group. Consequently, palliative care systems, which will serve a large, aging cohort, will require new skills. The first stage in skills acquisition is to gather current views on dying and death. Qualitative descriptive study that uses focus group discussions for data collection; 20 employees in 4 Swedish nursing homes participated. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The following categories were conceptualised: alleviating suffering and pain; finding meaning in everyday life; revealing thoughts and attitudes about death; taking care of the dead person's body; and coping with the gap between personal ideals and reality. A deeper understanding of the palliative care philosophy is needed to further develop and tailor care for the dying persons in nursing homes. To get public support for palliative care, the silence surrounding dying and death must be broken. Employees must receive education to prepare for all aspects of their work, and management must account for employees' situation when planning the care. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjær, Karin; Beyer, Nina
intervention study with nutrition (chocolate and homemade oral supplements), group exercise twice a week (45-60 min, moderate intensity), and oral care intervention one to two times a week, with the aim of improving nutritional status and function in elderly nursing-home residents. A follow-up visit was made 4......-home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention consisting of chocolate, homemade supplements, group exercise, and oral care. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Rahman, Anna N; Bressette, Matthew; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Enguidanos, Susan
Previous studies examining preferences documented in Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST) have found that most sampled POLSTs show a preference to limit care. These studies were conducted in states that are relatively ethnically homogeneous. This study investigated the POLST preferences of nursing home residents in an ethnically diverse state-California-that requires nursing homes to document whether residents execute POLST. Data were collected from POLST forms executed by 941 residents in a convenience sample of 13 nursing homes in Southern California. The study analyzed data from 4 POLST form items: signatory (resident vs. surrogate decision-maker) and care preferences related to: (a) resuscitation; (b) medical intervention; and (c) artificially administered nutrition. Descriptive, comparative, and regression analyses are reported at both individual and facility levels. Of reviewed POLSTs, 46.8% documented a preference for "do not resuscitate" (DNR); 47.3% documented limits on medical intervention; and 52% documented limits on artificially administered nutrition. Residents in nursing homes serving comparatively larger populations of older residents and White residents had lower odds of electing the full care option for each of the POLST's 3 care items; those in nursing homes serving comparatively larger populations of Hispanic residents had higher odds of electing long-term artificially administered nutrition. This study found lower rates of POLST choices limiting care than previous studies, possibly because the sampled nursing homes served a more ethnically- and age-diverse population. California's requirement that nursing homes document whether residents execute POLST also may have indirectly influenced choice patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nothelle, Stephanie K; Christmas, Colleen; Hanyok, Laura A
Patients who are high utilizers of care often experience health-related challenges that are not readily visible in an office setting but paramount for residents to learn. A nonmedical home visit performed at the beginning of residency training may help residents better understand social underpinnings related to their patient's health and place subsequent care within the context of the patient's life. First-year internal medicine residents completed a nonmedical home visit to an at-risk patient prior to seeing the patient in the office for his or her first medical visit. We performed a thematic analysis of internal medicine interns' (n = 16) written narratives on their experience of getting to know a complex patient in his or her home prior to seeing the patient for a medical visit. Narratives were written by the residents immediately following the visit and then again at the end of the intern year, to assess for lasting impact of the intervention. Residents were from an urban academic residency program in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We identified four themes from the submitted narratives. Residents discussed the visit's impact on future practice, the effect of the community and support system on health, the impact on the depth of the relationship, and the visit as a source of professional fulfillment. Whereas the four themes were present at both time points, the narratives completed immediately following the visit focused more on the themes of impact of future practice and the effect of the community and support system on health. The influence of the home visit on the depth of the relationship was a more prevalent theme in the end-of-the-year narratives. Although there is evidence to support the utility of learners completing medical home visits, this exploratory study shows that a nonmedical home visit can be rewarding and formative for early resident physicians. Future studies could examine the patient's perspective on the experience and whether a nonmedical home
Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley
Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Bollig, Georg; Gjengedal, Eva; Rosland, Jan Henrik
Nursing home residents are a vulnerable population. Most of them suffer from multi-morbidity, while many have cognitive impairment or dementia and need care around the clock. Several ethical challenges in nursing homes have been described in the scientific literature. Most studies have used staff members as informants, some have focused on the relatives' view, but substantial knowledge about the residents' perspective is lacking. To study what nursing home residents and their relatives perceive as ethical challenges in Norwegian nursing homes. A qualitative design with in-depth interviews with nursing home residents, and focus-group interviews with relatives of nursing home residents. The digitally recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Analysis was based on Interpretive Description. A total of 25 nursing home residents from nine nursing homes in Norway, and 18 relatives of nursing home residents from three of these nursing homes. This study was reported to and approved by the Regional Ethics Committee in Oslo, Norway. The main ethical challenges in Norwegian nursing homes from the residents' and relatives' perspective were as follows: (a) acceptance and adaptation, (b) well-being and a good life, (c) autonomy and self-determination, and (d) lack of resources. The relationship with the staff was of outmost importance and was experienced as both rewarding and problematic. None of the residents in our study mentioned ethical challenges connected to end-of-life care. Residents and relatives experience ethical challenges in Norwegian nursing homes, mostly connected to "everyday ethical issues." © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown influenza vaccine uptake in UK nursing home residents to be low. Very little information exists regarding the uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in this population. The formulation of policies relating to the vaccination of residents has been proposed as a simple step that may help improve vaccine uptake in care homes. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to matrons of all care homes with nursing within the Greater Nottingham area in January 2006. Non respondents were followed up with up to 3 phone calls. Results 30% (16/53 of respondents reported having a policy addressing influenza vaccination and 15% (8/53 had a policy addressing pneumococcal vaccination. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage in care homes with a vaccination policy was 87% compared with 84% in care homes without a policy (p = 0.47. The uptake of pneumococcal vaccination was found to be low, particularly in care homes with no vaccination policy. Coverage was 60% and 32% in care homes with and without a vaccination policy respectively (p = 0.06. This result was found to be statistically significant on multivariate analysis (p = 0.03, R = 0.46 Conclusion The uptake of influenza vaccine among care home residents in the Nottingham region is relatively high, although pneumococcal vaccine uptake is low. This study shows that there is an association between pneumococcal vaccine uptake and the existence of a vaccination policy in care homes, and highlights that few care homes have vaccination policies in place.
Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Teerenstra, S.; Smalbrugge, M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the accuracy of the Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression (NORD) scale, a new short scale for screening of depression in nursing home (NH) residents with and without dementia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study with 103 residents with dementia (N = 19 depressed) and
Whall, Ann L.; Colling, Kathleen B.; Kolanowski, Ann; Kim, HyoJeong; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeCicco, Barry; Ronis, David L.; Richards, Kathy C.; Algase, Donna; Beck, Cornelia
Purpose: In an attempt to more thoroughly describe aggressive behavior in nursing home residents with dementia, we examined background and proximal factors as guided by the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model. Design and Methods: We used a multivariate cross-sectional survey with repeated measures; participants resided in nine randomly…
Allen, Rebecca S.; Burgio, Louis D.; Fisher, Susan E.; Hardin, J. Michael; Shuster, John L., Jr.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in verbal agitation, verbal interaction, bed restraint, pain, analgesic and neuroleptic medication use, and medical comorbidity among agitated nursing home residents who died during a 6-month clinical trial compared with residents of the same gender and similar initial cognitive…
Verweij, H.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Prins, J.T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Speckens, A.E.M.
Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and
(1 1%) extremely infirm aged persons resident in 93 homes fo~ the aged would, in the opinion of institutional staff, benefit by admission to a long-term care hospital catering for chronic- ally ill. The conditions affecting these residents are described and recommendations relating to their management made. S Air Med J 1991; ...
Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Kramer, Katherine W O; Sharr, Peggy; Cruz, Inez
An appropriate number of qualified staff is a key factor contributing to quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents. While much of the literature focuses on the importance of adequate nursing ratios, this descriptive study is the first to focus on the social services staff ratio. Nationally representative survey results from over 1,000 nursing home social services directors reveal that the mean number of residents per full-time equivalent social worker in the United States is 89.3 and the median is 79 residents (note that this figure includes both long-term and subacute residents). Furthermore, although the federal government requires nursing homes with more than 120 beds to employ 1 full-time qualified social worker to meet resident psychosocial needs, when asked their opinion, the majority of respondents indicated that 1 full-time social worker could handle 60 or fewer long-term care residents or 20 or fewer subacute care residents. Nursing home characteristics helped to explain the variation in social services directors' opinions. These findings suggest that the federal policy related to social services staffing should be revisited. Policy makers would benefit from reliable and current data regarding social service staffing. Research is needed to understand the relationship between social services staffing and resident outcomes.
Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, Annelies E.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Wetzels, Roland; Bor, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.
Objective: Although many nursing home residents with dementia show agitation, hardly any literature is published about very frequent agitation. The WAALBED-III study focuses on the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent agitation in these residents. Design: Cross-sectional study using
Verweij, H.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Prins, J.T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Speckens, A.
Introduction: Work engagement is important for medical residents and the healthcare organizations they work for. However, relatively little is known about the specific predictors of work engagement in medical residents. Therefore, we examined the associations of work and home characteristics, and
van Asch, Iris F M; Nuyen, Jasper; Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Frijters, Dinnus H M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Pot, Anne Margriet
To compare the prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorders, depressive symptoms and use of antidepressant medication between nursing home residents with and without dementia. This cross-sectional study used Minimal Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument 2.1 data collected in seven nursing homes located in an urbanized region in the Netherlands. Trained nurse assistants recorded all medical diagnoses made by a medical specialist, including dementia and depressive disorder, and medication use. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Depression Rating Scale. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare data between residents with and without dementia. Included in the study were 1885 nursing home residents (aged 65 years or older), of which 837 had dementia. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorder between residents with (9.6%) and without dementia (9.8%). Residents with dementia (46.4%) had more depressive symptoms than residents without dementia (22.6%). Among those with depressive symptoms, residents with dementia had the same likelihood of being diagnosed with a depressive disorder as residents without dementia. Among residents with a diagnosed depressive disorder, antidepressant use did not differ significantly between residents with dementia (58.8%) and without dementia (57.3%). The same holds true for residents with depressive symptoms, where antidepressant use was 25.3% in residents with dementia and 24.6% in residents without dementia. Regarding the prevalence rates of diagnosed depressive disorder and antidepressant use found in this study, our findings demonstrate that there is room for improvement not only for the detection of depression but also with regard to its treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gerritsen, D.L.; Steverink, N.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.
In this article it is depicted that before nursing home staff can effectively contribute to optimising the quality of life (QOL) of nursing home residents, it has to be clear what exactly QOL is and how it can be enhanced. The aim is to identify a QOL framework that provides tools for optimising QOL
H.R. Marston; B.M. Janssen; M.R. Sprong; Joost van Hoof
Nursing home residents with dementia face challenges in adapting to a new living environment and feeling at home. Due to communicative limitations, people with dementia after often left out of design processes. The aim of this study is to investigate the housing needs in relation to the interior
Wetzels, Roland B; Zuidema, Sytse U; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Verhey, Frans R J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M
OBJECTIVE: To determine the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in nursing home residents with dementia and to determine their variability across diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study over 2 years. SETTING: Fourteen dementia special care units in nine nursing homes in The Netherlands.
Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun
Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…
Nakrem, Sigrid; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Seim, Arnfinn
With life expectancy lengthening, the number of those who will require care in a nursing home will increase dramatically in the next 20 years. Nursing home residents are frail older adults with complex needs, dependent on advanced nursing care. Long-term residents in nursing homes have long-term relationships with the nurses, which require a unique approach to the interpersonal aspects of nursing care. Understanding what is experienced as care quality, including quality of interpersonal processes, requires insight into the residents' perspectives for best value in care to be realized. Main objective was to describe the nursing home residents' experience with direct nursing care, related to the interpersonal aspects of quality of care. A descriptive, exploratory design was used. Four public municipal nursing homes in Norway with long-term residents were purposely selected for the study. Fifteen mentally lucid residents were included. The inclusion criteria were aged 65 and over, being a resident of the nursing home for one month or longer, and physical and mental capacity to participate in the interview. In-depth interviews with the residents were performed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using meaning categorizing. The residents emphasized the importance of nurses acknowledging their individual needs, which included need for general and specialized care, health promotion and prevention of complications, and prioritizing the individuals. The challenging balance between self-determination and dependency, the altered role from homeowner to resident, and feelings of indignity and depreciation of social status were key issues in which the residents perceived that their integrity was at risk in the patient-nurse interaction and care. Psychosocial well-being was a major issue, and the residents expressed an important role of the nursing staff helping them to balance the need for social contact and to be alone, and preserving a social network. Quality nursing
Arnljots, Rebeka; Thorn, Jörgen; Elm, Marie; Moore, Michael; Sundvall, Pär-Daniel
Residents of nursing homes may have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations. Associations between vitamin D and cognitive performance, dementia and susceptibility to infections are not clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to identify associated factors among residents of nursing homes for elderly. In this cross-sectional study blood samples for analysis of 25OHD were collected from all participating residents of Swedish nursing homes for the elderly from January to March 2012. dementia too severe to collect a blood test, terminally ill or refusing participation. Serum 25OHD concentrations. Logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD vitamin D supplementation 17%, dementia 55%, lack of appetite ≥3 months 45% and any antibiotic treatment during the last 6 months 30%. Serum 25OHD concentrations: mean 34 nmol/L (SD 21, median 27, range 4-125), 82% (448/545) had 25OHD vitamin D deficiency (25OHD vitamin D supplementation 0.075 (0.031-0.18; p Vitamin D deficiency was common among nursing home residents and strongly associated with dementia. Regardless of causality or not, it is important to be alert for vitamin D deficiency in nursing homes residents with dementia. As expected vitamin D supplementation was associated with less vitamin D deficiency, however lack of appetite, staying outdoors and skin phototype were not significant predictors. Antibiotic treatments during the last 6 months were associated with vitamin D deficiency, potentially supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is associated with infections.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Adequate pain management is an important indicator of quality of care and quality of life. Nursing home staff should check patients regularly to see if they are...
Objectives: This study evaluated the sitting room environment of two nursing homes in Ireland, using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures and defining these rooms as occupational spaces.\\r\
Caspari., Synnøve; Høy, Bente; Lohne, Vibeke
Aims and objectives: The aim of this cross-country Scandinavian study was to explore how residents in nursing homes experience that their dignity is promoted and attended to. This is one part of the Scandinavian project in which we interviewed residents, relatives and staff members. Background......: The main subject concerns the dignity of residents of nursing homes for older people. This article brings forward results from interviews of relatives on how they experience that the dignity is met, promoted and attended to for their next of kin. Design: The study was qualitative with a hermeneutic...... approach. Methods: Qualitative research interviews of 28 relatives of residents at six participating nursing homes in Scandinavia. The results derive from analysis of the interviews using Kvale’s three levels of interpretation; self-understanding, common sense and a theoretical understanding. Results...
Omli, Ragnhild; Skotnes, Liv Heidi; Romild, Ulla; Bakke, August; Mykletun, Arnstein; Kuhry, Esther
many elderly suffer from urinary incontinence and use absorbent pads. Pad use per day (PPD) is a frequently used measure of urinary incontinence. Nursing home residents are often dependent on help from nursing staff to change pads. This study was performed in order to determine whether PPD is a reliable method to quantify urinary incontinence in nursing home residents. Furthermore, the association between urinary tract infections (UTIs), PPD and fluid intake was studied. data were retrieved from a multicentre, prospective surveillance among nursing home residents. Data on the use of absorbent pads, fluid intake and incontinence volumes were collected during 48 h. During a 1-year follow-up period, data on UTIs were collected. in this study, 153 residents were included, of whom 118 (77%) used absorbent pads. Residents who used absorbent pads were at increased risk of developing UTIs compared to residents who did not use pads (41 vs 11%; P = 0.001). Daily fluid intake was not associated with UTIs (P = 0.46). The number of pad changes showed no correlation with the risk of developing UTIs (P = 0.62). Patients with a given PPD presented a wide range of incontinence volumes. the use of absorbent pads is associated with an increased risk of developing UTIs. PPD and daily fluid intake are not correlated with the risk of developing UTIs. PPD is an unreliable measure of urinary incontinence in nursing home residents.
Grabowski, David C.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Rome, Vincent F.; Bartels, Stephen J.
Because of the high proportion of nursing home residents with a mental illness other than dementia, the quality of mental health care in nursing homes is a major clinical and policy issue. The authors apply Donabedian's framework for assessing quality of care based on the triad of structure, process, and outcome-based measures in reviewing the literature on the quality of mental health care in nursing homes. Quality measures used within the literature include mental health consultations and hospitalizations, inappropriate use of medications, and mental health survey deficiencies. Factors related to the resident's welfare (nurse staffing), provider norms (locality), and financial factors (payer mix) were associated with the quality of mental health care. Although future research is necessary, the extant literature suggests that persons with mental illness are frequently admitted to nursing homes and their care is often of poor quality and related to a series of resident and facility factors. PMID:20223943
Christensen, Janelle J; Brown, Lisa M; Hyer, Kathryn
Nursing home administrators (n = 15) and directors of nursing (n = 15) who worked in nursing homes during the 2004-2005 Florida hurricane season participated in a series of 6 focus groups. The purpose of the focus groups was to explore issues faced by nursing home administrators, nurses, and residents during hurricane evacuations. A primary finding was that evacuating nursing home residents to buildings that are not designed to support nursing activities (e.g., a school gymnasium or church) adversely affected resident feeding, sleeping, movement, and security. These nonclinical buildings also presented serious occupational health concerns for nursing staff members who provided care during emergencies. Recommendations for reducing patient and nursing staff injuries for those forced to evacuate to a nonclinical building as the result of an emergency event are provided. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teo, W-S Kelvin; Raj, Anusha Govinda; Tan, Woan Shin; Ng, Charis Wei Ling; Heng, Bee Hoon; Leong, Ian Yi-Onn
Due to limited end-of-life discussions and the absence of palliative care, hospitalisations are frequent at the end of life among nursing home residents in Singapore, resulting in high health-care costs. Our objective was to evaluate the economic impact of Project Care at the End-of-Life for Residents in homes for the Elderly (CARE) programme on nursing home residents compared to usual end-of-life care. DESIGN AND SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: Project CARE was introduced in seven nursing homes to provide advance care planning and palliative care for residents identified to be at risk of dying within 1 year. The cases consisted of nursing home residents enrolled in the Project CARE programme for at least 3 months. A historical group of nursing home residents not in any end-of-life care programme was chosen as the matched controls. Cost differences between the two groups were analysed over the last 3 months and final month of life. The final sample comprised 48 Project CARE cases and 197 controls. Compared to the controls, the cases were older with more comorbidities and higher nursing needs. After risk adjustment, Project CARE cases demonstrated per-resident cost savings of SGD$7129 (confidence interval: SGD$4544-SGD$9714) over the last 3 months of life and SGD$3703 (confidence interval: SGD$1848-SGD$5557) over the last month of life (US$1 = SGD$1.3). This study demonstrated substantial savings associated with an end-of-life programme. With a significant proportion of the population in Singapore requiring nursing home care in the near future, these results could assist policymakers and health-care providers in decision-making on allocation of health-care resources.
Brown, Donnamay T; Westbury, Juanita L; Schüz, Benjamin
The prevalence of dementia in Australian nursing homes is high. A large proportion of residents express themselves through agitated behaviors, with substantial interpersonal and day-to-day variance. One factor that may increase agitation is poor sleep. The current study aimed to determine if sleep influences symptoms of agitation in nursing home residents, and whether this effect differed by dementia status. As benzodiazepines are used widely as hypnotic medication, their impact was also considered. Actigraph devices worn on residents' non-dominant wrists for three days were used to obtain objective measures of sleep. Symptoms of agitation were assessed using staff responses to two standardized questionnaires - the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - nursing home version (NPI-NH). Presence of dementia and benzodiazepine use were obtained from resident medical charts. Forty-nine residents (mean age: 85.57 years) from four nursing homes in Tasmania were included in the study. Results indicated that residents were in bed for an average of 11.04 h and slept for 10.14 h per day. Significant relationships between sleep and verbal as well as non-aggressive agitation were found. No relationships between sleep and aggressive agitation were detected. A significant moderation effect of dementia was found, in which residents without dementia expressed verbal agitation when obtaining less sleep, but not residents with dementia. Benzodiazepine use did not result in significantly more sleep. These results suggest that sleep could play an important role in explaining agitation, but more research is needed to explore the relationship between sleep and benzodiazepines in nursing home residents.
Kleina, T; Horn, A; Suhr, R; Schaeffer, D
Following recent studies revealing deficits in general and specialised medical care of nursing home residents in Germany, the discussion on the quality of medical care of residents in residential care facilities has intensified in the past years. As a result, political efforts have been undertaken to facilitate improvements in this context. We collected data on the health status and medical care of 778 residents from 8 nursing homes in order to investigate the current situation regarding medical care for nursing home residents in Germany. Most of them were multimorbid, taking several prescribed medications. Our results showed that about 91% of the residents had personal contact to general practitioners or internists quarterly and only 1.3% had no such contacts within a year. The frequency of contacts to other medical specialists was comparably low. For example, within a year, only 18.9% of the residents had contact to urologists; only 16.7% had contact to ophthalmologists; only 39.6% had contact to dentists and only 10.6% of the female residents had contact to gynaecologists. Despite the fact that many of the residents showed specific medical care needs, these rates were below the utilisation rates of older population groups not living in long-term care homes. This leads to the conclusion that previous efforts to optimise medical care in nursing homes were only partially successful. Well known deficits are still remaining. Considering potential consequences for residents, further and consequent actions are required to improve the general and specialised medical care in institutionalised long-term care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Vaughn, G; Kiyasu, E; McCormick, W C
To study advance directives (code status) among subgroups of Asian nursing home residents. Cross-sectional design. A total of 423 residents of Asian descent (aged >55) from two ethnic nursing homes in Seattle, Washington. Chart review was conducted on 423 residents (199 discharged between 1995 and 1998 and 244 current residents) to ascertain code status, age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidity (using the Charlson Index), and religion. Seventy percent of the residents were women, median age was 83 +/- 9, 43% were Chinese, 40% Japanese, and 17% other Asian (Korean, Filipino, Southeast Asian). The majority of the patients in any subgroup (72% overall) were 'no code'. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, increased age, and comorbidity were correlated with no code status. In multivariable logistic regression, Japanese residents were more likely to be no code (OR 4.1 (95% CI, 3.1- 5.4)) controlling for age, comorbidity, gender, and religion. Chinese were more likely to be full code (OR 3.3 (95% CI, 2.6-4.2)). Code status differs significantly among Asian subgroups in these ethnic nursing homes. Whereas the majority of residents are no code, Japanese residents are more likely than Chinese or others to be no code. Higher age and comorbidity are also correlated with no code status.
C.S. Sterke (Carolyn)
textabstractFalls are a major health problem in nursing home residents with dementia. In nursing homes one-third of all falls results in an injury. In order to take tailor-made preventive measures in time, the fall risk profile of each individual nursing home resident should be periodically
Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Christensen, Janelle J; Thomas, Kali S
This article documents the experience of 291 Florida nursing homes during the 2004 hurricane season. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors described and compared the challenges nurses encountered when evacuating residents with their experiences assisting residents of facilities that sheltered in place. The primary concerns for evacuating facilities were accessing appropriate evacuation sites for residents and having ambulance transportation contracts honored. The main issue for facilities that sheltered in place was the length of time it took for power to be restored. Barriers to maintaining resident health during disasters for those who evacuated or sheltered in place are identified.
Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn
We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…
Some families live in extended-stay hotels as a solution after housing displacement. This temporary accommodation provides a furnished home environment with resources such as a kitchenette, bed, heating/air conditioning, and room services with one payment that can be made weekly or monthly without a credit check or rent deposit. Despite these…
Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing trend for those with advanced cancer to die at home, there is a corresponding increase in need for primary medical care in that setting. Yet those with lower incomes and in rural regions are often challenged to have their health care needs met. This study examined the association between patient income and residence and the receipt of Family Physician (FP home visits during the end-of-life among patients with cancer. Methods Data Sources/Study Setting. Secondary analysis of linked population-based data. Information pertaining to all patients who died due to lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer between 1992 and 1997 (N = 7,212 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (NS was extracted from three administrative health databases and from Statistics Canada census records. Study Design. An ecological measure of income ('neighbourhood' median household income was developed using census information. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to assess the association of income with the receipt of at least one home visit from a FP among all subjects and by region of residency during the end-of-life. Covariates in the initial multivariate model included patient demographics and alternative health services information such as total days spent as a hospital inpatient. Data Extraction Methods. Encrypted patient health card numbers were used to link all administrative health databases whereas the postal code was the link to Statistics Canada census information. Results Over 45% of all subjects received at least one home visit (n = 3265. Compared to those from low income areas, the log odds of receiving at least one home visit was significantly greater among subjects who reside in middle to high income neighbourhoods (for the highest income quintile, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.64; for upper-middle income, adjusted OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.39; for middle income
Resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes is a prevalent and concerning public health problem. A rapid growth in the number of research studies has led to advancements in understanding and awareness of these incidents. However, no state survey deficiency citation (F-Tag) currently exists to capture RRA in a structured way in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) nursing homes F-Tags Coding System. This omission represents a major barrier to State Survey Agencies, CMS, consumers, and care advocacy organizations' efforts to keep vulnerable and frail residents safe and free from psychological harm. The commentary makes the case for development and implementation of a new RRA-specific F-Tag by identifying 20 problem areas and the ways in which this F-Tag could address them. The new F-Tags Coding System (part of the new Federal Nursing Home regulations) represents a rare and time-sensitive opportunity to bridge this major gap in practice, research, and policy.
Block, Lauren; LaVine, Nancy; Verbsky, Jennifer; Sagar, Ankita; Smith, Miriam A; Lane, Susan; Conigliaro, Joseph; Chaudhry, Saima A
Increasingly, residents are being trained in Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) settings. A set of PCMH entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for residents has been defined but not evaluated in practice. To understand whether residents trained at PCMH sites reported higher likelihood of engaging in PCMH tasks than those training in non-PCMH sites. Survey and nominal group data from post-graduate trainees at three residency programs. A total of 179 residents responded (80% response). Over half (52%) cared for patients at PCMH sites. Residents at PCMH sites were more likely to report engaging in tasks in the NCQA domains of enhancing access and continuity (p office inefficiencies as barriers to care. Residents trained at PCMH sites were more likely to engage in tasks in several NCQA domains, but not care coordination and quality assessment. Similar facilitators and barriers to trainee provision of patient-centered care were cited regardless of PCMH status. Curricula on PCMH principles and workflows that foster continuity and communication may help to inform residents on PCMH tenets and incorporate residents into team-based care. EPA: Entrustable professional activity; GIM: General Internal Medicine; NCQA: National Center for Quality Assurance; PCMH: Patient-centered medical home.
Tosangwarn, Suhathai; Clissett, Philip; Blake, Holly
Living in a care home is a source of stigma in Thai culture, although there is currently no measurement tool in the Thai language specifically designed to assess internalized stigma in care home residents. The Thai Version of Internalized Stigma of Living in a Care Home (TIS-LCH) scale was developed and tested for its psychometric properties among Thai older residents. The Thai version of Internalized Stigma of Mental Health Illness (ISMI) Scale was revised into the TIS-LCH by replacing the word of "mental health illness" to "living in a care home." Content validity of the TIS-LCH was determined through expert review (n = 6), and reliability testing was undertaken with older care home residents (n = 128). The TIS-LCH showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of .87. Test-retest reliability coefficient of TIS-LCH was excellent for the full scale (ICC = .90). The Thai version of IS-LCH (TIS-LCH) is a valid and reliable measurement tool for assessing internalized stigma in Thai care home residents. The IS-LCH will be a useful research tool to assess internalized stigma in older adults living in care settings. Understanding stigma will help health and social care professionals to plan interventions aimed at reducing or preventing negative emotional reactions and negative behavioural responses toward stigma, which are known to be associated with mental illness and particularly depression among this population.
Van Haitsma, Kimberly S; Curyto, Kimberly; Abbott, Katherine M; Towsley, Gail L; Spector, Abby; Kleban, Morton
This randomized controlled study tested the effectiveness of individualized activities, led by certified nursing assistants (CNAs), to increase positive and reduce negative affect and behavior among nursing home residents with dementia. Nursing home residents with mild to advanced dementia (N = 180) were randomly assigned to usual care (UC, n = 93) or 1 of 2 experimental conditions. Residents in the attention control group (AC, N = 43) participated in standardized one-to-one activities with their CNAs. Individualized Positive Psychosocial Intervention (IPPI) participants (n = 44) received a CNA-led activity matched to their interests and ability. Outcomes were residents' positive and negative affect and verbal and nonverbal behavior. The IPPI and AC groups experienced similar benefits-more pleasure, alertness, engagement, positive touch, and positive verbal behavior-compared with UC. The AC group displayed more anger, uncooperativeness, and very negative verbal behavior than UC or IPPI. This study demonstrates the value of individualized activities for nursing home residents with dementia. In a stringent test, residents were happier and less angry during a customized intervention compared with a standardized intervention. Even brief individualized CNA-led activities bring pleasure to nursing home residents and constitute an effective strategy to enhance positive affect and engagement in persons with dementia. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Saga, Susan; Seim, Arnfinn; Mørkved, Siv; Norton, Christine; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen
Bowel problems such as constipation, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence (FI) are prevalent conditions among nursing home residents and little is known about nursing management. This study aimed to elucidate how Norwegian registered nurses (RNs) manage bowel problems among nursing home residents. A mixed methods approach was used combining quantitative data from a population-based cross-sectional survey and qualitative data from a focus group interview. In the cross sectional part of the study 27 of 28 nursing homes in one Norwegian municipality participated. Residents were included if they, at the time of data collection, had been a resident in a nursing home for more than three weeks or had prior stays of more than four weeks during the last six months. Residents were excluded from the study if they were younger than 65 years or had a stoma (N = 980 after exclusions). RNs filled in a questionnaire for residents regarding FI, constipation, diarrhoea, and treatments/interventions. In the focus group interview, 8 RNs participated. The focus group interview used an interview guide that included six open-ended questions. Pad use (88.9%) and fixed toilet schedules (38.6%) were the most commonly used interventions for residents with FI. In addition, the qualitative data showed that controlled emptying of the bowels with laxatives and/or enemas was common. Common interventions for residents with constipation were laxatives (66.2%) and enemas (47%), dietary interventions (7.3%) and manual emptying of feces (6.3%). In addition, the qualitative data showed that the RNs also used fixed toilet schedules for residents with constipation. Interventions for residents with diarrhoea were Loperamide (18.3%) and dietary interventions (20.1%). RNs described bowel care management as challenging due to limited time and resources. Consequently, compromises were a part of their working strategies. Constipation was considered to be the main focus of bowel management. Emptying the
Towsley, Gail L; Hirschman, Karen B
The purpose of the paper is to describe how residents express preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. For this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews and completed conventional content analysis to describe how residents' expressed their preferences for care at the end of life. Sixteen residents from four nursing homes (NH) in southeastern Pennsylvania participated in this study. Residents were on average 88 years old, primarily non White, and widowed. Three key domains emerged from the analyses: Preferences for Today, Anticipating the End of My Life, and Preferences for Final Days. Residents linked their everyday living and EOL preferences by using 'if and then' logic to convey anticipation and readiness related to EOL. These findings suggest new strategies to start discussions of EOL care preferences with NH residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This home on Whidbey Island won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The DOE Zero Energy Ready Home scores HERS 37 without PV or HERS -13 with 10 kW PV, enough to power the home and an electric car.
Lachs, Mark S; Rosen, Tony; Teresi, Jeanne A; Eimicke, Joseph P; Ramirez, Mildred; Silver, Stephanie; Pillemer, Karl
Little research has been conducted on aggression directed at staff by nursing home residents. To estimate the prevalence of resident-to-staff aggression (RSA) over a 2-week period. Prevalent cohort study. Large urban nursing homes. Population-based sample of 1,552 residents (80 % of eligible residents) and 282 certified nursing assistants. Measures of resident characteristics and staff reports of physical, verbal, or sexual behaviors directed at staff by residents. The staff response rate was 89 %. Staff reported that 15.6 % of residents directed aggressive behaviors toward them (2.8 % physical, 7.5 % verbal, 0.5 % sexual, and 4.8 % both verbal and physical). The most commonly reported type was verbal (12.4 %), particularly screaming at the certified nursing assistant (9.0 % of residents). Overall, physical aggression toward staff was reported for 7.6 % of residents, the most common being hitting (3.9 % of residents). Aggressive behaviors occurred most commonly in resident rooms (77.2 %) and in the morning (84.3 %), typically during the provision of morning care. In a logistic regression model, three clinical factors were significantly associated with resident-to-staff aggression: greater disordered behavior (OR = 6.48, 95 % CI: 4.55, 9.21), affective disturbance (OR = 2.29, 95 % CI: 1.68, 3.13), and need for activities of daily living morning assistance (OR = 2.16, 95 % CI: 1.53, 3.05). Hispanic (as contrasted with White) residents were less likely to be identified as aggressors toward staff (OR = 0.57, 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.91). Resident-to-staff aggression in nursing homes is common, particularly during morning care. A variety of demographic and clinical factors was associated with resident-to-staff aggression; this could serve as the basis for evidence-based interventions. Because RSA may negatively affect the quality of care, resident and staff safety, and staff job satisfaction and turnover, further research is needed to understand its causes and
Tartarini, Federico; Cooper, Paul; Fleming, Richard; Batterham, Marijka
This study aimed to determine the specific correlation between indoor air temperature and agitation of nursing home residents with dementia. Agitated behaviors of 21 residents, living in 1 nursing home, were assessed for a 10-month period using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The CMAI Total Frequency scores were found to increase significantly when indoor average temperatures deviated from 22.6°C. In addition, cumulative exposure to temperatures higher than 26°C and lower than 20°C was linearly correlated with CMAI Total Frequency scores. Results showed that agitated behaviors not only affected the person manifesting them but were found to be disruptive for other residents and the delivery of care. Agitation can, therefore, be potentially reduced by limiting the range of indoor air temperature variations, and aged care providers should ensure that a thermally comfortable environment is provided in nursing homes to enhance comfort and well-being of all occupants.
Bowie, C R; Moriarty, P J; Harvey, P D; Parrella, M; White, L; Davis, K L
This study examined the role of cognitive functioning, adaptive functioning, and symptomatology in predicting aggression in institutionalized geriatric schizophrenic patients residing in either a state institution (n=56) or a nursing home (n=113). Patients were assessed with a neuropsychological battery and rated for positive and negative symptoms, social functioning, and aggressiveness. Nursing home residents were older and more cognitively and functionally impaired than institutional residents. The prevalence of verbal, but not physical, aggression was similar to findings in younger, acutely hospitalized patients in previous studies. In the hospitalized group, severity of negative symptoms was predictive of physical aggression. In the nursing home group, severity of positive symptoms was predictive of verbal aggression and self-care deficit was predictive of physical aggression. Results indicate that verbal aggression, like positive symptoms, decreases little with aging in institutionalized schizophrenic patients, and that predictors of aggressive behavior are as difficult to identify in elderly patients as in younger ones.
Lai, C K Y; Leung, D D M; Kwong, E W Y; Lee, R L P
The quality of life of nursing home residents has increasingly become an important dimension when evaluating care in a nursing home. Not a lot is known about the quality of life of nursing home residents in Hong Kong. To investigate factors associated with the quality of life of nursing home residents to inform care management policies and service delivery. This study reports data from 125 nursing home residents. The Hong Kong Chinese version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life-Brief version was used. Other measures used include the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Modified STRATIFY Falls Prediction Tool and the Modified Barthel Index. A univariate analysis and a multiple regression analysis were then performed to identify the influencing factors. The participants reported a moderate level of quality of life, with the exception in the domain of social relationships. A univariate analysis found some associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and quality of life. A multiple regression analysis indicated that pain, being younger (65-74 years), having son(s) or daughter(s), and cognitive impairment were negatively associated factors. The smallness of the sample from a single study site limits the generalizability of the findings. This study provides information that has hitherto been lacking on the quality of life and associated factors among local nursing home residents in Hong Kong. The preliminary findings can help healthcare staff to identify those at risk of suffering from a low quality of life and to design appropriate care interventions to improve the quality of life of such residents. Adequate pain relief, family connectedness and special attention to the needs of those with cognitive impairment are important considerations in ensuring a better quality of life for older people in long-term residential care. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Kjelle, Elin; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke
Demographic changes are leading to an ageing population in Europe, and predict an increase in the number of nursing home residents over the next 30 years. Nursing home residents need specialised healthcare services such as radiology due to both chronic and acute illnesses. Mobile radiography, x-ray examinations performed in the nursing homes, may be a good way of providing services to this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the outcomes of mobile radiography services for nursing home residents and society. A systematic review based on searches in the Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, Embase and Svemed + databases was performed. Titles and abstracts were screened according to a predefined set of inclusion criteria: empirical studies in the geriatric population, and reports of mobile radiography services in a clinical setting. All publications were quality appraised using MMAT or CASP appraisal tools. Data were extracted using a summary table and results were narratively synthesised. Ten publications were included. Three overarching outcomes were identified: 1) reduced number of hospitalisations and outpatient examinations or treatments, 2) reduced number of transfers between nursing homes and hospitals and 3) increased access to x-ray examinations. These outcomes were interlinked with the more specific outcomes for residents and society reported in the literature. For residents there was a reduction in burdensome transfers and waiting time and adequate treatment and care increased. For society, released resources could be used more efficiently, and overall costs were reduced substantially. This review indicates that mobile radiography services for nursing home residents in the western world are of comparable quality to hospital-based examinations and have clear potential benefits. Mobile radiography reduced transfers to and from hospital, increased the number of examinations carried out and facilitated timely diagnosis and access to
Underwood, Martin; Lamb, Sarah E; Eldridge, Sandra; Sheehan, Bart; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Spencer, Anne; Thorogood, Margaret; Atherton, Nicky; Bremner, Stephen A; Devine, Angela; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Ellard, David R; Potter, Rachel; Spanjers, Kathleen; Taylor, Stephanie J C
Depression is common and is associated with poor outcomes among elderly care-home residents. Exercise is a promising low-risk intervention for depression in this population. We tested the hypothesis that a moderate intensity exercise programme would reduce the burden of depressive symptoms in residents of care homes. We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in care homes in two regions in England; northeast London, and Coventry and Warwickshire. Residents aged 65 years or older were eligible for inclusion. A statistician independent of the study randomised each home (1 to 1·5 ratio, stratified by location, minimised by type of home provider [local authority, voluntary, private and care home, private and nursing home] and size of home [home staff, 45 min physiotherapist-led group exercise sessions for residents (delivered twice weekly), and a whole home component designed to encourage more physical activity in daily life. The control consisted of only the depression awareness training. Researchers collecting follow-up data from individual participants and the participants themselves were inevitably aware of home randomisation because of the physiotherapists' activities within the home. A researcher masked to study allocation coded NHS routine data. The primary outcome was number of depressive symptoms on the geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15). Follow-up was for 12 months. This trial is registered with ISRCTN Register, number ISRCTN43769277. Care homes were randomised between Dec 15, 2008, and April 9, 2010. At randomisation, 891 individuals in 78 care homes (35 intervention, 43 control) had provided baseline data. We delivered 3191 group exercise sessions attended on average by five study participants and five non-study residents. Of residents with a GDS-15 score, 374 of 765 (49%) were depressed at baseline; 484 of 765 (63%) provided 12 month follow-up scores. Overall the GDS-15 score was 0·13 (95% CI -0·33 to 0·60) points higher (worse) at 12 months for
Fick, K M
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the presence and absence of a dog on the frequency and types of social interactions among nursing home residents during a socialization group. Point sampling was used to evaluate the behaviors of 36 male nursing home residents at a Veterans Administration Medical Center under two conditions, Dog Present and Dog Absent. A significant difference in verbal interactions among residents occurred with the dog present, F(1, 69) = 4.92, p socialization among residents in long-term care facilities. Because an increase in social interactions can improve the social climate of an institution and occupational therapists frequently incorporate group process into their treatment, the therapeutic use of animals can become a valuable adjunct to reaching treatment goals.
Strohbuecker, Barbara; Eisenmann, Yvonne; Galushko, Maren; Montag, Thomas; Voltz, Raymond
To explore the palliative care needs of nursing home residents in Germany who had not yet entered the dying phase. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of nine residents suffering from chronic disease or frailty. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. The residents described multidimensional needs, which were categorized as 'being recognized as a person', 'having a choice and being in control', 'being connected to family and the world outside', 'being spiritually connected', and 'physical comfort'. They emphasized their desire to control everyday matters. Physical impairment was a problem, especially when independence was threatened, e.g. by immobility or a reliance on pain killers. The desire for self-determination is key when designing and evaluating primary and palliative care programmes for nursing homes. Early integration of palliative care can improve the quality of life of chronically ill residents.
Rako-Gospić, Nikolina; Radulović, Marko; Vučur, Tihana; Pleslić, Grgur; Holcer, Draško; Mackelworth, Peter
This study investigates the influence of the most dominant factors (association patterns, gender, natal philopatry and anthropogenic pressure) on the home range size of the 44 most resident common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the waters of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago (north Adriatic Sea, Croatia), a recently declared NATURA 2000 SCI. Results show that variations in home range patterns (MCP, 95% KDE and 50% KDE home range size) among the individual resident dolphins are primarily related to differences in gender and reflect the way in which different genders respond to external stressors. In addition, results confirm the seasonal influence of nautical tourism on both female and male dolphins through changes in their home range sizes. The overall results improve current knowledge of the main anthropogenic threats that should be taken into consideration when developing conservation measures to be applied to this Cres and Lošinj SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, Anders; Gulmann, Nils Christian
Objectives To describe the criterion validity of nursing home staff's assessment of organic disorder compared with ICD-10 criteria, and to identify determinants of staff assessment of organic disorder. Method Two hundred and eighty-eight residents were diagnosed using the GMS-AGECAT. Nursing staff...... as under-labelling of residents, a tendency that will affect communication with medical personnel and may lead to inadequate or wrong medical treatment and to negative performance as well as negative role expectations in everyday life in nursing homes....
Parts I and II of this article examine the impact of a falls prevention program on the fall incidents among the residents in a nursing home. It was hypothesized that a diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approach should be used for nursing home residents identified as being at high risk for falls in order to reduce the number of fall incidents and to improve quality of life for this vulnerable population. The program effectively targeted both intrinsic and extrinsic factors to reduce risks facing the residents. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated by examining changes in the rate of falls after the program was implemented. The results identified that a multifaceted program, one that utilized multiple personalized interventions, was effective in reducing the falls rate of frail (those with complex medical and psychosocial problems) nursing home residents, and that muscle-strengthening interventions may be beneficial for this vulnerable population. Program outcomes verified that case managers can impact quality of life for frail elderly nursing home residents by promoting their independence and safety, and postponing problems resulting from inactivity. Part I (LCM, Nov-Dec 2001) discussed the background and process of a falls program and factors contributing to the occurrence of falls. This month we examine the interdisciplinary team approach to assessment, method, and implementing strategies for an effective fall prevention program. Tools used for prevention, monitoring, and investigation of falls are also detailed.
Quagliarello, Vincent; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Ginter, Sandra; Towle, Virginia; Allore, Heather; Tinetti, Mary
Objectives To test intervention protocols for feasibility, staff adherence and effectiveness in reducing pneumonia risk factors (i.e., impaired oral hygiene, swallowing difficulty) in nursing home residents. Design Prospective study. Setting Two nursing homes. Participants Fifty-two nursing home residents. Interventions Thirty residents with impaired oral hygiene were randomly assigned to manual oral brushing + 0.12% chlorhexidine oral rinse at different frequencies daily. Twenty-two residents with swallowing difficulty were randomly assigned to upright feeding positioning, teaching swallowing techniques, or manual oral brushing. All protocols were administered over 3 months. Measurements Feasibility was assessed monthly and defined as high if the protocol took 75% of assessments. Effectiveness for improved oral hygiene (i.e., reduction in oral plaque score) and swallowing (i.e., reduction in cough during swallowing) was assessed at 3 months compared to baseline. Results Daily manual oral brushing + 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse demonstrated high feasibility, high staff adherence and effectiveness in improving oral hygiene (ptesting for its ability to reduce pneumonia among nursing home residents. PMID:19558483
Quagliarello, Vincent; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Ginter, Sandra; Towle, Virginia; Allore, Heather; Tinetti, Mary
To test intervention protocols for feasibility, staff adherence, and effectiveness in reducing pneumonia risk factors (impaired oral hygiene, swallowing difficulty) in nursing home residents. Prospective study. Two nursing homes. Fifty-two nursing home residents. Thirty residents with impaired oral hygiene were randomly assigned to manual oral brushing plus 0.12% chlorhexidine oral rinse at different frequencies daily. Twenty-two residents with swallowing difficulty were randomly assigned to upright feeding positioning, teaching swallowing techniques, or manual oral brushing. All protocols were administered over 3 months. Feasibility was assessed monthly and defined as high if the protocol took less than 10 minutes to administer. Adherence was assessed weekly and defined as high if full staff adherence was demonstrated in more than 75% of assessments. Effectiveness for improved oral hygiene (reduction in oral plaque score) and swallowing (reduction in cough during swallowing) was compared at baseline and 3 months. Daily manual oral brushing plus 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse demonstrated high feasibility, high staff adherence, and effectiveness in improving oral hygiene (Ptesting for its ability to reduce pneumonia in nursing home residents.
Jorunn Drageset; Gørill Haugan; Oscar Tranvåg
Abstract Background Meaning and purpose in life are fundamental to human beings. In changing times, with an aging population and increased life expectancy, the need for health care services and long-term care is likely to grow. More deeply understanding how older long-term care residents perceive meaning and purpose in life is critical for improving the quality of care and the residents’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore crucial aspects promoting nursing home residents...
Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu
Background: Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Slee...
Bauer, Ulrike; Pitzer, Stefan; Schreier, Maria Magdalena; Osterbrink, Jürgen; Alzner, Reinhard; Iglseder, Bernhard
Communication skills are known to decrease with advancing cognitive impairment. Analgesic treatment in long-term care may be deficient due to the residents' impaired ability to communicate their pain and needs. Undertreated pain frequently leads to rising BPSD in residents with cognitive impairment, resulting in a treatment with antipsychotics. Aim of this study was the analysis of differences in assessment and pharmacological treatment of pain in nursing home residents relative to their cognitive state and ability to articulate pain. Data stems from the baseline of a non-experimental pre-post-study in 12 Austrian nursing homes. Residents' pain prevalence in relation to pain assessment and cognitive decline was assessed, data on medical diagnoses and prescriptions were retrieved from the nursing homes' documentation (n = 425). Residents were first divided into two groups: Residents with MMSE ≥ 18 were selected into group CUS (cognitively unimpaired/slightly impaired), residents with MMSE ≤ 17 were selected into group CI (cognitively moderately to severely impaired). CI residents were then sub-grouped according to their ability to communicate pain via the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) (i.e. group CI-V, group CI-NV). Pain behavior of CI residents was assessed with a modified German version of PAINAD. Group differences were tested with ANOVA and H-test, 95 % confidence intervals were calculated and associations were tested with log-binomial regression. Pain prevalence in CI residents irrespective of their ability to communicate pain was 80 % and exceeded the CUS group prevalence significantly by 14 %. CI residents had significantly less analgesic prescriptions. Furthermore, CI residents have a significantly higher risk of getting no analgesics when in pain than CUS residents (CI-V: RR =2.6, CI-NV: RR =3.4). Use of antipsychotics was high in all groups (49 - 65 %) with more prescriptions in the cognitively impaired group. Results point toward an
Full Text Available Daniela Schoberer,1 Helena Leino-Kilpi,2 Helga E Breimaier,1 Ruud JG Halfens,3 Christa Lohrmann1 1Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Purpose of the study: Health education is essential to improve health care behavior and self-management. However, educating frail, older nursing home residents about their health is challenging. Focusing on empowerment may be the key to educating nursing home residents effectively. This paper examines educational interventions that can be used to empower nursing home residents.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed of the databases PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and Embase, screening for clinical trials that dealt with resident education and outcomes in terms of their ability to empower residents. An additional, manual search of the reference lists and searches with SIGLE and Google Scholar were conducted to identify gray literature. Two authors independently appraised the quality of the studies found and assigned levels to the evidence reported. The results of the studies were grouped according to their main empowering outcomes and described narratively.Results: Out of 427 identified articles, ten intervention studies that addressed the research question were identified. The main educational interventions used were group education sessions, motivational and encouragement strategies, goal setting with residents, and the development of plans to meet defined goals. Significant effects on self-efficacy and self-care behavior were reported as a result of the interventions, which included group education and individual counseling based on resident needs and preferences. In addition, self-care behavior was observed to significantly increase in response to
Helene G. van der Meer
Full Text Available Background: At the end of life goals of care change from disease prevention to symptomatic control, however, little is known about the patterns of medication prescribing at this stage.Objectives: To explore changes in prescribing of symptomatic and preventive medication in the last year of life in older nursing home residents.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using pharmacy medication supply data of 553 residents from 16 nursing home facilities around Sydney, Australia. Residents received 24-h nursing care, were aged ≥ 65 years, died between June 2008 and June 2010 and were using at least one medication 1 year before death. Medications were classified as symptomatic, preventive, or other. A linear mixed model was used to compare changes in prescribing in the last year of life.Results: 68.1% of residents were female, mean age was 88.0 (SD: 7.5 years and residents used a mean of 9.1 (SD: 4.1 medications 1 year before death. The mean number of symptomatic medications per resident increased from 4.6 medications 1 year before death to 5.1 medications at death [95% CI 4.4–4.7 to 5.9–5.2, P = 0.000], while preventive medication decreased from 2.0 to 1.4 medications [95% CI 1.9–2.1 to 1.3–1.5, P = 0.000]. Symptomatic medications were used longer in the last year of life, compared to preventive medications (336.3 days [95% CI 331.8–340.8] versus 310.9 days [95% CI 305.2–316.7], P = 0.000.Conclusion: Use of medications for symptom relief increased throughout the last year of life, while medications for prevention of long-term complications decreased. But changes were slight and clinical relevance can be questioned.
Naganuma, M; Ohkubo, E; Kato, N
Trial experiments utilized robotic pets to facilitate self-reliance in nursing home residents. A remote-control robot modeled clear and meaningful behaviors to elderly residents. Special attention was paid to its effects on mental and social domains. Employing the robot as a gaze target and center of attention created a cue to initiate a communication channel between residents who normally show no interest in each other. The Sony AIBO robot in this study uses commercially available wireless equipment, and all its components are easily accessible to any medical or welfare institution interested in additional practice of these activities.
Wouters, Hans; Scheper, Jessica; Koning, Hedi; Brouwer, Chris; Twisk, Jos W; van der Meer, Helene; Boersma, Froukje; Zuidema, Sytse U; Taxis, Katja
Inappropriate prescribing is a well-known clinical problem in nursing home residents, but few interventions have focused on reducing inappropriate medication use. To examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate medication use and to improve prescribing in nursing home residents. Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial, with clustering by elder care physicians and their wards. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01876095). 59 Dutch nursing home wards for long-term care. Residents with a life expectancy greater than 4 weeks who consented to treatment with medication. Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) consisting of an assessment of the patient perspective, medical history, critical appraisal of medications, a meeting between the treating elder care physician and the pharmacist, and implementation of medication changes. Successful discontinuation of use of at least 1 inappropriate drug (that is, without relapse or severe withdrawal symptoms) and clinical outcomes (neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and quality of life) after 4 months of follow-up. Nineteen elder care physicians (33 wards) performed the 3MR, and 16 elder care physicians (26 wards) followed standard procedures. A total of 426 nursing home residents (233 in the intervention group and 193 in the control group) were followed for an average of 144 days (SD, 21). In an analysis of all participants, use of at least 1 inappropriate medication was successfully discontinued for 91 (39.1%) residents in the intervention group versus 57 (29.5%) in the control group (adjusted relative risk, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.02 to 1.75]). Clinical outcomes did not deteriorate between baseline and follow-up. The 3MR was done only once. Some withdrawal symptoms or relapses may have been missed. The 3MR is effective in discontinuing inappropriate medication use in frail nursing home residents without a decline in their well-being. Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.
Rantz, Marilyn J; Popejoy, Lori; Vogelsmeier, Amy; Galambos, Colleen; Alexander, Greg; Flesner, Marcia; Crecelius, Charles; Ge, Bin; Petroski, Gregory
The goals of the Missouri Quality Initiative (MOQI) for long-stay nursing home residents were to reduce the frequency of avoidable hospital admissions and readmissions, improve resident health outcomes, improve the process of transitioning between inpatient hospitals and nursing facilities, and reduce overall healthcare spending without restricting access to care or choice of providers. The MOQI was one of 7 program sites in the United States, with specific interventions unique to each site tested for the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) Innovations Center. A prospective, single group intervention design, the MOQI included an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) embedded full-time within each nursing home (NH) to influence resident care outcomes. Data were collected continuously for more than 3 years from an average of 1750 long-stay Medicare, Medicaid, and private pay residents living each day in 16 participating nursing homes in urban, metro, and rural communities within 80 miles of a major Midwestern city in Missouri. Performance feedback reports were provided to each facility summarizing their all-cause hospitalizations and potentially avoidable hospitalizations as well as a support team of social work, health information technology, and INTERACT/Quality Improvement Coaches. The MOQI achieved a 30% reduction in all-cause hospitalizations and statistically significant reductions in 4 single quarters of the 2.75 years of full implementation of the intervention for long-stay nursing home residents. As the population of older people explodes in upcoming decades, it is critical to find good solutions to deal with increasing costs of health care. APRNs, working with multidisciplinary support teams, are a good solution to improving care and reducing costs if all nursing home residents have access to APRNs nationwide. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chappell, Neena L; Kadlec, Helena; Reid, Colin
Social skills are of primary importance for those with dementia and their care providers, yet we know little about the extent to which basic social skills can be maintained over time and the predictors of change. A total of 18 nursing homes with 149 newly admitted residents with moderate to severe dementia, 195 direct care staff, and 135 family members, in British Columbia, Canada, contributed data on change in social skills from admission to 6 months and 1 year later. Three-quarters of residents maintained or improved their basic social skills during both the time periods. Decline was explained primarily by cognitive status at the time of admission, notably present orientation. However, staff-to-resident communication becomes more important over time. Social skills appear to present an opportunity to maintain interaction with these residents. The findings also suggest that a focus on the present orientation before and following admission and on staff-to-resident communication may be beneficial.
Darton, Robin; Bäumker, Theresia; Callaghan, Lisa; Holder, Jacquetta; Netten, Ann; Towers, Ann-Marie
Extra care housing aims to meet the housing, care and support needs of older people, while helping them to maintain their independence in their own private accommodation. It has been viewed as a possible alternative, or even a replacement for residential care. In 2003, the Department of Health announced capital funding to support the development of extra care housing and made the receipt of funding conditional on participating in an evaluative study. This paper presents findings on the characteristics of the residents at the time of moving in, drawing on information collected from the 19 schemes in the evaluation, and a recent comparable study of residents who moved into care homes providing personal care. Overall, the people who moved into extra care were younger and much less physically and cognitively impaired than those who moved into care homes. However, the prevalence of the medical conditions examined was more similar for the two groups, and several of the schemes had a significant minority of residents with high levels of dependence on the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living. In contrast, levels of severe cognitive impairment were much lower in all schemes than the overall figure for residents of care homes, even among schemes designed specifically to provide for residents with dementia. The results suggest that, although extra care housing may be operating as an alternative to care homes for some individuals, it is providing for a wider population, who may be making a planned move rather than reacting to a crisis. While extra care supports residents with problems of cognitive functioning, most schemes appear to prefer residents to move in when they can become familiar with their new accommodation before the development of more severe cognitive impairment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bourgeois, Jolyce; Elseviers, Monique M; Van Bortel, Luc; Petrovic, Mirko; Vander Stichele, Robert H
Guidelines discourage chronic benzodiazepines and related Z drugs (BZD/Zs) for sleep problems. However, prevalence among nursing home residents remains high. Discontinuing these drugs is widely recommended but seems difficult to implement. The aim of our study was to evaluate the overall feasibility in the nursing home, in terms of willingness towards discontinuation and success rate at 8 months, together with the impact on withdrawal symptoms, change in sleep quality, quality of life and medication use. In a convenience sample of five nursing homes (823 residents), we included cognitively competent residents with chronic BZD/Z use for insomnia. We investigated sleep quality [with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)], quality of life (EQ-5D) and withdrawal symptoms [Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (BWSQ)]. Success rate was analysed with survival analysis. Of the 135 eligible residents, both general physician (GP) and resident were willing to initiate discontinuation in 38 residents. Reasons for refusing to initiate discontinuation among GPs was the unmotivated patient and among residents the reluctance towards change. At 8 months, 66.0% were successful discontinuers, with the subjective PSQI component evolving favourably (p = 0.013) and a decreasing number of midnight awakenings (p = 0.041). In the relapse group (n = 13), the quality of life decreased (p = 0.012), with mainly an increase of problems with activities and pain/discomfort. In both groups, the withdrawal symptoms, functionality and medication use did not change. Discontinuation of chronic BZD/Z use is feasible in the nursing home setting without noticeable withdrawal symptoms, without a switch in medication use, without detrimental effect on quality of life and with a positive effect on the self-perceived sleep quality.
Chen, I-Chun; Liu, May-Lien; Twu, Fuh-Chour; Yuan, Chia-Hei
Nursing home residents usually suffer from a variety of medical conditions and are prescribed a wider variety of medications than any other subpopulation. Polypharmacy is associated with the occurrence of adverse events. The purposes of this study were to describe the medication prescription patterns of residents who died in a nursing home, to examine how this pattern changed as residents progressed toward death, and to identify correlates of increased medication prescriptions. Thirty-one residents who had lived at one nursing home for more than 6 months before death were included in the study. Medication records for participants were obtained at four data collection points: on admission, 6 months before death, 3 months before death, and at death. The mean number of medications prescribed immediately before death was 7.90 (SD = 3.27), and there was an upward trend in number of prescriptions written as patients neared death. The most frequent prescription was for medication for constipation, pulmonary care, and hypertension. There was a significant correlation between residents with heart disease and increased medication use. Medication prescribed for pulmonary care and hypertension increased from admission to death, but a decreased use of medication for pain relief in the time before death in these cases was found. This study surveyed and described the pattern of medication use in nursing home residents from admission to the end of life. Results can be used to reinforce clinician and nursing staff awareness of prescription frequency, amounts of medication, and change over time for elderly residents under their care. In addition to safer prescribing practices for the older people, nonpharmacological strategies (e.g., lifestyle modification and physiotherapy for function training) may be used to address common symptoms and complaints during chronic care.
Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Lillestø, Britt
Background: Physical impairment and dependency on others may be a threat to dignity. Research questions: The purpose of this study was to explore dignity as a core concept in caring, and how healthcare personnel focus on and foster dignity in nursing home residents. Research design: This study has...... a hermeneutic design. Participants and research context: In all, 40 healthcare personnel from six nursing homes in Scandinavia participated in focus group interviews in this study. Ethical considerations: This study has been evaluated and approved by the Regional Ethical Committees and the Social Science Data...... personnel, maintaining human dignity requires slow caring in nursing homes, as an essential approach....
Ni, Ping; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zhao Xi; Nie, Rong; Phillips, Jane; Mao, Jing
To describe Chinese nursing home residents' knowledge of advance directive (AD) and end-of-life care preferences and to explore the predictors of their preference for AD. Population-based cross-sectional survey. Nursing homes (n = 31) in Wuhan, Mainland Southern China. Cognitively intact nursing home residents (n = 467) older than 60 years. Face-to-face questionnaire interviews were used to collect information on demographics, chronic diseases, life-sustaining treatment, AD, and other end-of-life care preferences. Most (95.3%) had never heard of AD, and fewer than one-third (31.5%) preferred to make an AD. More than half (52.5%) would receive life-sustaining treatment if they sustained a life-threatening condition. Fewer than one-half (43.3%) chose doctors as the surrogate decision maker about life-sustaining treatment, whereas most (78.8%) nominated their eldest son or daughter as their proxy. More than half (58.2%) wanted to live and die in their present nursing homes. The significant independent predictors of AD preference included having heard of AD before (odds ratio [OR] 9.323), having definite answers of receiving (OR 3.433) or rejecting (OR 2.530) life-sustaining treatment, and higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score (OR 1.098). Most nursing home residents did not know about AD, and nearly one-third showed positive attitudes toward it. AD should be promoted in mainland China. Education of residents, the proxy decision maker, and nursing home staff on AD is very important. Necessary policy support, legislation, or practice guidelines about AD should be made with flexibility to respect nursing home residents' rights in mainland China. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This is the first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home for this builder, who earned a Custom Builder honor in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The home included rigid mineral wool board insulation over house wrap and plywood on the 2x6 advanced framed walls, achieving HERS 33 without PV.
Shin, Juh Hyun; Hyun, Ta Kyung
To investigate the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care in nursing homes in Korea. This study used a cross-sectional design to describe the relationship between nurse staffing and 15 quality-of-care outcomes. Independent variables were hours per resident day (HPRD), skill mix, and turnover of each nursing staff, developed with the definitions of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the American Health Care Association. Dependent variables were prevalence of residents who experienced more than one fall in the recent 3 months, aggressive behaviors, depression, cognitive decline, pressure sores, incontinence, prescribed antibiotics because of urinary tract infection, weight loss, dehydration, tube feeding, bed rest, increased activities of daily living, decreased range of motion, use of antidepressants, and use of restraints. Outcome variables were quality indicators from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid and 2013 nursing home evaluation manual by the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The effects of registered nurse (RN) HPRD was supported in fall prevention, decreased tube feeding, decreased numbers of residents with deteriorated range of motion, and decreased aggressive behavior. Higher turnover of RNs related to more residents with dehydration, bed rest, and use of antipsychotic medication. Study results supported RNs' unique contribution to resident outcomes in comparison to alternative nurse staffing in fall prevention, decreased use of tube feeding, better range of motion for residents, and decreased aggressive behaviors in nursing homes in Korea. More research is required to confirm the effects of nurse staffing on residents' outcomes in Korea. We found consistency in the effects of RN staffing on resident outcomes acceptable. By assessing nurse staffing levels and compositions of nursing staffs, this study contributes to more effective long-term care insurance by reflecting on appropriate policies, and ultimately
Beck, Cornelia; Richards, Kathy; Lambert, Corinne; Doan, Rebecca; Landes, Reid D.; Whall, Ann; Algase, Donna; Kolanowski, Ann; Feldman, Zachary
Purpose of the Study: Problematic vocalizations (PVs) are the most frequent and persistent disruptive behaviors exhibited by nursing home residents with dementia. Understanding factors associated with these behaviors are important to prevent or reduce them. We used the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model to identify the characteristics…
The numbers and characteristics of white residents identified by medical and nursing staff to require more staff time and/or expertise and/or medical equipment than was available in rural homes for the aged in the Orange Free State were assessed. In the opinion of institution staff, 12,6% of extremely infirm aged persons ...
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.; Berno, M. van; Bensing, J.; Miel, R.
Introduction: The prevalence rate of depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents with dementia is recently estimated at 19%. Comorbid depression in dementia has been associated with decreased quality of life, greater health care utilization and higher mortality rates. The effects of
Volicer, L.; Frijters, D.H.M.; van der Steen, J.T.
Objective The aim of this study is to analyze modifiable factors related to agitation of nursing home residents with dementia. Methods Relationship of agitation with three modifiable factors (depression, psychosis, and pain) was explored using longitudinal Minimum Data Set (MDS) information from
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of introducing a nursing guideline on depression in residents with dementia of psychogeriatric nursing home wards. METHODS: A multi-center controlled clinical trial with randomization at ward level was used to study the effects of the guideline introduction. Nursing
Achterberg, W.; Pot, A.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Ooms, M.; Muller, M.; Ribbe, M.
Purpose: To study the effect of depression (high levels of depressive symptoms) on social engagement. Design and Methods: In 65 nursing homes in the Netherlands, 562 newly admitted residents were assessed at admission. Social engagement was measured with the MDS Index of Social Engagement. A
Kollenburg, E.G. van; Lavrijsen, J.C.M.; Verhagen, S.; Zuidema, S.U.; Schalkwijk, A.; Vissers, K.C.P.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence and causes of neuropathic pain in Dutch nursing home residents; to establish the prevalence of painful and nonpainful diabetic polyneuropathy in a subsample of individuals with diabetes mellitus and central poststroke pain (CPSP) in a subsample of individuals
van Kollenburg, Esther G. P.; Lavrijsen, Jan C. M.; Verhagen, Stans C.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Schalkwijk, Annelies; Vissers, Kris C. P.
Objectives To identify the prevalence and causes of neuropathic pain in Dutch nursing home residents; to establish the prevalence of painful and nonpainful diabetic polyneuropathy in a subsample of individuals with diabetes mellitus and central poststroke pain (CPSP) in a subsample of individuals
Sanchez, Stéphane; Le Guillou, Adrien; Messaoudi, Yasmine; Letty, Aude; Denormandie, Philippe
A study analysed, on the one hand, the efficacy of the use of music therapy with residents and, on the other, the feasibility of the implementation of such a technique in nursing homes and in follow-up and rehabilitation units. In this context, music therapy seems to be an effective alternative to traditional approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... homes for the aged in the Orange Free State were assessed. In the opinion of institution staff, 12,6% of extremely infirm aged persons would benefit by admission to a hospital catering for the chronically ill. The conditions affecting these residents are described and recommendations relating to their management are made ...
Grönstedt, Helena; Hellström, Karin; Bergland, Astrid
The main aim of this study was to describe physical and cognitive function and wellbeing among nursing home residents in three Nordic countries. A second aim was to compare groups of differing ages, levels of dependency in daily life activities (ADL), degree of fall-related self-efficacy, wellbeing...
Barents, Maaike; Hillege, Hans H. L.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; de Boer, Rudolph A.; Koster, J.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; de Jongste, Mike J. L.
Objectives: To investigate 1-year mortality prediction of B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) in institutionalized elderly with multiple morbidities. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: One nursing home. Participants: Ninety-three residents (mean age 81
Geurts, S.A.E.; Rutte, C.G.; Peeters, M.C.W.
A cross-sectional field study is reported in which a comprehensive model of work–home interference (WHI) was developed and tested among 166 medical residents of an academic hospital in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that WHI functions as a critical mediating pathway in the relationship between
Toren-Wielema, M.L.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Kappelle, J.W.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Van Roon, E.N.
BACKGROUND The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in nursing home residents (NHR) ranges from 79 to 98%. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of a standardised oral Vitamin D dosing regimen (VDDRI consisting of a loading dose (ID) of 200,000 IU followed by a maintenance dose (MD) of 100.000 IU every
Thomas, Kali S.; Hyer, Kathryn; Castle, Nicholas G.; Branch, Laurence G.; Andel, Ross; Weech-Maldonado, Robert
Purpose of the study: Studies have shown that patient safety culture (PSC) is poorly developed in nursing homes (NHs), and, therefore, residents of NHs may be at risk of harm. Using Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model, we examined the relationships among top management's ratings of NH PSC, a process of care, and safety outcomes.…
Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber
The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…
Custers, A.F.J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Kuin, Y.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.
Based on self-determination theory and person-environment congruence models, this study investigated the importance and experiences of relatedness, autonomy, and competence in the caring relationship from the perspective of residents of somatic nursing homes. Furthermore, discrepancies between the
Stephens, Caroline E.; Newcomer, Robert; Blegen, Mary; Miller, Bruce; Harrington, Charlene
Purpose: To examine the 1-year prevalence and risk of emergency department (ED) use and ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) ED use by nursing home (NH) residents with different levels of severity of cognitive impairment (CI). Design and Methods: We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effect of CI severity on the odds of any ED visit…
Smeets, C.H.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Vries, E. de; Spek, K. van der; Koopmans, R.T.; Gerritsen, D.L.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. DESIGN: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. SETTING: Twelve NHs in The
Smeets, C.H.W.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; de Vries, E.; van der Spek, K.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Gerritsen, D.L.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore factors that elucidate reasons for psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Design: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Setting: Twelve NHs in The
Beck, Anne Marie
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between underweight status and weight loss events on the need for health care assistance among a sample of Danish nursing home residents over 12-months. Design: Longitudinal, repeated measures design with three data collection...
Kalis, A.; Schermer, M.H.N.; van Delden, J.J.M.
This study investigates what professional caregivers working in nursing homes consider to be a good life for residents suffering from dementia. Ten caregivers were interviewed; special attention was paid to the way in which they deal with conflicting values. Transcripts of the interviews were
Abrahamson, Kathleen; Clark, Daniel; Perkins, Anthony; Arling, Greg
Purpose: We investigated the relationship between cognitive status and quality of life (QOL) of Minnesota nursing home (NH) residents and the relationship between conventional or Alzheimer's special care unit (SCU) placement and QOL. The study may inform development of dementia-specific quality measures. Design and Methods: Data for analyses came…
Schapira, Marilyn M; Shea, Judy A; Duey, Katia A; Kleiman, Carly; Werner, Rachel M
To evaluate the perceived usefulness of publicly reported nursing home quality indicators. Primary data were collected from October 2013 to August 2014 among a convenience sample of persons (or family member) recently admitted or anticipating admission to a nursing home within 75 miles of the city of Philadelphia. Structured interviews were conducted to assess the salience of data on the Medicare Nursing Home Compare website, including star ratings, clinical quality measures, and benchmarking of individual nursing home quality with state and national data. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, independently coded by two reviewers, and agreement determined. A thematic analysis of transcripts was undertaken. Thirty-five interviews were completed. Eighty-three percent (n = 29) were caregivers and 17 percent (n = 6) were residents. Star ratings, clinical quality measures, and benchmarking information were salient to decision making, with preferred formats varying across participants. Participants desired additional information on the source of quality data. Confusion was evident regarding the relationship between domain-specific and overall star quality ratings. The Nursing Home Compare website provides salient content and formats for consumers. Increased awareness of this resource and clarity regarding the definition of measures could further support informed decision making regarding nursing home choice. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Heidi H. Ewen
Full Text Available Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%, homemaker services (19%, and transportation services (18%. More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and
Ewen, Heidi H; Washington, Tiffany R; Emerson, Kerstin G; Carswell, Andrew T; Smith, Matthew Lee
Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to "age-in-place." To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS) for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results : When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%), homemaker services (19%), and transportation services (18%). More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions : Findings suggest that older adults' residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person-Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and mental health needs as
Carter, Mary W; Porell, Frank W
This study examined the contribution of facility-level and area market-level attributes to variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents. Three years (1991-1994) of state quarterly Medicaid case-mix reimbursement data from 527 nursing homes (NH) in Massachusetts were linked with Medicare Provider Analysis and Review hospital claims and nursing facility attribute data to produce a longitudinal, analytical file containing 72,319 person-quarter observations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of facility-level and market-level factors on hospital use, after controlling for individual-level resident attributes, including: NH diagnoses, resident-level quality of care indicators, and diagnostic cost grouping classification from previous hospital stays. Multivariate findings suggest that resident heterogeneity alone does not account for the wide variations in hospitalization rates across nursing homes. Instead, facility characteristics such as profit status, nurse staffing patterns, NH size, chain affiliation, and percentage of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursed days significantly influence NH residents' risk of hospitalization. Broader area market factors also appear to contribute to variations in hospitalization rates. Variations in hospitalization rates may reflect underutilization, as well as overutilization. Continued efforts toward identifying medically necessary hospitalizations are needed.
M. A. Jallad
Full Text Available Introduction. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can cause severe infections, but they are also isolated from the stool of asymptomatic subjects. Faecal carriage of such organism is poorly understood. Methods. First phase of the study was cross-sectional with prevalence and epidemiology of ESBL faecal carriage in two nursing homes in Beirut: 57 residents in the first (NH1 and 151 residents in the second (NH2. In second phase, faecal swabs from cohort of NH1 residents were examined for carriage at six-week intervals over three-month period. Residents’ charts were reviewed to assess carriage risk factors. Results. Over 3 consecutive samplings at NH1, 81% of residents were at least one-time carriers with 50% at the first round, 60.4% at the second, and 74.5% at the last one. At NH2, 68.2% of residents were carriers. Constipation (in NH1 and antibiotic intake (in NH2 were significantly associated with higher ESBL faecal carriage while the length of stay at the nursing home (in NH2 was associated with less carriage. Conclusion. Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is high among nursing home patients in Beirut. The rate of carriage changes rapidly and significantly over time either with multiple factors playing a possible role like outbreak spreading, antibiotic, and health care system exposure.
Buckinx, F; Reginster, J Y; Petermans, J; Croisier, J L; Beaudart, C; Brunois, T; Bruyère, O
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between frailty and a large number of indicators related to physical and muscular performance as well as quality of life. This is an analysis of data collected at baseline in the Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research (SENIOR) cohort including nursing home residents. Subjects are volunteer, oriented and able to walk (walking assistance allowed) nursing home residents in Belgium. A large number of demographic and clinical characteristics, including physical and muscular performance, were collected from each patient. The prevalence of frailty in this population was assessed using Fried's definition. In total, 662 subjects are included in this analysis. The mean age of the sample is 83.2 ± 8.99 years, and 484 (73.1 %) are women. In this population of nursing home residents, the prevalence of frailty is 25.1 %, pre-frailty, 59.8 % and robustness, 15.1 %. Compared to non-frail subjects, frail subjects have lower physical and muscular performances and a lower quality of life. Frailty, according to Fried's definition, seems to be associated with several clinical indicators suggesting a higher level of disability and an increased propensity to develop major clinical consequences. Follow-up data of the SENIOR cohort will be helpful in confirming these findings, establishing cause-effect relationships and identifying the most predictive components of physical frailty for adverse outcomes in nursing homes.
Seeger, Insa; Luque Ramos, Andres; Hoffmann, Falk
Utilization of outpatient emergency services by nursing home residents is increasing; however, out of hours medical care (OOHC) in Germany has not yet been studied. In Bremen the used billing codes enabled a comparison between the use of outpatient emergency care in the year before and the year after admission to a nursing home stratified by emergency departments and OOHC. In this retrospective cohort study we used insurance claims data of residents in Bremen, who were insured in a large German statutory health insurance (DAK-Gesundheit). We compared the use of emergency care in hospitals or OOHC practices in the year before and the year after admission to a nursing home. The incidence rates of visits, distribution on weekdays and coded diagnoses were investigated. We included 1175 nursing home residents (77% female) with a mean age of 85 years. After admission to a nursing home the incidence rate of visits in the OOHC practices increased from 30.4 up to 63.7 and in emergency departments (ED) from 27.4 up to 50.7 per 100 person years. A total of 59% of all visits in OOHC practices were on weekends. The most common diagnoses in ED were injuries and poisoning (75%) while a wide range of diagnoses were coded in the OOHC practices. There is a significant difference between diagnoses in the ED and OOHC practices. More research is needed to assess the appropriateness of care.
Plastow, Nicola Ann
Depression is a common, and often undetected, psychiatric disorder in geriatric care home residents. Reminiscence, an independent nursing therapy used by a variety of health and social care professionals, can prevent or reduce depression. This practice development project explored the use of reminiscence life history books as an interpersonal therapeutic tool with 3 depressed care-home residents living in residential care and skilled nursing facilities. The process of choosing to produce a book, assessment of capabilities, and methods of construction are described using 3 illustrative case studies. Three themes emerged: reviewing the past, accepting the present, and dreaming of an alternative future. This project demonstrated that life history books, tailored to individual needs and abilities, can facilitate reminiscence and reduce depression by increasing social interaction. The benefits to residents, their families, and care staff are discussed and the relevance to nursing practice highlighted.
Full Text Available To verify the probability of maintaining functional capacity in basic activities of daily living and identify the prognostic factors of functional decline in institutionalized older adults.A longitudinal study is presented herein, with 5 waves every 6 months, throughout 2 years (2013-2015, conducted with individuals ≥60 years old in 10 nursing homes in the city of Natal-RN (Brazil. Functional capacity was assessed by the items 'eating', 'personal hygiene', 'dressing', 'bathing', 'transferring', 'toileting' and 'walking', through a 5-item Likert scale. Sociodemographic, institution-related and health-related variables were considered to establish the baseline. Time dependent variables included continence decline, cognitive decline, increase in the number of medication, and incidences of falls, hospitalizations and fractures. The actuarial method, the log-rank test and Cox's regression were applied as statistical methods.The cumulative probability of functional maintenance was 78.2% (CI 95%: 72.8-82.7%, 65.1% (CI 95%: 58.9-70.5%, 53.5% (CI 95%: 47.2-59.5% and 44.0% (CI 95%: 37.7-50.2% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. Predicting factors for functional decline were: severe cognitive impairment (HR = 1.96; p = 0.001, continence decline (HR = 1.85; p = 0.002 and incidence of hospitalizations (HR = 1.62; p = 0.020, adjusted by the incidence of depression, age, education level, presence of chronic diseases and low weight.The cumulative probability of maintaining functional capacity in institutionalized older adults was only 44% at the 2-year follow-up. Prognostic factors for functional decline included severe cognitive impairment, continence decline and incidence of hospitalizations.
Marmeleira, José; Ferreira, Soraia; Raimundo, Armando
Physical activity and physical fitness are important for health, functional mobility and performance of everyday activities. To date, little attention has been given to physical activity and physical fitness among nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior and physical fitness of institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment and to investigate their interrelations. Forty-eight older adults with cognitive impairment (83.9±7.7years; 72.9% women) and 22 without cognitive impairment (82.2±8.8years; 54.5% women) participated. Physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometers and physical fitness components (muscular strength, flexibility, balance, body composition and reaction time) were evaluated with physical fitness field tests. Nursing home residents with cognitive impairment spent only ~1min per day in moderate physical activity and ~89min in light physical activity. In average they accumulated 863 (±599) steps per day and spent 87.2% of the accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior. Participants' physical fitness components were markedly low and according to the cut-offs used for interpreting the results a great number of nursing home residents had an increased risk of associated health problems, functional impairment and of falling. The performance in some physical fitness tests was positively associated with physical activity. Participants without cognitive impairment had higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness than their counterparts with cognitive impairment. These results indicate that nursing home residents, especially those with cognitive impairment, have low levels of physical activity, spent a high proportion of daytime in sedentary behavior and have low physical fitness. Nursing homes should implement health promotion strategies targeting physical activity and physical fitness of their residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier
Vandervoort, A.; Block, L.; van der Steen, J.T.; Volicer, L.; van der Stichele, R.; Houttekier, D.; Deliens, L.
Objectives: There is a lack of large-scale, nationwide data describing clinical characteristics and quality of dying of nursing home residents dying with dementia. We set out to investigate quality of end-of-life care and quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium.
Sackley Cath M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The occupational therapy (OT in care homes study (OTCH aims to investigate the effect of a targeted course of individual OT (with task training, provision of adaptive equipment, minor environmental adaptations and staff education for stroke survivors living in care homes, compared to usual care. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial of United Kingdom (UK care homes (n = 90 with residents (n = 900 who have suffered a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA, and who are not receiving end-of-life care. Homes will be stratified by centre and by type of care provided and randomised (50:50 using computer generated blocked randomisation within strata to receive either the OT intervention (3 months intervention from an occupational therapist or control (usual care. Staff training on facilitating independence and mobility and the use of adaptive equipment, will be delivered to every home, with control homes receiving this after the 12 month follow-up. Allocation will be concealed from the independent assessors, but the treating therapists, and residents will not be masked to the intervention. Measurements are taken at baseline prior to randomisation and at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. The primary outcome measure is independence in self-care activities of daily living (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index. Secondary outcome measures are mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index, mood (Geriatric Depression Scale, preference based quality of life measured from EQ-5D and costs associated with each intervention group. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs will be derived based on the EQ-5D scores. Cost effectiveness analysis will be estimated and measured by incremental cost effectiveness ratio. Adverse events will be recorded. Discussion This study will be the largest cluster randomised controlled trial of OT in care homes to date and will clarify the currently inconclusive literature on the efficacy of OT for
Sackley, Cath M; Burton, Chris R; Herron-Marx, Sandy; Lett, Karen; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Sharp, Leslie J; Sheehan, Bart; Stant, Katie E; Walker, Marion F; Watkins, Caroline L; Wheatley, Keith; Williams, Jane; Yao, Guiqing L; Feltham, Max G
The occupational therapy (OT) in care homes study (OTCH) aims to investigate the effect of a targeted course of individual OT (with task training, provision of adaptive equipment, minor environmental adaptations and staff education) for stroke survivors living in care homes, compared to usual care. A cluster randomised controlled trial of United Kingdom (UK) care homes (n = 90) with residents (n = 900) who have suffered a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and who are not receiving end-of-life care. Homes will be stratified by centre and by type of care provided and randomised (50:50) using computer generated blocked randomisation within strata to receive either the OT intervention (3 months intervention from an occupational therapist) or control (usual care). Staff training on facilitating independence and mobility and the use of adaptive equipment, will be delivered to every home, with control homes receiving this after the 12 month follow-up.Allocation will be concealed from the independent assessors, but the treating therapists, and residents will not be masked to the intervention. Measurements are taken at baseline prior to randomisation and at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. The primary outcome measure is independence in self-care activities of daily living (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index). Secondary outcome measures are mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index), mood (Geriatric Depression Scale), preference based quality of life measured from EQ-5D and costs associated with each intervention group. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) will be derived based on the EQ-5D scores. Cost effectiveness analysis will be estimated and measured by incremental cost effectiveness ratio. Adverse events will be recorded. This study will be the largest cluster randomised controlled trial of OT in care homes to date and will clarify the currently inconclusive literature on the efficacy of OT for stroke and TIA survivors residing in care homes. ISRCTN
Chang, Jun-Yih; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chang, Chia-Ching
This study assessed current perspectives and expectations for telemedicine by nursing home caregivers and families of nursing home patients in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 116 interviews were conducted with family members (n=37) and caregivers (n=79) using an original, four-part questionnaire devised to assess the expectations and concerns related to prospective telemedicine opportunities, including consumer attitude, knowledge of and interest in medicine, concerns and worries about telemedicine, and anticipated benefits of telemedicine. Statistical significance between the two groups was observed in sex, age, and educational level (all ppatients, notifications of health abnormalities, teleconferencing between physicians and family members, obtaining test/exam results and face-to-face consultation through telenetworks. Both groups hoped for information and education through telemedicine. More caregivers were concerned about increased costs (p=0.020), poor hardware quality (psecurity, confidentiality, and reliability (p=0.036), inconvenience to patients (p=0.006), associated moral and ethical issues (p=0.006), and uncertainty about responsibility (p=0.022). The two groups did not differ in expectations concerning benefits of telemedicine. More than 60% of family members or caregivers expected improved efficiency and quality of hospital and nursing home health care, greater rapport between nursing homes and either staff or patients, reduced overall medical costs of caregiving, and reduced staff/caregiver working hours. The acceptable cost was anything up to $15.30 USD per month. Nursing home caregivers and families of nursing home patients are highly interested in telemedicine; however, they are only willing to pay a slightly higher cost of nursing care for this service. The challenge for the future in this industry is to balance peoples' demands and telemedicine's associated costs. Results of this study suggest that caregivers and families of nursing home residents
Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Burton, Christopher R; Watkins, Caroline L; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Wheatley, Keith; Sheehan, Bart; Sharp, Leslie; Stant, Katie E; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Steel, Kerry; Wilde, Kate; Irvine, Lisa; Peryer, Guy
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of an established programme of occupational therapy in maintaining functional activity and reducing further health risks from inactivity in care home residents living with stroke sequelae. Pragmatic, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial. 228 care homes (>10 beds each), both with and without the provision of nursing care, local to 11 trial administrative centres across the United Kingdom. 1042 care home residents with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, including those with language and cognitive impairments, not receiving end of life care. 114 homes (n=568 residents, 64% from homes providing nursing care) were allocated to the intervention arm and 114 homes (n=474 residents, 65% from homes providing nursing care) to standard care (control arm). Participating care homes were randomised between May 2010 and March 2012. Targeted three month programme of occupational therapy, delivered by qualified occupational therapists and assistants, involving patient centred goal setting, education of care home staff, and adaptations to the environment. Primary outcome at the participant level: scores on the Barthel index of activities of daily living at three months post-randomisation. Secondary outcome measures at the participant level: Barthel index scores at six and 12 months post-randomisation, and scores on the Rivermead mobility index, geriatric depression scale-15, and EuroQol EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, at all time points. 64% of the participants were women and 93% were white, with a mean age of 82.9 years. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups for all measures, personal characteristics, and diagnostic tests. Overall, 2538 occupational therapy visits were made to 498 participants in the intervention arm (mean 5.1 visits per participant). No adverse events attributable to the intervention were recorded. 162 (11%) died before the primary outcome time point, and 313 (30%) died over the 12 months of
Givens, Jane L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Kiely, Dan K.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Mitchell, Susan L.
Objectives To describe pre-loss and post-loss grief symptoms among family members of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia, and to identify predictors of greater post-loss grief symptoms. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 22 NHs in the greater Boston area. Participants 123 family members of NH residents who died with advanced dementia. Measurements Pre-loss grief was measured at baseline, and post-loss grief was measured 2 and 7 months post-loss using the Prolonged Grief Disorder scale. Independent variables included resident and family member sociodemographic characteristics, resident comfort, acute illness, acute care prior to death, family member depression, and family member understanding of dementia and of resident’s prognosis. Results Levels of pre-loss and post-loss grief were relatively stable from baseline to 7 months post-loss. Feelings of separation and yearning were the most prominent grief symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, greater pre-loss grief and the family member having lived with the resident prior to NH admission were the only factors independently associated with greater post-loss grief 7 months after resident death. Conclusions The pattern of grieving for some family members of NH residents with advanced dementia is prolonged and begins before resident death. Identification of family members at risk for post-loss grief during the pre-loss period may help guide interventions aimed at lessening post-loss grief. PMID:21606897
Almomani, Fidaa; Hamasha, Abed Al-Hadi; Williams, Karen B; Almomani, Murad
The purpose of this study is to describe physical, mental and cognitive disabilities and periodontal status as indicated by periodontal health, edentulism and use of dentures among nursing home residents in Jordan. A sample of 221 subjects with a mean age of 62.4 years (121 males and 100 females) from nursing home residents in Jordan were recruited to participate in this study. Oral health status, mini mental state examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Tinetti Assessment Battery for gait and balance (TAB) and disability of arm, shoulder and hand test (DASH) were assessed for all subjects. The response rate was about 88%. The multivariate analysis showed that the degree of upper limb disabilities, as measured by DASH, and reporting not brushing of teeth were the main risk indicators for severity of periodontal disease. Residents with dentures were found to have significantly higher cognitive abilities scores (MMSE), better upper arm abilities (DASH) and gait and balance score (TAB) in comparison with edentulous adults without dentures. Edentulous residents were found to suffer more from cognitive impairment (MMSE) than dentate residents. There was no predilection of upper limb (DASH) and lower limb (TAB) disabilities or depressive symptoms (GDS) for edentulous over dentate subjects. Results suggest that nursing home residents with a variety of physical, cognitive and psychological disabilities are at increased risk of deterioration of their oral health. All those associated with the health of residents need to be aware of this issue and take preventive and therapeutic measures as needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Westerlind, Björn; Östgren, Carl Johan; Mölstad, Sigvard; Midlöv, Patrik
Anemia is common in elderly people and especially in nursing home residents. Few studies have been performed on the consequences of anemia in a nursing home population. This study explored the prevalence of anemia in nursing homes in Sweden, including risk factors and mortality associated with anemia or hemoglobin (Hb) decline. Three hundred ninety patients from 12 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. Information about medication, blood samples, questionnaire responses and information about physical and social activities was recorded. The baseline characteristics of the patients were compared for subjects with and without anemia. Vital status was ascertained during the following 7 years from baseline to compare the survival. Hb levels 100 ng/L) and severely reduced eGFR ( 9 g/L) was compared with the highest (improvement > 6 g/L) the mortality was higher in the lowest quartile (p = 0.03). Anemia is common in nursing home residents in Sweden, especially among men for whom it is related to higher mortality. A rapid Hb drop is associated with higher mortality. Regardless of earlier Hb values, monitoring Hb regularly in a nursing home population seems important for catching rapid Hb decline correlated with higher mortality.
Belderok, J J
The situation in homes for the elderly and nursing homes is for the residents both alarming and tragic. Recent Dutch legislation supports the movement towards more self-determination and autonomy for the residents. The staff are dedicated to making the living situation as good as possible for the residents. Nevertheless many publications describe how the dependence and helplessness of the residents stil continue. In this paper this helplessness is placed within the broader framework of modern society by application of Habermas' theory of communicative action and Giddens' structuration theory. Both theories show that the key to improve dependent making structures should be sought principally in the behaviour of both staff and residents. Habermas offers a perspective to more equivalent communicative action between residents and staff. Giddens draws attention to the knowledgeability of residents, with which they should be able to interact on an equal basis with professionals. This presupposes much dedication of both staff and residents.
Aleksandra Korzeniewska-Eksterowicz; Łukasz Przysło; Bogna Kędzierska; Małgorzata Stolarska; Wojciech Młynarski
Context. The current literature suggests that perinatal palliative care (PPC) programs should be comprehensive, initiated early, and integrative. So far there have been very few publications on the subject of home-based PC of newborns and neonates. Most publications focus on hospital-based care, mainly in the neonatal intensive care units. Objective. To describe the neonates and infants who received home-based palliative care in Lodz Region between 2005 and 2011. Methods. A retrospective rev...
Chu, Leung-Wing; Luk, James K H; Hui, Elsie; Chiu, Patrick K C; Chan, Cherry S Y; Kwan, Fiona; Kwok, Timothy; Lee, Diana; Woo, Jean
The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge and preferences of Hong Kong Chinese older adults regarding advance directives and end-of-life care decisions, and to investigate the predictors of preferences for advance directive and community end-of-life care in nursing homes. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 140 nursing homes in Hong Kong. A total of 1600 cognitively normal Chinese older adults were recruited. Information on demographics, social, medical diseases, preferences of end-of-life care decisions, and advance directives were collected by face-to-face questionnaire interviews. The mean age of the participants was 82.4 years; 94.2% of them would prefer to be informed of the diagnosis if they had terminal diseases and 88.0% preferred to have their advance directives regarding medical treatment in the future. Approximately 35% would prefer to die in their nursing homes. The significant independent predictors for the preference of advance directive included asking for relatives' advice, wishing to be informed of their terminal illness diagnoses, absence of stroke, and having no problems in self-care in European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions. For the preference for community end-of-life care and dying in nursing homes, the independent predictors included older age, not having siblings in Hong Kong, Catholic religion, nonbeliever of traditional Chinese religion, not receiving any old age allowance, lower Geriatric Depression Scale score, and being residents of government-subsidized nursing homes. Most of our cognitively normal Chinese nursing home older adults prefer having an advance directive, and one-third of them would prefer to die in nursing homes. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Residents in nursing homes (NHs always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China.Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, spa and SCCmec typing.Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%, 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%, and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%. Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1% to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%, CC188 (13.5% and CC5 (12.8%. The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%, followed by t14383 (12.8% and t002 (10.6%.A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin
Zhang, Ji; Gu, Fei-Fei; Zhao, Sheng-Yuan; Xiao, Shu-Zhen; Wang, Yan-Chun; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Ni, Yu-Xing; Han, Li-Zhong
Residents in nursing homes (NHs) always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China. Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing. Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%), 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%), and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%). Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1%) to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%), CC188 (13.5%) and CC5 (12.8%). The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%), followed by t14383 (12.8%) and t002 (10.6%). A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S
Goodman, Claire; Norton, Christine; Buswell, Marina; Russell, Bridget; Harari, Danielle; Harwood, Rowan; Roe, Brenda; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Drennan, Vari M; Fader, Mandy; Maden, Michelle; Cummings, Karen; Bunn, Frances
single causes of FI such as constipation. Clinical assessment, knowledge of the causes of FI and strategies that recognise the individuals' preferences are necessary contextual factors. Valuing the intimate and personal care work that care home staff provide to people living with dementia and addressing the dementia-related challenges when providing continence care within the daily work routines are key to helping to reduce and manage FI in this population. The synthesis was constrained by limited evidence specific to FI and people with dementia in care homes and by the lack of dementia-specific evidence on continence aids. This realist synthesis provides a theory-driven understanding of the conditions under which improvement in care for care home residents living with dementia and FI is likely to be successful. Future multicomponent interventions need to take account of how the presence of dementia affects the behaviours and choices of those delivering and receiving continence care within a care home environment. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42014009902. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level: a randomized controlled trial.
Grönstedt, Helena; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Granbo, Randi; Puggaard, Lis; Andresen, Mette; Hellström, Karin
Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common. Physical activity and exercise play a major role in the preservation of physical function and quality of life late in life. However, evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel groups, nursing home residents >64 years of age from three Nordic countries were included. The intervention group (IG) was assigned to individually tailored physical and daily activities, while the control group (CG) received ordinary care. Primary outcomes were ADL and balance, and secondary outcomes physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. At baseline, 322 nursing home residents were included, of whom 266 were assessed after 3 months of intervention. Following the intervention, a significant difference was found between participants in the IG and CG on measures of balance, physical activity and transfers. The IG significantly improved walking/wheelchair speed and functional leg muscle strength. The CG had significantly deteriorated in ADL, balance and transfers. Persons who had taken part in the intervention for more than 150 min/week significantly improved their balance and physical activity level. Participation in more than 10 weeks of intervention significantly improved physical activity and walking/wheelchair speed, while a deterioration was seen in those who had participated less. Individually tailored intervention in nursing home residents focusing on physical and daily activities is effective in improving transfers, balance and physical activity level compared to usual care. The effect of the intervention is dependent on
Chen, Shu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Jane, Sui-Whi
To explore the perceptions of group music therapy among elderly nursing home residents in Taiwan. Focus group methodology was used to explore the perceptions of elderly participants about their experience of group music therapy. Verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were analysed by content analysis. In total, 3 focus groups were held with 17 wheelchair-bound elderly residents. Analysis of participants' perceptions of group music therapy revealed two major themes: (1) strength derived from the group dynamic and (2) enhanced quality of life. The first theme included three subthemes: (1) sense of energy, (2) distraction from suffering, and (3) confirmation as a person. The second major theme included four subthemes: (1) variety added to life, (2) motivation to exercise, (3) learning positive behaviour, and (4) greater life satisfaction. Elderly, wheelchair-bound residents of a nursing home in Taiwan positively viewed their experiences with our group music therapy programme, particularly its active component. The findings of this study suggest that healthcare providers should consider integrating group music therapy into their programmes for elderly nursing home residents and design the therapy to add variety to their life, give them a sense of autonomy by having them choose their preferred musical activities, and improve their cognitive function.
Holup, Amanda A; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Wilber, Kathleen H; Hyer, Kathryn
Using a socio-ecological model, this study examines the influence of facility characteristics on the transition of nursing home residents to the community after a short stay (within 90 days of admission) or long stay (365 days of admission) across states with different long-term services and supports systems. Data were drawn from the Minimum Data Set, the federal Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting (OSCAR) database, the Area Health Resource File, and the LTCFocUs.org database for all free-standing, certified nursing homes in California (n = 1,127) and Florida (n = 657) from July 2007 to June 2008. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to examine the impact of facility characteristics on the probability of transitioning to the community. Facility characteristics, including size, occupancy, ownership, average length of stay, proportion of Medicare and Medicaid residents, and the proportion of residents admitted from acute care facilities are associated with discharge but differed by state and whether the discharge occurred after a short or long stay. Short- and long-stay nursing home discharge to the community is affected by resident, facility, and sometimes market characteristics, with Medicaid consistently influencing discharge in both states. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Mohamed, Raihani; Perumal, Thinagaran; Sulaiman, Md Nasir; Mustapha, Norwati; Zainudin, M. N. Shah
Pertaining to the human centric concern and non-obtrusive way, the ambient sensor type technology has been selected, accepted and embedded in the environment in resilient style. Human activities, everyday are gradually becoming complex and thus complicate the inferences of activities when it involving the multi resident in the same smart environment. Current works solutions focus on separate model between the resident, activities and interactions. Some study use data association and extra auxiliary of graphical nodes to model human tracking information in an environment and some produce separate framework to incorporate the auxiliary for interaction feature model. Thus, recognizing the activities and which resident perform the activity at the same time in the smart home are vital for the smart home development and future applications. This paper will cater the above issue by considering the simplification and efficient method using the multi label classification framework. This effort eliminates time consuming and simplifies a lot of pre-processing tasks comparing with previous approach. Applications to the multi resident multi label learning in smart home problems shows the LC (Label Combination) using Decision Tree (DT) as base classifier can tackle the above problems.
Vogel, Todd R.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Kruse, Robin L.
OBJECTIVES: Nursing home residents’ ability to independently function is associated with their quality of life. The impact of amputations on functional status in this population remains unclear. This analysis evaluated the effect of amputations—Transmetatarsal (TMA), Below-knee (BK), and Above-knee (AK)—on residents’ ability to perform self-care activities. METHODS: Medicare inpatient claims were linked with nursing home assessment data to identify admissions for amputation. The MDS ADL-Long form score (0-28; higher indicating greater impairment), based on seven activities of daily living, was calculated before and after amputation. Hierarchical modeling determined the effect of the surgery on residents’ post-amputation function. Controlling for comorbidity, cognition, and pre-hospital function allowed for evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) trajectories over time. RESULTS: 4965 residents underwent amputation: 490 TMA, 1596 BK and 2879 AK. Mean age was 81 and 54% of the patients were women. Most were White (67%) or African-American (26.5%). Comorbidities prior to amputation included diabetes (DM, 70.7%), coronary heart disease (57.1%), chronic kidney disease (53.6%), and/or congestive heart failure (CHF, 52.1%). Mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge was 9.0% and hospital readmission was 27.7%. Stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and poor baseline cognitive function were associated with the poorest functional outcome after amputation. Compared with residents who received TMA, those who had BK or AK recovered more slowly and failed to return to baseline function by six months. BK was found to have a superior functional trajectory compared with AK. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly nursing home residents undergoing BK or AK amputation failed to return to their functional baseline within six month. Among frail elderly nursing home residents, higher amputation level, stroke, ESRD, poor baseline cognitive scores, and female gender were associated
Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Helnæs, Ann Kathrine; Schultz, Hanne
INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...
Verkaik, Renate; Francke, Anneke L; van Meijel, Berno; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M M; Ribbe, Miel W; Bensing, Jozien M
To study the effects of introducing a nursing guideline on depression in residents with dementia of psychogeriatric nursing home wards. A multi-center controlled clinical trial with randomization at ward level was used to study the effects of the guideline introduction. Nursing teams were trained in applying the guideline to their own residents diagnosed with depression in dementia. Key elements of the nursing guideline are increasing individualized pleasant activities and decreasing unpleasant events. Participating residents were 97 residents diagnosed with dementia and comorbid depression, from 18 psychogeriatric nursing home wards, in 9 Dutch nursing homes. Measurements took place at pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Primary outcome was severity of depression measured with the MDS/RAI-Depression Rating Scale (DRS) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Secondary outcome is mood as measured by the FACE-observation scale. Compliance with the nursing guideline was moderate. Despite this, residents on the experimental wards showed a significant reduction in depression on the DRS. With the Cornell scale a reduction of depression was found as well, although not significantly different from that in the control group. No effects on observed mood were found. This study shows significant reductions in depression severity by introducing a nursing guideline on psychogeriatric nursing home wards. Better compliance with the guideline could probably enlarge the effects. Some ways to achieve enhanced compliance are: (1) additionally train non-certified nurse assistants, and (2) emphasize necessary conditions for successful introduction of the guideline to nursing team managers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Luyten, Tom; Braun, Susy; Jamin, Gaston; van Hooren, Susan; de Witte, Luc
The goal of this study was (1) to determine whether and how nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation in general and (2) to identify whether responses change when the content type and, therefore, the nature of the interaction with the artwork changes. The interactive art installation 'VENSTER' evokes responses in nursing home residents with dementia, illustrating the potential of interactive artworks in the nursing home environment. Frequently observed responses were naming, recognizing or asking questions about depicted content and how the installation worked, physically gesturing towards or tapping on the screen and tapping or singing along to the music. It seemed content matters a lot. When VENSTER is to be used in routine care, the choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. In this study, recognition seemed to trigger memory and (in most cases) a verbal reaction, while indistinctness led to asking for more information. When (initially) coached by a care provider, residents actively engaged physically with the screen. Responses differed between content types, which makes it important to further explore different types of content and content as an interface to provide meaningful experiences for nursing home residents. Implications for rehabilitation VENSTER can facilitate different types of responses ranging from verbal reactions to active physical engagement. The choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. Activating content seems suitable for use as a meaningful experience during the spare time in between existing activities or therapy. Sessions with interactive content are short (avg. 30 mins) and intense and can therefore potentially be used as an activating therapy, activity or exercise. In order to actively engage residents with dementia, the role of the care provider seems very important.
Malek Makan, Alireza; van Hout, Hein; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Marum, Rob
In nursing home (NH) residents with a very short life expectancy, the benefits of preventive cardiovascular medication maintenance are questionable. To assess the prevalence of 4 classes of preventive cardiovascular medication (PCM) in NH residents, and to explore differences of prevalence across length of stay, mortality risk, cognitive impairment, functional disability, and across countries. A 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted in 57 NHs in 8 countries (Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Israel). We assessed the prevalence at first measurement of 4 classes of PCM: oral anticoagulants (OAC), platelet aggregation inhibitor (PAI), antihypertensive (AHT), and lipid-modifying agent (LMA), in older (60+ years) residents with valid medication assessments. The PCM prevalence was compared across the length of stay (short 12 months), health instability as defined by Changes in Health, End-Stage Disease, Signs, and Symptoms Scale (CHESS) > 3, cognitive impairment by Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) > 2, and functional disability was measured using the Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy Scale (ADLH) ≥5. Of the 3759 eligible residents, 2175 (57.9%) used at least 1 PCM. The prevalence of the 4 groups of PCM: OAC, PAI, AHT and LMA were 5.6%, 34.9%, 35.7%, and 10.4%, respectively. PCM use was lower in long-stay residents versus mid-stay: 56.0% vs. 62.7%, in cognitively impaired residents (47.1% vs. 67%), in residents with a high mortality risk (47.4% vs. 58.6%), and in residents with a high ADLH score (48.6% vs 64.0%). Although the prevalence of PCM use was lower in long-stay, cognitively impaired residents, persons with a high mortality risk, and residents with more functional disabilities, there seems to be room for deprescribing. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Hyochol; Garvan, Cynthia; Lyon, Debra
Few studies have examined the potential relationship between pain and aggressive behavioral symptoms in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia as a function of resident communicative status (ability to self-report pain). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between pain and aggression for residents who self-reported pain and for those whose pain was measured by staff evaluation of pain-related behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the comprehensive data collected from January to March 2012 in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 of NH residents, aged 65 years or older, with dementia (N = 71,227). Pain was measured using the MDS Pain Assessment Interview for residents who could communicate or by staff evaluation using the MDS Pain Behavior Scale for residents who could not communicate. The relationship between pain and aggressive behavioral symptoms was estimated from logistic regression models after controlling for covariates (functional/cognitive impairments, pain medications, comorbidities, and sociodemographic variables). In residents who could not communicate, pain was associated with both verbal and physical aggression (verbal aggression: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.23, 95% CI [1.17, 1.29]; physical aggression: AOR = 1.20, 95% CI [1.14, 1.26]). In residents who could communicate, pain was associated with verbal aggression only (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.18]). The relationship between pain and aggressive behavioral symptoms varies according to the communicative status of NH residents and disproportionately affects those who cannot articulate their pain. Strategies for enhancing pain management in these residents are needed to adequately treat pain and reduce aggression.
Radojka Trkulja Kobentar
Full Text Available Background:Obviously a very high proportion of nursing home residents exhibit the clinical signs of dementia, which affect the independence of the impaired individual. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of independence of the residents in performing basic life activities.Methods:The research examines 233 residents of both sexes, with a clinical diagnosis of dementia that are aged 65 years and over that have resided in one of the four Ljubljana municipality nursing homes for at least one year prior to the begin of the study. The autonomy in carrying out 11 basic live activities was measured on a three-level scale and their cognitive skills with a quick test of cognitive abilities (KPSS. The data was processed with SPSS, ver. 13.0 through methods of descriptive statistics, t-test for two independent samples and the variance analysis (ANOVA.Results:The examined population sample shows a high cognitive decline measured on the KPSS scale, as 50.2% of subjects in mid-stage reached ≤ 24-11 points and 43.4% of those in the late-stage reached ≤ 10-0 points in the scale (out of 30 in total. Those in the early stage reached ≤ 29-25 points in only 6.4 % of the examined population. The significant findings may thus indicate a high overall average depending on the implementation of all 11 life activities (x = 2.57 on the three-level scale (1 being self-sufficient, 2 and 3 standing for partially dependent and entirely dependent, respectively.Conclusions:The examined nursing home residents in the sample, suffering from dementia, show a high degree of dependency in performing basic life activities. The survey results so far present a starting point for the planning of programmes for increasing involvement of residents in psychosocial activities, through practical exercises in self-sufficiency through implementation of fundamental life activities.
Drageset, Jorunn; Haugan, Gørill; Tranvåg, Oscar
Meaning and purpose in life are fundamental to human beings. In changing times, with an aging population and increased life expectancy, the need for health care services and long-term care is likely to grow. More deeply understanding how older long-term care residents perceive meaning and purpose in life is critical for improving the quality of care and the residents' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore crucial aspects promoting nursing home residents' experience of meaning and purpose in everyday life. An exploratory hermeneutical design with qualitative interviews for collecting data. Four key experiences were found to promote meaning and purpose in life: 1) physical and mental well-being, 2) belonging and recognition, 3) personally treasured activities and 4) spiritual closeness and connectedness. In supporting meaning and purpose in life of nursing home residents, the residents' everyday well-being should be a central focus of care and facilitate personally treasured activities. Focused attention should also be given to the meaning-making power of experiencing belonging, recognition and spiritual connectedness.
Full Text Available Huanguang Jia,1 Qinglin Pei,1 Charles T Sullivan,1 Diane C Cowper Ripley,1 Samuel S Wu,1 W Bruce Vogel,1 Xinping Wang,1 Douglas E Bidelspach,2 Jennifer L Hale-Gallardo,1 Barbara E Bates3 1Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, 3Aleda E. Lutz VA Medical Center, Saginaw, MI, USA Introduction: Effective post-acute multidisciplinary rehabilitation therapy improves stroke survivors’ functional recovery and daily living activities. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA places veterans needing post-acute institutional care in private community nursing homes (CNHs. These placements are made under the same rules and regulations across the VA health care system and through individual per diem contracts between local VA facilities and CNHs. However, there is limited information about utilization of these veterans’ health services as well as the geographic variation of the service utilization. Aim: The aims of this study were to determine rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans with stroke in VA-contracted CNHs and to assess risk-adjusted regional variations in the utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care. Methods: This retrospective study included all veterans diagnosed with stroke residing in VA-contracted CNHs between 2006 and 2009. Minimum Dataset (a health status assessment tool for CNH residents for the study CNHs was linked with veterans’ inpatient and outpatient data within the VA health care system. CNHs were grouped into five VA-defined geographic regions: the North Atlantic, Southeast, Midwest, Continental, and Pacific regions. A two-part model was applied estimating risk-adjusted utilization probability and average weekly utilization days. Two dependent variables were rehabilitation
Baldwin, Naomi S; Gilpin, Deirdre F; Hughes, Carmel M; Kearney, Mary P; Gardiner, D Ann; Cardwell, Chris; Tunney, Michael M
To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in residents and staff in nursing homes in one geographically defined health administration area of Northern Ireland. Point prevalence study. Nursing homes. Residents and staff in nursing homes. Nasal swabs were taken from all consenting residents and staff. If relevant, residents also provided urine samples, and swabs were taken from wounds and indwelling devices. A total of 1,111 residents (66% of all residents) and 553 staff (86% of available staff) in 45 nursing homes participated. The combined prevalence rate of MRSA in the resident population was 23.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=18.8-27.7%) and 7.5% in staff (95% CI=5.1-9.9%). Residents who lived in nursing homes that were part of a chain were more likely to be colonized with MRSA (odds ratio (OR)=1.91, 95% CI=1.21-3.02) than those living in independently owned facilities. Residents were also more likely to be colonized if they lived in homes in which more than 12.5% of all screened healthcare staff (care assistants and nurses) were colonized with MRSA (OR=2.46, 95% CI=1.41-4.29) or if they lived in homes in which more than 15% of care assistants were colonized with MRSA (OR=2.64, 95% CI=1.58-4.42). The findings suggest that there is substantial colonization of MRSA in nursing home residents and staff in this one administrative health area. Implementation of infection control strategies should be given high priority in nursing homes.
Majić, Tomislav; Gutzmann, Hans; Heinz, Andreas; Lang, Undine E; Rapp, Michael A
To investigate the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) on symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression in nursing home residents with dementia in a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies have indicated that AAT has beneficial effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms in various psychiatric disorders but few studies have investigated the efficacy of AAT in patients suffering from dementia. Of 65 nursing home residents with dementia (mean [standard deviation] age: 81.8 [9.2] years; mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 7.1 [0.7]), 27 matched pairs (N = 54) were randomly assigned to either treatment as usual or treatment as usual combined with AAT, administered over 10 weekly sessions. Blinded raters assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini-Mental State Examination, presence of agitation/aggression with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and depression with the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale at baseline and during a period of 4 weeks after AAT intervention. In the control group, symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression significantly increased over 10 weeks; in the intervention group, patients receiving combined treatment displayed constant frequency and severity of symptoms of agitation/aggression (F1,48 = 6.43; p <0.05) and depression (F1,48 = 26.54; p <0.001). Symptom amelioration did not occur in either group. AAT is a promising option for the treatment of agitation/aggression and depression in patients with dementia. Our results suggest that AAT may delay progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in demented nursing home residents. Further research is needed to determine its long-time effects. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hurtado, David A; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A
To examine whether nursing homes' quality of care was predicted by schedule control (workers' ability to decide work hours), independently of other staffing characteristics. Prospective ecological study of 30 nursing homes in New England. Schedule control was self-reported via survey in 2011-2012 (N = 1,045). Quality measures included the prevalence of decline in activities of daily living, residents' weight loss, and pressure ulcers, indicators systematically linked with staffing characteristics. Outcomes data for 2012 were retrieved from Medicare.gov. Robust Linear Regressions showed that higher schedule control predicted lower prevalence of pressure ulcers (β = -0.51, p quality of care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ng, Charis Wei Ling; Cheong, S K; Govinda Raj, A; Teo, Wsk; Leong, Iyo
Palliative care services were not available in nursing homes in Singapore. Project CARE (Care At the end-of-life for Residents in homes for the Elderly) was a pilot programme that aimed to promote advance care planning and improve end-of-life care in nursing homes. We aimed to examine end-of-life care preferences among nursing home residents, and identify factors associated with preference for medical intervention, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and place of death. A cross-sectional study using data from advance care planning discussions was conducted from September 2009 to April 2012 across seven nursing homes. The advance care planning discussion was conducted with the resident (with a prognosis of 6 months or 1 year), their families and staff from the nursing home and hospital. A total of 600 residents and their families completed the advance care planning discussion. Majority (93.2%) preferred not to proceed with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 52.3% opted for limited additional intervention at the nursing home with escalation to the hospital if necessary and 77.0% preferred to die at the nursing home. Residents 85+ years (relative risk ratio: 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-9.93, p = 0.030) were more likely to prefer medical intervention at the nursing home only. No associations were found with the preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Residents who were single, or who were Christians or Catholics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-4.19, p = 0.039), were more likely to prefer to die at the nursing home. Preferences for medical interventions in nursing homes provide support to extend palliative care services to nursing homes, which may benefit residents who are older, single, or Christians or Catholics. © The Author(s) 2016.
Abraham, Jens; Möhler, Ralph; Henkel, Adrienne; Kupfer, Ramona; Icks, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Haastert, Burkhard; Meyer, Gabriele; Köpke, Sascha
Physical restraints such as bedrails and belts are regularly applied in German nursing homes despite clear evidence showing their lack of effectiveness and safety. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of a guideline-based multicomponent intervention programme has been proven. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two different versions of the original intervention in nursing home residents in four different regions throughout Germany. The study is a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial comparing two intervention groups, i.e. (1) the updated original multicomponent intervention programme and (2) the concise version of the updated programme, with a control group receiving optimised usual care. The first intervention group receives an educational programme for all nurses, additional training and structured support for nominated key nurses, printed study material and other supportive material. In the second intervention group, nurses do not receive education as part of the intervention, but may be trained by nominated key nurses who have received a short train-the-trainer module. All other components are similar to the first intervention group. The control group receives the printed study material only. Overall, 120 nursing homes including approximately 10,800 residents will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups. The primary outcome is defined as the proportion of residents with at least one physical restraint after 12 months follow-up. The use of physical restraints will be assessed by direct observation. Secondary outcomes are the residents' quality of life and safety parameters, e.g. falls and fall-related fractures. In addition, comprehensive process and economic evaluations will be performed. We expect a clinically relevant reduction in the proportion of residents with physical restraints. It is also expected that the process outcomes of this trial will enrich the knowledge about
Bendixen, Bente E; Kirkevold, Marit; Graue, Marit; Haltbakk, Johannes
To describe family members' experiences of attending to an old person with diabetes receiving home care services, including their interaction with the formal caregivers. The study has a qualitative descriptive design. From May to August 2015, eight family members were interviewed. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. To describe family members' experiences, the following four themes were identified: Security through patients' self-management skills and diabetes knowledge; Perceived burden due to the old persons' deteriorated health; Security through competent home care services; and Doubt due to personnel's inadequate approach and interaction. It is important for personnel in home care services to consider patients' self-management skills and the family members' diabetes knowledge as key aspects in order to limit experiences of burden when the older person with diabetes has deteriorating health. The findings underscore that interaction with home care personnel skilled in managing diabetes helps family members feel secure. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Shirley Masse; Lisandru Capai; Alessandra Falchi
Background. The current study aims to describe the demographical and clinical characteristics of elderly nursing home (NH) residents with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during four winter seasons (2013/2014–2016/2017), as well as the microbiological etiology of these infections. Methods. Seventeen NHs with at least one ARI resident in Corsica, France, were included. An ARI resident was defined as a resident developing a sudden onset of any constitutional symptoms in addition to any respi...
Hamann, Darla J
This research examines how the empowerment of residents' family members and nursing home employees in managerial decision making is related to service quality. The study was conducted using data from 33 nursing homes in the United States. Surveys were administered to more than 1,000 employees on-site and mailed to the primary-contact family member of each resident. The resulting multilevel data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The empowerment of families in decision making was positively associated with their perceptions of service quality. The empowerment of nursing staff in decision making was more strongly related to service quality than the empowerment of nonnursing staff. Among nursing staff, the empowerment of nursing assistants improved service quality more than the empowerment of nurses. © The Author(s) 2013.
Nåden, Dagfinn; Høy, Bente; Lohne, Vibeke
, the sample consisted of 28 family caregivers of nursing home residents. The empirical material was interpreted using a hermeneutical approach. The overall theme that emerged was as follows: 'A feeling of being abandoned'. The sub-themes are designated as follows: deprived of the feeling of belonging...... or deprived from the perspective of family caregivers? In this article, we focus only on indignity in care. This study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods in this part of this study consisted of individual research interviews. Altogether......, deprived of dignity due to acts of omission, deprived of confirmation, deprived of dignity due to physical humiliation, deprived of dignity due to psychological humiliation and deprived of parts of life....
Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513
Lim, Sun-Young; Chang, Sung-Ok
To discover the structure of the frames of reference for nursing home staff members' subjective judgment of residents' achievement of ego integrity. Q-methodology was applied. Twenty-eight staff members who were working in a nursing home sorted 34 Q-statements into the shape of a normal distribution. A centroid factor analysis and varimax rotation, using the PQ-method program, revealed four factors: identifying clues to residents' positive acceptance of their whole life span, identifying residents' ways of enjoying their current life, referencing residents' attitudes and competencies toward harmonious relationships, and identifying residents' integrated efforts to establish self-esteem. These subjective frames of reference need to be investigated in order to improve the relationships with nursing home residents and their quality of life. Consequently, the fundamental monitoring tools to help staff members make subjective judgments can be formed. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
D.K.Y. Miu, MBBS (HK MRCP (UK MPH (CUHK FRCP (Glasgow and Edinburgh
Conclusion: Pain is highly prevalent among nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia and is associated with the use of restraints. However, only half of the patients in this study were treated with analgesic drugs. An improvement in the caregivers' knowledge of pain assessment together with the provision of adequate treatment for pain is necessary in the care of these groups of patients with dementia.
Sahin, Sevnaz; Tasar, Pinar Tosun; Simsek, Hatice; Çicek, Zeynep; Eskiizmirli, Hulya; Aykar, Fisun Senuzun; Sahin, Fahri; Akcicek, Fehmi
Malnutrition is one of the most important geriatric syndromes in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between anemia and malnutrition in elderly nursing home residents. Local nursing home residents over 60 years old in the Izmir were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from study participants for hemogram, iron, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid analysis. WHO criteria were used to define anemia. Causes of anemia were classified as iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, anemia of chronic disease or other hematologic causes. Anemia was defined as the dependent variable and malnutrition was defined as the independent variable. Correlation between MNA scores and Hb levels was determined using Pearson correlation analysis. The slope of causality between malnutrition and anemia was determined using the χ (2) test and logistic regression analysis. The study included 257 elderly nursing home residents with a mean age of 78.5 ± 7.8 years. The overall prevalence of anemia was 54.9 %; 35.8 % of the study participants were at risk of malnutrition and 8.2 % were malnourished. Anemia risk was 2.12-fold higher in participants at risk of malnutrition and 5.05-fold higher in those with malnutrition. In the participants with malnutrition or malnutrition risk, the most common cause of anemia was anemia of chronic disease (57.1 and 46.5 %, respectively). The prevalence of anemia among elderly nursing home residents is high in Turkey. Malnutrition and malnutrition risk increase the incidence of anemia.
Full Text Available range of Home-based enterprises in social housing developments Gertrude Matsebe 4 activities which may change throughout the day as well as seasonally (ibid). All these changes can be made with minimal cost and inconvenience. Despite... the business (2-in-1 facility), which in the long run would be economically viable for the owner. In spite of the opportunities presented by HBEs, it was found that some residents were pessimistic about them. 3.2.2. Resistance The resistance...
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Dementia is a neurocognitive disease with a high risk of social isolation and agitation due to loss of cognitive functions. In nursing home residents with dementia, agitation is the most significant symptom causing patient distress and care- giver burden. Agitation is described as abuse or aggres...... without first trying the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the effectiveness of music therapy on agitation and psychotropic medication....
Polcin DL; Korcha R
Douglas L Polcin, Rachael KorchaAlcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Emeryville, CA, USABackground: The study of motivation in the substance abuse field has typically examined the extent to which substance users want to quit or reduce substance use. Less frequently examined is the desire to maintain sobriety after achieving abstinence. The current study examined motivation to maintain sobriety among residents of sober living houses (SLHs), a type of recovery home for individuals w...
Ahn, Hyochol; Horgas, Ann
Nursing home residents with dementia gradually lose the ability to process information so that they are less likely to express pain in typical ways. These residents may express pain through disruptive behaviors because they cannot appropriately verbalize their pain experience. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. This is a secondary analysis of the Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0) assessment data on long-term care from the state of Florida. The data used in this study were the first comprehensive assessment data from NH residents with dementia aged 65 and older (N = 56,577) in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. Variables examined were pain, wandering, aggression, agitation, cognitive impairment, activities of daily living impairments, and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors. Residents with more severe pain are less likely to display wandering behaviors (OR = .77, 95% CI for OR = [0.73, 0.81]), but more likely to display aggressive and agitated behaviors (OR = 1.04, 95% CI for OR = [1.01, 1.08]; OR = 1.17, 95% CI for OR = [1.13, 1.20]). The relationship between pain and disruptive behaviors depends on the type of behaviors. Pain is positively correlated with disruptive behaviors that do not involve locomotion (e.g., aggression and agitation), but negatively related to disruptive behaviors that are accompanied by locomotion (e.g., wandering). These findings indicate that effective pain management may help to reduce aggression and agitation, and to promote mobility in persons with dementia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents with dementia gradually lose the ability to process information so that they are less likely to express pain in typical ways. These residents may express pain through disruptive behaviors because they cannot appropriately verbalize their pain experience. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0 assessment data on long-term care from the state of Florida. The data used in this study were the first comprehensive assessment data from NH residents with dementia aged 65 and older (N = 56,577 in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. Variables examined were pain, wandering, aggression, agitation, cognitive impairment, activities of daily living impairments, and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors. Results Residents with more severe pain are less likely to display wandering behaviors (OR = .77, 95% CI for OR = [0.73, 0.81], but more likely to display aggressive and agitated behaviors (OR = 1.04, 95% CI for OR = [1.01, 1.08]; OR = 1.17, 95% CI for OR = [1.13, 1.20]. Conclusions The relationship between pain and disruptive behaviors depends on the type of behaviors. Pain is positively correlated with disruptive behaviors that do not involve locomotion (e.g., aggression and agitation, but negatively related to disruptive behaviors that are accompanied by locomotion (e.g., wandering. These findings indicate that effective pain management may help to reduce aggression and agitation, and to promote mobility in persons with dementia.
Background Nursing home residents with dementia gradually lose the ability to process information so that they are less likely to express pain in typical ways. These residents may express pain through disruptive behaviors because they cannot appropriately verbalize their pain experience. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0) assessment data on long-term care from the state of Florida. The data used in this study were the first comprehensive assessment data from NH residents with dementia aged 65 and older (N = 56,577) in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009. Variables examined were pain, wandering, aggression, agitation, cognitive impairment, activities of daily living impairments, and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of pain on disruptive behaviors. Results Residents with more severe pain are less likely to display wandering behaviors (OR = .77, 95% CI for OR = [0.73, 0.81]), but more likely to display aggressive and agitated behaviors (OR = 1.04, 95% CI for OR = [1.01, 1.08]; OR = 1.17, 95% CI for OR = [1.13, 1.20]). Conclusions The relationship between pain and disruptive behaviors depends on the type of behaviors. Pain is positively correlated with disruptive behaviors that do not involve locomotion (e.g., aggression and agitation), but negatively related to disruptive behaviors that are accompanied by locomotion (e.g., wandering). These findings indicate that effective pain management may help to reduce aggression and agitation, and to promote mobility in persons with dementia. PMID:23399452
Heusinger, J; Dummert, S
Residential nursing homes are specialized in dealing with people in need of care and are required to respect their dignity and right to self-determination. This includes the respectful handling of gender-specific needs and wishes of residents. Personal hygiene is one important area to which this applies. This study was carried out to investigate residents' gender-specific perception of life and care in nursing homes. This article focuses on unspecific and gender-specific needs in the area of personal hygiene, seeking to identify where changes are needed. Structured interviews were conducted in four nursing homes with a total of ten male and ten female residents without cognitive impairments. Content analysis and description of findings proceeded in two stages: interviewees' experiences of everyday life and care were first reconstructed before gender-specific aspects were analyzed. Both universal and gender-specific needs were identified in the area of personal hygiene. The gender-unspecific wish for respect for dignity and privacy was in some cases neglected. A need for meaningful communication and respectful relationships was also gender-unspecific. Gender-specific wishes related in particular to the gender of persons assisting with or conducting personal hygiene measures. In addition to improved perception and consideration of gender-specific needs, it is also necessary to adapt nursing in residential institutions more closely to the individual needs of residents. Further research is needed in relation to the perspectives of nursing staff and the development of participatory methods for involving residents in shaping everyday life in residential institutions.
Kruse, Robin L.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Mehr, David R.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Intrator, Orna
OBJECTIVES To explore patterns of change in nursing home residents’ activities of daily living (ADLs), particularly surrounding acute hospital stays. DESIGN Longitudinal study using Medicare and Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments SETTING National sample of long-stay nursing home residents PARTICIPANTS We identified 40,128 residents who were hospitalized for the seven most common inpatient diagnoses. Each hospital admission was at least 90 days after any prior hospitalization and had at least two preceding MDS assessments. MEASUREMENTS We represented residents’ ADL function with the MDS ADL-Long form score, a simple sum of seven self-care variables coded from 0 (independent) to 4 (totally dependent). Scores ranged from 0 to 28; higher scores indicated greater impairment. We jointly estimated a linear mixed model describing ADL trajectories with mortality and hospital readmission. RESULTS Before hospitalization, the most common trajectory represented stability (53.7%), with 27.5% of residents worsening and 18.8% improving. ADL function after hospital discharge was most often characterized by stability (43.1%) or worsening (39.2%). Mortality (20.3%) was higher for those with worsening pre-hospital ADL function (28.9%) compared to those with stable (19.1%) or improving (11.3%) trajectories. Hospital diagnosis was associated with both the amount of ADL worsening and the rate of subsequent ADL change. Most residents with the best initial function continued to worsen after hospital discharge. Cognitive impairment was associated with poorer ADL function and accelerated worsening of ADLs. CONCLUSION For many long-stay nursing home residents acute hospitalization is accompanied by substantial and sustained ADL worsening. Thus, acute hospitalization presents an opportunity to revisit care goals; our results can help inform decision-making. PMID:24219192
Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Leka, Lynette S; Fine, Basil C; Dallal, Gerard E; Keusch, Gerald T; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Hamer, Davidson H
Respiratory tract infections are prevalent in elderly individuals, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and use of health care services. Vitamin E supplementation has been shown to improve immune response in elderly persons. However, the clinical importance of these findings has not been determined. To determine the effect of 1 year of vitamin E supplementation on respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 1998 to August 2001 at 33 long-term care facilities in the Boston, Mass, area. A total of 617 persons aged at least 65 years and who met the study's eligibility criteria were enrolled; 451 (73%) completed the study. Vitamin E (200 IU) or placebo capsule administered daily; all participants received a capsule containing half the recommended daily allowance of essential vitamins and minerals. Incidence of respiratory tract infections, number of persons and number of days with respiratory tract infections (upper and lower), and number of new antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections among all participants randomized and those who completed the study. Vitamin E had no significant effect on incidence or number of days with infection for all, upper, or lower respiratory tract infections. However, fewer participants receiving vitamin E acquired 1 or more respiratory tract infections (60% vs 68%; risk ratio [RR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.00; P =.048 for all participants; and 65% vs 74%; RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; P =.04 for completing participants), or upper respiratory tract infections (44% vs 52%; RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69-1.00; P =.05 for all participants; and 50% vs 62%; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96; P =.01 for completing participants). When common colds were analyzed in a post hoc subgroup analysis, the vitamin E group had a lower incidence of common cold (0.67 vs 0.81 per person-year; RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.01; P =.06 for all
Tiong, Wei Wei; Yap, Philip; Huat Koh, Gerald Choon; Phoon Fong, Ngan; Luo, Nan
Depression is a common health problem in elderly nursing home (NH) residents and is often under-recognized and under-treated. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of depression and identify the risk factors associated with depression in the elderly NH population in Singapore. A sample of 375 residents in six NHs in Singapore, aged 55 years and above, was assessed with the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID), based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The association of demographic, functional and health-related characteristics with depression was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Overall point prevalence for depression in the elderly NH residents was found to be 21.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 17.1%-25.6%). The prevalence rate for minor depression in the elderly NH residents was 14.4% (95% CI: 11.1%-18.5%) and 6.7% (95% CI: 4.5%-9.8%) for major depression. Significant risk factors that were found to be associated with depression were length of stay for more than 2 years, known history of depression, pain, and no or lack of social contact. The prevalence rates for depression were high among NH residents in Singapore. More attention is needed to care for the psychosocial needs of elderly NH residents in Singapore.
den Ouden, Mirre; Kuk, Nienke O; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Meijers, Judith M M; Hamers, Jan P H
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the role of nursing staff in residents' activities. Nursing home residents (n = 723) were observed in their wards, randomly five times for one minute between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m. Resident's (in)activity and the role of nursing staff or others in this activity were recorded. Roles were defined as 'taking over the activity', 'giving support', or 'supervision'. Nurse observers were interviewed to obtain insight into their observation-experiences. Residents were observed in activities of daily living in 31% of all 3282 observations, and inactive in 57%. Nursing staff provided support in 51% of the observations and took over activities in 45%; supervision was rarely observed (4%). Nurse observers who knew the residents reported that a large part of activities were taken over unnecessarily. Based on these results, nursing staff are recommended to provide more supervision and support to optimize residents' activities and independence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D
Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647
Faydalı, Saide; Çetinkaya, Funda
Sleep is important for health and quality of life in the elderly, and sleep disturbances are reported to be associated with many of the adverse medical conditions. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of inhalation of lavender oil on sleep quality of nursing home residents. A questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and sleeping properties of the 30 volunteers, enrolled. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was applied as a pre- and posttest to measure sleep quality of individuals who inhaled lavender oil drops on the pillows every evening for a week before sleeping. Before and after aromatherapy, the mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of the nursing home residents was (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 6.0 ± 5.1 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 2.6 ± 3.4, respectively, whereas statistically significant difference was not observed for independent variables. Cronbach α reliability coefficient of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale was found to be 0.816. The results indicated an improvement of sleep quality of nursing home residents after the application of aromatherapy with lavender oil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are frequently prescribed for older adults who reside in long-term care facilities. A substantial proportion of antibiotic use in this setting is inappropriate. Antibiotics are often prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria, a condition for which randomized trials of antibiotic therapy indicate no benefit and in fact harm. This proposal describes a randomized trial of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms to reduce the use of antibiotics in residents of long-term care facilities. Methods In this on-going study, 22 nursing homes have been randomized to either use of algorithms (11 nursing homes or to usual practise (11 nursing homes. The algorithms describe signs and symptoms for which it would be appropriate to send urine cultures or to prescribe antibiotics. The algorithms are introduced by inservicing nursing staff and by conducting one-on-one sessions for physicians using case-scenarios. The primary outcome of the study is courses of antibiotics per 1000 resident days. Secondary outcomes include urine cultures sent and antibiotic courses for urinary indications. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews with key informants will be used to assess the process of implementation and to identify key factors for sustainability.
Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Tinetti, Mary; Perrelli, Eleanor; Towle, Virginia; Van Ness, Peter H; Quagliarello, Vincent
To prospectively evaluate nursing home residents with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) to determine whether they met the McGeer, Loeb, or revised Loeb consensus-based criteria and whether any set of criteria was associated with laboratory evidence of UTI, namely bacteriuria (>100,000 colony forming units) plus pyuria (>10 white blood cells). Prospective cohort study. Three New Haven-area nursing homes. Of 611 residents screened, 457 were eligible, 362 consented, and 340 enrolled. Participants underwent prospective surveillance from May 2005 to April 2006 for the development of suspected UTI (defined as a participant's physician or nurse clinically suspecting UTI). One hundred participants with suspected UTI and a urinalysis and urine culture performed were included in the analyses. Participants were identified who met the criteria of McGeer, Loeb, revised Loeb, and laboratory evidence of UTI. Using laboratory evidence of UTI as the outcome, the McGeer criteria demonstrated 30% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 57% positive predictive value (PPV), and 61% negative predictive value (NPV); the Loeb criteria showed 19% sensitivity, 89% specificity, 57% PPV, and 59% NPV; and the revised Loeb criteria demonstrated 30% sensitivity, 79% specificity, 52% PPV, and 60% NPV. All of the consensus-based criteria have similar test characteristics. The diagnostic accuracy of UTI criteria in nursing home residents could be improved, and the data suggest that evidence-based clinical criteria associated with laboratory evidence of UTI need to be identified and validated.
Bobian, Michael; El-Kashlan, Nour; Hanba, Curtis J; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Carron, Michael
As the nursing home population continues to increase, an understanding of preventable injuries becomes exceedingly important. Although other fall-related injuries have been characterized, little attention has been dedicated to facial trauma. To estimate the incidence of facial trauma among nursing home residents and detail mechanisms of injury, injury characteristics, and patient demographic data. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to calculate a weighted national incidence of facial trauma among individuals older than 60 years from a nationally representative collection of emergency departments from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Entries were screened for nursing home residents, and diagnosis, anatomical site, demographic data, and mechanism of injury were analyzed. There were 109 795 nursing home residents (median age, 84.1 years; interquartile range, 79-89 years; 71 466 women [65.1%]) who required emergency department care for facial trauma. Women sustained a greater proportion of injuries with increasing age. The most common injuries were lacerations (48 679 [44.3%]), other soft-tissue injuries (45 911 [41.8%]; avulsions, contusions, and hematomas), and fractures (13 814 [12.6%]). Nasal (9331 [67.5%]) and orbital (1144 [8.3%]) fractures were the most common sites. The most common injury causes were direct contact with structural housing elements or fixed items (62 604 [57.0%]) and transfer to and from bed (24 870 [22.6%]). Despite falls being considered a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services preventable never event in hospitals, our analysis in the nursing home setting found more than 100 000 facial injuries during 5 years, suggesting these underappreciated injuries contribute substantially to health care expenditures. Although structural elements facilitated the greatest number of falls, transfer to and from bed remains a significant mechanism, suggesting an area for intervention.
Gravenstein, Stefan; Davidson, H Edward; Taljaard, Monica; Ogarek, Jessica; Gozalo, Pedro; Han, Lisa; Mor, Vincent
, adjusting for facility clustering and prespecified covariates. Safety data were voluntarily reported according to the standard of care. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01815268. 823 facilities were recruited to the study between March and August, 2013, to participate in the trial, of which 409 facilities were randomised for residents to receive high-dose vaccine, and 414 facilities for residents to receive standard-dose vaccine. The facilities housed 92 269, of whom 75 917 were aged 65 years or older and 53 008 were also long-stay residents, and 38 256 were matched to Medicare hospital claims as of Nov 1, 2013. Staff vaccination rates did not differ between groups, so analyses focused on the high-dose versus standard-dose vaccine comparison. On the basis of Medicare fee-for-service claims, the incidence of respiratory-related hospital admissions was significantly lower in facilities where residents received high-dose influenza vaccines than in those that received standard-dose influenza vaccines (0·185 per 1000 resident-days or 3·4% over 6 months vs 0·211 per 1000 resident-days or 3·9% over 6 months; unadjusted relative risk of 0·888, 95% CI 0·785-1·005, 0=0·061, and adjusted relative risk 0·873, 0·776-0·982, p=0·023). When compared with standard-dose vaccine, high-dose influenza vaccine can reduce risk of respiratory-related hospital admissions from nursing home residents aged 65 years and older. Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tockwotton Home, a 150+-year-old long-term care organization reinvented itself by adopting the household model of management ("culture change") to enable residents to play an integral role in self-directing their care. Staff was cross-trained and cross- certified to be nimble in meeting resident needs. In addition to philosophical changes, the organization made a $53.2M investment in a new building with architectural features that reflected the new focus. The process of change, the resources facilitating this change and our responses to challenges are described. Early indicators (and long-term studies at other institutions) have suggested that the new model of care is leading to fewer medications, falls and pressure ulcers and higher resident satisfaction.
Markova, Tsveti; Mateo, Maribeth; Roth, Linda M
The "new model of care" calls for a new approach for primary care delivery that focuses on patient centeredness, quality, safety, effective and efficient care, and interdisciplinary teamwork. Medical education needs to parallel this health care reorganization. Implementing a team approach in a residency practice, especially in ambulatory settings, poses unique challenges. We introduced interdisciplinary teams in a family medicine residency site, integrating clinical and educational objectives. We report our challenges and successes in the transformational journey to a patient-centered medical home, for which a team approach is critical to achieving high quality care. Establishing high-functioning interdisciplinary teams takes leadership commitment; the engagement of everyone in the practice; investment in staff, resident, and faculty development; and clear communication of vision and goals. Integration of clinical and educational objectives can be powerfully synergistic. Clinical, organizational, and educational outcomes are needed to evaluate impact.
Thompson, Genevieve N; McClement, Susan E; Chochinov, Harvey M
Respect and kindness are core principles of nursing practice, yet little is known about how they are experienced by nursing home (NH) residents at the end of life. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with being treated with respect and kindness in the last month of life as an NH resident. A retrospective survey of 208 bereaved family members was conducted in 21 NHs located in a city in central Canada. The majority of participants indicated that the resident had always been treated with respect or kindness. However, significant differences emerged, with not all family members believing that their loved one had always been treated with respect or kindness. The apparent lapses in care practices are troubling and indicate that steps must be taken to address them.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha
We examined engagement with stimuli in 193 nursing home residents with dementia. We hypothesized that activities and stimuli based on a person's past and current preferences would result in more engagement than other activities/stimuli. The expanded version of the self-identity questionnaire [Cohen-Mansfield, J., Golander, H. & Arheim, G. (2000)] was used to determine participants' past/present interests (as reported by relatives) in the following areas: art, music, babies, pets, reading, television, and office work. We utilized the observational measurement of engagement (Cohen-Mansfield, J., Dakheel-Ali, M., & Marx, M.S. (2009). Analysis revealed that residents with current interests in music, art, and pets were more engaged by stimuli that reflect these interests than residents without these interests. Our findings demonstrate the utility of determining a person's preferences for stimuli in order to predict responsiveness. Lack of prediction for some stimuli may reflect differences between past preferences and activities that are feasible in the present.
Uccelli, Joe; Kahol, Kanav; Ashby, Aaron; Smith, Marshall; Ferrara, John
It is unknown whether surgical residents who learn minimal-access surgery skills in an unstructured environment (ie, at home), will develop a technical skill set that rivals that of those trained in the more traditional, structured learning environment. Seven surgery residents were provided structured learning through didactic and hands-on skills training sessions and consistent supervision throughout training. A second group of 7 residents participated in an unstructured learning curriculum of training without supervision. End points were determined at the end of training using a standardized simulator based on predetermined performance measures. Both groups achieved high task scores, with comparable scores on gesture proficiency, hand movement smoothness, instrument movement smoothness, errors, and time elapsed. There was no significant difference between group differences in final skills scores. Unstructured learning is equally effective in delivering quality skills training when compared with structured training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities. Comparative analyses between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance].
Chiwata, Kaoru; Takeda, Fumi
To clarify 1) differences in daily living activities and oral condition among care facility residents with severe intellectual disabilities and 2) chronological changes in daily living activities and oral condition for residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance and those never receiving tooth-brushing assistance. Subjects were 44 residents at a care facility for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, who underwent dental screening in July 1994 and October 2003. At each time point, daily living activities, behavior during oral health guidance, behavior during dental health screening and oral condition were compared between residents receiving tooth-brushing assistance (assistance group) and those not receiving tooth-brushing assistance (independent group). Furthermore, chronological changes were analyzed for residents requiring assistance at both screenings, those requiring assistance only at the second screening, and those not requiring assistance at either screening. 1) In the assistance group, 100% and 36.4% of residents were unable to brush their teeth independently in 1994 and 2003, respectively. Significant differences between the assistance and independent groups were observed in all items of behavior during dental health screening in 1994, but not in 2003. No significant intergroup differences in oral condition were observed in 1994, but differences were seen in 2003; when compared to the assistance group, the number of lost teeth was significantly higher in the independent group, while the number of remaining teeth was lower. 2) Regarding changes over the nine-year period, a significantly greater proportion of residents not requiring assistance at either screening and those requiring assistance only at the second screening finally required assistance in bathing. As for oral condition, no significant changes in healthy teeth were observed in residents requiring assistance at both screening time points, while significant increases in dental
Taylor, Janice; Sims, Jane; Haines, Terry P
Mobility contributes to the quality of life and independence of residents in nursing homes. To perform resident-centred mobility care, staff need to understand residents' physical capacity and perspectives of care. The aim of the study was to explore residents' perspectives of intrinsic factors influencing their mobility and associations between these factors with a view to informing resident mobility care practice improvements. The study was part of a larger ethnographic project exploring safe resident mobility care in nursing homes. Semi-structured interviews with nursing home residents supplemented by non-participant observations were conducted over a 20-month period from July 2010. Fifteen residents consented to be interviewed in three nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia. Unobtrusive observations of 46 mobility events took place in three nursing homes over 5 months from September, 2011. Participants identified intrinsic factors that influence their mobility including mobility capacity, strategies to cope with mobility loss, motivation and efforts to remain mobile. Three themes related to resident attitudes and responses to mobility loss emerged: acceptance of mobility loss and staff assistance; motivation to remain mobile; and acquiescence and loss of control during mobility events. A conceptual model developed from the study outlined associations between resident attitudes and mobility and quality of life outcomes. Discussion was framed by theories of ageing and adaptation: selection, optimisation and compensation; learned dependency; and learned helplessness. Resident acceptance of mobility loss, and required staff assistance and realistic determination to remain mobile contribute to residents' quality of life. Mobility care based on considerations of resident choice, autonomy and the value of mobility is important. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care. Nursing homes across 48 states, Washington DC, and Puerto Rico participated. Implementation of the project was conducted between March 1, 2014, and August 31, 2016. The project was implemented over 12-month cohorts and included a technical bundle: catheter removal, aseptic insertion, using regular assessments, training for catheter care, and incontinence care planning, as well as a socioadaptive bundle emphasizing leadership, resident and family engagement, and effective communication. Urinary catheter use and catheter-associated UTI rates using National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were collected. Facility-level urine culture order rates were also obtained. Random-effects negative binomial regression models were used to examine changes in catheter-associated UTI, catheter utilization, and urine cultures and adjusted for covariates including ownership, bed size, provision of subacute care, 5-star rating, presence of an infection control committee, and an infection preventionist. In 4 cohorts over 30 months, 568 community-based nursing homes were recruited; 404 met inclusion criteria for analysis. The unadjusted catheter-associated UTI rates decreased from 6.78 to 2.63 infections per 1000 catheter-days. With use of the regression model and adjustment for facility characteristics, the rates decreased from 6.42 to 3.33 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.36-0.58; P project. Catheter utilization remained unchanged (4.50 at baseline, 4.45 at conclusion of project; IRR, 0
Husebo, Bettina S; Ballard, Clive; Sandvik, Reidun; Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Aarsland, Dag
To determine whether a systematic approach to the treatment of pain can reduce agitation in people with moderate to severe dementia living in nursing homes. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 60 clusters (single independent nursing home units) in 18 nursing homes within five municipalities of western Norway. 352 residents with moderate to severe dementia and clinically significant behavioural disturbances randomised to a stepwise protocol for the treatment of pain for eight weeks with additional follow-up four weeks after the end of treatment (33 clusters; n = 175) or to usual treatment (control, 27 clusters; n = 177). Participants in the intervention group received individual daily treatment of pain for eight weeks according to the stepwise protocol, with paracetamol (acetaminophen), morphine, buprenorphine transdermal patch, or pregabaline. The control group received usual treatment and care. Primary outcome measure was agitation (scores on Cohen-Mansfield agitation inventory). Secondary outcome measures were aggression (scores on neuropsychiatric inventory-nursing home version), pain (scores on mobilisation-observation-behaviour-intensity-dementia-2), activities of daily living, and cognition (mini-mental state examination). Agitation was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with control group after eight weeks (repeated measures analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline score, P scores for agitation was 17% (treatment effect estimate -7.0, 95% confidence interval -3.7 to -10.3). Treatment of pain was also significantly beneficial for the overall severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (-9.0, -5.5 to -12.6) and pain (-1.3, -0.8 to -1.7), but the groups did not differ significantly for activities of daily living or cognition. A systematic approach to the management of pain significantly reduced agitation in residents of nursing homes with moderate to severe dementia. Effective management of pain can play an important part in the treatment
Almomani, Fidaa M; Bani-Issa, Wegdan
The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting dental care utilization among nursing home residents in Jordan. A total of 221 subjects with a mean age of 62.4 years (121 males and 100 females) taken from among nursing home residents across Jordan were recruited and composed a convenience sample for this study. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Tinetti Assessment Battery for gait and balance (TAB), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand test (DASH) were administered and oral health status was assessed for all subjects and examined as expected correlates of dental care utilization among nursing home residents. The response rate was about 88%. One-third of residents suffered from total edentulism and most of the remaining dentate residents exhibited periodontal disease (90%). Of the dentate sample, 90% of residents had bleeding upon probing, 85% were diagnosed with tooth mobility, 88% had presence of dental calculus, and 30% were diagnosed with root caries. Of the denture wearers, 59.1 % reported having soreness with their dentures and 32% of denture wearers reported having poor quality dentures. MMSE score, suffering from tooth sensitivity and having diabetes mellitus were identified to be indicators for utilization of dental care services among the study population. Regular oral care, assessments, and rehabilitation services are considered to be limited for nursing home residents in Jordan. Based upon these findings, future interventions should address oral health among nursing home residents in Jordan. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hollaar, V.; Maarel-Wierink, C. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Sanden, W. van der; Swart, B.J. de; Baat, C. de
BACKGROUND: In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration
Morris, Deborah A; Galicia-Castillo, Marissa
To describe the CARES program, a model of palliative care for nursing home residents. Descriptive analysis of the Caring About Residents' Experiences and Symptoms (CARES) Program that provides palliative care services to nursing home residents. The CARES Program serves as an example of collaborative efforts to meet community needs. To evaluate the program, we document the services provided as well as process outcomes (changes to care plans, hospitalizations, location of death, and hospice utilization) for residents referred. 170 nursing home residents were seen by CARES Program between February 2013 to December 2015, 48% for skilled services, and 52% for long term care. Majority of referrals were for goals of care and concurrent symptom management. Following consultation, 67% of residents had a change in code status. Of residents desiring a palliative course 90% were never hospitalized. Overall, 53% of residents died; and those in long term care dying more often with hospice. The CARES program of palliative consultation addresses the needs of nursing home residents. The model has potential to be reproducible in in other communities.
Büla, Christophe J; Ghilardi, Giuseppe; Wietlisbach, Vincent; Petignat, Christiane; Francioli, Patrick
To determine the relationship between infections and functional impairment in nursing home residents. Prospective cohort study (follow-up period, 6 months). Thirty-nine nursing homes in western Switzerland. A total of 1,324 residents aged 65 and older (mean age 85.7; 76.6% female) who agreed to participate, or their proxies, by oral informed consent. Functional status measured every 3 months. Two different outcomes were used: (a) functional decline defined as death or decreased function at follow-up and (b) functional status score using a standardized measure. At the end of follow-up, mortality was 14.6%, not different for those with and without infection (16.2% vs 13.1%, P=.11). During both 3-month periods, subjects with infection had higher odds of functional decline, even after adjustment for baseline characteristics and occurrence of a new illness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-2.2, P=.002, and AOR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0, P=.008, respectively). The odds of decline increased in a stepwise fashion in patients with zero, one, and two or more infections. The analyses predicting functional status score (restricted to subjects who survived) gave similar results. A survival analysis predicting time to first infection confirmed a stepwise greater likelihood of infection in subjects with moderate and severe impairment at baseline than in subjects with no or mild functional impairment at baseline. Infections appear to be both a cause and a consequence of functional impairment in nursing home residents. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate whether effective infection control programs can also contribute to preventing functional decline, an important component of these residents' quality of life.
Cox, Claudia A; van Jaarsveld, Heike J; Houterman, Saskia; van der Stegen, John C G H; Wasylewicz, Arthur T M; Grouls, Rene J E; van der Linden, Carolien M J
Falling is a common and serious problem in the elderly. Previous studies suggest that the use of psychotropic drugs increases the risk of falling. However, the contribution of these drugs on fall risk has not been quantified on a daily basis among the general population of nursing homes until now. To assess the association between fall incidence and the prescription of psychotropic drugs and different categories of psychotropic drugs (antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines) among a general nursing home population. Retrospective observational study, data collection per person-day. 9 nursing homes in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. 2368 nursing home residents, resulting in 538,575 person-days. Association between the prescription of psychotropic drugs and falls. A total of 2368 nursing home residents were included, which resulted in a data set of 538,575 person-days. Prescription of at least 1 psychotropic drug per day occurred during a total of 318,128 person-days (59.1%). Scheduled prescriptions with or without an as-needed prescription were involved in a total of 270,781 person-days (50.3%). The prescription of psychotropic drugs on a scheduled basis was found to be associated with almost a 3-fold increase in fall incidence (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.52-5.44). An increase in fall incidence was found following the prescription of antipsychotics (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.51-2.59) and antidepressants (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.73-2.95). This increased fall risk was found for prescriptions on a scheduled basis as well as for prescriptions on an as-needed basis. The prescription of psychotropic drugs is associated with a strongly increased risk of falling among nursing home residents. To our knowledge, this is the first study among the general nursing home population in which the association between daily falls and daily prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and groups of psychotropic drugs was specified. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Doupe, Malcolm B; Day, Suzanne; McGregor, Margaret J; John, Philip St; Chateau, Dan; Puchniak, Joe; Dik, Natalia; Sarkar, Joykrishna
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are reported more often among newly admitted nursing home (NH) residents who transfer from hospital versus community. We examine for whom this increased risk is greatest, further defining hospitalized patients most in need of better PU preventive care. Retrospective observational cohort study. All NH residents (N=5617) newly admitted between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2012 in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. RAI-MDS 2.0 data were linked to administrative health care use files capturing each person's NH admission date, their presence of a PU at this time, whether they transferred into NH from hospital or community, and their PU susceptibility (eg, amount of help needed to maneuver in bed or to transfer from one surface to another, frequency of incontinence, presence of diabetes, amount of food consistently left uneaten). Log-binomial regression with interaction terms was used to analyze data. 67.6% of our cohort transferred into a NH directly from hospital; 9.2% of these residents were reported to have a stage 1+ PU on NH admission versus 2.6% of those who transferred from community. From regression models, transferring from hospital versus community was associated with increased PU risk equally across various subgroups of less and more susceptible residents. Transferring from hospital versus community places both more and less susceptible newly admitted NH residents at increased PU risk. Using evidence-based preventive care practices is thus needed for all subgroups of hospital patients before NH use, to help reduce PU risk.
Stuijt, Clementine C. M.; Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kluft-van Driel, Chantal; Le, Nhut; Binnekade, Jan; van der Kleij, Bea; van der Schors, Tjalling; van den Bemt, Patricia; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine
Crushing solid oral dosage forms is an important risk factor for medication administration errors (MAEs) in patients with swallowing difficulties. Nursing home (NH) residents, especially those on psychogeriatric wards, have a high prevalence of such difficulties. Six different psychogeriatric wards
Linda Aimée Hartford Kvæl; Astrid Bergland; Elisabeth Wiken Telenius
Objectives The primary aim of this study is to describe depression and physical function in nursing home residents with dementia, as well as to examine the associations between depression and balance...
Friedman, Bruce; Santos, Elizabeth J; Liebel, Dianne V; Russ, Ann J; Conwell, Yeates
The objectives of this study were to identify elder mistreatment (EM) prevalence among a cohort of older adults receiving visiting nurse care in their homes, determine EM subtypes, and identify factors associated with EM. EM data were collected by nurses during monthly home visits for up to 24 months. It took the nurses a mean of 10.5 visits to discern EM. Fifty-four (7.4%) of 724 patients were identified as mistreated, of which 33 had enough information to subtype the EM. Of these 33, 27 were victims of neglect, 16 of psychological abuse, and 10 of financial exploitation, and 17 suffered more than one type. Among the entire sample, 11 variables were positively correlated with EM presence. Nurses visiting older adults in their homes should be aware that their patients are, as a group, vulnerable to EM, and that the factors identified here may be specific markers of greater risk.
Marier, Allison; Olsho, Lauren E W; Rhodes, William; Spector, William D
Falls are physically and financially costly, but may be preventable with targeted intervention. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is one potential source of information on fall risk factors among nursing home residents, but its limited breadth and relatively infrequent updates may limit its practical utility. Richer, more frequently updated data from electronic medical records (EMRs) may improve ability to identify individuals at highest risk for falls. The authors applied a repeated events survival model to analyze MDS 3.0 and EMR data for 5129 residents in 13 nursing homes within a single large California chain that uses a centralized EMR system from a leading vendor. Estimated regression parameters were used to project resident fall probability. The authors examined the proportion of observed falls within each projected fall risk decile to assess improvements in predictive power from including EMR data. In a model incorporating fall risk factors from the MDS only, 28.6% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile. In an alternative specification incorporating more frequently updated measures for the same risk factors from the EMR data, 32.3% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile, a 13% increase over the base MDS-only specification. Incorporating EMR data improves ability to identify those at highest risk for falls relative to prediction using MDS data alone. These improvements stem chiefly from the greater frequency with which EMR data are updated, with minimal additional gains from availability of additional risk factor variables. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sæteren, Berit; Tolo Heggestad, Anne Kari; Høy, B.
The aim of this study was to answer the question "What do nursing home residents do themselves in order to maintain their dignity?" Twenty-eight residents, 8 men and 20 women, aged 62 to 103 years, from 6 different nursing homes in Scandinavia were interviewed. The results showed that the residen...... tried to expand their life space, both physical and ontological, in order to experience health and dignity....
Francisca Galindo-Garre; Ladislav Volicer; Steen, Jenny T van der
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze factors related to rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods: The relationship of lack of understanding, depression, psychosis and pain with rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others was explored using four assessments from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) within a period of 15 months on 1,101 residents with dementia in Dutch nursing homes. Presence of depressive symptoms was asce...
Full Text Available Ilda Godoy,1 Suzana Erico Tanni,2 Carme Hernández,3 Irma Godoy21Department of Nursing, Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Pulmonology, Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Integrated Care Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is one of the main treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients receiving LTOT may have less than optimal home conditions and this may interfere with treatment. The objective of this study was, through home visits, to identify the characteristics of patients receiving LTOT and to develop knowledge regarding the home environments of these patients.Methods: Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 69 plus or minus 10.5 years were evaluated. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. Data were collected during an initial home visit, using a questionnaire standardized for the study. The results were analyzed retrospectively.Results: Seventy-five percent of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 11% were active smokers. The patients’ mean pulse oximetry values were 85.9% plus or minus 4.7% on room air and 92% plus or minus 3.9% on the prescribed flow of oxygen. Most of the patients did not use the treatment as prescribed and most used a humidifier. The extension hose had a mean length of 5 plus or minus 3.9 m (range, 1.5–16 m. In the year prior to the visit, 26% of the patients received emergency medical care because of respiratory problems. Few patients reported engaging in leisure activities.Conclusion: The home visit allowed us to identify problems and interventions that could improve the way LTOT is used. The most common interventions related to smoking cessation, concentrator maintenance and cleaning, use of a humidifier, and adjustments of the length of the connector hose. Therefore, the home visit
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing numbers of deaths occur in nursing homes. Knowledge of the course of development over the years in death rates and predictors of mortality is important for officials responsible for organizing care to be able to ensure that staff is knowledgeable in the areas of care needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the time from residents' admission to Icelandic nursing homes to death and the predictive power of demographic variables, health status (health stability, pain, depression and cognitive performance and functional profile (ADL and social engagement for 3-year mortality in yearly cohorts from 1996-2006. Methods The samples consisted of residents (N = 2206 admitted to nursing homes in Iceland in 1996-2006, who were assessed once at baseline with a Minimum Data Set (MDS within 90 days of their admittance to the nursing home. The follow-up time for survival of each cohort was 36 months from admission. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank test and non-parametric correlation analyses (Spearman's rho, variables associated with survival time with a p-value Results The median survival time was 31 months, and no significant difference was detected in the mortality rate between cohorts. Age, gender (HR 1.52, place admitted from (HR 1.27, ADL functioning (HR 1.33-1.80, health stability (HR 1.61-16.12 and ability to engage in social activities (HR 1.51-1.65 were significant predictors of mortality. A total of 28.8% of residents died within a year, 43.4% within two years and 53.1% of the residents died within 3 years. Conclusion It is noteworthy that despite financial constraints, the mortality rate did not change over the study period. Health stability was a strong predictor of mortality, in addition to ADL performance. Considering these variables is thus valuable when deciding on the type of service an elderly person needs. The mortality rate showed that more than 50% died within 3 years, and almost a third of
Korzeniewska-Eksterowicz, Aleksandra; Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech
The current literature suggests that perinatal palliative care (PPC) programs should be comprehensive, initiated early, and integrative. So far there have been very few publications on the subject of home-based PC of newborns and neonates. Most publications focus on hospital-based care, mainly in the neonatal intensive care units. To describe the neonates and infants who received home-based palliative care in Lodz Region between 2005 and 2011. A retrospective review of medical records. 53 neonates and infants were admitted to a home hospice in Lodz Region between 2005 and 2011. In general, they are a growing group of patients referred to palliative care. Congenital diseases (41%) were the primary diagnoses; out of 53 patients 16 died, 20 were discharged home, and 17 stayed under hospice care until 2011. The most common cause of death (56%) was cardiac insufficiency. Neurological symptoms (72%) and dysphagia (58%) were the most common clinical problems. The majority of children (45%) had a feeding tube inserted and were oxygen dependent (45%); 39 families received psychological care and 31 social supports. For terminally ill neonates and infants, perinatal palliative care is an option which improves the quality of their lives and provides the family with an opportunity to say goodbye.
Full Text Available Context. The current literature suggests that perinatal palliative care (PPC programs should be comprehensive, initiated early, and integrative. So far there have been very few publications on the subject of home-based PC of newborns and neonates. Most publications focus on hospital-based care, mainly in the neonatal intensive care units. Objective. To describe the neonates and infants who received home-based palliative care in Lodz Region between 2005 and 2011. Methods. A retrospective review of medical records. Results. 53 neonates and infants were admitted to a home hospice in Lodz Region between 2005 and 2011. In general, they are a growing group of patients referred to palliative care. Congenital diseases (41% were the primary diagnoses; out of 53 patients 16 died, 20 were discharged home, and 17 stayed under hospice care until 2011. The most common cause of death (56% was cardiac insufficiency. Neurological symptoms (72% and dysphagia (58% were the most common clinical problems. The majority of children (45% had a feeding tube inserted and were oxygen dependent (45%; 39 families received psychological care and 31 social supports. Conclusions. For terminally ill neonates and infants, perinatal palliative care is an option which improves the quality of their lives and provides the family with an opportunity to say goodbye.
Simpson, Paul; Horne, Maria; Brown, Laura J E; Wilson, Christine Brown; Dickinson, Tommy; Torkington, Kate
Sexuality and intimacy in care homes for older people are overshadowed by concern with prolonging physical and/or psychological autonomy. When sexuality and intimacy have been addressed in scholarship, this can reflect a sexological focus concerned with how to continue sexual activity with reduced capacity. We review the (Anglophone) academic and practitioner literatures bearing on sexuality and intimacy in relation to older care home residents (though much of this applies to older people generally). We highlight how ageism (or ageist erotophobia), which defines older people as post-sexual, restricts opportunities for the expression of sexuality and intimacy. In doing so, we draw attention to more critical writing that recognises constraints on sexuality and intimacy and indicates solutions to some of the problems identified. We also highlight problems faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGB&T) residents who are doubly excluded from sexual/intimate citizenship because of ageism combined with the heterosexual assumption. Older LGB&T residents/individuals can feel obliged to deny or disguise their identity. We conclude by outlining an agenda for research based on more sociologically informed practitioner-led work.
Jao, Ying-Ling; Loken, Eric; MacAndrew, Margaret; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Kolanowski, Ann
Social interactions that lead to positive affect are fundamental to human well-being. However, individuals with dementia are challenged to achieve positive social interaction. It is unclear how social interactions influence affect in people with dementia. This study examined the association between social interactions and affect in nursing home residents with dementia. This repeated measures study used baseline data from a clinical trial in which 126 residents from 12 nursing homes were enrolled. Participants were video recorded twice daily on five days. Ratings of social interaction and affect were taken from the videotapes using the Interacting with People subscale of the Passivity in Dementia and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Apparent Affect Rating Scale. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Social interaction was significantly related to higher interest and pleasure at within- and between-person levels. Social interaction significantly predicted anxiety and sadness at the between-person level only. Residents with higher cognitive function also displayed greater pleasure. Greater interest and anxiety was evident during the afternoon hours. This study supports the impact of social interactions on positive and negative affect. Findings can guide intervention development, aimed at promoting positive social interactions and improving affect for people with dementia.
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Yeung, Suey Shuk Yu; Lee, Paul Hong; Ng, Shamay Sheung Mei
OBJECTIVES : To examine the feasibility of a peer-led pain management program among nursing home residents. DESIGN : A quasi-experimental design. SETTING : Two nursing homes. SUBJECTS : Fifty nursing home residents. METHODS : The experimental group (n = 32) was given a 12-week group-based peer-led pain management program. There were two 1-hour sessions per week. Education in pain and demonstrations of nonpharmacological pain management strategies were provided. The research team and 12 trained peers led the sessions. The control group (n = 18) received one 1-hour session of pain management program each week over 12 weeks from the research team only. Outcome measures for the participants were collected at baseline (P1) and at week 12 (P2). Data from peer volunteers were collected prior to training (V1) and at week 12 (V2). T-tests were used to compare the differences in outcome measures collected at two time points. RESULTS : There was a significant reduction in pain intensity from 5.8 ± 2.6 (P1) to 3.4 ± 2.5 (P2) for the experimental group (p = 0.003) and from 6.3 ± 3.0 (P1) to 3.1 ± 2.4 (P2) for the control group (p = 0.001). Activities of daily living significantly improved for both the experimental group (p = 0.008) and the control group (p = 0.014). There was an enhancement in happiness level for the experimental group (p peer volunteers showed a significant increase in self-rated pain management knowledge (2.9 ± 2.6 to 8.1 ± 1.2, p peer-led pain management program was feasible and has potential in relieving chronic pain and enhancing the physical and psychological health of nursing home residents. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Fain, Kevin M; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Dore, David D; Segal, Jodi B; Zullo, Andrew R; Alexander, G Caleb
We quantified transdermal fentanyl prescribing in elderly nursing home residents without prior opioid use or persistent pain, and the association of individual and facility traits with opioid-naïve prescribing. Cross-sectional study. Linked Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments; Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) records; and Medicare Part D claims. From a cross-section of all long-stay US nursing home residents in 2008 with an MDS assessment and Medicare Part D enrollment, we identified individuals (≥65 years old) who initiated transdermal fentanyl, excluding those with Alzheimer disease, severe cognitive impairment, cancer, or receipt of hospice care. We used Medicare Part D to select beneficiaries initiating transdermal fentanyl in 2008 and determined whether they were "opioid-naïve," defined as no opioid dispensing during the previous 60 days. We obtained resident and facility characteristics from MDS and OSCAR records and defined persistent pain as moderate-to-severe, daily pain on consecutive MDS assessments at least 90 days apart. We estimated associations of patient and facility attributes and opioid-naïve fentanyl initiation using multilevel mixed effects logistic regression modeling. Among 17,052 residents initiating transdermal fentanyl, 6190 (36.3%) were opioid-naïve and 15,659 (91.8%) did not have persistent pain. In the regression analysis with adjustments, residents who were older (ages ≥95 odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-1.95) or more cognitively impaired (moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.73-2.29) were more likely to initiate transdermal fentanyl without prior opioid use. Most nursing home residents initiating transdermal fentanyl did not have persistent pain and many were opioid-naïve. Changes in prescribing practices may be necessary to ensure Food and Drug Administration warnings are followed, particularly for vulnerable subgroups, such as the cognitively impaired
Nordheim, Johanna; Hamm, Sabine; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Suhr, Ralf
Initial sporadic experiences in a Berlin nursing home showed that residents with dementia responded well to activating therapy with tablet computers. This innovative technology seemed to provide a differentiated and individual therapeutic access. These observations encouraged the nursing home management to contact the Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science at the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin with the aim to examine the practical experiences. The Centre for Quality in Care (ZQP) sponsored the 1 year pilot study. An examination of the feasibility and usability of tablet computers in the daily care of nursing home residents with dementia was carried out. In this study 14 residents (12 women and 2 men) of a special care unit for dementia patients were included in a 3-month intervention of tablet activation 3 times a week. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze data (e.g. observation protocols and videos, staff interviews, document analysis of nursing records and standardized resident interviews/proxy interviews). Nursing home residents suffering from dementia showed a high degree of acceptance of tablet computers. Most notable benefits were easy handling and the variety of multifunctional applications. Sustainable therapeutic effects resulted in stimulation of communication and interaction, improvement of well-being, memory training and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, contact to family members of several residents was improved. The use of tablet computers was convincing as an activation therapy for nursing home residents with dementia. Further research and development of specially adapted software are required.
Scott, Ann; Ryan, Assumpta; James, Ian; Mitchell, Elizabeth A
This paper presents a critical review of the literature related to the violence staff in care homes experience from people with dementia. It attempts to identify the psychological consequences abuse has on care workers and the implications this has for practice. Abuse in the form of violence or aggression against healthcare professionals is not new. However, when this is from residents with dementia in care homes it is considered to be part of the job. Consequently it is largely underreported and ignored which masks its true extent. The magnitude of violence in care homes crosses cultural boundaries. Fear of being blamed, job insecurity and resignation that abuse should be accepted as part of the job is unique to this care setting. The cumulative effect of psychological abuse leads to emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation which results in care workers emotionally and physically withdrawing from residents. Being subjected to abuse, feeling undervalued, unsupported and lacking essential skills may compromise a workforces' ability to provide person-centred care. A rising ageing population and prevalence of dementia will place demands on commissioners and providers to deliver high quality care. Consistent recording and reporting procedures, dementia specific training and infrastructures to support staff is therefore crucial. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Uhrskov Sørensen, Lisbeth; Foldspang, Anders; Gulmann, Nils Christian
of the test and to compare the criterion validity of the weighted scores with the ordinal scores for the SMMSE test. With a participation of 91%, the study included 100 nursing residents. All residents were tested with the SMMSE test and concurrently diagnosed in accordance with the ICD-10 by a consultant...... psychiatrist. The two assessments were mutually blinded. Multiple conditional forward logistic regression was used to select the items that most strongly predicted organic disorder as assessed by the psychiatrist. The weighted score had significantly better validity parameters, performed better on a receiver...
Zomer, T P; VAN DER Maaden, T; VAN Gageldonk-Lafeber, A B; DE Greeff, S C; VAN DER Steen, J T; Verhoef, L
Pneumonia leads to considerable morbidity and mortality in nursing home residents with dementia. We assessed pneumonia incidence based on data from three different studies: (1) real-time national surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in nursing home residents in 2009-2015; (2) a randomized controlled trial in 2012-2015 to assess effects of a practical guideline in nursing home residents with dementia and pneumonia; and (3) a study in 2007-2010 to assess quality of dying in newly admitted nursing home residents with dementia. In national surveillance data, pneumonia incidence was calculated separately for psychogeriatric and somatic beds, as a proxy for residents with and without dementia. Weekly pneumonia incidence was significantly lower per 1000 psychogeriatric beds (3·9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·2-4·6) compared with 1000 somatic beds (5·7; 95% CI 5·1-6·3). Annual incidence per 1000 psychogeriatric beds was similar in national surveillance (range 78·9-117·1) and the trial (range 71·0-94·3), and significantly higher in newly admitted dementia residents (range 267·3-363·2). The incidence was highest during the first months after admission when compared with residents with longer stay. In conclusion, follow-up of pneumonia in newly admitted dementia residents may result in higher incidence, possibly due to higher risk in this population.
Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is one of the most important trace elements in the body. Zn deficiency seems to play a role in the development of age-related diseases and impairment of quality of life. Zn status has been especially studied in free-living or hospitalised people, but data from older residents of nursing homes are scarce. This study aimed to determine the Zn status among the older individuals in correlation to their mental and physical performance.A total of 100 participants aged between 60-102 years were recruited between October 2010 and May 2012 at the nursing home in Bialystok (Poland. Zn status was evaluated by determining the concentration in serum by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anthropometric variables and fitness score (FS were measured. Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Self-Rated Health (SRH, independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL were recorded.The mean serum Zn concentration was 0.83 ± 0.20 mg/L, 28% of residents had Zn deficiency. Cognitive functions were impaired (AMTS ≤ 8 in 45% of the studied persons and 48% showed depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 1. The ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL = 6 was found in 61% of participants, but most of them (90% had weak body type (FS < 70, correlating with GDS, SRH and body mass index (BMI. Serum Zn concentration correlated with mental efficiency and was statistically significantly higher in older people with normal cognitive function and without depression than in patients with memory impairment and showing depressive symptoms.Nursing home residents seem at risk of marginal Zn status, which correlates with their mental status as measured by the AMTS and GDS. Their low FS is associated with mental health deterioration and obesity.
Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjaer, Karin; Beyer, Nina
We tested the hypothesis that a multifaceted 11-wk intervention comprising nutrition, group exercise, and oral care would have a significant influence on nutrition and function in elderly (>or=65 y) nursing-home residents. The study was an 11-wk randomized controlled intervention study with nutrition (chocolate and homemade oral supplements), group exercise twice a week (45-60 min, moderate intensity), and oral care intervention one to two times a week, with the aim of improving nutritional status and function in elderly nursing-home residents. A follow-up visit was made 4 mo after the end of the intervention. Assessments were weight, body mass index, dietary intake, handgrip strength, Senior Fitness Test, Berg's Balance Scale, and the prevalence of plaque. A total of 121 subjects (61%) accepted the invitation and 62 were randomized to the intervention group. Six of these dropped out during the 11 wk. At the 4-mo follow-up there were 15 deaths in the intervention group and 8 in the control group. The nutrition and exercise were well tolerated. After 11 wk the change in percentage of weight (P = 0.005), percentage of body mass index (P = 0.003), energy intake (P = 0.084), protein intake (P = 0.012), and Berg's Balance Scale (P = 0.004) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. In addition, the percentage of subjects whose functional tests improved was higher in the intervention group. Both groups lost the same percentage of weight after the intervention (P = 0.908). The total percentage of weight loss from baseline to follow-up was higher in the control group (P = 0.019). Oral care was not well accepted and the prevalence of plaque did not change. It is possible to improve nutrition and function in elderly nursing-home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention consisting of chocolate, homemade supplements, group exercise, and oral care.
Vrbanac, Zoran; Zecević, Iva; Ljubić, Marijana; Belić, Maja; Stanin, Damir; Bottegaro, Nika Brkljaca; Jurkić, Gabrijela; Skrlin, Branimir; Bedrica, Ljiljana; Zubcić, Damir
Use of animals for therapeutic purposes, animal assisted therapy or AAT is a method for improving quality of life for long-term inpatients. The object of this paper was to evaluate dog companionship as a form of AAT and its effects on perception of loneliness in geriatric nursing home residents. The participants were involved in a six-month program of dog companionship three times weekly for 90 minutes. There were 21 residents included in the program, with a mean age of 80 years. Loneliness was measured by the short version of the UCLA Scale of loneliness. Comparison of test results before and after participation in the program showed that dog companionship reduces the perception of loneliness.
Lopez, Ruth Palan; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Mitchell, Susan L.; Givens, Jane L.
To understand family members’ perspectives on person- and family-centered end-of-life care provided to nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia, we conducted a qualitative follow-up interview with 16 respondents who had participated in an earlier prospective study, Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advance Dementia at End of Life (CASCADE). Family members of NH residents (N = 16) with advanced dementia participated in semistructured qualitative interviews that inquired about overall NH experience, communication, surrogate decision making, emotional reaction, and recommendations for improvement. Analysis identified 5 areas considered important by family members: (1) providing basic care; (2) ensuring safety and security; (3) creating a sense of belonging and attachment; (4) fostering self-esteem and self-efficacy; and (5) coming to terms with the experience. These themes can provide a framework for creating and testing strategies to meet the goal of person- and family-centered care. PMID:24085250
Pimentel, Camilla B; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Tjia, Jennifer; Hume, Anne L; Lapane, Kate L
To estimate the prevalence of new initiation of long-acting opioids since introduction of national efforts to increase prescriber and public awareness on safe use of transdermal fentanyl patches. Cross-sectional. U.S. nursing homes (NHs). Medicare-enrolled long-stay NH residents (N = 22,253). Minimum Data Set 3.0 was linked with Medicare enrollment, hospital claims, and prescription drug transaction data (January-December 2011) and used to determine the prevalence of new initiation of a long-acting opioid prescribed to residents in NHs. Of NH residents prescribed a long-acting opioid within 30 days of NH admission (n = 12,278), 9.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.9-9.9%) lacked a prescription drug claim for a short-acting opioid in the previous 60 days. The most common initial prescriptions of long-acting opioids were fentanyl patch (51.9% of opioid-naïve NH residents), morphine sulfate (28.1%), and oxycodone (17.2%). New initiation of long-acting opioids-especially fentanyl patches, which have been the subject of safety communications-persists in NHs. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu
Background: Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), their attitude to ageing (AAQ), Barthel index (Activities of Daily Living) and body mass index were also measured. Data was analysed using PASW. Results: The PSQI score ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 7.1 (SD 3.4) and 76.8% (116) had scores ≥ 5. The differences in the mean score for chronic illness (t = 0.14/P = 0.04), the people that could be counted on for help (t = 4.09/P = 0.02) and the feasibility of getting practical help from fellow residents (t = 4.41/P = 0.01) were statistically significant. There was a negative correlation between the PSQI score and the WHOQOL-BREF score (-0.318/0.00) and AAQ score (-0.332/0.00). Conclusions: Staff working in an elderly care institution should understand the important relationship of illnesses, social support and sleep hygiene in the wellbeing of the residents. PMID:23922598
Michelle M Lee
Full Text Available Michelle M Lee1, Cameron J Camp2, Megan L Malone21Midwestern University, Department of Behavioral Medicine, Downers Grove, IL , USA; 2Myers Research Institute of Menorah Park Center for Senior Living, Beachwood, OH, USA Abstract: Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP with 15 preschool children from the facility’s on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose – the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES. These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented “lessons” to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.Keywords: Montessori-based activities, intergenerational programming, engagement, dementia
Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L
Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility's on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose--the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented "lessons" to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Drageset, Jorunn; Espehaug, Birgitte; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Natvig, Gerd Karin
To examine how stable the sense of coherence (SOC) is over a five-year period among residents of nursing homes (NH) who are not cognitively impaired and whether components of social support influence SOC. Many studies have investigated the stability of SOC, and the findings have been inconsistent. Social support is a crucial resource in developing SOC. Few researchers have studied the stability of SOC and how various social support dimensions influence changes in SOC among older NH residents who are cognitively intact. The study was prospective and included baseline assessment and five-year follow-up. The sample comprised 52 cognitively intact NH residents (Clinical Dementia Rating score ≤0.5). We obtained data through direct interviews using the Social Provisions Scale and Sense of Coherence Scale. SOC increased statistically significantly from baseline to follow-up. The social support subdimension reassurance of worth predicted change in SOC after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. When controlled for baseline SOC, attachment was associated with change in SOC, but reassurance of worth was not. The study indicates that the change in SOC over time during the 5 years of follow-up and the social support dimension attachment appear to be important components of change in SOC. Nursing personnel should be aware of the residents' individual needs for attachment and the importance of emotional support for personal strength and ability to cope.
Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu
Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), their attitude to ageing (AAQ), Barthel index (Activities of Daily Living) and body mass index were also measured. Data was analysed using PASW. The PSQI score ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 7.1 (SD 3.4) and 76.8% (116) had scores ≥ 5. The differences in the mean score for chronic illness (t = 0.14/P = 0.04), the people that could be counted on for help (t = 4.09/P = 0.02) and the feasibility of getting practical help from fellow residents (t = 4.41/P = 0.01) were statistically significant. There was a negative correlation between the PSQI score and the WHOQOL-BREF score (-0.318/0.00) and AAQ score (-0.332/0.00). Staff working in an elderly care institution should understand the important relationship of illnesses, social support and sleep hygiene in the wellbeing of the residents.
Sackley, Catherine M; van den Berg, Maayken E; Lett, Karen; Patel, Smitaa; Hollands, Kristen; Wright, Christine C; Hoppitt, Thomas J
To compare the clinical effectiveness of a programme of physiotherapy and occupational therapy with standard care in care home residents who have mobility limitations and are dependent in performing activities of daily living. Cluster randomised controlled trial, with random allocation at the level of care home. Care homes within the NHS South Birmingham primary care trust and the NHS Birmingham East and North primary care trust that had more than five beds and provided for people in the care categories "physical disability" and "older people." Care home residents with mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (as screened by the Barthel index), and not receiving end of life care were eligible to take part in the study. A targeted three month occupational therapy and physiotherapy programme. Scores on the Barthel index and the Rivermead mobility index. 24 of 77 nursing and residential homes that catered for residents with mobility limitations and dependency for activities of daily living were selected for study: 12 were randomly allocated to the intervention arm (128 residents, mean age 86 years) and 12 to the control arm (121 residents, mean age 84 years). Participants were evaluated by independent assessors blind to study arm allocation before randomisation (0 months), three months after randomisation (at the end of the treatment period for patients who received the intervention), and again at six months after randomisation. After adjusting for home effect and baseline characteristics, no significant differences were found in mean Barthel index scores at six months post-randomisation between treatment arms (mean effect 0.08, 95% confidence interval -1.14 to 1.30; P=0.90), across assessments (-0.01, -0.63 to 0.60; P=0.96), or in the interaction between assessment and intervention (0.42, -0.48 to 1.32; P=0.36). Similarly, no significant differences were found in the mean Rivermead mobility index scores between treatment arms (0.62, -0.51 to 1
Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Burton, Christopher R; Watkins, Caroline L; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Wheatley, Keith; Sheehan, Bart; Sharp, Leslie; Stant, Katie E; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Steel, Kerry; Barton, Garry R; Irvine, Lisa; Peryer, Guy
Care home residents with stroke-related disabilities have significant activity limitations. Phase II trial results suggested a potential benefit of occupational therapy (OT) in maintaining residents' capacity to engage in functional activity. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted course of OT in maintaining functional activity and reducing further health risks from inactivity for UK care home residents living with stroke-related disabilities. Pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. Cluster randomisation occurred at the care-home level. Homes were stratified according to trial administrative centre and type of care provided (nursing or residential), and they were randomised 1 : 1 to either the intervention or the control arm. The setting was 228 care homes which were local to 11 trial administrative centres across England and Wales. Care home residents with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, including residents with communication and cognitive impairments, not receiving end-of-life care. Personalised 3-month course of OT delivered by qualified therapists. Care workers participated in training workshops to support personal activities of daily living. The control condition consisted of usual care for residents. Outcome data were collected by a blinded assessor. The primary outcome at the participant level was the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (BI) score at 3 months. The secondary outcomes included BI scores at 6 and 12 months post randomisation, and the Rivermead Mobility Index, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels, questionnaire scores at all time points. Economic evaluation examined the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the NHS and Personal Social Services. Overall, 568 residents from 114 care homes were allocated to the
Henwood, Tim; Hassan, Bothaina; Swinton, Paul; Senior, Hugh; Keogh, Justin
The consequences of and transition into sarcopenia with long-term survival was investigated in the nursing home setting. Eligible residents from 11 nursing homes were followed-up 18-months after their assessment for sarcopenia using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with other demographic, physical and cognitive health measures collected. Of the 102 older adults who consented at baseline, 22 had died and 58 agreed to participate at follow-up, 51.7% of whom had sarcopenic. Sarcopenia at baseline was associated with a depression (p sarcopenia is high and increases with long-term survival in end-of-life care. However, the risk of sarcopenia-related mortality is not as great as from increasing age alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Källman, Ulrika; Bergstrand, Sara; Ek, Anna-Christina; Engström, Maria; Lindgren, Margareta
ObjectivesTo describe individual BF responses in a nursing home resident population for one-hour periods of bed rest. MethodsBF was measured for one hour over the sacrum in 0 degrees supine position and 30 degrees supine tilt position in 25 individuals aged 65 y or older while lying on a pressure-redistributing mattress. Measurements were made at three tissue depths (1, 2, and 10 mm) using the noninvasive optical techniques, LDF and PPG. ResultsEleven participants had a PIV response at 1mm de...
Zeller, Adelheid; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Needham, Ian; Halfens, Ruud J G
This study explored caregivers' perspectives regarding the conditions and situations of resident aggression and practical strategies caregivers use to deal with aggression. Working in a nursing home is associated with a high risk to experience aggression from residents or patients. Despite existing recommendations for dealing with aggression there is a lack of information about caregivers' ways of dealing with it in practice. A qualitative study with focus group method was conducted. Five focus group interviews, with a total of 30 participants, from nursing homes in Switzerland were undertaken employing a semi-structured interview guideline. For analysing the data, qualitative content analysis was employed. Analysis of the data produced three themes with additional sub-themes. One main theme concerns the explanations of the caregivers in regard to the occurrence of aggressive behaviour. This theme is subdivided into two areas, the contributory resident related factors and the caregiver related factors. The measures for handling aggressive behaviour are illustrated in the second theme 'dealing with residents'. The third theme refers to the strategies of the caregivers when confronted with aggressive behaviour -'self-protection' and 'coping with the situation'. Caregivers use a broad spectrum of interventions for reducing aggression, some of which are recommended by guidelines but often ignore the link between aggressive behaviour and physiological issues like pain or elimination. The caregivers only very rarely linked their practical knowledge about aggressive behaviour with theoretical knowledge. The results give insight into the caregivers' perspectives on factors leading to aggression and their coping strategies. Caregivers are informed about relevant reasons for aggressive behaviour and its management, but do not apply a systematic approach. Furthermore, the anxiety of caregivers involved in aggression incidents is an under examined area. © 2011 Blackwell
Jablonski, Rita A; Winstead, Vicki; Azuero, Andres; Ptacek, Travis; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Byrd, Elizabeth; Geisinger, Maria L; Morrow, Casey
Individuals with dysphagia who reside in nursing homes often receive inadequate mouth care and experience poor oral health. From a policy perspective, the combination of absent evidence-based mouth care protocols coupled with insufficient dental coverage create a pool of individuals at great risk for preventable infectious illnesses that contribute to high health care costs. The purpose of the current study was to determine (a) the safety of a mouth care protocol tailored for individuals with dysphagia residing in nursing homes without access to suction equipment, and (b) the feasibility of collecting oral and fecal samples for microbiota analyses. The mouth care protocol resulted in improved oral hygiene without aspiration, and oral and fecal samples were safely collected from participants. Policies supporting ongoing testing of evidence-based mouth care protocols for individuals with dysphagia are important to improve quality, demonstrate efficacy, and save health care costs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(9), 9-15.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Buckinx, F; Reginster, J-Y; Gillain, S; Petermans, J; Brunois, T; Bruyère, O
Although the theoretical foundations of frailty are well established in the literature, it remains an evolving concept lacking any unique definition or diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice and epidemiological research. No consensus exists about the accurate prevalence rates of frailty. The various operational definitions of frailty can at least partly explain such discrepancies. To compare the prevalence of frailty, measured with different diagnostic tools, among elderly nursing home residents. This is an analysis of baseline data collected among the SENIOR (Sample of Nursing home Elderly Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. Nursing homes. A total of 662 volunteer subjects from 28 nursing homes were included in this analysis. Among them, the mean age was 83.2 ± 8.99 years and 484 (72.5%) of them were women. The percentages of frail and non-frail subjects were calculated according to 10 different definitions. Prevalence of frailty varies from 1.70% (Frailty Index) to 76.3% (Groningen Frailty Indicator) depending on the tool used. The prevalence of frailty is highly dependent on the diagnostic tool used. It would be necessary to reach a consensus on which diagnostic tools to use if one wishes to have comparable data obtained in epidemiological studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing
Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Jøranson, Nina; Calogiuri, Giovanna; Ihlebæk, Camilla
Dementia often eventually leads to dependency on others and finally to residential care. However, in Norway about half of the dementia population lives at home, due to individual and political wishes. There is scarce and inconclusive knowledge of how living in a nursing home differs from living at home for persons with dementia (PWDs) with regard to their quality of life (QoL). The first aim of the study was therefore to compare QoL, cognitive and physical functions, social contacts, sleep patterns, physical activity levels, exposure to light, and medication of PWDs in nursing homes and home-dwelling PWDs, and whether living in nursing homes was associated with a lower QoL than living at home for PWDs. A second aim was to examine if possible differences between residencies in QoL were consistent over time. The cross-sectional study was based on baseline data from two RCT studies of PWDs. A total of 15 nursing homes with adapted units for PWDs and 23 adapted day care centres for home-dwelling PWDs recruited 78 and 115 participants respectively. Trained nurses scored sociodemographic data, level of dementia (on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale), amount of medication, and QoL (QUALID). Sleep patterns, physical activity levels, and light exposure were measured by actigraphy. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the association between residency and QoL. The association between residency and change in QoL over time was investigated by linear regression analysis of a subsample with follow-up data. Home-dwelling PWDs showed significantly higher QoL than PWDs in nursing homes. This difference was maintained even after stratifying on the severity of dementia. Home-dwelling PWDs with moderate dementia showed significantly less use of walking aids, more social contact, higher levels of activity and exposure to daylight, and less use of psychotropic medications. The regression model explained 28 % of the variance in QoL in persons with moderate dementia. However
Näsström, Lena; Jaarsma, Tiny; Idvall, Ewa; Årestedt, Kristofer; Strömberg, Anna
Patient participation is important for improving outcomes, respect for self-determination and legal aspects in care. However, how patients with heart failure view participation and which factors may be associated with participation is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the influence of structured home care on patient participation over time in patients diagnosed with heart failure, and to explore factors associated with participation in care. The study had a prospective pre-post longitudinal design evaluating the influence of structured home care on participation in patients at four different home care units. Patient participation was measured using 3 scales and 1 single item. Self-care behavior, knowledge, symptoms of depression, socio- demographic and clinical characteristics were measured to explore factors associated with patient participation. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to describe change over time, and stepwise regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with patient participation. One hundred patients receiving structured heart failure home care were included. Mean age was 82 years, 38 were women and 80 were in New York Heart Association functional class III. One aspect of participation, received information, showed a significant change over time and had increased at both six and twelve months. Better self-care behavior was associated with all four scales measuring different aspects of participation. Experiencing lower degree of symptoms of depression, having better knowledge, being of male sex, being of lower age, cohabiting and having home help services were associated with one or two of the four scales measuring different aspects of participation. Patients experienced a fairly high level of satisfaction with participation in care at baseline, and there was a significant improvement over time for participation with regard to received information after being admitted to structured home care. Higher level of
Beck, Susan L; Eaton, Linda H; Echeverria, Christina; Mooney, Kathi H
SymptomCare@Home, an integrated symptom monitoring and management system, was designed as part of randomized clinical trials to help patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy in ambulatory clinics and often experience significant symptoms at home. An iterative design process was informed by chronic disease management theory and features of assessment and clinical decision support systems used in other diseases. Key stakeholders participated in the design process: nurse scientists, clinical experts, bioinformatics experts, and computer programmers. Especially important was input from end users, patients, and nurse practitioners participating in a series of studies testing the system. The system includes both a patient and clinician interface and fully integrates two electronic subsystems: a telephone computer-linked interactive voice response system and a Web-based Decision Support-Symptom Management System. Key features include (1) daily symptom monitoring, (2) self-management coaching, (3) alerting, and (4) nurse practitioner follow-up. The nurse practitioner is distinctively positioned to provide assessment, education, support, and pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to intensify management of poorly controlled symptoms at home. SymptomCare@Home is a model for providing telehealth. The system facilitates using evidence-based guidelines as part of a comprehensive symptom management approach. The design process and system features can be applied to other diseases and conditions.
Stange, Inken; Bartram, Matthias; Liao, Yuye; Poeschl, Karin; Kolpatzik, Sarah; Uter, Wolfgang; Sieber, Cornel C; Stehle, Peter; Volkert, Dorothee
Although oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are known to be effective to treat malnutrition in the elderly, evidence from nursing home populations, including individuals with dementia, is rare, especially with regard to functionality and well-being. A known barrier for ONS use among elderly is the volume that needs to be consumed, resulting in low compliance and thus reduced effectiveness. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a low-volume, energy- and nutrient-dense ONS on nutritional status, functionality, and quality of life (QoL) of nursing home residents. Randomized controlled intervention trial. Six nursing homes in Nürnberg and Fuerth, Germany. Nursing home residents affected by malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition. Random assignment to intervention (IG) and control group (CG), receiving 2 × 125 mL ONS (600 kcal, 24 g protein) per day and routine care, respectively, for 12 weeks. Nutritional (weight, body mass index [BMI], upper arm and calf circumferences, MNA-SF) and functional parameters (handgrip strength, gait speed, depressive mood [GDS], cognition [MMSE], activities of daily living [Barthel ADL]) as well as QoL (QUALIDEM) were assessed at baseline (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2). ONS intake was registered daily and compliance calculated. A total of 77 residents (87 ± 6 y, 91% female) completed the study; 78% had dementia (MMSE home residents with high functional impairment and resulted in significant improvements of nutritional status and, thus, were effective to support treatment of malnutrition. Assessment of function was hampered by dementia and immobility, limiting the assessment of functionality, and highlighting the need for better tools for elderly with functional impairments. ONS may positively affect QoL but this requires further research. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
k Barzegar Bafrooei
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Elderly is regarded as a critical period of human life, which the related issues and needs in this period are socially necessitated to be taken into consideration. Studies have shown that living with other family members produces positive effects on the physical and mental health of the elderly. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the perceived social support and life expectancy in both groups of the elderly residents and non-residents of nursing homes in Yazd. Methods: In this descriptive study, the population consisted of all elderly residents and non-residents of nursing homes in Yazd, among which 117 patients were selected as the study sample via convenience sampling method. In order to measure the study variables, the social support and life expectancy questionnaires were utilized, and the study data were analyzed applying descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and factor analysis of variance. Results: The study results demonstrated a significant direct relationship between the two variables of social support and life expectancy (P<0/01 within elderly residents and non-residents. Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between the scores of social support and life expectancy in regard with elderly residents and non-residents, elderly men and women, as well as the elderly in the different sub-categories of marital status (P<0/01. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the elderly’s families and children are recommended to possibly take care of them in their own homes in order to promote the elderly’s social and mental health.
Mueller, Christiane A; Tetzlaff, Britta; Theile, Gudrun; Fleischmann, Nina; Cavazzini, Christoph; Geister, Christina; Scherer, Martin; Weyerer, Siegfried; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Hummers-Pradier, Eva
This study explores the current state of collaboration and communication between nurses and general practitioners in nursing homes, as well as needs and expectations of nursing home residents and their families. Finally, we aim to develop a new model of collaboration and communication. Rising numbers of residents in nursing homes present a challenge for general practice and nursing in most Western countries. In Germany, general practitioners visit their patients in nursing homes, where nurses work in shifts. This leads to a big variety of contacts with regard to persons involved and ways of communication. Qualitative multicentre study. Study part 1 explores needs and problems in interprofessional collaboration in interviews with nursing home residents and their relatives, general practitioners and nurses. Simultaneously, general practitioners' visits in nursing homes are observed directly. In study part 2, general practitioners and nurses will discuss findings from study part 1 in focus groups, aiming to develop strategies for the improvement of shortcomings in a participatory way. Based on the results, experts will contribute to the emerging model of collaboration and communication in a multi-professional workshop. Finally, this model will be tested in a small feasibility study. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research approved funding in March 2011. The study is expected to uncover deficits and opportunities in interprofessional collaboration in nursing homes. It provides deeper understanding of the concepts of all involved person groups and adds important clues for the interaction between professionals and older people in this setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Roelofs, Tineke S M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Embregts, Petri J C M
Considering people with dementia, increasing cognitive, physical, and environmental impairments can impede the capacity to express and experience intimacy and sexuality. When a move to a residential (nursing) home becomes inevitable, increasing dependency can influence this even more. The aim of the review is to provide a structured overview of all elements of intimacy across the full spectrum of intimacy and sexuality in people with dementia, living in specialist residential care. A systematic search and review were conducted. Research published between 1990 and 2013 was identified in the electronic databases: Pubmed, PsychInfo, and Medline. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Selected studies were assessed on quality, using the Mixed METHODS Appraisal Tool. Twelve of the 215 initially retrieved unique research publications were selected. A varied range of studies were found; these studies differed in design, research quality, searched population, and research theme. Different themes emerged: intimate and sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes, capacity to consent and care culture, and staff training and guidelines. Although results were found in a wide range of intimate and sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes and needs of others, and descriptions of culture in residential and nursing homes, the perspective of residents was lacking in literature. Also a "protective" care paradigm was found throughout. Future research is needed to highlight resident perspective and develop training opportunities and guidelines for care staff.
Scales, Kezia; Lepore, Michael; Anderson, Ruth A; McConnell, Eleanor S; Song, Yuting; Kang, Bada; Porter, Kristie; Thach, Trini; Corazzini, Kirsten N
Empowering individuals to direct their own care is central to person-centered care and health care policy. However, there is limited knowledge of how "person-directed care planning" (PDCP) can be achieved in particular settings. This study identifies key structures and processes for operationalizing and implementing PDCP in nursing homes. Using participatory inquiry, we convened "stakeholder engagement sessions" with residents, families, nursing staff, and managers/administrators in two North Carolina nursing homes ( N = 24 sessions; N = 67 unique participants). Stakeholders discussed current care-planning processes and provided feedback on an emergent conceptual framework of PDCP. Three themes emerged through directed-content analysis: strategies included providing formal and informal opportunities to engage in care planning and ensuring effective follow-through; different roles were required among leadership, staff, residents, and families to accomplish PDCP; and limits on achieving PDCP included competing priorities and perceived regulatory and resource constraints. Results are discussed in terms of the specific competencies required for accomplishing PDCP.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Thein, Khin; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Murad, Havi; Freedman, Laurence S
To explore the impact of personal attributes, environmental attributes, and the presentation of 9 categories of stimuli on agitation in nursing home residents with dementia. Participants in this randomized, controlled, observational cross-sectional study were 193 residents of 7 nursing homes, all with a diagnosis of dementia, for whom we obtained data pertaining to cognitive functioning (via the Mini-Mental State Examination), performance of activities of daily living (Minimum Data Set), and role-identity/activities of past interest (Self-Identity Questionnaire). Environmental attributes (eg, noise, lighting) and direct observations of agitation (primary outcome) were recorded via the Agitation Behavior Mapping Inventory. Engagement was measured using the Observational Measurement of Engagement. Both agitation and engagement were assessed for each stimulus (including a control condition). Univariate findings (ie, for 1 explanatory variable at a time) showed agitation to be related to several personal attributes--ie, female gender was related to verbal agitation (P types of agitation (P type of agitation); and unclear speech was significantly related to total agitation (P music, were independently predictive of lower levels of agitation (P type of stimuli and engagement level with the stimuli were significant predictors of agitation underscores the importance of engagement as a determinant of agitation levels. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meaning and purpose in life are fundamental to human beings. In changing times, with an aging population and increased life expectancy, the need for health care services and long-term care is likely to grow. More deeply understanding how older long-term care residents perceive meaning and purpose in life is critical for improving the quality of care and the residents’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore crucial aspects promoting nursing home residents’ experience of meaning and purpose in everyday life. Method An exploratory hermeneutical design with qualitative interviews for collecting data. Results Four key experiences were found to promote meaning and purpose in life: 1 physical and mental well-being, 2 belonging and recognition, 3 personally treasured activities and 4 spiritual closeness and connectedness. Conclusion In supporting meaning and purpose in life of nursing home residents, the residents’ everyday well-being should be a central focus of care and facilitate personally treasured activities. Focused attention should also be given to the meaning-making power of experiencing belonging, recognition and spiritual connectedness.
Veronese, N; Cereda, E; Solmi, M
and obese than in normal-weight individuals. Like in the general population, underweight is a risk factor for mortality in old nursing home residents. However, uniquely, not only overweight but also obesity is protective, which has relevant nutritional goal implications in this population/setting....... by random-effect model across each BMI category. Out of 342 hits, 20 studies including 19,538 older nursing home residents with 5,223 deaths during a median of 2 years of follow-up were meta-analysed. Compared with normal weight, all-cause mortality HRs were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.26-1.58) for underweight, 0.......85 (95% CI = 0.73-0.99) for overweight and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.57-0.96) for obesity. Underweight was a risk factor for higher mortality caused by infections (HR = 1.65 [95% CI = 1.13-2.40]). RR results corroborated primary HR results, with additionally lower infection-related mortality in overweight...
Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Weng, Kevin
We present a state-space model for acoustic receiver data to estimate detailed movement and home range of individual fish while accounting for spatial bias. An integral part of the approach is the detection function, which models the probability of logging tag transmissions as a function...... that the location error scales log-linearly with detection range and movement speed. This result can be used as guideline for designing network layout when species movement capacity and acoustic environment are known or can be estimated prior to network deployment. Finally, as an example, the state-space model...... is used to estimate home range and movement of a reef fish in the Pacific Ocean....
Stolle, C; Wolter, A; Roth, G; Rothgang, H
Deficits in quality, a lack of professional process management and, most importantly, neglect of outcome quality are criticized in long-term care. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess whether the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) can help to improve or stabilize functional abilities (ADL, IADL) and cognitive skills (MMST), improve quality of life (EQ-5D), and reduce institutionalization, thereby, increasing outcome quality. A total of 69 home care services throughout Germany were included and randomized. The treatment group (n = 36) received training in RAI and was supported by the research team during the study (13 months). Comparison of mean differences between the treatment and control groups (n = 33) showed no significant effect. Although the multilevel regression results show that clients in the treatment group fared better in terms of ADLs and IADLs (smaller decline) and were less likely to move to nursing homes and be hospitalized, none of these effects is significant. The lack of significance might result from the small number of clients included in the study. Moreover, RAI was not fully implemented and even partial implementation required more time than expected.
Matsuka, Yoshizo; Nakajima, Ryu; Miki, Haruna; Kimura, Aya; Kanyama, Manabu; Minakuchi, Hajime; Shinkawa, Shigehiko; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Nawachi, Kumiko; Maekawa, Kenji; Arakawa, Hikaru; Fujisawa, Takuo; Sonoyama, Wataru; Mine, Atsushi; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Kikutani, Takeshi; Kuboki, Takuo
This educational trial was an eight-day problem-based learning (PBL) course for fourth-year predoctoral students at Okayama University's dental school who interviewed elderly residents living in a nursing home. The purpose of this PBL course was to introduce geriatric dentistry to the students by allowing them, independently, to discover the clinical problems of elderly patients as well as the solutions. The sixty-five students were divided into nine small groups and received patient information (age, gender, degree of care needed, medical history, food type, medications, and oral condition) in datasheets before visiting the nursing home. Each group of students directly interviewed one patient and the caregivers and identified the patient's medical, psychological, and social problems. After the interview, the students participated in a PBL tutorial to delineate a management approach for the patient's problems. To measure the efficacy of this program, the students completed a questionnaire before and after the course regarding their level of understanding of and attitudes toward geriatric dentistry, clinical research, and self-study. The results showed that student's perceptions of their knowledge about and attitudes toward oral health care for the elderly significantly increased after the PBL course, which suggests that such tutorials should be an option for dental curricula.
Clarke-OʼNeill, Sinead; Farbrot, Anne; Lagerstedt, Marie-Louise; Cottenden, Alan; Fader, Mandy
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) among nursing home-based incontinence pad users varies between pad designs. A second aim was to examine the utility of a simple method for reporting skin health problems in which healthcare assistants were asked to record basic observational data at each pad change. Randomized, multiple crossover, observational, exploratory. Twenty-one men and 57 women using absorbent continence products to contain urinary and/or fecal incontinence were recruited from 10 nursing homes in London and the south of England. A day-time variant and a night-time variant of each of the 4 main disposable pad designs on the market for moderate/heavy incontinence were tested: (1) insert pads with stretch pants; (2) 1-piece all-in-one diapers; (3) pull-up pants; and (4) belted/T-shape diapers. All pad variants for day-time use had an absorption capacity of 1900 mL ± 20% (measured using ISO 11948-1 International Standards Organization) while the capacity of night-time variants was 2400 mL ± 20%. Each resident used each of the 4 pad designs (day-time and night-time variants) for 2 weeks and the order of testing was randomized by nursing home. Skin health data were collected using 2 methods in parallel. Method 1 comprised visual observation by researchers (1 observation per pad design; 4 observations in total over 8 weeks). In method 2, healthcare assistants logged observational data on skin health at every pad change for the 8 weeks. The primary outcome variable was severity of the most severe skin problem noted by the researcher for each resident, and for each pad design (method 1). Descriptive data on skin care methods used in the nursing homes were also collected using short questionnaires and researcher observation. No significant differences in the severity or incidence of skin problems were found between observations using the 4 pad designs. However, a wide range of skin
Park, Yeonhwan; Oh, Seieun; Chang, Heekyung; Bang, Hwal Lan
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Effects of the Evidence-Based Nursing Care Algorithm of Dysphagia for Nursing Home Residents" found on pages 30-39, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until October 31, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Explain the development and testing of the Evidence-Based Nursing Care Algorithm of
Heymans, Martijn W; Mehr, David R; Kruse, Robin L; Lane, Patricia; Kowall, Neil W; Volicer, Ladislav; van der Steen, Jenny T
Objective To evaluate whether a model that was previously developed to predict 14-day mortality for nursing home residents with dementia and lower respiratory tract infection who received antibiotics could be applied to residents who were not treated with antibiotics. Specifically, in this same data set, to update the model using recalibration methods; and subsequently examine the historical, geographical, methodological and spectrum transportability through external validation of the updated model. Design 1 cohort study was used to develop the prediction model, and 4 cohort studies from 2 countries were used for the external validation of the model. Setting Nursing homes in the Netherlands and the USA. Participants 157 untreated residents were included in the development of the model; 239 untreated residents were included in the external validation cohorts. Outcome Model performance was evaluated by assessing discrimination: area under the receiver operating characteristic curves; and calibration: Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics and calibration graphs. Further, reclassification tables allowed for a comparison of patient classifications between models. Results The original prediction model applied to the untreated residents, who were sicker, showed excellent discrimination but poor calibration, underestimating mortality. Adjusting the intercept improved calibration. Recalibrating the slope did not substantially improve the performance of the model. Applying the updated model to the other 4 data sets resulted in acceptable discrimination. Calibration was inadequate only in one data set that differed substantially from the other data sets in case-mix. Adjusting the intercept for this population again improved calibration. Conclusions The discriminative performance of the model seems robust for differences between settings. To improve calibration, we recommend adjusting the intercept when applying the model in settings where different mortality rates
Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Gaal, Betsie G I; Teerenstra, Steven; Adang, Eddy; van der Vleuten, Carine; van Achterberg, Theo
No-rinse disposable wash gloves are increasingly implemented in health care to replace traditional soap and water bed baths without proper evaluation of (cost) effectiveness. To compare bed baths for effects on skin integrity and resistance against bathing and costs. Cluster randomized trial. Fifty six nursing home wards in the Netherlands. Participants: Five hundred adult care-dependent residents and 275 nurses from nursing home wards. The experimental condition 'washing without water' consists of a bed bath with disposable wash gloves made of non-woven waffled fibers, saturated with a no-rinse, quickly vaporizing skin cleaning and caring lotion. The control condition is a traditional bed bath using soap, water, washcloths and towels. Both conditions were continued for 6 weeks. Outcome measures were prevalence of skin damage distinguished in two levels of severity: any skin abnormality/lesion and significant skin lesions. Additional outcomes: resistance during bed baths, costs. Any skin abnormalities/lesions over time decreased slightly in the experimental group, and increased slightly in the control group, resulting in 72.7% vs 77.6% of residents having any skin abnormalities/lesions after 6 weeks, respectively (p=0.04). There were no differences in significant skin lesions or resistance after 6 weeks. Mean costs for bed baths during 6 weeks per resident were estimated at €218.30 (95%CI 150.52-286.08) in the experimental group and €232.20 (95%CI: 203.80-260.60) in the control group (difference €13.90 (95%CI: -25.61-53.42). Washing without water mildly protects from skin abnormalities/lesions, costs for preparing and performing bed baths do not differ from costs for traditional bed bathing. Thus, washing without water can be considered the more efficient alternative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Machacova, Katerina; Vankova, Hana; Volicer, Ladislav; Veleta, Petr; Holmerova, Iva
Late life deterioration of functional status is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased cost of care. This trial was conducted to determine whether dance-based intervention could reverse functional decline among nursing home (NH) residents. A total of 189 residents of seven NHs in the Czech Republic were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. More detailed data were collected in a subsample of 52 participants. Intervention consisted of 3-month dance-based exercise. Functional status was assessed by the get-up-and-go test, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and senior fitness tests (SFTs). Participants in the control group experienced a significant decline in get-up-and-go test, IADL, and in four of the six SFTs. The intervention proved to be effective in preventing this deterioration and improved chair stand test and chair sit-and-reach test. The findings indicate that a relatively simple dance-based exercise can slow down deterioration of functional status in NH residents. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cox, Helen; Burns, Ian; Savage, Sally
Multisensory environments such as Snoezelen rooms are becoming increasingly popular in health care facilities for older individuals. There is limited reliable evidence of the benefits of such innovations, and the effect they have on residents, caregivers, and visitors in these facilities. This two-stage project examined how effective two types of multisensory environments were in improving the well-being of older individuals with dementia. The two multisensory environments were a Snoezelen room and a landscaped garden. These environments were compared to the experience of the normal living environment. The observed response of 24 residents with dementia in a nursing home was measured during time spent in the Snoezelen room, in the garden, and in the living room. In the second part of the project, face-to-face interviews were conducted with six caregivers and six visitors to obtain their responses to the multisensory environments. These interviews identified the components of the environments most used and enjoyed by residents and the ways in which they could be improved to maximize well-being.
Kelaiditi, Eirini; Demougeot, Laurent; Lilamand, Matthieu; Guyonnet, Sophie; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo
To examine the predictive value of the Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-SF) and its individual items on the incidence of pneumonia. Prospective observational cohort study over 1-year of follow-up. A total of 773 older persons (74.4% women) living in 13 French nursing homes from the Incidence of pNeumonia and related ConseqUences in nursing home Residents (INCUR) study. Nutritional status was assessed using the MNA-SF questionnaire at baseline. Diagnosis of pneumonia was based on clinical conditions retrieved from a medical chart. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to test whether the MNA-SF score and its single components predict pneumonia events over 1 year of follow-up. After 1 year of follow-up, 160 (21%) incident cases of pneumonia were recorded. Mean age of participants was 86.2 (SD 7.5) years. Mean MNA-SF score was 9.8 (SD 2.4), with more than half of the participants (58.7%) being at risk of malnutrition (8-11 points). The total MNA-SF score and its categories did not predict the studied outcome. However, a single component of the MNA-SF score, specifically decreased mobility, was a significant risk factor for pneumonia (hazard ratio 2.289; 95% confidence interval 1.357-3.860; P = .002), independently of potential confounders. The total MNA-SF score did not predict the incidence of pneumonia. However, decreased mobility was a significant risk factor, implying that individual components of the MNA-SF should be more carefully explored to verify whether they might be used for detecting specific declines of the health status in nursing home residents, thus potentially improving the risk profile estimation of such a complex population. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. To evaluate the obstetrics and gynaecology residents' perspective of their training and experience in the management of perineal tears that occur during assisted vaginal delivery. We hypothesised that residents would perceive room for improvement in their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and the training received in tears repair. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population/Setting. Seventy-two major residents from all teaching hospitals in Catalonia. Methods. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate experience, perception of the training and supervision provided. Results. The questionnaire was sent to all residents (=72, receiving 46 responses (64%. The participants represented 15 out of the 16 teaching hospitals included in the study (94% of the hospitals represented. Approximately, 52% of residents were in their third year while 48% were in their fourth. The majority of them thought that their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy was poor (62%, although 98% felt confident that they would know when an episiotomy was correctly indicated. The survey found that they lacked experience in the repair of major degree tears (70% had repaired fewer than ten, and most did not carry out followup procedures. Conclusion. The majority of them indicated that more training in this specific area is necessary (98%.
Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sulgi; Nakagawa, Shunichi; Lung, John; Choi, Jong Bum; Ryu, Woo Sang; Min, Too Jae; Shin, Hyun Phil; Kim, Kyudam; Yoo, Ji Won
To assess the overall quality of life of long-stay nursing home residents with preserved cognition, to examine whether the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service's Nursing Home Compare 5-star quality rating system reflects the overall quality of life of such residents, and to examine whether residents' demographics and clinical characteristics affect their quality of life. Quality of life was measured using the Participant Outcomes and Status Measures-Nursing Facility survey, which has 10 sections and 63 items. Total scores range from 20 (lowest possible quality of life) to 100 (highest). Long-stay nursing home residents with preserved cognition (n = 316) were interviewed. The average quality- of-life score was 71.4 (SD: 7.6; range: 45.1-93.0). Multilevel regression models revealed that quality of life was associated with physical impairment (parameter estimate = -0.728; P = .04) and depression (parameter estimate = -3.015; P = .01) but not Nursing Home Compare's overall star rating (parameter estimate = 0.683; P = .12) and not pain (parameter estimate = -0.705; P = .47). The 5-star quality rating system did not reflect the quality of life of long-stay nursing home residents with preserved cognition. Notably, pain was not associated with quality of life, but physical impairment and depression were. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aitken, Georgia; Murphy, Briony; Pilgrim, Jennifer; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias
There is a paucity of research examining the utility of forensic toxicology in the investigation of premature external cause deaths of residents in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of toxicological analysis conducted in external cause (injury-related) deaths amongst nursing home residents in Victoria, Australia. This study was a retrospective cohort study examining external cause deaths among nursing home residents during the period July 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012 in Victoria, Australia, using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). The variables examined comprised: sex, age group, year-of-death, cause and manner of death. One-third of deaths among nursing home residents in Victoria resulted from external causes (n = 1296, 33.3%) of which just over one-quarter (361, 27.9%) underwent toxicological analysis as part of the medical death investigation. The use of toxicological analysis varied by cause of death with a relatively low proportion conducted in deaths from unintentional falls (n = 286, 24.9%) and choking (n = 36, 40.4%). The use of toxicological analysis decreased as the decedents age increased. Forensic toxicology has the potential to contribute to improving our understanding of premature deaths in nursing home residents however it remains under used and is possibly undervalued.
Leontjevas, Ruslan; Gerritsen, Debby L; Smalbrugge, Martin; Teerenstra, Steven; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M
Depression in nursing-home residents is often under-recognised. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a structural approach to its management. Between May 15, 2009, and April 30, 2011, we undertook a multicentre, stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial in four provinces of the Netherlands. A network of nursing homes was invited to enrol one dementia and one somatic unit per nursing home. In enrolled units, nursing-home staff recruited residents, who were eligible as long as we had received written informed consent. Units were randomly allocated to one of five groups with computer-generated random numbers. A multidisciplinary care programme, Act in Case of Depression (AiD), was implemented at different timepoints in each group: at baseline, no groups were implenting the programme (usual care); the first group implemented it shortly after baseline; and other groups sequentially began implementation after assessments at intervals of roughly 4 months. Residents did not know when the intervention was being implemented or what the programme elements were; research staff were masked to intervention implementation, depression treatment, and results of previous assessments; and data analysts were masked to intervention implementation. The primary endpoint was depression prevalence in units, which was the proportion of residents per unit with a score of more than seven on the proxy-based Cornell scale for depression in dementia. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands National Trial Register, number NTR1477. 16 dementia units (403 residents) and 17 somatic units (390 residents) were enrolled in the course of the study. In somatic units, AiD reduced prevalence of depression (adjusted effect size -7·3%, 95% CI -13·7 to -0·9). The effect was not significant in dementia units (0·6, -5·6 to 6·8) and differed significantly from that in somatic units (p=0·031). Adherence to depression assessment procedures was lower in dementia
Stevenson, David G; O'Malley, A James; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Mitchell, Susan L; Zarowitz, Barbara J; Chernew, Michael E; Newhouse, Joseph P; Huskamp, Haiden A
In 2006, Medicare Part D transitioned prescription drug coverage for dual-eligible nursing home residents from Medicaid to Medicare and randomly assigned them to Part D prescription drug plans (PDPs). Because PDPs may differ in coverage, plans may be more or less generous for drugs that an individual is taking. Taking advantage of the fact that randomization mitigates potential selection bias common in observational studies, this study sought to assess the effect of PDP coverage on resident outcomes for three medication classes--antidepressants, antipsychotics, and cholinesterase inhibitors. Retrospective cohort study to examine the effect of coverage restrictions--including noncoverage and coverage with restrictions--on depression, hallucinations and delusions, aggressive behaviors, cognitive performance, and activities of daily living for dual-eligible nursing home residents randomized to PDPs in 2006 to 2008. The analyses further adjusted for baseline health status to address any residual imbalances in the comparison groups. Linked data from Medicare claims, Minimum Data Set assessments, pharmacy claims, and PDP formulary information. Dual-eligible nursing home residents aged 65 and older living in facilities that contracted with a single pharmacy provider. PDP coverage restrictions in three medication classes of interest were not significantly associated with the resident outcomes examined. Although cholinesterase inhibitor users facing coverage restrictions had a 0.04-point lower depression rating score than residents facing no restrictions, this difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. The findings suggest that exogenous changes in coverage for three commonly used medication classes had no detectable effect on nursing home resident outcomes in 2006 to 2008. There are several possible explanations for this lack of association, including the role of policy protections for dual-eligible nursing home residents and the
Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Martínez-Andrés, María; Cervera-Monteagudo, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
The quality of care in nursing homes is weakly defined, and has traditionally focused on quantify nursing homes outputs and on comparison of nursing homes' resources. Rarely the point of view of clients has been taken into account. The aim of this study was to ascertain what means "quality of care" for residents of nursing homes. Grounded theory was used to design and analyze a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with a theoretical sampling including 20 persons aged over 65 years with no cognitive impairment and eight proxy informants of residents with cognitive impairment, institutionalized at a public nursing home in Spain. Our analysis revealed that participants perceived the quality of care in two ways, as aspects related to the persons providing care and as institutional aspects of the care's process. All participants agreed that aspects related to the persons providing care was a pillar of quality, something that, in turn, embodied a series of emotional and technical professional competences. Regarding the institutional aspects of the care's process, participants laid emphasis on round-the-clock access to health care services and on professional's job stability. This paper includes perspectives of the nursing homes residents, which are largely absent. Incorporating residents' standpoints as a complement to traditional institutional criteria would furnish health providers and funding agencies with key information when it came to designing action plans and interventions aimed at achieving excellence in health care.
Full Text Available This research project is the first phase of a larger study aimed at describing and exploring the cost-effective utilisation of nursing personnel in old age homes in South Africa. The aim in the first phase was to describe the composition of the residents and nursing personnel of old age homes in South Africa. An exploratory and descriptive survey was conducted and the data was collected by means of a questionnaire. The questionnaire also included data on the financial implications of utilising professional nursing personnel to manage the care of the frail residents/older persons in old age homes in South Africa. The questionnaires were mailed to 612 old age homes published in the Hospital and Nursing Yearbook of 1997 (100% sample. A total of 145 (23.69% questionnaires were returned and included in the descriptive data analysis. The residents are mainly female (77%, older than 85 years of age, belong to the white race group (83,74% and are highly dependent on nursing care and supervision (69,7%. Old age homes are mainly managed/ controlled by welfare organisations and lay health care workers are utilised to a large extent (42,22% of the nursing workforce to render nursing care to the frail residents. The cost-effective utilisation of nursing personnel (registered and enrolled, as well as the utilisation of lay health workers in old age homes, needs to be critically examined.
Samuel, R; McLachlan, C S; Mahadevan, U; Isaac, V
The purpose of the study were (i) to screen for cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental Status Examination among three old-age groups based on dwelling types in Chennai, India i.e. residential paid old-age homes, residential free (charitable) homes and home-based community-dwelling residents; (ii) secondly to investigate factors (demographic, psychological, medical and disability) associated with cognitive impairment in the these old-age; (iii) third, to investigate the independent association between cognitive impairment and health-related quality of life (QOL) among elderly across aged care dwelling types. A total of 499 elderly from three old-age groups were interviewed in this cross-sectional study (173 elderly home-based community-dwellers, 176 paid-home and 150 free-home residents). All the participants were interviewed for their socio-economic condition, medical morbidity, self-reported worry and anxiety, disability and QOL. 42.7% free-home elderly residents were found to have cognitive impairment, whereas 32.4% of paid-home and 21.9% of community-dwelling elderly had cognitive impairment. The residents of free-home were less educated, had lower income and reported higher incidence of worry, anxiety, disability and poor QOL than community-dwelling or paid-home residents. Increasing age, low education, female gender, high blood pressure and disability were associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment had significant negative effect on their health-related QOL (b = -0.10, P = 0.01), independent of age, gender, education, chronic illness and dwelling type. The burden of cognitive impairment was high in all aged-care dwelling types in urban India; with free charitable home residents being worse affected. Cognitive impairment was associated with disability and poor health-related QOL in these age-care settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For
Rute Estanislava Tolocka
Full Text Available A growing elderly population and an increase in the number of residents of long-stayinstitutions are currently observed. One of the activities that provides benefits to these individualsis dancing, but little is known about this practice in these institutions. The objective of this studywas to identify factors that limit or encourage residents of these institutions to actively participatein dance events. This qualitative and exploratory study involved a group of 30 residents of a longstayinstitution (mean age: 72.6 ± 9.6 years and a group of 30 visitors (mean age: 68.1 ± 10.2years, who had participated in dance events for at least one year. The personal history relatedto dancing was obtained by semistructured interviews. The results showed that most respondersbegan dancing at a young age influenced by their families, attending country dances. However,changes have occurred over the years and these events have been greatly reduced at the institution.Less commitment to participate in activities and greater physical debilitation were observed inthe group of residents of the long-stay institution. These subjects also reported that they makefew friends during the event, receive little praise, and are most of the time only watching othersdancing. It was concluded that it would be necessary to offer activities that permit more activeparticipation, contributing to the development of the personal characteristics of the subjects, inorder to promote this practice which, in turn, could produce health benefits.
Three-year follow-up of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and bone mineral density in nursing home residents who had received 12 months of daily bread fortification with 125 μg of vitamin D3
Background We conducted a single-arm clinical trial in institutionalized seniors, on the effects of high-dose vitamin D3-fortified bread daily intake (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT00789503). Methods At 1 and 3 years after the dietary fortification was stopped, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone mineral density were measured in 23 of the original study subjects, aged 60-82 years who had consumed bread buns (100 g) fortified with 320 mg elemental calcium and 125 μg (5,000 IU) vitamin D3 daily for one year. Results At the end of the 1-year supplementation phase (receiving vitamin D3 fortified bread daily), mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D was 127.3 ± 37.8 nmol/L (baseline for this follow-up). At 1-year follow-up, the serum 25(OH)D was 64.9 ± 24.8 nmol/L (p = 0.001, vs. baseline); and at 3-year follow-up it was 28.0 ± 15.0 nmol/L (p = 0.001 vs. baseline). Serum PTH was 18.8 ± 15.6 pg/ml at baseline while at Year 3 it was 48.4 ± 18.4 pg/ml (p = 0.001 vs. baseline). Lumbar spine BMD did not change from baseline to Year 3. However, by Year 3, hip BMD had decreased (0.927 ± 0.130 g/cm2 vs. 0.907 ± 0.121 g/cm2, p = 0.024). Conclusion Vitamin D nutritional status exhibits a long half-life in the body, and a true steady-state plateau may not even be reached 1 year after a discontinuation in dose. Furthermore, once the need for vitamin D has been established, based on a low baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the appropriate action is to maintain corrective vitamin D supplementation over the long term. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: NCT00789503 PMID:24120120
Moro, Teresa T.; Savage, Teresa A.; Gehlert, Sarah
Background: The nature and quality of end-of-life care received by adults with intellectual disabilities in out-of-home, non-institutional community agency residences in Western nations is not well understood. Method: A range of databases and search engines were used to locate conceptual, clinical and research articles from relevant peer-reviewed…
Orhan, Fatma Ozlem; Tuncel, Deniz; Taş, Filiz; Demirci, Nermin; Ozer, Ali; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih
Epidemiological studies indicate that more than half of the elderly population suffers from chronic sleep disturbances. Therefore, this descriptive study was conducted to examine sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, daytime napping, and depression among a population of nursing home residents. The study's sample included 73 elderly people living in a nursing home in Turkey. Geriatric Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and a sleep diary were used. The participants' mean age was 74.0 years (standard deviation (SD) = 6.7). Forty-four of the individuals had a poor sleep quality prevalence of 60.3%; and the mean global PSQI score was 6.6 (SD = 3.6). Their mean ESS score was 5.9 (SD = 4.6) and 14 participants (19.2%) had daytime sleepiness. The mean daytime napping duration was 1.0 h (SD = 1.3) according to the participants' sleep diaries. The study found that 60.3% of the participants were depressed, furthermore the mean depression score was 15.9 (SD = 7.0). There was a significant correlation between the PSQI subscores; subjective sleep quality, the sleep latency, and sleep disturbances scores and depression scores. Also, daytime napping frequency and daytime napping duration, according to the sleep diary, were correlated positively with depression scores. The current study's results confirm the previously reported high prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression in this nursing home population. Clinicians need to assess patients appropriately to identify high prevalence of sleep problems and depression in nursing home patients and initiate appropriate referrals and interventions.
Saga, Susan; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Mørkved, Siv; Norton, Christine; Seim, Arnfinn
Fecal incontinence is highly prevalent among nursing home residents. Previous nursing home studies have identified co-morbidity associated with fecal incontinence, but as this population is increasingly old and frail, we wanted to see if the rate of fecal incontinence had increased and to investigate correlates of fecal incontinence further. Cross-sectional study of the entire nursing home population in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire for all residents in the municipality (980 residents aged ≥65). Statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression. The response rate of the study was 90.3%. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 42.3%. In multivariable analysis of FI, residents with diarrhea (OR 7.33, CI 4.39-12.24), urinary incontinence (OR 2.77, CI 1.73-4.42) and dementia (OR 2.17, CI 1.28-3.68) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to those without the condition. Residents residing in a nursing home between 4-5 years had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents who had stayed under a year (OR 2.65, CI 1.20-5.85). Residents with deficiency in feeding (2.17, CI 1.26-3.71), dressing (OR 4.03, CI 1.39-11.65), toilet use (OR 7.37, CI 2.65-20.44) and mobility (OR 2.54, CI 1.07-6.00) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents without deficiencies in activities of daily living (ADL). Needing help for transfer between bed and chair was a protective factor for fecal incontinence compared to residents who transferred independently (OR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.91). Fecal incontinence is a prevalent condition in the nursing home population and is associated with ADL decline, frailty, diarrhea and quality of care. This knowledge is important for staff in nursing home in order to provide the best treatment and care for residents with fecal incontinence.
Kiesswetter, E; Pohlhausen, S; Uhlig, K; Diekmann, R; Lesser, S; Heseker, H; Stehle, P; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D
The aims of this work were (a) to provide a detailed description of the association between nutritional (Mini Nutritional Assessment; MNA®) and functional status in a sample of older adults receiving home care, using both questionnaire- and performance-based functional methods, and (b) to investigate the impact of different MNA subscales on this association. Multi-centre, cross-sectional. Home care. 296 persons ≥65 years in need of care (80.7±7.7 y). Nutritional status was determined by the MNA and functional status by two questionnaires (Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living; IADL, ADL) and three performance tests (handgrip strength, HGS; Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPB; Timed 'Up and Go' Test, TUG). A categorical and a covariance analytical approach were used to test for differences in functional status between MNA groups (well nourished, risk of malnutrition, malnourished). In addition, functional parameters were correlated with total MNA, a modified MNA version (modMNA), where functional items were excluded, and MNA subscales ('functionality', 'general assessment', 'anthropometry', 'dietary assessment', and 'subjective assessment'). 57% of the participants were at risk of malnutrition and 12% malnourished. 35% reported severe limitations in IADL, 18% in ADL. 40%, 39% and 35% had severe limitations in HGS, SPPB and TUG; 9%, 28% and 34% were not able to perform the tests. Functional status deteriorated significantly from the well nourished to the malnourished group in all functional measures. The modMNA was weak but still significantly related to all functional parameters except TUG. The subscale 'functionality' revealed strongest correlations with functional measures. All other MNA subscales showed only weak or no associations. More than one half of the seniors receiving home care were at nutritional risk and poor functional level, respectively. Malnutrition according to MNA was significantly associated to both questionnaire- and
Lapane, Kate L; Quilliam, Brian J; Chow, Wing; Kim, Myoung S
Pain is common in nursing home settings. To describe scheduled analgesic use among nursing home (NH) residents experiencing non-cancer pain and evaluate factors associated with scheduled analgesic use. We identified 2508 residents living in one of 185 NHs predominantly from one for-profit chain, with pain recorded on two consecutive Minimum Data Set assessments. Pharmacy transaction files provided detailed medication information. Logistic regression models adjusted for clustering of residents in NHs identified factors related to scheduled prescription analgesics. Twenty-three percent had no scheduled analgesics prescribed. Those with scheduled analgesics were more likely to have excruciating pain (5.5% vs. 1.2%) and moderate pain documented (64.7% vs. 47.5%) than residents without scheduled analgesics. Hydrocodone (41.7%), short-acting oxycodone (16.6%), and long-acting fentanyl (9.4%) were common, and 13.8% reported any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent use. Factors associated with decreased odds of scheduled analgesics included severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36 to 0.88), age more than 85 years (AOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.80), and Parkinson's disease (AOR 0.55; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.99). Factors associated with increased odds of scheduled analgesic use included history of fracture (AOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.76), diabetes (AOR 1.30; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.66), and higher Minimum Data Set mood scores (AOR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19). Some improvements in pharmacologic management of pain in NHs have been realized. Yet, presence of pain without scheduled analgesics prescribed was still common. Evidence-based procedures to assure adherence to clinical practice guidelines for pain management in this setting are warranted. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous emerging data from research on osteoporosis among Asians found differences from Caucasians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and osteoporosis in elderly participants from two nursing homes in Thailand, a country located near the equator. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study comprised 93 elderly Thai women who were living in institutional long-term nursing homes for the aged. Demographic data, daily food and calcium intake, physical activity, and sunlight exposure were measured. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical levels including serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and bone turnover markers were assessed. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OHD level Results The mean age of subjects was 75.2 ± 6.0 (SD years. Dietary calcium intake was low (322 ± 158 mg/day The mean 25(OHD level was 64.3 ± 14.9 nmol/L and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 38.7% (95% CI: 28.8%, 49.4%. There was no correlation between serum 25(OHD concentrations and age (r = −.11, p = 0.3. The mean BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were 0.92 ± 0.19 and 0.65 ± 0.10 g/cm2, respectively. Nearly a half of the subjects had osteopenia (44.1%, 95% CI: 33.8%, 54.8% and osteoporosis (47.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%, 57.9%. Circulating C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx level correlated significantly with both lumbar spine (r = −0.26, p = 0.01 and femoral neck BMD (r = −0.25, p = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of Thai elderly women residing in nursing homes had vitamin D insufficiency. Almost all nursing home residents had osteoporosis and/or osteopenia.
Buckinx, Fanny; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Morelle, Alison; Paquot, Nicolas; Labeye, Nicole; Locquet, Médéa; Adam, Stéphane; Bruyère, Olivier
In addition to the well-known physiological factors, dietary behavior that affects health seems to be influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an original video approach, the influence of the environment on food intake in nursing homes. The perception of the environment during meals in nursing homes was evaluated by residents and by two groups of volunteers who either work in the field of geriatrics, or who do not work in the field of geriatrics. First, a random sample of residents answered a self-administered questionnaire related to different indicators (ie, noise, space, comfort, light, odors, perceived satisfaction of meals, taste of meals, presentation of meals, service and setting). Second, two separate panels, one including the people who work in the field of geriatrics (ie, experts) and one including the people who have no particular interest in geriatrics (ie, nonexperts), were asked to answer a questionnaire on their perception of the environment after having watched a video of the lunch in each nursing home. Then, the food intake of the residents was measured by a precise food-weighing method. A total of 88 residents from nine different nursing homes, 18 experts and 45 nonexperts answered the questionnaires. This study highlighted that, on the one hand, after adjustment on confounding variables, the perception of the quantity of food served by the residents is the only single factor associated with food consumption ( P =0.003). On the other hand, experts and nonexperts did not perceive any environmental factor that seems to be significantly associated with residents' food intake. Our results highlighted that, in a nursing home setting, environmental factors have limited influence on the food intake of the residents, with the exception of their own perception of the quantity served. The relevance of this factor deserves further investigation.
Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Bonilla-Vargas, Luis; Hernandez, Adrian V; Silveira-Chau, Manuela
In Peru there are different hospitals and university programs for training of specialists in nephrology. To assess the perception of physicians who attend such programs. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional national-level study in physicians who were in the last two years of nephrology training during February 2012 and who had graduated from it in 2010 and 2011. A self-applied questionnaire was developed along with the Peruvian Society of Nephrology based on international standards. The questionnaire evaluated: mentoring, clinical training, procedures, external rotations, research and global perception. Forty doctors were surveyed nationwide. 82.5% had tutors, 22.5% of them said their support was poor. A 27.5% described their theoretical formation as deficient. The practical training was perceived as acceptable globally; however, improvements in training on peritoneal dialysis and reading kidney transplant biopsies are necessary. A 90% have national external rotations and 65% reported to have an international rotation. In the assessment of research, 77.5% thought this is deficient. In addition, 82.5% believed that residency should last four years. However, 60% reported that their residency training was good. There is a decrease in the positive perception of the aspects studied among residents regarding graduates. The overall perception of nephrology residency training was considered good; however, areas of tutoring, and academic and research activities on average were deficient.
Felix, Holly C; Bradway, Christine; Chisholm, Latarsha; Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert
Obesity rates are high among all age groups, including older adults. Obesity negatively affects health and functional ability, increasing the risk for nursing home (NH) admission. The current study examines trends over 11 years in moderate to severe obesity rates among NH residents. A generalized least squares regression model for panel data was used to test the effect of time (years) on the rates. A significant increase in rates and significant variation in rates were observed. Little research has focused on the issue of obesity in NHs. High and increasing rates and variation in rates raise questions on demand and access to NH care for obese older adults. Additional research is needed to consider factors other than time that may affect NHs' ability to admit moderate to severely obese individuals. Understanding these trends will help NHs prepare for future demand, ensure equal access, quality care, and financing of services. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.
Hosseini, Habibollah; Esfirizi, Mohammad Fakhari; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Rezaei, Abdollah
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are common among older adults. Recently there is much interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) from the population in general, and the elderly are no exception. Tai Chi exercise as a CAM can be performed by older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi Exercise on sleep quality of elderly residents in Sadeghiyeh elderly care home. METHODS: In this Clinical Trial, 62 older subjects aged older than 65 years resident...
Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Schmiemann, Guido; Hoffmann, Falk
Polypharmacy has become an emerging public health issue in recent years, since use of multiple medications or polypharmacy is beneficial for many conditions, but may also have negative effects like adverse drug reactions. The risk further increases in patients with chronic renal failure, a comorbidity very frequent in nursing home residents. Since more than 50% of all drugs were renally excreted, dose adjustments in patients with renal failure are required. To assess polypharmacy in German nursing homes, in particular in residents with renal failure. Multi-center cross-sectional study in 21 nursing homes in Bremen and Lower Saxony/Germany. Baseline data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable logistic regression model and 95% confidence intervals were used to study the association of renal failure and polypharmacy. Of all 852 residents, the analysis comprised those 685 with at least one serum creatinine value so that the estimated creatinine clearance could be calculated. Of those, 436 (63.6%) had a severe or moderate renal failure, defined as estimated creatinine clearance renal failure (estimated creatinine clearance renal failure are common in German nursing home residents and an association of both could be found. Further studies are needed to assess the appropriateness of polypharmacy in these patients.
Lundqvist, M; Davidson, T; Ordell, S; Sjöström, O; Zimmerman, M; Sjögren, P
Dental care for elderly nursing home residents is traditionally provided at fixed dental clinics, but domiciliary dental care is an emerging alternative. Longer life expectancy accompanied with increased morbidity, and hospitalisation or dependence on the care of others will contribute to a risk for rapid deterioration of oral health so alternative methods for delivering oral health care to vulnerable individuals for whom access to fixed dental clinics is an obstacle should be considered. The aim was to analyse health economic consequences of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents in Sweden, compared to dentistry at a fixed clinic. A review of relevant literature was undertaken complemented by interviews with nursing home staff, officials at county councils, and academic experts in geriatric dentistry. Domiciliary dental care and fixed clinic care were compared in cost analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses. The mean societal cost of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents was lower than dental care at a fixed clinic, and it was also considered cost-effective. Lower cost of dental care at a fixed dental clinic was only achieved in a scenario where dental care could not be completed in a domiciliary setting. Domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents has a lower societal cost and is cost-effective compared to dental care at fixed clinics. To meet current and predicted need for oral health care in the ageing population alternative methods to deliver dental care should be available.
Slaughter, Susan E; Morgan, Debra G
The aim of this article was to examine associations between specific dimensions of nursing home environments and the functional ability (walking and eating) of residents with dementia, and to contribute to the ongoing psychometric development of the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP). One-year prospective cohort study. Fifteen nursing homes in a western Canadian province. Convenience sample of 120 nursing home residents with middle-stage dementia. Every 2 weeks we observed residents' abilities to walk to the dining room and to feed themselves. At the end of a year of observation and immediately following a brief interview with the unit managers, we used the PEAP to measure the extent to which 9 specific dimensions of nursing home environments support the ability of residents with dementia to walk and to eat. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effect of specific environmental features on residents' walking and eating disability. "Support of functional ability" was associated with a reduced hazard of both walking and eating disability. The environmental dimensions of "maximizing awareness and orientation" and better "quality of stimulation" were associated specifically with reduced hazard of walking disability, whereas the dimensions of the nursing home environment specifically associated with a reduced hazard of eating disability included improved "safety and security," "opportunities for personal control," and "regulation of stimulation." The Cox proportional hazards models using the 13-point PEAP scale were not significantly different from nested models using the 5-point PEAP scale, indicating that the 2 scales did not differ in their ability to discriminate between more and less supportive environments for residents with dementia. Specific dimensions of the nursing home environment reduced the hazard of walking disability, whereas others reduced the hazard of eating disability. Modifying specific features of nursing home
Drageset, Jorunn; Eide, Geir E; Ranhoff, Anette H
To explore depressive symptoms among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the relationship between their depressive symptoms and dependence on activities of daily living, comorbidity and sociodemographic variables. Depression has become a major health care concern among older people, but depression and its association with functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment has previously not been studied in Norway. A cross-sectional comparative design. The sample comprised older residents (age 65-102 years; n = 227) from 30 nursing homes with at least six months of residence. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≤0·5 and were capable of conversation. Scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items) and demographic variables were collected during face-to-face interviews. The activities of daily living were assessed using the Katz Index based on nurses' observation, and medical diagnoses were obtained from the patient records. Pearson's chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between activities of daily living and depression. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, length of stay per year and education, more dependence on activities of daily living was associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1·18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·04-1·37; p = 0·02]. Higher age was associated with less depression (OR: 0·64; 95% CI: 0·43-0·94; p = 0·02), that is, the odds of depression declined by 36% for each 10-year increase in age. Our results suggest that depression symptoms are a major health problem among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and that younger residents are more prone to having depressive symptoms. Nursing home staff should communicate with and observe residents closely for signs of depression, especially younger residents with high dependence on activities of daily living
Boyce, Richard D; Hanlon, Joseph T; Karp, Jordan F; Kloke, John; Saleh, Ahlam; Handler, Steven M
Antidepressant medications are the most common psychopharmacologic therapy used to treat depressed nursing home (NH) residents. Despite a significant increase in the rate of antidepressant prescribing over the past several decades, little is known about the effectiveness of these agents in the NH population. To conduct a systematic review of the literature to examine and compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medications for treating major depressive symptoms in elderly NH residents. The following databases were searched with searches completed prior to January 2011 and no language restriction: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINHAL, CENTRAL, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register, and the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform. Additional studies were identified from citations in evidence-based guidelines and reviews as well as book chapters on geriatric depression and pharmacotherapy from several clinical references. Studies were included if they described a clinical trial that assessed the effectiveness of any currently-marketed antidepressant for adults aged 65 years or older, who resided in the NH, and were diagnosed by DSM criteria and/or standardized validated screening instruments with Major Depressive Disorder, minor depression, dysthymic disorder, or Depression in Alzheimer's disease. A total of eleven studies, including four randomized and seven non-randomized open-label trials, met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. It was not feasible to conduct a meta-analysis because the studies were heterogeneous in terms of study design, operational definitions of depression, participant characteristics, pharmacologic interventions, and outcome measures. Of the four randomized trials, two had a control group and did not demonstrate a statistically-significant benefit for antidepressant pharmacotherapy over placebo. While six of the seven non-randomized studies identified a response to an
Makimoto, Kiyoko; Kang, Hee Sun; Yamakawa, Miyae; Konno, Rie
This study presents an integrative literature review on sexuality among elderly people with dementia living in nursing homes. Original research studies published from 1980 to 2012 were included in the review. Sexual expressions ranged from holding hands to sexual intercourse. These behaviours were sometimes directed towards caregivers while the latter were providing daily care. Sexual expressions were sometimes assessed and reported subjectively without context. Responses to sexual expressions varied from positive to negative. Some sexual expressions were dealt with inconsistently, and some were considered to be problematic due to a lack of policy or privacy. It is important to assess and report sexual expressions objectively, preferably with a standardized form, and to consider context in doing so. Effort is required to provide privacy for residents' sexual expressions and a safe environment for all residents and caregivers. It is important that a policy and guidelines for care be established regarding issues related to sexuality among elderly people with dementia. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Intrator, Orna; Hiris, Jeffrey; Berg, Katherine; Miller, Susan C; Mor, Vince
Objective To construct a data tool, the Residential History File (RHF), that summarizes information from Medicare claims and nursing home (NH) Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments to track people through health care locations, including non-Medicare-paid NH stays. Data Sources Online Survey of Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data for 202 free-standing NHs, Medicare Denominator, claims (parts A and B), and MDS assessments for 60,984 people who were present in one of these NHs in 2006. Methods The algorithm creating the RHF is outlined and the RHF for the study data are used to describe place of death. The identification of residents in NHs is compared with the reports in OSCAR and part B claims. Principal Findings The RHF correctly identified 84.8 percent of part B claims with place-of-service in NH, and it identified 18.3 less residents on average than reported in the OSCAR on the day of the survey. The RHF indicated that 17.5 percent non-Medicare NH decedents were transferred to the hospital to die versus 45.6 percent skilled nursing facility decedents. Conclusions The population-based design of the RHF makes it possible to conduct policy-relevant research to examine the variation in the rate and type of health care transitions across the United States. PMID:21029090
Intrator, Orna; Hiris, Jeffrey; Berg, Katherine; Miller, Susan C; Mor, Vince
To construct a data tool, the Residential History File (RHF), that summarizes information from Medicare claims and nursing home (NH) Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments to track people through health care locations, including non-Medicare-paid NH stays. Online Survey of Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data for 202 free-standing NHs, Medicare Denominator, claims (parts A and B), and MDS assessments for 60,984 people who were present in one of these NHs in 2006. The algorithm creating the RHF is outlined and the RHF for the study data are used to describe place of death. The identification of residents in NHs is compared with the reports in OSCAR and part B claims. The RHF correctly identified 84.8 percent of part B claims with place-of-service in NH, and it identified 18.3 less residents on average than reported in the OSCAR on the day of the survey. The RHF indicated that 17.5 percent non-Medicare NH decedents were transferred to the hospital to die versus 45.6 percent skilled nursing facility decedents. The population-based design of the RHF makes it possible to conduct policy-relevant research to examine the variation in the rate and type of health care transitions across the United States. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Dália Nogueira,1 Elizabeth Reis21Speech Therapy Department, Escola Superior de Saúde de Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal; 2Department of Quantitative Methods, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE/IUL, Lisbon, PortugalBackground: The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.Methods: The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST. For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.Results: The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age
Full Text Available The basic needs of the children of the Residence Juan de Lanuza (Zaragoza, Spain are covered by the daily amount of food they are provided with at meals. However, the tasks of the professionals who work in this Home are not restricted to feeding. One of the educational goals is to teach children socially adapted food habits, which are considered essential for the young persons’ “culturisation”. Food socialization has its roots in the ideology of the educating staff. The disciplinary system is based on the containment of deviations from normative food habits. The harshest punishment is inflicted when the child refuses to eat. The aim of this paper is to show that the resistance to food offered by the children of this Home between 6 and 12 years of age, is not due to lack of appetite but is the expression of a specific demand. Through their behaviour the children make explicit their wish to belong to a certain age group, they assert their ethnic difference, they show whether they wish to relate or not to other children or the staff, they ask for the educator’s attention to their state of mind, etc.
Carreiro-Martins, Pedro; Gomes-Belo, Joana; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Caires, Iolanda; Palmeiro, Teresa; Gaspar-Marques, João; Leiria-Pinto, Paula; Mendes, Ana Sofia; Paulo-Teixeira, João; Botelho, Maria Amália; Neuparth, Nuno
Few studies have assessed the quality of life (QOL) related to chronic respiratory diseases in the elderly. In the framework of the geriatric study on the health effects of air quality in elderly care centers (GERIA) study, a questionnaire was completed by elderly subjects from 53 selected nursing homes. It included various sections in order to assess respiratory complaints, QOL (World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL)-BREF), and the cognitive and depression status. The outcome variables were the presence of a score lower than 50 (Chronic bronchitis, frequent cough, current wheezing, asthma, and allergic rhinitis were considered as potential risk factors. The surveyed sample was (n = 887) 79% female, with a mean age of 84 years (SD: 7 years). In the multivariable analysis, a score of chronic bronchitis (OR: 2.89, CI: 1.34-6.23) and emphysema (OR: 3.89, CI: 1.27-11.88). In view of these findings, the presence of respiratory diseases seems to be an important risk factor for a low QOL among elderly nursing home residents. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kumar, Sasi; Adiga, Kasturi Ramesh; George, Anice
Old age is a period when people need physical, emotional, and psychological support. Depression is the most prevalent mental health problem among older adults and it contributes to increase in medical morbidity and mortality, reduces quality of life and elevates health care costs. Therefore early diagnosis and effective management are required to improve the quality of life of older adults suffering from depression. Intervention like Mindfulness based Stress Reduction is a powerful relaxation technique to provide quick way to get rid of depression and negative emotions by increasing mindfulness. The study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of MBSR on depression among elderly residing in residential homes, Bangalore. In this study, quasi experimental pre-test post-test control group research design was used. There were two groups: experimental and control, each group had 30 samples selected from different residential homes by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Pre-test depression and mindfulness was assessed before the first day of intervention. Experimental group participants were provided intervention on MBSR. Assessment of post-test depression and mindfulness was done at the end of the intervention programme for both group participants. The study revealed significant reduction in depression (p MBSR technique.
Zullo, Andrew R; Dore, David D; Gutman, Roee; Mor, Vincent; Alvarez, Carlos A; Smith, Robert J
Diabetes mellitus is common in US nursing homes (NHs), and the mainstay treatment, metformin, has US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) boxed warnings indicating safety concerns in those with advanced age, heart failure, or renal disease. Little is known about treatment selection in this setting, especially for metformin. We quantified the determinants of initiating sulfonylureas over metformin with the aim of understanding the impact of FDA-labeled boxed warnings in older NH residents. National retrospective cohort in US NHs. Long-stay NH residents age ≥65 years who initiated metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy following a period of ≥6 months with no glucose-lowering treatment use between 2008 and 2010 (n = 7295). Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked national Minimum Data Set assessments; Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) records; and Medicare claims. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing patient characteristics and treatment initiation were estimated using univariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression models with NH random intercepts. Of the 7295 residents in the study population, 3066 (42%) initiated metformin and 4229 (58%) initiated a sulfonylurea. In multivariable analysis, several factors were associated with sulfonylurea initiation over metformin initiation, including heart failure (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.4) and renal disease (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.7-2.5). Compared with those aged 65 to drug class with a known, common adverse event (hypoglycemia with sulfonylureas) over one with tenuous evidence of a rare adverse event (lactic acidosis with metformin). Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Becker, Clemens; Kron, Martina; Lindemann, Ulrich; Sturm, Elisabeth; Eichner, Barbara; Walter-Jung, Barbara; Nikolaus, Thorsten
To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted, nonpharmaceutical intervention on incidence of falls and fallers. Prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial. Six community nursing homes in Germany. Long-stay residents (n = 981) aged 60 and older; mean age 85; 79% female. Staff and resident education on fall prevention, advice on environmental adaptations, progressive balance and resistance training, and hip protectors. Falls, fallers, and fractures. The incidence density rate of falls per 1,000 resident years (RY) was 2,558 for the control group (CG) and 1,399 for the intervention group (IG) (relative risk (RR) = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-0.73). Two hundred forty-seven (52.3%) fallers were detected in the CG and 188 (36.9%) in the IG (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.57-0.98). The incidence density rate of frequent fallers (>2/year) was 115 (24.4%) for the CG and 66 (13.0%) for the IG (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.89). The incidence density rate of hip fractures per 1,000 RY was 39 for the CG and 43 for the IG (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.49-2.51). Other fractures were diagnosed with an incidence density rate of 52 per 1,000 RY for CG and 41 per 1,000 RY for IG (RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.57-1.07). The incidence density rate of falls and fallers differed considerably between the control and intervention groups. The study was underpowered to demonstrate a significant difference of hip or nonhip fractures. Because of a low fracture rate in both groups, the investigation of fracture rates would have required a larger sample size to detect an effect of the intervention.
Colling, J; Ouslander, J; Hadley, B J; Eisch, J; Campbell, E
To test an individualized form of habit training for urinary incontinence (UI) among long-stay cognitively and/or physically impaired elderly nursing home residents over time. Randomization of subjects occurred by nursing home unit. Baseline wet checks were done hourly for one 24-hour period at 3-week intervals over 12 weeks followed by 72 hours of continuous electronic monitoring to establish precise voiding patterns for each subject. The 12-week intervention period was administered by indigenous staff after they attended a 4-hour UI educational program. Subjects were followed an additional 12 weeks to determine the extent of maintenance of the intervention among staff and subjects. Four non-profit nursing homes; west, mid-west, east coast. Consent was obtained from 154 (71%) who met primary inclusion criteria. Forty-one failed the secondary inclusion criteria leaving 113 who entered the 37-week study. Eighty-eight completed the study (experimental = 51, control = 37); all were physically and/or mentally impaired, averaged age 85, and had either urge or urge/stress UI. UI was significantly decreased during the 3-month period (P less than 0.001). Eighty-six percent showed improvement over baseline while one-third improved 25% or more over their baseline UI rate. The control group's UI increased during the same period of time. The volume of UI among the experimental group also decreased (P less than 0.005) while the control group's UI volume increased. The training program was effective in reducing UI though compliance among nursing staff averaged only 70% of the prescribed toileting times. The success of this approach is similar to other recently described behavioral programs but achieved the reduction using only regular nursing staff. This individualized approach supports the recent regulatory thrust to individualize care to promote and maintain functional abilities and autonomy.
Abraham, I L; Manning, C A; Snustad, D G; Brashear, H R; Newman, M C; Wofford, A B
To examine factor structures of the Mini-Mental State Examination, attempting first to replicate any of previously proposed 2-factor solutions; and to explore, secondly, the presence of clinically more differentiated and statistically stable factor structures representing common neurocognitive dimensions. Factor analytic investigation of descriptive dataset collected on nursing home residents. Two factor analyses were performed, one in which the number of factors was fixed at 2 in an effort to replicate previous studies, and one in which the number of factors to retain was determined by the scree test. Both factor analyses used established methods for judging the adequacy of the correlation matrix and the significance of factor loadings, and both applied principal components analysis for initial factor extraction and the equamax criterion for orthogonal rotation. Seven nursing homes with a total of 894 beds. 922 assessments on nursing home residents were performed, of which 892 were complete and entered into the factor analyses. The observation-to-variable ratio exceeded 81:1, assuring the statistical stability of factor solutions derived. The Mini-Mental State Examination, with standardization of words to be recalled and the inverted spelling of "world" as the mental reversal task. Two factor structures were derived. A 2-factor solution, explaining 36.5% of the variance and statistically and conceptually different from those obtained in previous studies, distinguished between Perceptual-Organizational and Psychomotor skills. A 4-factor solution, which explained 56.1% of the variance, included a factor named Executing Psychomotor Commands, while also further differentiating the perceptual-organizational processes into the factors of Memory, Concentration, and Language. The 2-factor solution shows that, notwithstanding previous claims to the contrary, the MMSE can make stable and independent distinctions between psychomotor and perceptual-organizational processes
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.
Andersson, P; Renvert, S; Sjogren, P; Zimmerman, M
To describe the dental health status of elderly people in nursing homes receiving domiciliary dental care. Case note review. Nursing homes in 8 Swedish counties. Care dependent elderly people (≥65 years). Clinical data, including the number of remaining natural teeth, missing and decayed teeth (manifest dental caries) and root remnants, recorded by dentists according to standard practices. Medical and dental risk assessments were performed. Data were available for 20,664 patients. Most were women (69.1%), with a mean age of 87.1 years (SD 7.42, range 65-109). The mean age for men was 83.5 years (SD 8.12, range 65-105). Two or more medical conditions were present in most of the population. A total of 16,210 individuals had existing teeth of whom 10,974 (67.7%) had manifest caries. The mean number of teeth with caries was 5.0 (SD 5.93) corresponding to 22.8% of existing teeth. One in four individuals were considered to have a very high risk in at least one professional dental risk assessment category. Care dependent elderly in nursing homes have very poor oral health. There is a need to focus on the oral health-related quality of life for this group of frail elderly during their final period of life. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
For this DOE Zero Energy Ready Home that won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, the builder uses structural insulated panels to construct the entire building shell, including the roof, walls, and floor of the home.
Blomqvist, Kerstin; Edberg, Anna-Karin
Although the topic of pain among older people has received increasing interest, little is still known about how pain is experienced or handled by those who no longer manage independently but depend on professionals for help with daily living. Developing pain management for older people requires such knowledge. To explore sense of self, sense of pain, daily living with pain, sense of others and ways of handling pain in older people with persistent pain. Interviews with 90 older people receiving home care from nursing auxiliaries in their own homes or in sheltered accommodation were collected from January to June 2000. A typology of older people in persistent pain was developed. Activities for handling pain were examined using content analysis. Respondents' experiences of themselves and their pain varied. Two groups of older people, considered as 'competent and proud' and 'confident and serene', expressed satisfaction in spite of pain, while the groups 'misunderstood and disappointed' and 'resigned and sad' expressed dissatisfaction. The most common strategies used were medication, rest, mobility, distracting activities and talking about pain. Respondents chose strategies by balancing the advantages of the activities against the disadvantages these brought for their daily living. This study indicates that characteristics of the older people, such as their way of experiencing themselves, how pain affects their daily life and how they perceive effects and side-effects of pain management are areas that need to be identified when staff assess pain and plan pain management. Caring for older people in pain could be improved by listening to and believing their complaints, evaluating effects and side-effects from medications and nonpharmacological pain management and by emphasising the importance of common everyday activities such as mobility and distraction to relieve pain.
Gila Cohen Zilka
Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.
Hochman, Michael E.; Asch, Steven; Jibilian, Arek; Chaudry, Bharat; Ben-Ari, Ron; Hsieh, Eric; Berumen, Margaret; Mokhtari, Shahrod; Raad, Mohamad; Hicks, Elisabeth; Sanford, Crystal; Aguirre, Norma; Tseng, Chi-hong; Vangala, Sitaram; Mangione, Carol M.; Goldstein, David A.
IMPORTANCE The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model holds promise for improving primary care delivery, but it has not been adequately tested in teaching settings. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We implemented an intervention guided by PCMH principles at a safety-net teaching clinic with resident physician providers. Two similar clinics served as controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the effect on patient and resident satisfaction using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and a validated teaching clinic survey, respectively. Both surveys were conducted at baseline and 1 year after the intervention. We also measured the effect on emergency department and hospital utilization. RESULTS Following implementation of our intervention, the clinic’s score on the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH certification tool improved from 35 to 53 of 100 possible points, although our clinic did not achieve all must-pass elements to qualify as a PCMH. During the 1-year study period, 4676 patients were exposed to the intervention; 39.9% of these used at least 1 program component. Compared with baseline, patient-reported access and overall satisfaction improved to a greater extent in the intervention clinic, and the composite satisfaction rating increased from 48% to 65% in the intervention clinic vs from 50% to 59% in the control sites (P = .04). The improvements were particularly notable for questions relating to access. For example, satisfaction with urgent appointment scheduling increased from 12% to 53% in the intervention clinic vs from 14% to 18% in the control clinics (P < .001). Resident satisfaction also improved in the intervention clinic: the composite satisfaction score increased from 39% to 51% in the intervention clinic vs a decrease from 46%to 42% in the control clinics (P = .01). Emergency department utilization did not differ significantly between the intervention and
Janssens, Barbara; Petrovic, Mirko; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Schols, Jos M G A; Vanobbergen, Jacques; De Visschere, Luc
Polypharmacy is considered the most important etiologic factor of hyposalivation, which in turn can initiate oral health problems. To describe the medication use of nursing home residents, to identify the medications related to hyposalivation and to find possible associations between the different classes of medication, the number of medications, and the oral health status of the residents. A cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of the residents of a nonrandom sample of 23 nursing homes from 2 Belgian provinces, belonging to the oral health care network Gerodent. All residents of the sample visited the Gerodent mobile dental clinic between October 2010 and April 2012. For each resident, oral health data, demographic data, and an overview of the total medication intake were collected. The study sample consisted of 1226 nursing home residents with a mean age of 83.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 8.5]. The mean number of medications per person was 9.0 (SD 3.6, range 0-23, median 9.0). Of all prescribed medication, 49.6% had a potential hyposalivatory effect with a mean number per person of 4.5 (SD 2.2, range 0-15, median 4.0). In the bivariate analyses, associations were found between medication use and oral health of residents with natural teeth: the higher the number of medications (with risk of dry mouth) and the overall risk of medication-related dry mouth, the lower the number of natural teeth (P = .022, P = .005, and P = .017, respectively). In contrast, the total treatment need tended to decrease with rising medication intake, resulting in a clear increase of the treatment index with rising medication intake (P = .003, P oral status of the residents. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fries Brant E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the responsiveness of the Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living (MDS-ADL Scale to change over time by examining the change in physical function in adults with moderate to severe dementia with no comorbid illness who had been resident in a nursing home for over 90 days. Methods Longitudinal data were collected on nursing home residents with moderate (n = 7001 or severe (n = 4616 dementia in one US state from the US national Minimum Data Set (MDS. Severity of dementia was determined by the MDS Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS. Physical function was assessed by summing the seven items (bed mobility, transfer, locomotion, dressing, eating, toilet use, personal hygiene on the MDS activities of daily living (ADL Long Form scale. Mean change over time of MDS-ADL scores were estimated at three and six months for residents with moderate (CPS score of 3 and severe (CPS score of 4 or 5 dementia. Results Physical function in residents with moderate cognitive impairment deteriorated over six months by an average of 1.78 points on the MDS-ADL Long Form scale, while those with severe cognitive impairment declined by an average of 1.70 points. Approximately one quarter of residents in both groups showed some improvement in physical function over the six month period. Residents with moderate cognitive impairment experienced the greatest deterioration in early-loss and mid-loss ADL items (personal hygiene, dressing, toilet use and residents with severe cognitive impairment showed the greatest deterioration in activities related to eating, a late loss ADL. Conclusion The MDS-ADL Long Form scale detected clinically meaningful change in physical function in a large cohort of long-stay nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia, supporting its use as a research tool in future studies.
Galindo Garre, F.; Volicer, L.; van der Steen, J.T.
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze factors related to rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others in nursing home residents with dementia. Methods: The relationship of lack of understanding, depression, psychosis and pain with rejection of care and behaviors directed towards
Galindo-Garre, F.; Volicer, L.; Steen, J.T. van der
AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze factors related to rejection of care and behaviors directed towards others in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: The relationship of lack of understanding, depression, psychosis and pain with rejection of care and behaviors directed towards
M.H. Wetzels; MD E.J.M. Wouters; J. van Hoof; A.M.C. Dooremalen; H.T.G. Weffers
J. van Hoof, A.M.C. Dooremalen, M.H. Wetzels, H.T.G. Weffers, E.J.M. Wouters (2014) Exploring technological and architectural solutions for nursing home residents, care professionals and technical staff: Focus groups with professional stakeholders. International Journal for Innovative Research in
Vandervoort, A.; Houttekier, D.; Stichele, R.V.; van der Steen, J.T.; Block, L.
Background: Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent
Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.; Chiriboga, David A.
Purpose: We investigated the role of race in predicting the likelihood of using hospice and dying in a hospital among dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) nursing home residents. Design and Methods: This follow-back cohort study examined factors associated with hospice use and in-hospital death among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White…
Kim, Rah Kyung; Dymond, Stacy K.
This study investigated the frequency of community participation and level of assistance needed to perform domestic and safety skills for individuals with severe disabilities who live successfully in the community, based on type of residence and hours of in-home support provided. Participants included residential specialists from small community…
Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Scherder, Erik J. A.
Physical activity has been positively associated with cognition and the rest-activity rhythm. In the present study, nursing staff classified ambulatory nursing home residents with moderate dementia either as active (n = 42) or as sedentary (n = 34). We assessed the rest-activity rhythm by means of
Ammerman, Robert T.; Peugh, James L.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.
Home visiting is a child abuse prevention strategy that seeks to optimize child development by providing mothers with support, training, and parenting information. Research has consistently found high rates of depression in mothers participating in home visiting programs and low levels of obtaining mental health treatment in the community.…
Testad, Ingelin; Ballard, Clive; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Aarsland, Dag
Agitation is common in dementia and is associated with use of restraints and use of psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine whether an education and supervision intervention could reduce agitation and the use of restraints and antipsychotic drugs in nursing homes. Four Norwegian nursing homes were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual or an intervention consisting of a 2-day educational seminar and monthly group guidance for 6 months. One hundred forty-five residents with dementia (based on medical records and corroborated with a Functional Assessment Staging score >or= 4) completed baseline and 6-month intervention assessments and were included in the analyses. The co-primary outcome measures were the proportion of residents subject to interactional restraint and the severity of agitation using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Patients were assessed at baseline, immediately after completion of the intervention at 6 months, and 12 months after baseline. Comparison of change in the 2 groups was made using repeated-measures analysis of variance (CMAI) and Mann-Whitney test (restraints). The study was conducted from 2003 to 2004. The proportion of residents starting new restraint was lower in the intervention than in the control group at 6-month evaluation (P = .02), but no statistically significant differences were found at 12-month assessment (P = .57). The total CMAI score declined from baseline to 6 and 12 months' follow-up in the intervention homes compared to a small increase in the control homes (F2,176 = 3.46, P = .034). There were no statistically significant differences in use of antipsychotic drugs. A brief 2-day staff education program followed by continued monthly guidance was able both to improve quality of care by reducing the frequency of interactional restraints and to reduce severity of agitation. ©Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua; Tang, Yi
Several states are currently collecting and publicly reporting nursing home resident and/or family member ratings of experience with care in an attempt to improve person-centered care in nursing homes. Using the 2008 Maryland nursing home family survey reports and other data, this study performed both facility- and resident-level analyses, and estimated the relationships between family ratings of care and several long-term care quality measures (pressure ulcers, overall and potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and mortality) after adjustment for resident characteristics. We found that better family evaluations of overall and specific aspects of care may be associated with reduced rates of risk-adjusted measures at the facility level (range of correlation coefficients: -.01 to -.31). Associations of overall experience ratings tended to persist after further adjustment for common nursing home characteristics such as nurse staffing levels. We conclude that family ratings of nursing home care complement other types of performance measures such as risk-adjusted outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An
This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.
Nimako, Kofi; Lu, Shir-Kiong; Ayite, Bee; Priest, Kathy; Winkley, Andrew; Gunapala, Ranga; Popat, Sanjay; O'Brien, Mary Er
We examined the accuracy and acceptability of a home telemonitoring system for patients receiving chemotherapy. Patients undergoing two cycles of chemotherapy (over six weeks) used the telemonitoring system to analyse their own blood (capillary) and to enter symptom and temperature data. The blood results obtained from self-testing were compared with those from a venous blood sample analysed in the hospital laboratory analyser (the gold standard). We also documented the number and type of alerts generated by the telemonitoring system. Acceptability (ease of use and patient satisfaction) was assessed using questionnaires. Ten patients (mean age 61 years, 60% female) provided 48-paired samples. None of the patients succeeded in obtaining all blood results within pre-defined limits of agreement (i.e. within 15% for haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count; and 20% for neutrophil count) during the study. However, the level of clinical agreement between the system and the laboratory standard was good; only three out of the 48 samples and two out of the 10 patients had differences in blood results that might have had clinical implications. The telemonitoring system correctly generated 42 alerts. The patients found the telemonitoring system easy to use. With further refinement this should become an acceptable component of routine clinical practice for monitoring patients receiving chemotherapy. © SAGE Publications Ltd, 2013.
Talley, Kristine M. C.; Wyman, Jean F.; Savik, Kay; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Zhao, Hong
Purpose of the Study: (a) Identify the prevalence of nursing homes providing Medicare supported restorative care programs and of long stay participants, (b) compare characteristics between restorative care participants and nonparticipants, and (c) assess restorative care’s effect on change in activities of daily living (ADL) dependency. Design and Methods: Longitudinal analysis of Minimum Data Set assessments linked to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey using a sample of 7,735 residents, age ≥ 65 years living in 1,097 nursing homes for at least 6 months. Receipt of any restorative care was used as a time varying predictor to estimate change in ADL dependency over 18 months using linear mixed models. Results: The sample was 75% female, 89% non-Hispanic White, with a mean age of 85±8, and average length of stay of 3.2±3.4 years. Most nursing homes had restorative care programs (67%), but less than one-third of long-stay residents participated. After controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics, the predicted mean ADL dependency score (range 0–28) at baseline was 18 for restorative care participants and 14 for nonparticipants. Over 18 months, ADL dependency increased 1 point for both participants and nonparticipants (p = .12). Implications: A minority of long-stay residents participated in Medicare supported restorative care programs despite their availability and potential benefits. Even though participants had greater vulnerability for deterioration in physical, mental, and functional health than nonparticipants, both groups had similar rates of ADL decline. Future research is needed to determine if providing restorative care to less dependent long-stay residents is effective. PMID:26055785
Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.
Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until
Conclusion It was concluded that mental health professionals can use group logotherapy to improve life expectancy and mental and social wellbeing of female elderly residents of nursing homes. Also, it is suggested that future research should investigate the effectiveness of group logotherapy in improving other positive psychological constructs in female and male elderly residents of nursing homes.
Putten, Gerard van der; Brand, H.S.; Schols, J.M.; Baat, C. de
The study objective was to explore the diagnostic suitability of the Xerostomia Inventory and the association between xerostomia, hyposalivation and medication use in a group of nursing home residents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 50 physically impaired nursing home residents (20 men)
Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; De Benedetti, Anna; Petignat, Christiane; Attinger, Monica; Guillaume, Jan; Fiebig, Lena; Hattendorf, Jan; Cernela, Nicole; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther
Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes. We assessed the carriage of MDR staphylococci in pets and in 2 groups of residents, those living in nursing homes with pets and those living without pet contacts. We collected demographic, health status, and human-pet contact data by means of questionnaires. We assessed potential bacteria transmission pathways by investigating physical resident-to-pet contact. The observed prevalence of MDR staphylococci carriage was 84/229 (37%) in residents living with pets and 99/216 (46%) in those not living with pets (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9). Active pet contact was associated with lower carriage of MDR staphylococci (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months was associated with significantly increased risk for MDR carriage in residents (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7). We found no evidence that the previously reported benefits of pet contact are compromised by the increased risk of carriage of MDR staphylococci in residents associated with interaction with these animals in nursing homes. Thus, contact with pets, always under good hygiene standards, should be encouraged in these settings. Copyright Â© 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleydis Blanco Torres
Full Text Available Introduction. Dementia is one of the diseases with the greatest impact on the individual and family health, constituting a strong predictor of institutionalization. Objective. To identify cognitive impairment and dementia in residents of a nursing home and to describe these biological variables. Methods. A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional quantitative approach in 61 elderly male residents was conducted to determine the presence of cognitive impairment (CI, dementia, comorbidities and functional status. Information was obtained from medical records. Results. 35 residents had CI. Mean age of patients with CI was 79.4 (± 9.81 years vs. 78.6 (± 9.79 in patients without CI. 25 residents were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, 4 had vascular dementia, 3 had frontotemporal dementia and 1 resident had Lewy bodies dementia. 2 patients with cognitive impairment did not meet any dementia criteria. Significant association between the degree of cognitive impairment and functional status of patients was found (x2 = 25.76, P = 0.0001, with a mean negative correlation between the response to MMSE and FAQ (Spearman = -0.726, P = 0.000. Hypertension was the most commonly found non communicable disease in residents and patients with CI had a Charlson Comorbidity Index greater than those without CI (z = -2.434, P = 0.015. Conclusions. Mean age, functional impairment, and comorbidities were greater in residents with CI as compared to residents without CI. Among older adults with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s was the predominant dementia.
Full Text Available Background. The current study aims to describe the demographical and clinical characteristics of elderly nursing home (NH residents with acute respiratory infections (ARIs during four winter seasons (2013/2014–2016/2017, as well as the microbiological etiology of these infections. Methods. Seventeen NHs with at least one ARI resident in Corsica, France, were included. An ARI resident was defined as a resident developing a sudden onset of any constitutional symptoms in addition to any respiratory signs. Nasopharyngeal swabs from ARI residents were screened for the presence of 21 respiratory agents, including seasonal influenza viruses. Results. Of the 107 ARI residents enrolled from NHs, 61 (57% were positive for at least one of the 21 respiratory pathogens. Forty-one (38.3% of the 107 ARI residents had influenza: 38 (92% were positive for influenza A (100% A(H3N2 and three (8% for influenza B/Victoria. Axillary fever (≥38°C was significantly more common among patients infected with influenza A(H3N2. Conclusion. The circulation of seasonal respiratory viruses other than influenza A(H3N2 seems to be sporadic among elderly NH residents. Investigating the circulation of respiratory viruses in nonwinter seasons seems to be important in order to understand better the dynamic of their year-round circulation in NHs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.
Carney, Patricia A; Waller, Elaine; Dexter, Eve; Marino, Miguel; Rosener, Stephanie E; Green, Larry A; Jones, Geoffrey; M Keister, J Drew; Dostal, Julie A; Jones, Samuel M; Eiff, M Patrice
Primary care residencies are undergoing dramatic changes because of changing health care systems and evolving demands for updated training models. We examined the relationships between residents' exposures to patient-centered medical home (PCMH) features in their assigned continuity clinics and their satisfaction with training. Longitudinal surveys were collected annually from residents evaluating satisfaction with training using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=very unsatisfied to 5=very satisfied) from 2007 through 2011, and the presence or absence of PCMH features were collected from 24 continuity clinics during the same time period. Odds ratios on residents' overall satisfaction were compared according to whether they had no exposure to PCMH features, some exposure (1-2 years), or full exposure (all 3 or more years). Fourteen programs and 690 unique residents provided data to this study. Resident satisfaction with training was highest with full exposure for integrated case management compared to no exposure, which occurred in 2010 (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.40, 5.80). Resident satisfaction was consistently statistically lower with any or full exposure (versus none) to expanded clinic hours in 2007 and 2009 (eg, OR for some exposure in 2009 was 0.31 95% CI=0.19, 0.51, and OR for full exposure 0.28 95% CI=0.16, 0.49). Resident satisfaction for many electronic health record (EHR)-based features tended to be significantly lower with any exposure (some or full) versus no exposure over the study period. For example, the odds ratio for resident satisfaction was significantly lower with any exposure to electronic health records in continuity practice in 2008, 2009, and 2010 (OR for some exposure in 2008 was 0.36; 95% CI=0.19, 0.70, with comparable results in 2009, 2010). Resident satisfaction with training was inconsistently correlated with exposure to features of PCMH. No correlation between PCMH exposure and resident satisfaction was sustained over time.
Vandervoort, An; Van den Block, Lieve; van der Steen, Jenny T; Volicer, Ladislav; Vander Stichele, Robert; Houttekier, Dirk; Deliens, Luc
There is a lack of large-scale, nationwide data describing clinical characteristics and quality of dying of nursing home residents dying with dementia. We set out to investigate quality of end-of-life care and quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium. To obtain representativity, we conducted a postmortem study (2010) using random cluster sampling. In selected nursing homes, all deceased residents with dementia in a period of 3 months were reported. For each case, a structured questionnaire was filled in by the nurse most involved in care, the family physician, and the nursing home administrator. We used the Cognitive Performance Scale and Global Deterioration Scale to assess dementia. Main outcome measures were health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. Health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. We identified 198 deceased residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate). Age distribution was the same as all deceased residents with dementia in Flanders, 2010. Fifty-four percent had advanced dementia. In the last month of life, 95.5% had 1 or more sentinel events (eg, eating/drinking problems, febrile episodes, or pneumonia); most frequently reported symptoms were pain, fear, anxiety, agitation, and resistance to care. In the last week, difficulty swallowing and pain were reported most frequently. Pressure sores were present in 26.9%, incontinence in 89.2%, and cachexia in 45.8%. Physical restraints were used in 21.4% of cases, and 10.0% died outside the home. Comparing stages of dementia revealed few differences between groups regarding clinical complications, symptoms, or quality of dying. Regardless of the dementia stage, many nursing home residents develop serious clinical complications and symptoms in the last phase of life, posing major challenges to the provision of optimum end-of-life care. Copyright © 2013
Naoki, Yoko; Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Isseki; Kamino, Hideka; Kozaki, Yoko; Tokoro, Akihiro; Maki, Norimasa; Takada, Minoru
Little is known about the associations between family satisfaction with end-of-life care and caregiver burden. We conducted a researcher-assisted questionnaire survey to clarify the impact of caregiver burden on family satisfaction and to determine the types of burden that decrease family satisfaction. Bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer who received our outreach palliative care service were retrospectively identified. Family satisfaction with the end-of-life care provided by the palliative care service and caregiver burden were quantified using the Japanese versions of the FAMCARE Scale and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), respectively. Our study subjects included 23 family caregivers. The mean scores on the FAMCARE Scale and the ZBI for the total population were 72.8 ± 11.2 and 22.8 ± 17.3, respectively, indicating moderate-to-high satisfaction and low-to-moderate burden. Caregiver burden had a strong negative correlation to family satisfaction with end-of-life care (Spearman's rho [ρ] = -0.560, p = 0.005), which remained after adjustment for potential confounders (standardized beta [β] = -0.563, p = 0.01). Several burden items-including loss of control, personal time, social engagement with others, feeling angry with the patient, feeling that the patient wants more help than he/she needs, and a wish to leave the care to someone else-were associated with decreased satisfaction. The major cause of dissatisfaction for family members included the information provided regarding prognosis, family conferences with medical professionals, and the method of involvement of family members in care decisions. Caregiver burden can be a barrier to family satisfaction with end-of-life care at home. A home care model focused on caregiver burden could improve end-of-life experiences for patients and family caregivers.
Stow, Ruth; Ives, Natalie; Smith, Christina; Rick, Caroline; Rushton, Alison
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) predisposes individuals to disease, delays recovery from illness and reduces quality of life. Care home residents in the United Kingdom are especially vulnerable, with an estimated 30 to 42 % at risk. Evidence for nutritional interventions to address PEM in the care home setting is lacking. Widely used techniques include food-based intervention and/or the use of prescribed oral nutritional supplements. To define outcomes and optimise the design for an adequately powered definitive trial to compare the efficacy of established nutritional interventions in this setting, a cluster randomised feasibility trial with a 6-month intervention was undertaken. Care home residents with or at risk of malnutrition were identified across six UK care home sites from September to December 2013. Homes were cluster randomised to standard care (SC), food-based intervention (FB) or oral nutritional supplement intervention (ONS), for 6 months. Key outcomes were trial feasibility and the acceptability of design, allocated interventions and outcome assessments. Anthropometry, dietary intake, healthcare resource usage and participant-reported outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. All six care homes approached were recruited and retained. Of the 110 residents at risk of malnutrition, 85 % entered the trial, and 68 % completed the 6-month intervention. Pre-specified success criteria for feasibility were met for recruitment and retention, intervention acceptability (resident compliance ≥60 %) and measurement of weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference and dietary intake (data completeness >80 %). Measurement of handgrip strength and triceps skinfold thickness was not found to be feasible in this population. The 95 % confidence interval (CI) data suggested sensitivity to change in dietary intake for weight, BMI and energy intake between baseline and 3 months when each intervention (FB and ONS) was compared with SC
Bollig, Georg; Schmidt, Gerda; Rosland, Jan Henrik; Heller, Andreas
Many ethical problems exist in nursing homes. These include, for example, decision-making in end-of-life care, use of restraints and a lack of resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate nursing home staffs' opinions and experiences with ethical challenges and to find out which types of ethical challenges and dilemmas occur and are being discussed in nursing homes. The study used a two-tiered approach, using a questionnaire on ethical challenges and systematic ethics work, given to all employees of a Norwegian nursing home including nonmedical personnel, and a registration of systematic ethics discussions from an Austrian model of good clinical practice. Ninety-one per cent of the nursing home staff described ethical problems as a burden. Ninety per cent experienced ethical problems in their daily work. The top three ethical challenges reported by the nursing home staff were as follows: lack of resources (79%), end-of-life issues (39%) and coercion (33%). To improve systematic ethics work, most employees suggested ethics education (86%) and time for ethics discussion (82%). Of 33 documented ethics meetings from Austria during a 1-year period, 29 were prospective resident ethics meetings where decisions for a resident had to be made. Agreement about a solution was reached in all 29 cases, and this consensus was put into practice in all cases. Residents did not participate in the meetings, while relatives participated in a majority of case discussions. In many cases, the main topic was end-of-life care and life-prolonging treatment. Lack of resources, end-of-life issues and coercion were ethical challenges most often reported by nursing home staff. The staff would appreciate systematic ethics work to aid decision-making. Resident ethics meetings can help to reach consensus in decision-making for nursing home patients. In the future, residents' participation should be encouraged whenever possible. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate prescription patterns for older people in nursing homes of Tehran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data of 170 older people, sampled random cluster gathering method, using medical records, questionnaires and interview with nurses and physicians. Results: The mean average age of the sample was 79.75. 64.7% of them were female. 62.4% received more than 5 types of medicines. The mean number of medicines was 7.55 with the ranging of 1-19 drugs. The most medicine forms used by older people were: tablets 98.2%, injection medicines 20.6 %, drops 13.5%, syrup 8.8%, sprays 6.5%, ointments and suppositories 2.9%. There was not a significant relationship between participating in geriatric educational course And the mean numbers of the prescribed medications (P>0.05., as well as between covering by health insurance specialty in medicine and the mean of the numbers of mediations (P>0.05. There was a significant relationship between having insurance and the mean number of prescribed medicine (P<0.05. Conclusion: Developing educational programs on geriatric pharmacology general practitioners and more supervision on residential care homes practices may have affects on prescription pattern.
Bettin, Alfonso; Suárez, Paola; Bedoya, Andrés; Reyes, Niradiz
Determining Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and association with potential risk factors in residents from the Hogar Asilo de Ancianos San Pedro Claver nursing-home in Cartagena during the second semester of 2007. Nasal swabs were taken from each person participating in the study after they had signed an informed consent form. Staphylococcus aureus strains were identified by classical methods; antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion methods, according to CLSI standards. SPSS for Windows 13.0 statistical package was used for analysing data collected from medical records and from a questionnaire for analysing association with potential risk factors. 11 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from 69 participants, corresponding to 15.9% prevalence. No methicillin-resistant strains were detected. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage was significantly associated with limited mobility and skin lesions. There was no significant association with the other risk factors analysed. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage found in this study was lower than that reported from other similar studies in other countries, taking into account that this is a population at risk for colonisation by this pathogen.
Sharon L. Moore
Full Text Available A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99 who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end, field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one’s situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.”
Taylor, Janice; Sims, Jane; Haines, Terry P
With the aging of the population, increasing numbers of older people live in nursing homes. Discourse such as policies and standards highlight the need to optimize the mobility independence of residents. This is expected to occur in a way that is safe for residents and staff whilst meeting the residents' needs. The influence of discourse on health care delivery can be poorly understood, being at times hidden or taken for granted. The aim of this study was to uncover discourse relevant to resident mobility optimization to enable the origins and reasoning behind existing and intersecting policy and practice to be critically appraised. Narrative literature review and thematic analysis with a focus on discourse were employed for this study. Databases (CINAHL and Ovid Medline) and websites of relevant professional and governmental bodies were accessed. A literature search centered on retrieval of texts focused on discourses that influenced goals to optimize resident mobility. Database searches for texts covered the period from 1994 to 2011. Iterative thematic analysis focussed on the texts' socio-cultural context and influence. Four discourses emerged that potentially influence goals to optimize resident mobility: safe manual handling; falls prevention; palliative care; and costs and funding constraints to individualized care. These discourses may influence mobility care in the direction of more routinized, passive and dependency support approaches. A common overarching theme was that of collaboration and communication. Discourses such as safe manual handling, falls prevention, palliative care and cost constraints to individualized care can negatively impact on the goal to optimize the mobility of residents in nursing homes. Inter-professional approaches where staff work collaboratively and communicate well may counter such influences and ensure individualized care that focuses more effectively on resident mobility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mullins, L C; Lopez, M A
The purpose of this research was (a) to determine whether there is a comparative difference in the level of conscious death anxiety between young-old and the old-old nursing home residents and (b) to assess the predictive value of educational attainment, gender, subjective health, functional ability, social support, and length of stay on the conscious death anxiety of the persons in the two age groups. A discriminant analysis of 228 residents from three nursing homes revealed that among the 103 young-old subjects poor subjective health, poor functional ability, poor social support, and extended stays in the facilities were indicative of high death anxiety. Among the 125 old-old subjects, high death anxiety was associated with poor subjective health, poor functional ability, and higher educational attainment. Further, it was found that age was an important variable. A significantly greater proportion of the older residents compared to the younger residents had higher conscious death anxiety. The results may direct practitioners and planners in program development for the elderly nursing home patient.
Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Gasse, Christiane; Astrup, Aske
(41%), followed by home-living patients with dementia (27.5%) and home-living patients without dementia (16.9%). Buprenorphine and fentanyl (primarily patches) were commonly used among NHRs (18.7%) and home-living patients with dementia (10.7%) but less often by home-living patients without dementia...
Oz, Vicky; Theilla, Miryam; Singer, Pierre
Using the database of an infusion provider, we assessed the quality of life and the eating behavior of patients receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Fifty-one patients were recruited during a 2-month period and anthropometric measurements, etiology of the disease and length of therapy were noted. A questionnaire including seven questions evaluating four functions was completed by a student by phone interview. The FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire) defined the response from grade 0 (no acceptance) to grade 4 (full acceptance) and evaluated physical, social/familial, emotional and functional well-being. Results are expressed as mean+/-S.D. or median (range) and correlation calculated using the Pearson's correlation test. Fifty patients responded to the questionnaire. Median length on HPN was 27.5 months (range 5-180 months). More than 56% were aged between 17 and 59 years, 62% suffered from an intestinal disease and less than 10% from cancer. Ten percent were receiving HPN for >10 years. Physical activity was scored 1.77+/-1.11, social activity 3.18+/-0.96, emotional status 1.88+/-1.17 and oral intake 1.95+/-0.95. Physical activity was lower in females. Physical activity was highly related to emotional and social status (r=0.61, pperformance. Their emotional status is impaired and their oral intake strongly altered. These alterations are not related to time on therapy or age, but the highest the physical activity, the better the emotional and social status. We should encourage these patients to increase their physical activity when possible.
Custers, Annette F J; Cillessen, Antonius H J; Westerhof, Gerben J; Kuin, Yolande; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne
Based on self-determination theory and adaptation theories, the study aim was to investigate the relationship between need fulfillment (of autonomy, relatedness, and competence), need importance, and depressive symptoms during the first months of living in a nursing home. Eight-month longitudinal questionnaire study in which 75 persons newly admitted to units for physically frail residents participated at baseline. Twenty-three longitudinal participants were remaining at the third and final measurement wave. The results show a main effect of need fulfillment and an interaction effect of need fulfillment and need importance on depressive symptoms over time. A prototypical plot shows that residents with low need fulfillment had higher initial levels of depressive symptoms that decreased modestly over time, regardless of their need importance. Residents with high need fulfillment had lower initial levels of depressive symptoms, but their trajectories differed for participants with low and high need importance. Residents with low need importance started with lower levels of depressive symptoms but remained stable over time, whereas residents with high need importance had more depressive symptoms at T1 that decreased slightly over time. In general, depressive symptoms do not change over time. However, individual trajectories of depressive symptoms seem to depend on individual need fulfillment and need importance. The residents that consider need fulfillment to be highly important but experience low need fulfillment had higher initial levels of depressive symptoms that decreased modestly over time, although the level of depressive symptoms remained higher as compared to the other residents.
Dev, Mahesh Kumar; Paudel, Nabin; Joshi, Niraj Dev; Shah, Dev Narayan; Subba, Shishir
Visual impairment (VI) affects physical, psychological, and emotional well-being, and social life as well. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the psycho-social impact of VI on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study involved 272 residents of 60 years or older residing in seven nursing homes of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Comprehensive ocular examinations, including near and distance vision assessment and refractions were carried out. VI was defined as visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 in the better eye. Residents were divided into two groups: one group did not have VI (in whom VA was greater than or equal to 6/18 in the better eye), and the other had VI (in whom VA was worse than 6/18 in the better eye).Face-to-face interviews were conducted filling out a 36-item The Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The SF-36 questionnaire was scored according to the scoring algorithm SF-36 subscales. The mean age of residents was 74.68 ± 8.19 years (range, 60-99 years) and the majority were female (78.68%). The mean composite score of SF-36 was 46.98 ± 13.08. VI detrimentally affected scores of both the physical and the mental components, but the impact of VI was slightly greater for the physical component than that for the mental component. There was a trend towards a lower composite score as well as each subscale score of the SF-36 in participants with VI than in those without VI. VI has a negative effect on HRQoL. HRQoL is reduced among nursing home residents and the reduction in the HRQoL bears a positive association with VI.
van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud
Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.
Baker, Margaret W; Whitney, JoAnne D; Lowe, Jeanne R; Liao, Solomon; Zimmerman, David; Mosqueda, Laura
The purpose of this study was to determine whether stage 3, 4, and unstageable pressure injuries develop despite consistently good quality care (CGQC); ascertain whether these wounds occur without prior recognition of a lower-stage pressure injury; and to describe and analyze characteristics of nursing home residents and their higher-stage pressure injuries. Descriptive, nonexperimental, prospective analysis. A convenience sample of 20 residents from facilities participated in the study; research sites were located in 7 counties in Western Washington and Orange County, along with a single site in Wisconsin. CGQC facilities were identified using a 3-step incremental approach. Research assistants verified CGQC at the facility level. After data collection was complete, a Longitudinal, Expert, All-Data Panel reviewed cases for a final resident-level validity check for CGQC. Remaining cases were submitted to analysis. Residents who developed advanced stage pressure injuries despite CGQC were older, had limited mobility, dementia, comorbid conditions, urinary or fecal incontinence, and infections. The pressure injuries were relatively small and had little-to-no undermining, exudate, or edema. Stage 3, 4, and unstageable pressure injuries were observed in nursing home residents despite CGQC. Results from this study may serve as a baseline for further research to evaluate characteristics of these wounds when they develop under settings of poor-quality care. Findings also may be useful in creating evidence-based practice guidelines to support decision making around mandatory reporting, diagnosis, and prosecution.
Katherine A. Lawson OTR, LMSSW, PhD
Full Text Available Background: Falls are the fifth leading cause of death for adults aged 65 years and older. Several intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors have been identified, butthere is less understanding of the impact of a fear of falling on falls. Seventy percent of recent fallers and 40% percent of non-fallers report a fear of falling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls, as well as the impact on the functional independence of community-dwelling older adults receiving home health services. Methods: The participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale, the Modified Timed Up and Go Test, self- reported fear of falling, and the KATZ ADL-staircase. The participants were primarily Hispanic females. Results: There was not a significant correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls. Only participants' age, gender, and the number of medical diagnoses were predictive of past falls. There was a moderate correlation between impaired functional mobility and dependence with activities of daily living (ADL. Additionally, a fear of falling was associated with dependence to perform ADLs as measured objectively. Conclusion: Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of interventions that include dual-task challenges during therapeutic interventions and ADL retraining to reduce fall risk among older adults.
Full Text Available Evil-Twin is becoming a common attack in smart home environments where an attacker can set up a fake AP to compromise the security of the connected devices. To identify the fake APs, The current approaches of detecting Evil-Twin attacks all rely on information such as SSIDs, the MAC address of the genuine AP, or network traffic patterns. However, such information can be faked by the attacker, often leading to low detection rates and weak protection. This paper presents a novel Evil-Twin attack detection method based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI. Our approach considers the RSSI as a fingerprint of APs and uses the fingerprint of the genuine AP to identify fake ones. We provide two schemes to detect a fake AP in two different scenarios where the genuine AP can be located at either a single or multiple locations in the property, by exploiting the multipath effect of the Wi-Fi signal. As a departure from prior work, our approach does not rely on any professional measurement devices. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully detect 90% of the fake APs, at the cost of a one-off, modest connection delay.
Ikegami, Naoki; Ikezaki, Sumie
To evaluate the impact of the policy to encourage nursing homes to provide end-of-life care by comparing facility and resident variables associated with dying within the nursing home and not in hospitals, and by comparing life sustaining treatment (LST) respectively provided. Questionnaires mailed to an 11% random sample of 653 nursing homes in 2009. Facility characteristics from 371 nursing homes (57%) and resident characteristics of the 1158 who had been discharged due to death were obtained from 241 facilities (37%). Facility characteristics related to dying in nursing homes were their policy of providing end-of-life care and physicians being based in home care supporting clinics. Resident characteristics related were not having pneumonia as the cause of death, the family's preference of the nursing home as the site of death and agreement within the family. Preferences on the use of LST were adhered more in residents who had died in nursing homes. Although the percentage of residents dying within the facility has increased, the nursing home as a site of death still composes only 3.2% of the total. To increase the latter, nursing homes should refocus their function to providing end-of-life care to those not preferring aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hallaj, F A
Malnutrition is common among residents of homes for the elderly. This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. The mean age was 70.9 (SD 6.4) years. Two-thirds of residents were either at risk of malnutrition (39.8%; score 17-23 on the MNA) or malnourished (19.4%; score < 17 on the MNA). Mean body mass index was 22.0 (SD 4.7) kg/m(2). Nutritional status was significantly affected by age, level of education, source of income, duration of stay in the home, number of diseases, number of medicines taken, anthropometric data and teeth and vision problems.
De Silva, Thanuja R; Theou, Olga; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo; Visvanathan, Renuka
To investigate the ability of the fatigue, resistance, ambulation, incontinence or illness, loss of weight, nutritional approach, and help with dressing (FRAIL-NH) tool to predict mortality. The Incidence of Pneumonia and Related Consequences in Nursing Home Residents (INCUR) study database was used. This was an observational cohort study in French nursing homes conducted over 12 months in 2012. A total of 788 residents aged 60 years or older, from 13 randomly selected French nursing homes. FRAIL-NH was generated from the available variables at baseline. FRAIL-NH scores ranged from 0 to 14 and people were categorized as nonfrail (0‒1), frail (2‒5), and most frail (6‒14). Mortality data were obtained from medical charts and confirmed by the nursing home administrative documentation. Mean age of the participants was 86.2 ± 7.5 years, and 74.5% were women. The prevalence of persons with FRAIL-NH score greater than 1 was 88.8%, with 54.2% and 34.6% of residents identified as most frail and frail, respectively. The mean FRAIL-NH score was 6.0 ± 3.4. Women (N = 583) were frailer (6.1 ± 3.4) than men (N = 200, 5.5 ± 3.4; P = .027). Overall, 136 residents died over the 1-year follow-up period. The FRAIL-NH score was a predictor of mortality (adjusted hazard ratios: for frail group 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.55‒2.41; for most frail group 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.07‒ 4.27). FRAIL-NH is a predictor of mortality in nursing home residents and the score could assist with guiding appropriate care planning. Copyright © 2018 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saga, Susan; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Mørkved, Siv; Norton, Christine; Seim, Arnfinn
To compare characteristics of both continent and incontinent residents in Nursing Homes (NHs) and to explore what predicts continence and severity of incontinence. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in nursing homes in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire on behalf of the patients. We found that 25.4% of the NH residents were continent, 31.8% had urinary incontinence alone, 2.6% had fecal incontinence alone and 40.2% had double incontinence. Continent residents were characterized by being in short-term care, shorter stay in NH, less cognitive and physical impairment, less Parkinson's disease, stroke, constipation, and less diarrhea and more independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Residents with fecal incontinence alone were characterized by more diarrhea, less cognitive impairment and less dependency in ADL such as feeding and grooming. Residents with urinary incontinence alone were characterized by having some degree of ADL dependency, less diarrhea, and less diabetes. Residents with double incontinence were characterized by being in long-term care, a longer length of stay in NH, cognitive impairment, stroke, constipation, diarrhea, and dependency in ADL. Severity of incontinence was associated with dependency in ADL and cognitive impairment, diarrhea, length of stay in NH and lower age. About 25% of NH residents were continent. Double incontinence and urinary incontinence only were prevalent conditions in NHs, while FI alone was rarer. With the exception of diarrhea as a cause of FI, it appears that FI alone, UI alone, and DI may have common causes and development. © 2014 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sheeran, Thomas; Byers, Amy L; Bruce, Martha L
This study evaluated the association between depression and hospitalization among geriatric home care patients. A sample of 477 patients newly admitted to home care over two years was assessed for depression. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses examined the likelihood of hospitalization during a 60-day home care episode. The hospitalization rate was similar for the 77 depressed patients and 400 nondepressed patients (about 7%). However, mean time to hospitalization was 8.4 versus 19.5 days after start of care, respectively. Hospitalization risk was significantly higher for depressed patients during the first few weeks. A main effect for depression and a depression-by-time interaction was found when analyses controlled for medical comorbidity, cognitive status, age, gender, race, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, and referral to home care after hospitalization. Depression appears to increase short-term risk of hospitalization for geriatric home care patients immediately after starting home care.