WorldWideScience

Sample records for home methamphetamine laboratory

  1. Evidence of methamphetamine exposure in children removed from clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Penny; Bell, Kathy; Stewart, Deborah; Paulson, John; Rogers, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether asymptomatic children removed from clandestine methamphetamine laboratories have evidence of exposure to methamphetamine. Retrospective chart review of children removed from law enforcement-certified clandestine methamphetamine laboratories in the Tulsa area of Oklahoma and Sacramento County, California. Exposure was determined by positive urine toxicology for methamphetamine. One hundred four children were evaluated after removal from clandestine methamphetamine laboratories. Forty-eight children (46%) tested positive for methamphetamine. Timed urine results were known for 68 of 104, with no child testing positive after 6.5 hours from being removed from the laboratory. No child required emergency medical treatment at the time urine samples were obtained. Almost half of the children in this sample had evidence of exposure to methamphetamine soon after removal from methamphetamine manufacturing environments. Further research is indicated to determine the health effects of subclinical methamphetamine exposure.

  2. Remediation of Manufactured Methamphetamine in Clandestine Laboratories. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current literature review was to identify, collect, review, and organize all available information concerning the remediation of methamphetamine found in clandestine laboratories through an analysis of routinely collected data sources. There were numerous peer ...

  3. Methamphetamine: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » Research Reports » Methamphetamine » Glossary Methamphetamine Email Facebook Twitter Glossary Addiction: A chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug ...

  4. Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex, in Treximet), and zolmitriptan (Zomig); omeprazole (Prilosec); phenothiazine medications for mental illness or nausea ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking methamphetamine, call ...

  5. Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... making leading to risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex, which also increases risk for infection. Methamphetamine use ...

  6. Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... of Methamphetamine Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  7. Application of the ionscan for the detection of methamphetamine and ephedrine in abondoned clandestine laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patricia A.; Comparin, Jeffrey H.

    1995-01-01

    Clandestine methamphetamine laboratories are prevalent in southern California. The most common encountered synthesis results in vapor release, and drug residue being left behind. The suspected manufacturing area can be vacuumed and/or methanol wiped and screened immediately at the lab site using the Ionscan. Positive results are confirmed by obtaining vacuum sweep samples with subsequent analysis at the DEA Laboratory. This procedure has been utilized successfully for identifying methamphetamine and ephedrine from clandestine laboratories that have been abandoned and/or remodeled.

  8. Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JUSTICE CONTACT US A-Z INDEX Search for HOME ABOUT Mission History Office Locations Domestic Office Locations Foreign Office Locations Leadership Museum Wall of Honor CAREERS Occupations How to Apply ...

  9. Determinants of cue-elicited craving and physiologic reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael; Price, Kimber L; Simpson, Annie N; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-03-01

    Craving for methamphetamine is commonly reported by heavy users of the drug and may increase the risk of relapse in newly abstinent individuals. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in the laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in some individuals with methamphetamine dependence. In this study, clinical and demographic correlates of methamphetamine craving and the optimal conditions for its measurement in the laboratory are explored. Subjective (craving) and physiologic (heart rate and skin conductance) reactivity to presentation of methamphetamine-associated photo, video, and paraphernalia cues were evaluated in 43 subjects with methamphetamine dependence. Association of cue reactivity with demographic and clinical characteristics including duration, frequency, amount, and recency of methamphetamine use were assessed. Craving was reported by fewer than half of subjects at baseline and by approximately 70% of subjects after methamphetamine cue exposure. Relative to baseline, subjective craving was increased by all three cue modalities to a similar extent. In general, physiological cue reactivity correlated poorly with cue-induced craving. Craving at baseline was strongly predictive of cue-induced craving. Differences in cue-induced craving were not associated with age, sex, education, employment, treatment status, or number of days using methamphetamine in the 60 days prior to study entry. In contrast, the degree of baseline craving was strongly associated with employment status and the number of days using methamphetamine in the past 60 days. Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in the laboratory. Further studies employing the cue reactivity paradigm in methamphetamine dependence are warranted.

  10. Methamphetamine laboratory-related burns in Western Australia--why the explosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tomas B; Rawlins, J M; Rea, S; Wood, F M

    2011-09-01

    With increasing numbers of illicit drug users in both urban and rural communities, users and producers are becoming increasingly enterprising in their sourcing of mind altering drugs. An example of this is the 'amateur' production of methamphetamine in domestic dwellings. We describe the mechanism of burn seen in methamphetamine production, the pattern of clinical injury, and the difficulties in treating these patients. A 12 month retrospective study of five patient groups presenting to our burn service with injuries following methamphetamine laboratory explosion. Out of five patient groups we have treated 9 individual patients (with one patient presenting on two different occasions) with burns following methamphetamine laboratory explosion. All patients were male and required hospital admission. The cause of the explosive injury was initially reported as barbeque or oven related, assault, or accident in all patients. Two patients (in separate events) required intubation for associated inhalation injury. Burn size varied from 1% to 40% BSA. 7 patients required surgical debridement and skin grafting. Injury type was thermal and chemical. All patients had difficult follow-up due to low levels of clinic attendance. Methamphetamine laboratory explosion burns are difficult injuries from the start. Invariably the true circumstances surrounding the injury are not clear, and clinicians should be suspicious of a meth lab explosion in suspect individuals with burns plus airway injury. Patient management is complex and often requires substantial analgesic and anxiolytic medication in conjunction with clinical psychology and psychiatry as an inpatient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. A Vodcasted, Cross-Disciplinary, Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise Investigating the Effects of Methamphetamine on Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Southard, E. Megan; Tarnowski, Laura; Bruster, Matthew; Wingate, Stacia W.; Dalman, Nancy; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory experience utilizing videos to engage students in hypothesis-driven experimentation in behavioral neuroscience. It provides students with an opportunity to investigate the effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on aggression in adult mice using a resident-intruder paradigm. Instructors and students only…

  12. Quantitative analysis of methamphetamine in hair of children removed from clandestine laboratories--evidence of passive exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassindale, T

    2012-06-10

    In New Zealand many children have been removed from clandestine laboratories following Police intervention. In the last few years it has become standard procedure that these children have hair samples taken and these samples are submitted to the laboratory for analysis. There are various mechanisms for the incorporation of drugs into hair. The hair follicle has a rich blood supply, so any drug that may be circulating in the blood can be incorporated into the growing hair. Another mechanism is via external contamination, such as spilling a drug on the hair or through exposure to fumes or vapours. Hair samples were analysed for methamphetamine and amphetamine. From the 52 cases analysed 38 (73%) were positive for methamphetamine (>0.1 ng/mg) and amphetamine was detected in 34 of these cases. In no case was amphetamine detected without methamphetamine. The hair washes (prior to extraction) were also analysed (quantified in 30 of the positive cases) and only 3 had a wash to hair ratio of >0.1 (all were <0.5), which may be indicative of a low level of external contamination. This low level of evidence of external contamination suggests that the children are exposed to methamphetamine and are incorporating it into the hair through the blood stream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team. Methamphetamine (Meth). National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teens website. https://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/methamphetamine-meth. . Accessed press ctrl+c to copy Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ...

  14. Evaluation of the 20% D-methamphetamine requirement for determining illicit use of methamphetamine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francis M; Crumpton, Susan; Mitchell, John; Flegel, Ronald R

    2012-07-01

    In urine drug testing, enantiomer analysis is used to determine whether a positive methamphetamine result could be due to use of an over-the-counter (OTC) nasal inhaler containing L-methamphetamine. D-methamphetamine at more than 20% of the total is considered indicative of a source other than an OTC product. This interpretation is based on a 1991 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Technical Advisory. We performed studies to verify the methamphetamine enantiomer content of current OTC nasal inhalers and to evaluate current laboratory testing capabilities. This study demonstrated that OTC inhalers contain less than 1% D-methamphetamine. A proficiency testing (PT) set for HHS-certified laboratories performing methamphetamine enantiomer testing found D-methamphetamine percentages that were consistently 1 to 3% higher than theoretical due to optical impurity of the derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC). The PT results also demonstrate that laboratories can accurately determine 20% D-methamphetamine in samples with total methamphetamine concentrations down to 250 ng/mL. Based on these studies, the guideline of >20% D-methamphetamine is appropriate for interpreting results obtained using current laboratory methods.

  15. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  16. Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects of Intravenous Methamphetamine during Perindopril Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Human Laboratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verrico, Christopher D.; Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Grasing, Kenneth; Kosten, Thomas R.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our pilot study suggested that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril might reduce some subjective effects produced by i.v. methamphetamine. We characterized the impact of a wider range of perindopril doses on methamphetamine-induced effects in a larger group of non-treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-using volunteers. Methods: Before treatment, participants received 30mg methamphetamine. After 5 to 7 days of perindopril treatment (0, 4, 8, or 16mg/d), participants...

  17. Illicit methamphetamine: analysis, synthesis, and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puder, K S; Kagan, D V; Morgan, J P

    1988-01-01

    Methamphetamine has been marketed illicitly since the 1960s. Much of the street material was illicitly synthesized. Although methamphetamine quality was variable in the past decade, it has emerged since 1978 as the only street stimulant which is likely to contain what it purports to contain. Although there is a small volume of legitimate methamphetamine still made by the pharmaceutical industry, most material analyzed by street-drug laboratories appears to have been illegitimately synthesized and not diverted. For a decade, relatively little methamphetamine was submitted to street-drug analytical labs. In recent years, although the absolute volume of methamphetamine submissions changed little, this drug made up the bulk of alleged stimulant samples submitted to such facilities because of the paucity of amphetamine submissions. Methamphetamine synthesis and use appears to constitute a small but continuing portion of the illicit drug market.

  18. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  19. Imagery Scripts and a Computerized Subtraction Stress Task Both Induce Stress in Methamphetamine Users: A Controlled Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen J. Garrison

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated for methamphetamine (MA dependence have a high rate of relapse, and stress is thought to play a key role. We sought to develop a computerized procedure for experimentally inducing stress in MA users. In a within-subjects design, we compared a computerized subtraction stress task (SST to personalized stress-imagery scripts and a control condition (neutral imagery in 9 former MA users, recruited in San Francisco in 2006–2007. We assessed blood hormone levels, anxiety and craving for MA on visual analog scales, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and made linear mixed-effects models to analyze the results. Both the SST and stress scripts were effective in inducing self-report markers of stress in MA users. Because the SST is easily reproducible and requires less time of staff and participants, it may be a useful alternative for measuring stress reactivity in drug users.

  20. Research Reports: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Methamphetamine » Letter from the Director Methamphetamine Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director The abuse of methamphetamine—a potent and highly addictive stimulant—remains an ...

  1. Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects of Intravenous Methamphetamine during Perindopril Maintenance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Human Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrico, Christopher D; Haile, Colin N; De La Garza, Richard; Grasing, Kenneth; Kosten, Thomas R; Newton, Thomas F

    2016-07-01

    Our pilot study suggested that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril might reduce some subjective effects produced by i.v. methamphetamine. We characterized the impact of a wider range of perindopril doses on methamphetamine-induced effects in a larger group of non-treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-using volunteers. Before treatment, participants received 30mg methamphetamine. After 5 to 7 days of perindopril treatment (0, 4, 8, or 16mg/d), participants received 15 and 30mg of methamphetamine on alternate days. Before and after treatment, participants rated subjective effects and cardiovascular measures were collected. Prior to treatment with perindopril, there were no significant differences between treatment groups on maximum or peak subjective ratings or on peak cardiovascular effects. Following perindopril treatment, there were significant main effects of treatment on peak subjective ratings of "anxious" and "stimulated"; compared to placebo treatment, treatment with 8mg perindopril significantly reduced peak ratings of both anxious (P=.0009) and stimulated (P=.0070). There were no significant posttreatment differences between groups on peak cardiovascular effects. Moderate doses of perindopril (8mg) significantly reduced peak subjective ratings of anxious and stimulated as well as attenuated many other subjective effects produced by methamphetamine, likely by inhibiting angiotensin II synthesis. Angiotensin II is known to facilitate the effects of norepinephrine, which contributes to methamphetamine's subjective effects. The lack of a classic dose-response function likely results from either nonspecific effects of perindopril or from between-group differences that were not accounted for in the current study (i.e., genetic variations and/or caffeine use). The current findings suggest that while angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can reduce some effects produced by methamphetamine, more consistent treatment effects might be achieved by

  2. Dream emotions: a comparison of home dream reports with laboratory early and late REM dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Pilleriin; Revonsuo, Antti; Sandman, Nils; Tuominen, Jarno; Valli, Katja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the emotional content of dream reports collected at home upon morning awakenings with those collected in the laboratory upon early and late rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings. Eighteen adults (11 women, seven men; mean age = 25.89 ± 4.85) wrote down their home dreams every morning immediately upon awakening during a 7-day period. Participants also spent two non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory where they were awoken 5 min into each continuous REM sleep stage, upon which they gave a verbal dream report. The content of a total of 151 home and 120 laboratory dream reports was analysed by two blind judges using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. It was found that: (1) home dream reports were more emotional than laboratory early REM dream reports, but not more emotional than laboratory late REM dream reports; (2) home dream reports contained a higher density of emotions than laboratory (early or late REM) dream reports; and (3) home dream reports were more negative than laboratory dream reports, but differences between home and early REM reports were larger than those between home and late REM reports. The results suggest that differences between home and laboratory dream reports in overall emotionality may be due to the time of night effect. Whether differences in the density of emotions and negative emotionality are due to sleep environment or due to different reporting procedures and time spent in a sleep stage, respectively, remains to be determined in future studies. © The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Developing Biomarkers for Methamphetamine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, John; Baggott, Matthew J.; Flower, Keith; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated 11.7 million methamphetamine (MA) abusers in the United States and epidemics of MA addiction are occurring worldwide. In our human laboratory and outpatient clinical trials we use innovative methods to quantify the severity of MA addiction and test biomarkers that may predict response to therapy or risk of relapse. One potential biomarker of addiction is the quantity of abused drug intake. Qualitative urinalysis is used in clinical trials and during treatment but provid...

  4. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  5. Methamphetamine and Paranoia: The Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Leamon, Martin H.; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E.; Nordahl, Thomas E.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2010-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. METHODS: We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. RESULTS: 45% (123) subjects first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia,...

  6. Desorption of a methamphetamine surrogate from wallboard under remediation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppendieck, Dustin; Morrison, Glenn; Corsi, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Thousands of homes in the United States are found to be contaminated with methamphetamine each year. Buildings used to produce illicit methamphetamine are typically remediated by removing soft furnishings and stained materials, cleaning and sometimes encapsulating surfaces using paint. Methamphetamine that has penetrated into paint films, wood and other permanent materials can be slowly released back into the building air over time, exposing future occupants and re-contaminating furnishings. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of two wallboard remediation techniques for homes contaminated with methamphetamine: 1) enhancing desorption by elevating temperature and relative humidity while ventilating the interior space, and 2) painting over affected wallboard to seal the methamphetamine in place. The emission of a methamphetamine surrogate, N-isopropylbenzylamine (NIBA), from pre-dosed wallboard chambers over 20 days at 32 °C and two values of relative humidity were studied. Emission rates from wallboard after 15 days at 32 °C ranged from 35 to 1400 μg h-1 m-2. Less than 22% of the NIBA was removed from the chambers over three weeks. Results indicate that elevating temperatures during remediation and latex painting of impacted wallboard will not significantly reduce freebase methamphetamine emissions from wallboard. Raising the relative humidity from 27% to 49% increased the emission rates by a factor of 1.4. A steady-state model of a typical home using the emission rates from this study and typical residential building parameters and conditions shows that adult inhalation reference doses for methamphetamine will be reached when approximately 1 g of methamphetamine is present in the wallboard of a house.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  9. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0–0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32–1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001–0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01–0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical

  10. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food

  11. Safety and efficacy of varenicline to reduce positive subjective effects produced by methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrico, Christopher D; Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Bennett, Ryan S; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Methamphetamine use is increasing in the US. Although there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for methamphetamine dependence, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that methamphetamine users may benefit from treatments that enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. Consequently, we determined the safety and the efficacy of varenicline treatment, a partial agonist at α4β2 and a full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to reduce positive subjective effects produced by smoked methamphetamine. Additionally, the effects of treatment with varenicline on the cardiovascular and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine were determined. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial of varenicline vs. placebo in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers who were not seeking treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one dose of varenicline (0, 1, or 2 mg) po BID, titrated up to the target dose over days 1-7, during each of three separate inpatient phases. Safety measures included the frequency, duration, severity, and relatedness of adverse events reported. Positive subjective effects included 'Any drug effect', 'High', 'Good effects', 'Stimulated', and 'Drug liking', which were rated by participants before and for 1 h after smoking methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg). There were no serious adverse events and no differences in adverse events reported during the three phases. Varenicline (2 mg) significantly reduced ratings of 'Any drug effect' and 'Stimulated', as well as attenuated ratings of 'High', 'Drug liking', and 'Good effects', produced by methamphetamine (30 mg). The ability of varenicline to attenuate the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory suggests that varenicline should continue to be explored as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence.

  12. Methamphetamine Use in Club Subcultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C.; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, methamphetamine developed a peculiar geographic distribution in the United States, with limited diffusion in the Northeast. While use within gay clubs received attention, methamphetamine in club subcultures more broadly remains less clear. Using quantitative and qualitative data, we provide a descriptive assessment of methamphetamine use in club subcultures. Methamphetamine use in club subcultures often has instrumental purposes. The context of initiation into methamphetamine use and its close connection to cocaine shape later patterns of use. Viewing meth solely as a gay party drug misses a significant part of the population and may misguide public health strategies to reduce methamphetamine use in the Northeast. PMID:23848380

  13. Methamphetamine detection in maternal and neonatal hair: implications for fetal safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bournissen, F; Rokach, B; Karaskov, T; Koren, G

    2007-09-01

    Methamphetamine misuse is a serious health problem of epidemic proportions. Use of this drug, particularly during pregnancy, is difficult to ascertain. Sparse information is available on gestational exposure. To quantify methamphetamine accumulation in hair, identify the use of methamphetamine with other drugs of abuse and characterise correlations between concentrations of methamphetamine in maternal and neonatal hair. Motherisk laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children routinely carries out analysis of methamphetamine in hair. Mothers and infants with positive results for methamphetamine in hair were identified. Drugs present in hair were analysed by ELISA and positive results were confirmed by gas chromatgraphy/mass spectrometry. 396 people positive for methamphetamine in their hair were identified from our database. Almost 85% of them were positive for at least one other drug of abuse, mostly cocaine. Eleven mother-baby pairs with hair positive for methamphetamine were identified. Methamphetamine levels in hair ranged between 0.13 and 51.97 ng/mg in the mothers and between 0 and 22.73 ng/mg in the neonates. Methamphetamine levels in mothers and neonates correlated significantly. One (9%) neonate was negative for methamphetamine even though the mother was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report on fetal exposure to methamphetamine during pregnancy, showing transplacental transfer of the drug, with accumulation in fetal hair. Hair measurement for methamphetamine in neonates is a useful screening method to detect intra-uterine exposure to the drug. The data also indicate that positive exposure to methamphetamine strongly suggests that the person is a polydrug user, which may have important implications for fetal safety.

  14. Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methamphetamine | Dextroamphetamine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to methamphetamine or dextroamphetamine may increase the risk for birth ...

  15. Methamphetamine intoxication in a dog: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zengyang; Zhang, Xu

    2014-06-24

    Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively commonplace. Because of its increasing illicit availability, together with legitimate use in human medicine, accidental or intentional exposure to methamphetamine in dogs is becoming a more likely scenario. A 3-year-old, 3.7 kg intact female Miniature Poodle who had been intentionally fed an unknown amount of a crystalline-like substance developed extreme agitation, seizures, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), bloody diarrhea, and dilated pupils. Blood work revealed leukocytosis, erythropenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, but all to a mild extent, together with mild elevation in both alanine aminotranferease (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and a mild decreased in glucose. Radiologic diagnosis revealed generalized, severe distension of the stomach and small intestinal tract with air. Immunochromatographic screening tests and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis confirmed methamphetamine intoxication and revealed concentrations of methamphetamine in blood and urine of 0.32 μg/mL and 2.35 μg/mL respectively. The dog demonstrated progressive improvement after supportive care, with the high fever resolved over the initial 24 hours of hospitalization, and agitation was successfully controlled beyond 48 hours after initial hospitalization. Hemostatic abnormalities were progressive improved after heparin therapy and supportive care. By the sixth day of hospitalization the dog was clinically well, and all laboratory data had returned to normal with the exception of a mild elevateion of ALKP. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report of methamphetamine intoxication in dogs presented in veterinary practice in open literature so far. Although rare

  16. The cardiovascular and subjective effects of methamphetamine combined with gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) in non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; Heinzerling, Keith G; Nusinowitz, Steve; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Moody, David E; Newton, Thomas F

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) elevates central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. An open-label clinical trial in humans suggested that GVG may reduce cocaine and methamphetamine use. To test safety and to obtain preliminary data on efficacy of GVG for treating methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of GVG interaction with the cardiovascular and subjective effects produced by methamphetamine. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers received either GVG (N=8) or placebo (N=9) by random assignment. GVG treatment was initiated at 1 g/day and increased to 5 g/day. After reaching the target dose of 5 g/day, participants received methamphetamine (15+30 mg, IV), and cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. No serious adverse events were noted, and the total number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. Considering the full time course and peak effects independently, no significant differences were detected between the groups for systolic or diastolic blood pressures, or heart rate, following methamphetamine exposure. Some methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular changes approached significance (p<0.10) and may warrant attention in future trials. Methamphetamine-induced subjective effects ("any drug effect", "high", "crave methamphetamine") were statistically similar between GVG and placebo treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GVG treatment did not alter methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels, and there was no association between methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels and peak cardiovascular effects. Taken together, the data indicate that GVG treatment is generally well tolerated but not efficacious in attenuating the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory.

  17. Boundary Conditions of Methamphetamine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B.; Onyemekwu, Chukwudi; Hart, Carl L.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Kober, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased significantly and become a global health concern. Craving is known to predict methamphetamine use and relapse following abstinence. Some have suggested that cravings are automatic, generalized, and uncontrollable, but experimental work addressing these claims is lacking. In two exploratory studies we tested the boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving by asking: (1) is craving specific to users’ preferred route of administration? and (2) can craving be regulated by cognitive strategies? Two groups of methamphetamine users were recruited. In Study 1, participants were grouped by their preferred route of administration (intranasal vs. smoking), and rated their craving in response to photographs and movies depicting methamphetamine use (via the intranasal vs. smoking route). In Study 2, methamphetamine smokers implemented cognitive regulation strategies while viewing photographs depicting methamphetamine smoking. Strategies involved either focusing on the positive aspects of smoking methamphetamine or the negative consequences of doing so – the latter strategy based on treatment protocols for addiction. In Study 1, we found a significant interaction between group and route of administration, such that participants who preferred to smoke methamphetamine reported significantly stronger craving for smoking stimuli, whereas those who preferred the intranasal route reported stronger craving for intranasal stimuli. In Study 2, participants reported significantly lower craving when focusing on the negative consequences associated with methamphetamine use. Taken together, these findings suggest that strength of craving for methamphetamine is moderated by users’ route of administration and can be reduced by cognitive strategies. This has important theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications. PMID:26302338

  18. Home-Based Versus Laboratory-Based Robotic Ankle Training for Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Randomized Comparative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wu, Yi-Ning; Ren, Yupeng; Liu, Lin; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Tankard, Kelly; Lee, Julia; Song, Weiqun; Wang, Maobin; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    To examine the outcomes of home-based robot-guided therapy and compare it to laboratory-based robot-guided therapy for the treatment of impaired ankles in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized comparative trial design comparing a home-based training group and a laboratory-based training group. Home versus laboratory within a research hospital. Children (N=41) with cerebral palsy who were at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, II, or III were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Children in home-based and laboratory-based groups were 8.7±2.8 (n=23) and 10.7±6.0 (n=18) years old, respectively. Six-week combined passive stretching and active movement intervention of impaired ankle in a laboratory or home environment using a portable rehabilitation robot. Active dorsiflexion range of motion (as the primary outcome), mobility (6-minute walk test and timed Up and Go test), balance (Pediatric Balance Scale), Selective Motor Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for spasticity, passive range of motion (PROM), strength, and joint stiffness. Significant improvements were found for the home-based group in all biomechanical outcome measures except for PROM and all clinical outcome measures except the MAS. The laboratory-based group also showed significant improvements in all the biomechanical outcome measures and all clinical outcome measures except the MAS. There were no significant differences in the outcome measures between the 2 groups. These findings suggest that the translation of repetitive, goal-directed, biofeedback training through motivating games from the laboratory to the home environment is feasible. The benefits of home-based robot-guided therapy were similar to those of laboratory-based robot-guided therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior of laboratory dogs before and after rehoming in private homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Dorothea; Nick, Ophelia; Bauer, Alexander; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Erhard, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Although the rehoming of laboratory dogs has gained popularity, a scientific evaluation of the process is lacking. The behavior of 145 laboratory beagles was tested before leaving a research facility (Test 1). The new owners were then surveyed using a standardized telephone interview 1 week (n = 143) and 12 weeks (n = 126) after adoption. The behavior test was repeated with 68 dogs in their new homes 6 weeks after adoption (Test 2). The predictive power of Test 1 or Interview 1 on Test 2 or Interview 2, respectively, as well as the relevance of various factors was analyzed. We found no significant differences between Tests 1 and 2 regarding the behavior reactions. However, body language scores and heart rates changed significantly, indicating a more relaxed state of the dogs in their new homes. The interviews revealed a significant change toward desired behavior in most dogs within the 11 week period (p dogs returned the animals, resulting in a rehoming success rate of 94%. Test 1 revealed a significant age effect (p = 0.0066), with younger and older dogs reaching higher scores than dogs who were approximately 2 years old. Dogs that had been born and reared in the research facility scored higher than dogs that had originally been acquired from a commercial breeder (p = 0.0257). The predictive power of Test 1 on Test 2 or Interview 1 on Interview 2 was moderate to low, respectively. Altogether, rehoming of laboratory dogs is a valuable alternative to euthanasia.

  20. The Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects of Methamphetamine Combined with γ-vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) in Non-Treatment Seeking Methamphetamine-dependent Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Nusinowitz, Steve; London, Edythe D.; Shoptaw, Steven; Moody, David E.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) elevates central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. An open-label clinical trial in humans suggested that GVG may reduce cocaine and methamphetamine use. To test safety and to obtain preliminary data on efficacy of GVG for treating methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study of GVG interaction with the cardiovascular and subjective effects produced by methamphetamine. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers received either GVG (N=8) or placebo (N=9) by random assignment. GVG treatment was initiated at 1 g/day and increased to 5 g/day. After reaching the target dose of 5 g/day, participants received methamphetamine (15 + 30 mg, IV), and cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. No serious adverse events were noted, and the total number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. Considering the full time-course and peak effects independently, no significant differences were detected between the groups for systolic or diastolic blood pressures, or heart rate following methamphetamine exposure. Some methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular changes approached significance (p<0.10) and may warrant attention in future trials. Methamphetamine-induced subjective effects (“any drug effect”, “high”, “crave methamphetamine” were statistically similar between GVG and placebo treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GVG treatment did not alter methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels, and there was no association between methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels and peak cardiovascular effects. Taken together, the data indicate that GVG treatment is generally well tolerated but not efficacious in attenuating the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory. PMID:19698734

  1. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  2. Methamphetamine and paranoia: the methamphetamine experience questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamon, Martin H; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E; Nordahl, Thomas E; Kranzler, Henry R; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-01-01

    Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. Of the total subjects, 45% (123) first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = .77, p paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) paranoid ideation scale (rho = .27, p paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = .14, p = .07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-14).

  3. Neuroimmune Basis of Methamphetamine Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Jennifer M.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Although it is not known which antigen-specific immune responses (or if antigen-specific immune responses) are relevant or required for methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects, it is apparent that methamphetamine exposure is associated with significant effects on adaptive and innate immunity. Alterations in lymphocyte activity and number, changes in cytokine signaling, impairments in phagocytic functions, and glial activation and gliosis have all been reported. These drug-induced changes in immune response, particularly within the CNS, are now thought to play a critical role in the addiction process for methamphetamine dependence as well as for other substance use disorders. In Section 2, methamphetamine's effects on glial cell (e.g., microglia and astrocytes) activity and inflammatory signaling cascades are summarized, including how alterations in immune cell function can induce the neurotoxic and addictive effects of methamphetamine. Section 2 also describes neurotransmitter involvement in the modulation of methamphetamine's inflammatory effects. Section 3 discusses the very recent use of pharmacological and genetic animal models which have helped elucidate the behavioral effects of methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects and the role of the immune system. Section 4 is focused on the effects of methamphetamine on blood–brain barrier integrity and associated immune consequences. Clinical considerations such as the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV and/or HCV on brain structure and function are included in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, immune-based treatment strategies are reviewed, with a focus on vaccine development, neuroimmune therapies, and other anti-inflammatory approaches. PMID:25175865

  4. Methamphetamine psychosis: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Mooney, Larissa J

    2014-12-01

    Psychotic symptoms and syndromes are frequently experienced among individuals who use methamphetamine, with recent estimates of up to approximately 40 % of users affected. Although transient in a large proportion of users, acute symptoms can include agitation, violence, and delusions, and may require management in an inpatient psychiatric or other crisis intervention setting. In a subset of individuals, psychosis can recur and persist and may be difficult to distinguish from a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Differential diagnosis of primary vs. substance-induced psychotic disorders among methamphetamine users is challenging; nevertheless, with careful assessment of the temporal relationship of symptoms to methamphetamine use, aided by state-of-the art psychodiagnostic assessment instruments and use of objective indicators of recent substance use (i.e., urine toxicology assays), coupled with collateral clinical data gathered from the family or others close to the individual, diagnostic accuracy can be optimized and the individual can be appropriately matched to a plan of treatment. The pharmacological treatment of acute methamphetamine-induced psychosis may include the use of antipsychotic medications as well as benzodiazepines, although symptoms may resolve without pharmacological treatment if the user is able to achieve a period of abstinence from methamphetamine. Importantly, psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine dependence has a strong evidence base and is the optimal first-line treatment approach to reducing rates of psychosis among individuals who use methamphetamines. Prevention of methamphetamine relapse is the most direct means of preventing recurrence of psychotic symptoms and syndromes. Long-term management of individuals presenting with recurrent and persistent psychosis, even in the absence of methamphetamine use, may include both behavioral treatment to prevent resumption of methamphetamine use and pharmacological treatment

  5. Comparison of home sleep apnea testing versus laboratory polysomnography for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzitti, Nicholas; Hansen, Shana; Maturo, Stephen; Lospinoso, Joshua; O'Connor, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 1-5% of pediatric patients. Laboratory polysomnography is expensive, not always available, and is inconvenient for patients. Our study investigates the diagnostic ability of an unattended ambulatory monitor for the diagnosis of pediatric OSA. A prospective study was conducted in children, ages 2-17. Subjects completed in-lab polysomnography simultaneously with ambulatory monitoring. Caregivers attempted home studies on two subsequent nights to compare the home monitor and the laboratory polysomnogram (PSG). Thirty-three subjects completed simultaneous laboratory polysomnogram with portable monitoring. Twenty patients completed home studies, with 16 completing 2 nights of monitoring. The measurement of AHI by the portable monitor was different than that obtained by the PSG with statistical significance for the comparisons of PSG vs. In-Lab (p = 0.0026), PSG vs. Home 1 (p = 0.033), and PSG vs. Home 2 (p = 0.033). The sensitivity of the portable monitor for diagnosing OSA was best for the In-lab use at 81%, but only 69% and 70% for the uses at home on the 2 nights respectively. Interestingly, the comparison of AHI and lowest oxygen saturation measurements from the home sleep test in children age 6 and older did not differ significantly from the PSG. This pilot study demonstrated differences between home sleep testing and in-lab polysomnography for the diagnosis of pediatric sleep apnea. These differences were predominantly found to exist in younger children. Larger prospective studies are needed prior to widespread use, but home studies may alleviate issues of access to care and higher costs of laboratory polysomnography. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Buck

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine use among adolescents is a significant social and public health concern. Despite increased awareness of methamphetamine use among younger people, relatively little research has examined the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use compared to adult use. Thus much remains to be learned about how methamphetamine alters adolescent brain function and behavior. In this article we review recent trends in adolescent methamphetamine use and data examining the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use on the dopaminergic system and behavior in humans and animal models. Future research is warranted to expand our understanding of the effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure and how those effects differ from those seen in adults.

  7. Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertson, T. E.; Derlet, R W; Van Hoozen, B E

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.

  8. Methamphetamine Related Radiculopathy: Case Series and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Foroughipour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral nervous injury and neuromuscular complications from methamphetamine abuse has not been reported. The mechanism is not yet identified. Methods: Eight patients with lower extremity weakness following methamphetamine abuse were reported during December 2009 to May 2010. Results: Patients presented with lower extremity weakness. All patients were co-abusers of methamphetamine and opioids. Other clinical manifestations comprised of distal paresthesia of the lower extremities with progression to proximal portions, with minimal sensory involvement in the distal of the lower extremities. Electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with lumbosacral Radiculopathy. Vital signs were unremarkable and all laboratory tests were within normal limits. Follow-up examination after three months showed improvement of weakness in 3 patients. Conclusion: For patients with a history of illicit drug abuse and acute neuromuscular weakness, methamphetamine or heroin toxicity should be taken into account. Hence, urine morphine and amphetamine/ methamphetamine tests should be performed and serum lead and thallium levels should be evaluated. In addition, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria should be worked up.

  9. Developing biomarkers for methamphetamine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, John; Baggott, Matthew J; Flower, Keith; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-03-01

    There are an estimated 11.7 million methamphetamine (MA) abusers in the United States and epidemics of MA addiction are occurring worldwide. In our human laboratory and outpatient clinical trials we use innovative methods to quantify the severity of MA addiction and test biomarkers that may predict response to therapy or risk of relapse. One potential biomarker of addiction is the quantity of abused drug intake. Qualitative urinalysis is used in clinical trials and during treatment but provides only a binary outcome measure of abuse. Using non-pharmacologic doses of deuterium labeled l-MA we have developed a continuous quantitative measure to estimate the bioavailable amount of MA addicts ingest. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a neurotrophin that encourages growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. Low BDNF levels are seen in many addictive disorders and BDNF is elevated in recovering MA addicts, suggesting BDNF may be a marker of MA addiction. We are investigating the effects of controlled doses of MA on BDNF levels and gene regulation and measuring BDNF in our clinical trials. We believe both patients and clinical researches will benefit from the addition of new, objective and quantifiable outcome measures that reflect disease severity and recovery from addiction.

  10. New Approaches to the Methamphetamine Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Zusman, Mara B.

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse has become an epidemic in the United States. As methamphetamine becomes increasingly available, more and more people are trying – and becoming addicted to – this potent drug. But although methamphetamine is made using over-the-counter (OTC) drugs containing pseudoephedrine, shifting OTC drugs containing pseudoephedrine to prescription status is not the solution to the methamphetamine crisis. Rather, society must adopt a comprehensive...

  11. Psychomotor effect differences between l-methamphetamine and d-methamphetamine are independent of murine plasma and brain pharmacokinetics profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Tetsuya; Takahata, Kazue; Kosugi, Yuri; Tanabe, Takaaki; Muraoka, Shizuko

    2017-01-01

    l-Methamphetamine has been occasionally referred to as a stimulant similar to d-methamphetamine, probably owing to insufficient comparative studies. Here, we directly compared psychomotor efficacies and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine enantiomers in mice. Only d-methamphetamine, but not l-methamphetamine, induced stereotypy and sensitization at 1?10?mg/kg. However, plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of 10?mg/kg l-methamphetamine were ?tenfold those of 1?mg/kg d-methamphetamine. These resul...

  12. Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fiery feminist piece that argues that Indian women are all homeless; animals have homes but Indian women have none, because they have to depend on the mercy of their "keepers"; therefore, Indian women live a life worse than animals.

  13. Recommendations for the housing of cats in the home, in catteries and animal shelters, in laboratories and in veterinary surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlitz, I

    1999-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in applied ethology and animal welfare, and an increase in the popularity of the domestic cat. This has stimulated research on the behaviour and welfare of cats kept in different environments. This article presents a review of the recent research and makes recommendations for the housing of domestic cats in the home, in catteries and animal shelters, in laboratories and in veterinary surgeries. Copyright 1999 W.B. Saunders Company Ltd.

  14. Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use.

  15. Hair drug testing of children suspected of exposure to the manufacture of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farst, Karen; Reading Meyer, J A; Mac Bird, T; James, Laura; Robbins, James M

    2011-04-01

    This study compares hair color and age in children tested for methamphetamine by hair analysis due to suspicion of exposure to the manufacture of methamphetamine by their caregivers. A retrospective analysis evaluated differences in hair drug testing results of 107 children less than 12 years of age tested due to clinical suspicion of having been exposed to the manufacture of methamphetamine. Results (confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy) were compared for differences in likelihood of testing positive in relation to the subject's age and having light or dark colored hair and reported with crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Of 107 children, 103 had a sufficient hair specimen for analysis. A third (36%) of the study population was less than 3 years of age. Almost half (45%) of the children tested positive for methamphetamine. 15% of the total study population tested positive for methamphetamine in combination with amphetamine indicating some degree of systemic exposure. No children were positive for amphetamine without also being positive for methamphetamine. Children less than 3 years of age were more likely to test positive. Positive hair drug tests for the combination of methamphetamine and amphetamine occurred in children with both light and dark colored hair. Children living in homes where methamphetamine is being manufactured can have drug identified in their hair regardless of hair color. This testing can aid in illuminating the child's presence in an at-risk environment and a family in need of services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hr/day) or extended (6 or 9 hr/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1–0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (5 pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5–1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage), or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards. PMID:25582886

  17. Persistent palatable food preference in rats with a history of limited and extended access to methamphetamine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Zeric, Tamara; Thorndike, Eric B; Venniro, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and palatable foods, most rats prefer the non-drug rewards over cocaine. Here, we used a discrete choice procedure to assess whether palatable food preference generalizes to rats with a history of limited (3 hours/day) or extended (6 or 9 hours/day) access to methamphetamine self-administration. On different daily sessions, we trained rats to lever-press for either methamphetamine (0.1-0.2 mg/kg/infusion) or palatable food (five pellets per reward delivery) for several weeks; regular food was freely available. We then assessed food-methamphetamine preference either during training, after priming methamphetamine injections (0.5-1.0 mg/kg), following a satiety manipulation (palatable food exposure in the home cage) or after 21 days of withdrawal from methamphetamine. We also assessed progressive ratio responding for palatable food and methamphetamine. We found that independent of the daily drug access conditions and the withdrawal period, the rats strongly preferred the palatable food over methamphetamine, even when they were given free access to the palatable food in the home cage. Intake of methamphetamine and progressive ratio responding for the drug, both of which increased or escalated over time, did not predict preference in the discrete choice test. Results demonstrate that most rats strongly prefer palatable food pellets over intravenous methamphetamine, confirming previous studies using discrete choice procedures with intravenous cocaine. Results also demonstrate that escalation of drug self-administration, a popular model of compulsive drug use, is not associated with a cardinal feature of human addiction of reduced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Immunoassay cross-reactivity of phenylephrine and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Lindsay B; Cawley, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Phenylephrine, an α(1) -adrenergic agonist, and methamphetamine, a prescription drug and substance of abuse, have similar chemical structures and thus have the potential to cross-react in qualitative screening tools such as a urine drug screening (UDS) performed by immunoassay. This cross-reactivity may yield a false-positive result that may affect the provision of care in certain patient populations and clinical situations. We describe a 36-year-old woman with confirmed brain death after a short hospital stay who had an initial UDS that was negative for methamphetamine. The patient was assessed for potential organ donation, which included obtaining a follow-up UDS. A urine sample was obtained after being hospitalized for 36 hours, which tested positive for methamphetamine, with no suspected ingestion of the target substance. Confirmatory laboratory testing indicated that intravenous phenylephrine and its metabolites were the likely cause of the false-positive UDS. However, the patient was not deemed to be a suitable candidate for organ donation, but clear documentation of the reason for denial of organ donation was not available in the patient's medical record. To our knowledge, this is the first case published in the English-language literature that describes the clinical occurrence of apparent immunoassay cross-reactivity of methamphetamine and phenylephrine that resulted in a false-positive UDS for methamphetamine. In addition, this report describes the potential implications of this situation on clinical care, including organ donation acceptance. Toxicology screening in the emergency department and intensive care unit is a tool to assist in the diagnosis of medical conditions, but it may not always be reliable. Therefore, positive immunoassay results that may change the management of a patient's condition should be quickly verified with confirmatory testing to minimize unfavorable consequences. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Accumulation of gas-phase methamphetamine on clothing, toy fabrics, and skin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G; Shakila, N V; Parker, K

    2015-08-01

    To better understand methamphetamine exposure and risk for occupants of former residential clandestine methamphetamine laboratories, we measured the dynamic accumulation of methamphetamine in skin oil, cotton and polyester (PE) clothing, upholstery, and toy fabric (substrates) exposed to 15-30 ppb (91-183 μg/m(3)) neutral methamphetamine in air for up to 60 days. The average equilibrium partition coefficients at 30% RH, in units of μg of methamphetamine per gram of substrate per ppb, are 3.0 ± 0.2 for a PE baby blanket, 5.6 ± 3.5 for a PE fabric toy, 3.7 ± 0.2 for a PE shirt, 18.3 ± 8.0 for a PE/cotton upholstery fabric, and 1200 ± 570 in skin oil. The partition coefficients at 60% RH are 4.5 ± 0.4, 5.2 ± 2.1, 4.5 ± 0.6, 36.1 ± 3.6, and 1600 ± 1100 μg/(g ppb), respectively. There was no difference in the partition coefficient for a clean and skin-oil-soiled cotton shirt [15.3 ± 2.1 μg/(g ppb) @ 42 days]. Partition coefficients for skin oil may be sensitive to composition. 'Mouthing' of cloth is predicted to be the dominant exposure pathway [60 μg/(kg body weight*ppb)] for a toddler in former meth lab, and indoor air concentrations would have to be very low (0.001 ppb) to meet the recommended reference dose for children. Gas-phase methamphetamine transfers to and accumulates on clothing, toys and other fabrics significantly increases risk of ingestion of methamphetamine. Current remediation methods should consider measurement of postremediation gas-phase air concentrations of methamphetamine in addition to surface wipe samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationship between discriminative stimulus effects and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine levels of intramuscular methamphetamine in male rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Smith, Douglas A.; Kisor, David F.; Poklis, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphet...

  1. Effects of Environmental Manipulations and Treatment with Bupropion and Risperidone on Choice between Methamphetamine and Food in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Blough, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds:...

  2. Home-based vs. laboratory-based practical activities in the learning of human physiology: the perception of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur S; Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2017-03-01

    Different tools have been used to facilitate the teaching and learning process in different areas of knowledge. Practical activities represent a form of teaching in which students not only listen to theoretical concepts but are also able to link theory and practice, and their importance in the biological sciences is notable. Sometimes, however, there is neither the time nor the resources to promote laboratory practices in physiology classes. In this sense, home-based practical activities may be an interesting alternative. Here, different approaches of practical activities were used and students' perceptions of the contributions of home-based practical activities (HBPA) and laboratory-based practical activities (LBPA) for physiology learning were collected. After each approach, the students evaluated the activities through an anonymous questionnaire. A total of 49 students completed the questionnaires, and the results demonstrate that both HBPA and LBPA were considered important contributors to physiology learning but that this contribution was more significant in the case of LBPA (χ2 = 4.356, P = 0.037). Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methamphetamine and MDMA: ‘Safe’ drugs of abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana M. Krolikowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine and MDMA have been called safe drugs of abuse. Worldwide there is an increased consumption of these drugs, which has become a focus of research in South Africa. As the number of methamphetamine users has increased in many African countries, it is essential that emergency care practitioners are able to diagnose and manage intoxication with methamphetamine, MDMA, and other derivatives. The most common presentations include restlessness, agitation, hypertension, tachycardia, and headache while hyperthermia, hyponatraemia, and rhabdomyolysis are among the most common serious complications. Most deaths are secondary to hyperthermia complicated by multiple organ failure. A number of laboratory analyses should be obtained if locally available. We provide a review of the current recommended general and specific management approaches. Benzodiazepines are the first line therapy for hyperthermia, agitation, critical hypertension, and seizures. Patients with serious complications are best managed in an intensive care unit if available. Emergency centres should create protocols and/or further train staff in the recognition and management of intoxication with these ‘not so safe’ drugs.

  5. Susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Association between this polymorphism and dependency to methamphetamine was investigated. Subjects ... The H allele seems positively associated with the risk of dependency to methamphetamine among females, but the observed OR did not reach the significance level, ...

  6. Need for Methamphetamine Programming in Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreault, Amy R.; Miller, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported sought to identify the prevention education needs involving methamphetamine through survey methodology. The study focused on a random sample of U.S. states and the Extension Directors within each state, resulting in a 70% response rate (n = 134). Findings revealed that 11% reported they had received methamphetamine user…

  7. Developmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal methamphetamine exposure: A review of the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M; Diaz, Sabrina; LaGasse, Linda L; Wouldes, Trecia; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the findings from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study, a multisite, longitudinal, prospective study designed to determine maternal outcome and child growth and developmental findings following prenatal methamphetamine exposure from birth up to age 7.5 years. These findings are presented in the context of the home environment and caregiver characteristics to determine how the drug and the environment interact to affect the outcome of these children. No neonatal abstinence syndrome requiring pharmacologic intervention was observed but heavy drug exposure was associated with increased stress responses in the neonatal period. Poorer inhibitory control was also observed in heavy methamphetamine exposed children placing them at high risk for impaired executive function. Independent of methamphetamine exposure, children with more responsive home environments to developmental and emotional needs demonstrated lower risks for internalizing and externalizing behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methamphetamine initiation among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Nadine; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    This study describes factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in a racially diverse sample of 340 methamphetamine-using, HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. A factor analysis was conducted on reasons for initiation, and four factors were identified: to party, to cope, for energy, and to improve self-esteem. Methamphetamine to party accounted for more than one-third of the variance in the factor analysis. Methamphetamine to cope captured almost 9% of the variance, methamphetamine for ...

  9. alpha-Benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis: pharmacological evaluation and interaction with methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Lichtman, A H; Poklis, A; Borzelleca, J F

    1995-08-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse, readily synthesized in clandestine laboratories. Illicitly obtained methamphetamine is frequently impure, containing various purposefully added diluents and adulterants, as well as impurities of manufacture and origin. Few impurities have been studied in vivo and limited information exists concerning their pharmacology/toxicology. One such impurity of manufacture is alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA). Acute toxicity and spontaneous activity (locomotor) studies were conducted with this compound alone and in combination with S(+)-methamphetamine (METH) in male, ICR mice. In the acute toxicity studies, BNMPA was evaluated for convulsant activity. While BNMPA also produced some behavioral disturbances similar to those seen with methamphetamine (e.g., stereotopy) at doses greater than 30 mg/kg, no tonic-clonic convulsions were noted until pre-terminal convulsion at 50 mg/kg. METH alone produced tonic-clonic convulsions at terminal doses of 70 mg/kg. When BNMPA was given in combination with METH, there was no readily apparent change in the convulsion profile from that of METH given alone. In spontaneous activity studies, doses of BNMPA ranging from 1 mg/kg to 50mg/kg failed to alter locomotor activity significantly from controls though 5 mg/kg METH alone significantly increased spontaneous activity. In addition, increases in spontaneous activity elicited by 5 mg/kg METH were not affected when METH was given with 5 mg/kg BNMPA. While BNMPA appears to have toxic effects in the central nervous system (CNS), the failure to affect locomotor activity or alter either METH-induced increases in spontaneous activity or METH-induced convulsions suggests that the two agents are producing their effects through distinct mechanisms.

  10. The efficacy of unsupervised home?based exercise regimens in comparison to supervised laboratory?based exercise training upon cardio?respiratory health facets

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, James; Atherton, Philip J.; Smith, Kenneth; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P.; Lund, Jonathan N.; Phillips, Bethan E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Supervised high?intensity interval training (HIIT) can rapidly improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the effectiveness of time?efficient unsupervised home?based interventions is unknown. Eighteen volunteers completed either: laboratory?HIIT (L?HIIT); home?HIIT (H?HIIT) or home?isometric hand?grip training (H?IHGT). CRF improved significantly in L?HIIT and H?HIIT groups, with blood pressure improvements in the H?IHGT group only. H?HIIT offers a practical, time?efficient ex...

  11. Enantioselective degradation of amphetamine-like environmental micropollutants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and MDA) in urban water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sian E; Bagnall, John; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to understand enantioselective transformation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) and MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. In order to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the processes occurring, stereoselective transformation of amphetamine-like compounds was studied, for the first time, in controlled laboratory experiments: receiving water and activated sludge simulating microcosm systems. The results demonstrated that stereoselective degradation, via microbial metabolic processes favouring S-(+)-enantiomer, occurred in all studied amphetamine-based compounds in activated sludge simulating microcosms. R-(-)-enantiomers were not degraded (or their degradation was limited) which proves their more recalcitrant nature. Out of all four amphetamine-like compounds studied, amphetamine was the most susceptible to biodegradation. It was followed by MDMA and methamphetamine. Photochemical processes facilitated degradation of MDMA and methamphetamine but they were not, as expected, stereoselective. Preferential biodegradation of S-(+)-methamphetamine led to the formation of S-(+)-amphetamine. Racemic MDMA was stereoselectively biodegraded by activated sludge which led to its enrichment with R-(-)-enantiomer and formation of S-(+)-MDA. Interestingly, there was only mild stereoselectivity observed during MDMA degradation in rivers. This might be due to different microbial communities utilised during activated sludge treatment and those present in the environment. Kinetic studies confirmed the recalcitrant nature of MDMA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Famprofazone as the source of methamphetamine and amphetamine in urine specimen collected during sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying Lung; Lin, Chien-Tzong; Wang, Sheng-Meng; Liu, Ray H

    2007-03-01

    During a sport competition event in Taiwan, one urine specimen was found positive for both methamphetamine (2688 ng/mL) and amphetamine (462 ng/mL). The specimen donor claimed that she had taken Gewolen (a nonprescription drug manufactured in Taiwan) for treating abdominal pain and the medication was presented. Laboratory investigation confirmed that Gewolen contains famprofazone, which is known to metabolize to methamphetamine and amphetamine and is included in the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Study on the excretion profiles of three volunteers ingesting 50 mg famprofazone produced the following patterns similar to that observed in the case specimen: (a) the ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine was approximately 6 to 1; (b) d- and l-enantiomers of both methamphetamine and amphetamine were present, while the amount of l-methamphetamine was 3-4-fold greater than its counterpart. The data suggested that famprofazone (as the ingredient of Gewolen) was likely the source of the prohibited drugs found in the case specimen.

  13. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  14. Resolution of x-ray parabolic compound refractive diamond lens defined at the home laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, S. N.; Zholudev, S. I.; Gasilov, S. V.; Martyushov, S. Yu.; Denisov, V. N.; Terentiev, S. A.; Blank, V. D.

    2017-05-01

    Here we demonstrate performance of an original lab system designed for testing of X-ray parabolic compound refractive lenses (CRL) manufactured from a high-quality single-crystalline synthetic diamond grown by the high-pressure hightemperature technique. The basic parameters of a diamond CRL comprised from 28 plano-concave lenses such as the focal length of 634 mm, transmissivity of 0.36, field of view of 1 mm and resolution of 6 µm have been determined. Usually such measurements are performed on synchrotron radiation facilities. In this work characterization of CRL was performed by means of instruments and components that are available for laboratories such as the Rigaku 9kW rotating anode X-ray generator, the PANalytical parallel beam X-ray mirror, a 6 m long optical bench, high precision multi-axis goniometers, high resolution X-ray emulsion films, and ultra-fast high-sensitive X-ray area detector PIXel3D. Developed setup was used to find differences between experimental and design parameters, which is very important for the improvement of CRLs manufacturing technology.

  15. The efficacy of unsupervised home-based exercise regimens in comparison to supervised laboratory-based exercise training upon cardio-respiratory health facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, James; Atherton, Philip J; Smith, Kenneth; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P; Lund, Jonathan N; Phillips, Bethan E

    2017-09-01

    Supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can rapidly improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the effectiveness of time-efficient unsupervised home-based interventions is unknown. Eighteen volunteers completed either: laboratory-HIIT (L-HIIT); home-HIIT (H-HIIT) or home-isometric hand-grip training (H-IHGT). CRF improved significantly in L-HIIT and H-HIIT groups, with blood pressure improvements in the H-IHGT group only. H-HIIT offers a practical, time-efficient exercise mode to improve CRF, away from the laboratory environment. H-IHGT potentially provides a viable alternative to modify blood pressure in those unable to participate in whole-body exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Surgical Intervention for Penile Methamphetamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant and is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis. Methamphetamine use for sexual pleasure is well documented. In this case report, we describe two cases presenting to our urban county hospital associated with complications related to penile injection of methamphetamine. Both patients developed penile abscesses and required urgent surgical incision and drainage. Penile abscesses represent a rare complication associated with IV drug administration into the penile corpora. Resultant penile abscesses require broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage. Further understanding of methamphetamine abuse along with the role it plays in sexual enhancement would be an invaluable addition to understanding of the rationale behind this self-administered stimulant. Drainage of penile abscesses associated with IV drug users may be hazardous to healthcare providers who are at risk from a needle stick injury.

  17. Methamphetamine psychosis, the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rezaei Ardani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide growing methamphetamine abuse is one of the most serious health problems with several different consequences for victims, especially in developing countries. Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with several psychiatric problems in all countries which are faced to epidemic methamphetamine abuse. Methamphetamine-induced psychosis is a major medical challenge for clinical practitioner from both diagnostic and therapeutic viewpoints. Stimulant psychosis commonly occurs in people who abuse stimulants, but it also occurs in some patients taking therapeutic doses of stimulant drugs under medical supervision. The main characteristic of meth psychosis is the presence of prominent hallucinations and delusions. Other drugs, such as cocaine and marijuana, can trigger the onset of psychosis in someone who is already at increased risk because they have “vulnerability”.The current literature review attends to explain several aspects of MIP epidemiologically and clinically. Investigators proposed pharmacologically treatment based on recently published data.

  18. One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and Methylone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarde, Shawn M.; Miller, Michelle L.; Creehan, Kevin M.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise influences drug craving and consumption in humans and drug self-administration in laboratory animals, but the effects can be variable. Improved understanding of how exercise affects drug intake or craving would enhance applications of exercise programs to human drug users attempting cessation. Methods Rats were trained in the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.05 mg/kg/inf), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 0.5 mg/kg/inf) or methylone (0.5 mg/kg/inf). Once IVSA was established, the effect of ~22 hrs of wheel access in the home cage on subsequent drug taking was assessed in a two cohort crossover design. Results Provision of home cage wheel access during the day prior to IVSA sessions significantly decreased the self-administration of METH, MDMA and methylone. At the individual level, there was no correlation between the amount a rat used the wheel and the size of the individual’s decrease in drug intake. Conclusions Wheel access can reduce self-administration of a variety of psychomotor stimulants. It does so immediately, i.e., without a need for weeks of exercise prior to drug access. This study therefore indicates that future mechanistic investigations should focus on acute effects of exercise. In sum, the results predict that exercise programs can be used to decrease stimulant drug use in individuals even with no exercise history and an established drug taking pattern. PMID:25863714

  19. Methamphetamine. Stimulant of the 1990s?

    OpenAIRE

    Derlet, R W; Heischober, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the past several years, the use of a smokable form of methamphetamine hydrochloride called "ice" has increased rapidly. The heaviest use has occurred on the West Coast and in Hawaii. Many regional emergency departments treat more methamphetamine users than cocaine-intoxicated patients. The ease of synthesis from inexpensive and readily available chemicals makes possible the rampant abuse of a dangerous drug that can produce a euphoria similar to that induced by cocaine. Clinicians shou...

  20. Methamphetamine abuse and ?meth mouth? in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Carolis, Carlo; Boyd, Geraldine A.; Mancinelli, Luca; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    With easy chemical synthesis from its precursor, methamphetamine (MA) is now widespread in many countries. The abuse of methamphetamine is associated with several negative effects on health, because MA is a neurotoxin and a dangerous central nervous system stimulant. It changes levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, releasing dopamine and inhibiting nor epinephrine uptake which increases sympathetic nervous system activity and can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension and tachypnea. The...

  1. The Effectiveness of Hands-on Health Informatics Skills Exercises in the Multidisciplinary Smart Home Healthcare and Health Informatics Training Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapci, A H; Sapci, H A

    2017-10-01

     This article aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of newly established innovative smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories, and a novel laboratory course that focuses on experiential health informatics training, and determine students' self-confidence to operate wireless home health monitoring devices before and after the hands-on laboratory course.  Two web-based pretraining and posttraining questionnaires were sent to 64 students who received hands-on training with wireless remote patient monitoring devices in smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories.  All 64 students completed the pretraining survey (100% response rate), and 49 students completed the posttraining survey (76% response rate). The quantitative data analysis showed that 95% of students had an interest in taking more hands-on laboratory courses. Sixty-seven percent of students had no prior experience with medical image, physiological data acquisition, storage, and transmission protocols. After the hands-on training session, 75.51% of students expressed improved confidence about training patients to measure blood pressure monitor using wireless devices. Ninety percent of students preferred to use a similar experiential approach in their future learning experience. Additionally, the qualitative data analysis demonstrated that students were expecting to have more courses with hands-on exercises and integration of technology-enabled delivery and patient monitoring concepts into the curriculum.  This study demonstrated that the multidisciplinary smart home healthcare and health informatics training laboratories and the hands-on exercises improved students' technology adoption rates and their self-confidence in using wireless patient monitoring devices. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. The risk and associated factors of methamphetamine psychosis in methamphetamine-dependent patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Said, Mas Ayu; Habil, Mohd Hussain; Rashid, Rusdi; Siddiq, Amer; Guan, Ng Chong; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Das, Srijit

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk of lifetime and current methamphetamine-induced psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The association between psychiatric co-morbidity and methamphetamine-induced psychosis was also studied. This was a cross-sectional study conducted concurrently at a teaching hospital and a drug rehabilitation center in Malaysia. Patients with the diagnosis of methamphetamine based on DSM-IV were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) for methamphetamine-induced psychosis and other Axis I psychiatric disorders. The information on sociodemographic background and drug use history was obtained from interview or medical records. Of 292 subjects, 47.9% of the subjects had a past history of psychotic symptoms and 13.0% of the patients were having current psychotic symptoms. Co-morbid major depressive disorder (OR=7.18, 95 CI=2.612-19.708), bipolar disorder (OR=13.807, 95 CI=5.194-36.706), antisocial personality disorder (OR=12.619, 95 CI=6.702-23.759) and heavy methamphetamine uses were significantly associated with lifetime methamphetamine-induced psychosis after adjusted for other factors. Major depressive disorder (OR=2.870, CI=1.154-7.142) and antisocial personality disorder (OR=3.299, 95 CI=1.375-7.914) were the only factors associated with current psychosis. There was a high risk of psychosis in patients with methamphetamine dependence. It was associated with co-morbid affective disorder, antisocial personality, and heavy methamphetamine use. It is recommended that all cases of methamphetamine dependence should be screened for psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep inertia associated with a 10-min nap before the commute home following a night shift: A laboratory simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Van Dongen, Hans P; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Night shift workers are at risk of road accidents due to sleepiness on the commute home. A brief nap at the end of the night shift, before the commute, may serve as a sleepiness countermeasure. However, there is potential for sleep inertia, i.e. transient impairment immediately after awakening from the nap. We investigated whether sleep inertia diminishes the effectiveness of napping as a sleepiness countermeasure before a simulated commute after a simulated night shift. N=21 healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 12 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a baseline night, subjects were kept awake for 27h for a simulated night shift. They were randomised to either receive a 10-min nap ending at 04:00 plus a 10-min pre-drive nap ending at 07:10 (10-NAP) or total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP). A 40-min York highway driving task was performed at 07:15 to simulate the commute. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue) were administered at 06:30 (pre-nap), 07:12 (post-nap), and 07:55 (post-drive). In the 10-NAP condition, total pre-drive nap sleep time was 9.1±1.2min (mean±SD), with 1.3±1.9min spent in slow wave sleep, as determined polysomnographically. There was no difference between conditions in PVT-B performance at 06:30 (before the nap). In the 10-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse after the nap (07:12) compared to before the nap (06:30); no change across time was found in the NO-NAP condition. There was no significant difference between conditions in PVT-B performance after the drive. SP-Fatigue and driving performance did not differ significantly between conditions. In conclusion, the pre-drive nap showed objective, but not subjective, evidence of sleep inertia immediately after awakening. The 10-min nap did not affect driving performance during the simulated commute home, and was not effective as a sleepiness countermeasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of blood lead level in methamphetamine users in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Shadnia, Shahin; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Ali; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. Methods This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of...

  5. Evaluation of a mobile clinical pathology laboratory developed for the home care of pediatric patients following transplantation of peripheral blood precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Fabio; Agazzi, Alessia; Manfredini, Luca; Dallorso, Sandro; Melioli, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    A mobile clinical pathology laboratory (MoLab) was designed, outfitted and evaluated to improve the turnaround time (TAT) of laboratory tests performed in patients who receive follow-up care at home. Full blood counts (FBCs), basic clinical biochemistry tests on blood and urine, and basic coagulation and blood gases were measured using bench-top laboratory analyzers to perform point-of-care tests in a mobile setting. The quality of the results was evaluated on the instruments both while the vehicle was at rest and following movement during the course of routine activity. The equivalence of the values produced by the point-of-care testing (POCT) and central laboratory (CL) measurement procedures was demonstrated and remained stable after movement in city traffic. The TATs ranged from a few minutes for FBCs to home care patients in a matter of minutes. This approach not only allowed for real-time modifications in therapy but also reduced the number of second visits by the home care medical team. Point-of-care tests performed on the MoLab were significantly more expensive than the same tests performed in the CL. However, the savings in patient hospitalization expenses and the reduced costs resulting from fewer second daily visits completely offset the costs of using the MoLab during the first 6-month pilot phase.

  6. Resolution of methamphetamine stereoisomers in urine drug testing: urinary excretion of R(-)-methamphetamine following use of nasal inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R L; Ramos, J M; Bogema, S C; Poklis, A

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether R(-)-methamphetamine inhaled from nasal inhalers produces positive methamphetamine results in currently used urine drug screening procedures and to present a rapid method for distinguishing the optical isomers of methamphetamine. Urine from three subjects inhaling from a Vicks Nasal Inhaler every 20 min for six hours tested positive for methamphetamine by EMIT, Toxilab, TDx, and GC/MS. The chiral derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC) was used to form methamphetamine diastereomers allowing rapid identification of each stereoisomer of methamphetamine present in the urine samples. Urine samples positive for amphetamines during routine drug screening were determined to consist of a racemic mixture of methamphetamine. The isomeric composition of methamphetamine present in a urine sample indicates the probable source of the drug.

  7. Quantitative and isomeric determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine from urine using a nonprotic elution solvent and R(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid chloride derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Bosy, Thomas Z; Jacobs, Aaron

    2005-10-01

    Forensic Urine Drug Testing Laboratories often requires two confirmatory methods for a methamphetamine positive screen. First, methamphetamine is identified and quantitated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. If the total methamphetamine concentration is above the administrative cutoff level, the isomeric composition must be determined. This eliminates a possible contribution by over-the-counter cold medications that contain l-methamphetamine (Vick's inhalers). Products that contain only the l-isomer of methamphetamine must be distinguishable from prescription or illicitly manufactured methamphetamine, which consists mainly of the d-isomer. Optically impure derivatizing reagents will produce an impure mixture from a pure isomeric compound. Therefore, methods utilizing impure reagents can prove problematic when interpreting results. Use of an optically pure chiral derivatizing reagent, such as R(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid chloride, allows for the creation and measurement of chromatographically separable isomeric compounds. The novel method described here utilizes a polymer-based solid-phase column adapted to a positive pressure manifold extraction system and a one-step derivatization process that occurs directly in the elution solvent. This methodology eliminates an elution solvent dry-down step that may adversely affect recovery of volatile amphetamine compounds. Although the method was designed for the quantitative analysis of the isomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine, it can be adapted for use with a wide range of phenethylamines including methylenedioxyamphetamine, N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and possibly N-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine. The linear range for quantitation was 25-10,000 ng/mL for d,l-methamphetamine and d,l-amphetamine, and correlation coefficients were 0.997 or better. The coefficient of variation for all four analytes did not exceed 2.8%. Concentrations analyzed ranged from 500 to 4000 ng/mL (n=40

  8. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  10. Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Russell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed.

  11. Meth math: modeling temperature responses to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Zaretsky, Dmitry V

    2014-04-15

    Methamphetamine (Meth) can evoke extreme hyperthermia, which correlates with neurotoxicity and death in laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this study was to uncover the mechanisms of a complex dose dependence of temperature responses to Meth by mathematical modeling of the neuronal circuitry. On the basis of previous studies, we composed an artificial neural network with the core comprising three sequentially connected nodes: excitatory, medullary, and sympathetic preganglionic neuronal (SPN). Meth directly stimulated the excitatory node, an inhibitory drive targeted the medullary node, and, in high doses, an additional excitatory drive affected the SPN node. All model parameters (weights of connections, sensitivities, and time constants) were subject to fitting experimental time series of temperature responses to 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg Meth. Modeling suggested that the temperature response to the lowest dose of Meth, which caused an immediate and short hyperthermia, involves neuronal excitation at a supramedullary level. The delay in response after the intermediate doses of Meth is a result of neuronal inhibition at the medullary level. Finally, the rapid and robust increase in body temperature induced by the highest dose of Meth involves activation of high-dose excitatory drive. The impairment in the inhibitory mechanism can provoke a life-threatening temperature rise and makes it a plausible cause of fatal hyperthermia in Meth users. We expect that studying putative neuronal sites of Meth action and the neuromediators involved in a detailed model of this system may lead to more effective strategies for prevention and treatment of hyperthermia induced by amphetamine-like stimulants.

  12. Modafinil for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Biswas, Kousick; McSherry, Frances; Holmes, Tyson; Iturriaga, Erin; Kahn, Roberta; Chiang, Nora; Beresford, Thomas; Campbell, Jan; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Rawson, Richard; Stock, Christopher; Weis, Dennis; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Modafinil was tested for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent participants, compared to placebo. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. Eight outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics participated in the study. There were 210 treatment-seekers randomized, who all had a DSM-IV diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence; 68 participants to placebo, 72 to modafinil 200mg, and 70 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants came to the clinic three times per week for assessments, urine drug screens, and group psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a methamphetamine non-use week, which required all the week's qualitative urine drug screens to be negative for methamphetamine. Results Regression analysis showed no significant difference between either modafinil group (200 or 400mg) and placebo in change in weekly percentage having a methamphetamine non-use week over the 12-week treatment period (p=0.53). Similarly, a number of secondary outcomes did not show significant effects of modafinil. However, an ad-hoc analysis of medication compliance, by urinalysis for modafinil and its metabolite, did find a significant difference in maximum duration of abstinence (23 days vs. 10 days, p=0.003), between those having the top quartile of compliance (>85% urines modafinil +, N=36), and the lower three quartiles of modafinil 200 and 400mg groups (N=106). Conclusions Although these data suggest that modafinil, plus group behavioral therapy, was not effective for decreasing methamphetamine use, the study is probably inconclusive because of inadequate compliance with taking medication. PMID:21840138

  13. Modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ann L; Li, Shou-Hua; Biswas, Kousick; McSherry, Frances; Holmes, Tyson; Iturriaga, Erin; Kahn, Roberta; Chiang, Nora; Beresford, Thomas; Campbell, Jan; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Rawson, Richard; Stock, Christopher; Weis, Dennis; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Modafinil was tested for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent participants, compared to placebo. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. Eight outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics participated in the study. There were 210 treatment-seekers randomized, who all had a DSM-IV diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence; 68 participants to placebo, 72 to modafinil 200mg, and 70 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants came to the clinic three times per week for assessments, urine drug screens, and group psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a methamphetamine non-use week, which required all the week's qualitative urine drug screens to be negative for methamphetamine. Regression analysis showed no significant difference between either modafinil group (200 or 400mg) or placebo in change in weekly percentage having a methamphetamine non-use week over the 12-week treatment period (p=0.53). Similarly, a number of secondary outcomes did not show significant effects of modafinil. However, an ad-hoc analysis of medication compliance, by urinalysis for modafinil and its metabolite, did find a significant difference in maximum duration of abstinence (23 days vs. 10 days, p=0.003), between those having the top quartile of compliance (>85% of urines were positive for modafinil, N=36), and the lower three quartiles of modafinil 200 and 400mg groups (N=106). Although these data suggest that modafinil, plus group behavioral therapy, was not effective for decreasing methamphetamine use, the study is probably inconclusive because of inadequate compliance with taking medication. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  15. Designing and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Visual Cue-Induced Craving Assessment Task for Methamphetamine Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C TIntroduction: Craving to methamphetamine is a significant health concern and exposure to methamphetamine cues in laboratory can induce craving. In this study, a task designing procedure for evaluating methamphetamine cue-induced craving in laboratory conditions is examined. Methods: First a series of visual cues which could induce craving was identified by 5 discussion sessions between expert clinicians and 10 methamphetamine smokers. Cues were categorized in 4 main clusters and photos were taken for each cue in studio, then 60 most evocative photos were selected and 10 neutral photos were added. In this phase, 50 subjects with methamphetamine dependence, had exposure to cues and rated craving intensity induced by the 72 cues (60 active evocative photos + 10 neutral photos on self report Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0-100. In this way, 50 photos with high levels of evocative potency (CICT 50 and 10 photos with the most evocative potency (CICT 10 were obtained and subsequently, the task was designed. Results: The task reliability (internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha which was 91% for (CICT 50 and 71% for (CICT 10. The most craving induced was reported for category Drug use procedure (66.27±30.32 and least report for category Cues associated with drug use (31.38±32.96. Difference in cue-induced craving in (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 were not associated with age, education, income, marital status, employment and sexual activity in the past 30 days prior to study entry. Family living condition was marginally correlated with higher scores in (CICT 50. Age of onset for (opioids, cocaine and methamphetamine was negatively correlated with (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 and age of first opiate use was negatively correlated with (CICT 50. Discussion: Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured by tasks designed in laboratory and designed assessment tasks can be used in cue reactivity paradigm, and

  16. Effects of Circadian Disruption on Methamphetamine Consumption in Methamphetamine-Exposed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Susan E.; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n=16) was given two weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01% in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n=16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a two week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to 4 consecutive 6-hr advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Results Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed vs. not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. Conclusions These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption, and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction. PMID:25543849

  17. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing. The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Ninety-one children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA, and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine, and hair were 6.9%, 22.1%, and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n = 5), and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP, and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children.

  18. Decline in adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. The purpose of this report is to describe the changing trends in adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine in Cape Town, and to discuss possible implications. Method. Data were collected on admissions for drug abuse treatment through a regular monitoring system involving drug ...

  19. Monitoring the prevalence of methamphetamine-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Staff in six psychiatric hospitals or wards in Cape Town collected data on methamphetamine related admissions between July and December .... sent to/or collected by the Medical Research Council staff. Data analysis. Data was analysed using the .... intervention/services and due to high staff turnover and rotation.

  20. Susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khyber Saify

    2015-09-26

    Sep 26, 2015 ... Susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence associated with high transcriptional activity alleles of VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Khyber Saify, Mostafa Saadat*. Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran. Received ...

  1. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  2. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therefore, Dr. Jentsch says, to answer this question, future studies should track primate brains through longer abstinence. “Methamphetamine ... Tracks Reward's Value and Steps to Obtain It Study shows e-cigarettes affect brain similarly to other nicotine sources ... PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft PowerPoint ...

  3. Monitoring the prevalence of methamphetamine-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to determine a demographic profile of methamphetamine (MA)-related admissions to major psychiatric services in Cape Town, obtain a substance use profile from admitted patients, a profile of common MA-related symptoms encountered during the assessment of the patients presenting with ...

  4. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structure; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Pratt, A.; Lunacek, M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, H.; Jones, W.

    2015-06-15

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is not well understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load. used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load.

  5. A cluster of trace-concentration methamphetamine identifications in racehorses associated with a methamphetamine-contaminated horse trailer: A report and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Kimberly; Shults, Theodore F; Machin, Jacob; Kudrimoti, Sucheta; Eisenberg, Rodney L; Hartman, Petra; Wang, Caroline; Fenger, Clara; Beaumier, Pierre; Tobin, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Three low concentration methamphetamine "positive" tests were linked to use of a methamphetamine-contaminated trailer to transport the affected horses. This incident establishes methamphetamine as a human-use substance that can inadvertently enter the environment of racing horses, resulting in urinary methamphetamine "positives;" an interim regulatory cut-off of 15 ng/mL for methamphetamine in post-race urine is proposed.

  6. The detection of a metabolite of alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine synthesis in a mixed drug fatality involving methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Daniel, J S; Fierro, M; Mozayani, A; Poklis, A

    1996-05-01

    A 37-year-old, white male collapsed at his home following a party. He reportedly had a history of unspecified cardiac arrhythmia. The ambulance crew found him unresponsive and an ECG revealed ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. Following one hour of resuscitative efforts in the ambulance and emergency room of a local hospital, he was pronounced dead. An antemortem urine toxicology screen performed at the hospital was "positive" for benzodiazepines, cocaine and amphetamine/methamphetamine. At autopsy, there was generalized organ congestion with no evidence of trauma or other significant pathology except mild, left ventricular hypertrophy. Quantitation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of methamphetamine in bile, blood, urine and gastric contents yielded 21.7, 0.7, 32.0 and 2.9 mg/L, respectively. Liver and brain contained 2.2 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively. A trace amount of p-OH-alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (p-OH-BNMPA), a metabolite of alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis, was also detected in the urine. Since these impurities can be characteristic of a particular synthetic method, their presence in seized samples or their detection in biological samples from methamphetamine users can further be used to monitor the sales of precursor chemicals, group seized compounds to common sources of illicit production or provide links between manufacturers, dealers and users.

  7. Involvement of PUMA in pericyte migration induced by methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Yuan; Bai, Ying; Chao, Jie; Hu, Gang; Chen, Xufeng; Yao, Honghong

    2017-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier damage, with emphasis on endothelial cells. The role of pericytes in methamphetamine-induced BBB damage remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that methamphetamine increased the migration of pericytes from the endothelial basement membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. The results showed that exposure of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs to methamphetamine increased PUMA expression via activation of the sigma-1 receptor, MAPK and Akt/PI3K pathways. Moreover, methamphetamine treatment resulted in the increased migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. Knockdown of PUMA in pericytes transduced with PUMA siRNA attenuated the methamphetamine-induced increase in cell migration through attenuation of integrin and tyrosine kinase mechanisms, implicating a role of PUMA in the migration of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs. This study has demonstrated that methamphetamine-mediated pericytes migration involves PUMA up-regulation. Thus, targeted studies of PUMA could provide insights to facilitate the development of a potential therapeutic approach for alleviation of methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impaired arterial smooth muscle cell vasodilatory function in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabaei, Ghaemeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2016-11-15

    Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD) independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD) CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84). Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age...... increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine...

  10. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.

    2005-01-01

    increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine...... the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results have...

  11. Methamphetamine and amphetamine derived from the metabolism of selegiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, R W; Needleman, S B; Snyder, J J; Greedan, A

    1995-11-01

    Routine methamphetamine testing identified a urine specimen with inconsistent screening and confirmation results. The methamphetamine RIA screening test (Diagnostic Products Corporation) indicated a borderline positive specimen, while the achiral confirmatory GC/MS result showed 4690 ng/mL of methamphetamine and 1895 ng/mL of amphetamine. Analysis of the specimen after derivatization with S(-)-N-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride showed only the presence of 1-amphetamine and 1-methamphetamine. It was later learned that the individual providing the specimen had been taking Selegiline. Selegiline, (-) propynylmethamphetamine, is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is sold under the trade name Eldepryl. Its major metabolites are 1-methamphetamine, 1-amphetamine and N-desmethylselegiline. Urine specimens from other Selegiline users were obtained and analyzed. A characteristic metabolic pattern was noted, exemplified by a ratio of 1-methamphetamine to 1-amphetamine of about 2.8. This is in contrast to what is observed in the urine of individuals who ingest pure 1-methamphetamine, such as with Vicks Inhaler, where the 1-methamphetamine to 1-amphetamine ratio in the urine is usually greater than 8. Caution is advised when interpreting methamphetamine results without using a chiral identification technique.

  12. Chirality of methamphetamine and amphetamine from workplace urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B J

    1994-01-01

    Several positive methamphetamine/amphetamine urine samples were reexamined to determine the chirality of the detected drug or drugs. (S)-N-(Trifluoroacetyl)prolyl derivatives were prepared and analyzed using GC/MS. In one case, pure d-isomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine were detected. In the remainder of the samples involving both drugs, skewed racemates were detected, with the l-isomer of methamphetamine and the d-isomer of amphetamine predominating slightly over their enantiomers. In samples involving amphetamine only, 50:50 mixtures of d- and l-isomers were detected. In no instance was pure i-methamphetamine (from a Vicks inhaler) detected.

  13. Impaired Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Vasodilatory Function In Methamphetamine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaemeh Nabaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84. Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. Conclusion: According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users.

  14. Determination of chronic methamphetamine abuse by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Yamamoto, I; Kusakabe, T; Huang, X; Yukawa, N; Takeichi, S

    2000-07-24

    A 30-year-old male truck driver, known to be asthmatic, was found dead at the roadside lying near his car. A nebulizer bottle of Berotec (fenoterol hydrobromide) was found near his hand. The anatomic cause of death was suspected to be asthma. Toxicological screening of urine using Triage demonstrated the presence of methamphetamine. The blood concentration of methamphetamine was 0.4 microg/ml, and fenoterol was not detected. Hair analysis clearly indicated chronic methamphetamine abuse and medium dependency during the 2 months before death. We conclude that death might have been induced by the interaction of fenoterol and methamphetamine.

  15. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J

    2014-11-01

    Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150 mg twice daily (n = 41) or placebo (n = 43) and out-patient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end-of-treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post-hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12 of 41) and placebo (14%, six of 43; P = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, seven of 13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, five of 28; P = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Bupropion may be efficacious for reducing methamphetamine in people with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use, but the evidence remains inconclusive. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Review: Methamphetamine use by pregnant women: Impact on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)'s 2011 World Drug Report, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the second most widely used illicit drug group. This drug group comprises methamphetamine, amphetamine and ecstasy. Methamphetamine is the most widely manufactured drug in this ...

  17. A Qualitative Exploration of Trajectories among Suburban Users of Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Harbry, Liam; Gibson, David

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of methamphetamine use among suburban users. We know very little about the mechanisms of initiation and trajectory patterns of methamphetamine use among this under-researched and hidden population. This study employed qualitative methods to examine the drug career of suburban…

  18. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  19. Novel biomarkers of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in human meconium

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Teresa R.; Kelly, Tamsin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Derauf, Chris; Haning, William; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Strauss, Arthur; Lester, Barry M.; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.

    2009-01-01

    Meconium analysis can detect fetal exposure to drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. Methamphetamine and amphetamine have previously been observed in meconium of methamphetamine-exposed neonates; the presence of other metabolites has not been investigated. Detection of such analytes may lead to more sensitive identification and, thus improved medical treatment of affected infants.

  20. Fetal Meconium Peritonitis Associated with Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jui Yang

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: Since methamphetamine is a powerful α-adrenergic stimulant and induces the release of catecholamines from adrenergic synapses, it can cause powerful vessel constriction. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine can cause disruption of mesenteric blood flow with transmural necrosis of the bowel, resulting in bowel perforation and meconium peritonitis.

  1. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The consistency of the findings across studies highlights the increased risk for contracting HIV among methamphetamine users, and reinforces the importance of interventions addressing both methamphetamine use and unsafe sexual behaviour among young people and other sectors of the population.

  2. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  3. Assessment of therapeutic potential of amantadine in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Ahuja, Manuj; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine epidemic has a broad impact on world's health care system. Its abusive potential and neurotoxic effects remain a challenge for the anti-addiction therapies. In addition to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, excitotoxicity is also involved in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor is thought to be one of the predominant mediators of excitotoxicity. There is growing evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists could be one of the therapeutic options to manage excitotoxicity. Amantadine, a well-tolerated and modestly effective antiparkinsonian agent, was found to possess NMDA antagonistic properties and has shown to release dopamine from the nerve terminals. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of amantadine pre-treatment against methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity. Results showed that methamphetamine treatment had depleted striatal dopamine, generated of reactive oxygen species and decreased activity of complex I in the mitochondria. Interestingly, amantadine, at high dose (10 mg/kg), did not prevent dopamine depletion moreover it exacerbated the behavioral manifestations of methamphetamine toxicity such as akinesia and catalepsy. Only lower dose of amantadine (1 mg/kg) produced significant scavenging of the reactive oxygen species induced by methamphetamine. Overall results from the present study suggest that amantadine should not be used concomitantly with methamphetamine as it may results in excessive neurotoxicity.

  4. Oral Fluid with Three Modes of Collection and Plasma Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Enantiomer Concentrations After Controlled Intranasal l-Methamphetamine Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ronald; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programs due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices a...

  5. Children Who Are Pressured to Eat at Home Consume Fewer High-Fat Foods in Laboratory Test Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, HEEWON; KELLER, KATHLEEN L.

    2012-01-01

    Parents use greater pressure to eat with children who weigh less, but the impact of this practice is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association between parental reports of eating pressure and children’s actual intake across four identical ad libitum meals. Sixty-eight ethnically diverse, 4- to 6-year-old children from New York, NY, participated in this study from 2005 to 2007. Eating pressure was measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and converted to body mass index z scores. Meals consisted of macaroni and cheese, string beans, carrots, grapes, graham crackers, cheese sticks, milk, pudding, and a sugar-sweetened beverage. Multiple regressions were performed to determine the extent to which pressure to eat predicted food intake after adjusting for BMI z score and child weight concern. Pressure to eat was negatively associated with child BMI z score (r=−0.37; Ppressure was negatively associated with intake of macaroni and cheese (β =−.26; Ppressure to eat is associated with lower intake of some high-fat foods in the laboratory, where no pressure is applied. PMID:22732461

  6. Determination of l-methamphetamine: a case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F; Cody, John T

    2005-10-01

    Methamphetamine was detected in a 77-year-old male who had a history of congestive heart failure. Using a modification of a previously reported method, trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl chloride was used to derivatize sympathomimetic amines to allow separation and identification of individual enantiomers. The l-enantiomer of methamphetamine and a trace amount of l-amphetamine were found in blood and urine specimens from this case. Further investigation revealed the decedent had bronchial asthma and regularly used a Vicks Inhaler, which contains l-methamphetamine as the active ingredient.

  7. Recurrent corneal ulcerations associated with smokeable methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, R S; Williams, J M; Goldberg, M A; Lubniewski, A J

    1996-05-01

    We studied a case of chronic, recurrent, bilateral, corneal ulcerations associated with smokeable methamphetamine abuse, commonly known as "ice," in an otherwise healthy 31-year-old woman. Every few months the patient had recurrent corneal ulcerations. Each time, she was hospitalized and treated successfully with topical antibiotics. Even though she had undergone numerous formal attempts at drug rehabilitation, she continued to have relapses, and ulceration recurred only during periods of smokeable methamphetamine abuse. Illicit use of smokeable methamphetamine may result in corneal ulceration.

  8. Evaluation of modafinil effects on cardiovascular, subjective, and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; London, Edythe D; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-01-15

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant and long-term exposure leads to reductions in dopamine. One therapeutic strategy is to develop and test compounds that normalize dopamine. The primary aim of this study was to determine the safety of modafinil treatment during methamphetamine exposure in a controlled clinical setting. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers (N=13), who were not seeking treatment, were randomized to receive either modafinil (200mg, PO) or matching placebo over three days (Days 1-3 or Days 8-10). On Day 1, subjects were randomized to modafinil or placebo in the morning, and then 3 and 6h later received infusions of methamphetamine (0 and 30 mg, i.v.), after which cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. On Day 3, participants completed i.v. self-administration sessions during which they made 10 choices for low doses of methamphetamine (3mg, i.v.) or saline. Days 4-7 were used as a washout period. On Day 8 participants were assigned to the alternate study medication (placebo or modafinil), and the same testing procedures were repeated through Day 10. The data reveal that modafinil treatment was well-tolerated and not associated with increased incidence of adverse events. In general, modafinil reduced by approximately 25% ratings of methamphetamine-induced "Any Drug Effect", "High", and "Want Methamphetamine", and reduced total number of choices for methamphetamine and monetary value of methamphetamine, though none of these measures reached statistical significance. Given these encouraging, though non-significant trends, the primary conclusion is that it appears safe to proceed with modafinil in further clinical evaluations of therapeutic efficacy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of multivitamin supplementation on mood and general well-being in healthy young adults. A laboratory and at-home mobile phone assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipingas, A; Camfield, D A; Stough, C; Cox, K H M; Fogg, E; Tiplady, B; Sarris, J; White, D J; Sali, A; Wetherell, M A; Scholey, A B

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that multivitamin (MV) supplementation may be associated with beneficial effects for mood and general well-being, although treatment durations have typically been less than 90 days, samples have often been restricted to males only and acute effects have not been adequately differentiated from chronic effects. In the current study a MV supplement containing high levels of B-vitamins was administered daily to 138 healthy young adult participants between the ages of 20 and 50 years over a 16-week period. Chronic mood measures (GHQ-28, POMS, Chalder fatigue, PILL, Bond-Lader and custom visual analogue scales) were administered pre-dose at baseline, 8- and 16-weeks. Changes in Bond-Lader and VAS in response to a multi-tasking framework (MTF) were also assessed at 8- and 16-weeks. For a subset of participants, at-home mobile-phone assessments of mood were assessed on a weekly basis using Bond-Lader and VAS. No significant treatment effects were found for any chronic laboratory mood measures. In response to the MTF, a significant treatment x time interaction was found for STAI-S, with a trend towards a greater increase in stress ratings for male participants in the MV group at 16 weeks. However, this finding may have been attributable to a larger proportion of students in the male MV group. In contrast, at-home mobile-phone assessments, where assessments were conducted post-dose, revealed significantly reduced stress, physical fatigue and anxiety in the MV group in comparison to placebo across a number of time points. Further research using both acute and chronic dosing regimens are required in order to properly differentiate these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and modafinil challenge on sleep rebound after paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep loss is both common and critically relevant to our society and might lead to the abuse of psychostimulants such as amphetamines, cocaine and modafinil. Since psychoactive substance abuse often occurs within a scenario of sleep deficit, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the sleep patterns of rats challenged with cocaine (7 mg/kg, ip, methamphetamine (7 mg/kg, ip, or modafinil (100 mg/kg, ip subsequent to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD for 96 h. Our results show that, immediately after 96 h of PSD, rats (10 per group that were injected with a psychostimulant presented lower percentages of paradoxical sleep compared to those injected with saline (P < 0.01. Regarding slow wave sleep (SWS, rats injected with psychostimulants after PSD presented a late rebound (on the second night subsequent to the injection in the percentage of this phase of sleep when compared to PSD rats injected with saline (P < 0.05. In addition, the current study has produced evidence of the characteristic effect of each drug on sleep architecture. Home cage control rats injected with modafinil and methamphetamine showed a reduction in SWS compared with the saline group. Methamphetamine affected sleep patterns most, since it significantly reduced paradoxical sleep, SWS and sleep efficiency before and after PSD compared to control (P < 0.05. Cocaine was the psychostimulant causing the least changes in sleep pattern in relation to those observed after saline injection. Therefore, our results suggest that abuse of these psychostimulants in a PSD paradigm aggravates their impact on sleep patterns.

  11. Driving on ice: impaired driving skills in current methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, David; Macdougall, Hamish G; Rogers, Stephen J; Starmer, Graham A; McKetin, Rebecca; Blaszczynski, Alexander; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates a complex link between methamphetamine (METH) and driving performance. Acute dosing with amphetamines has improved driving-related performance in some laboratory studies, while epidemiological studies suggest an association between METH use, impaired driving, and accident culpability. Current METH users were compared to a control group of nonusers on driving simulator performance. Groups were matched for age, gender, and driving experience. Subjects were assessed for current drug use, drug dependence, and drug levels in saliva/blood as well as personality variables, sleepiness, and driving performance. METH users, most of whom met the criteria for METH dependence, were significantly more likely to speed and to weave from side to side when driving. They also left less distance between their vehicle and oncoming vehicles when making a right-hand turn. This risky driving was not associated with current blood levels of METH or its principal metabolite, amphetamine, which varied widely within the METH group. Other drugs were detected (principally low levels of THC or MDMA) in some METH users, but at levels that were unlikely to impair driving performance. There were higher levels of impulsivity and antisocial personality disorder in the METH-using cohort. These findings confirm indications from epidemiological studies of an association between METH use and impaired driving ability and provide a platform for future research to further explore the factors contributing to increased accident risk in this population.

  12. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age......- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  13. Prior Methamphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates the Dopaminergic Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2015-01-01

    Others and we have reported that prior methamphetamine (METH) exposure attenuates the persistent striatal dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent high-dose “binge” METH exposure. The current study investigated intermediate neurochemical changes that may contribute to, or serve to predict, this resistance. Rats self-administered METH or saline for 7 d. On the following day (specifically, 16 h after the conclusion of the final METH self-administration session), rats received a binge exposu...

  14. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C.; Walters, Elliot T.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Gibb, James W.; Alburges, Mario E.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2011-01-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent (i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40) rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a “challenge” high-dose METH regimen when administered ...

  15. Effect of incident nocturnal home hemodialysis versus incident continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis on employment rate, clinical, and laboratory outcomes: A 1-year retrospective observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, John Wing; Wong, Joseph Ho Sing; Chak, Wai Leung; Chau, Ka Foon

    2017-10-18

    While studies demonstrated favorable outcomes of nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD), direct comparison on employment rate, clinical and laboratory outcomes between the NHHD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) had not been previously performed. A 1-year retrospective observation study was performed in 20 incidents alternate night NHHD and 81 incident CAPD patients of Chinese ethnicity, who were sex, diabetic status, and Charlson comorbidity index matched, but not age due to our center's age limit for NHHD enrollment. The primary outcome was the difference in employment rate at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included differences in clinical parameters (weight, blood pressure, number of antihypertensive medication, dosage of phosphate binders, and erythropoietin stimulating agent) and laboratory parameters (residual renal function, mineral metabolic markers, hemoglobin). NHHD subjects were 5 years younger than CAPD patients, and they had higher employment rate (80% vs. 33.3%, P < 0.01) at 1 year, with age-adjusted odds ratio for employment was 6.10 (95% confidence interval 1.77-20.99, P = 0.04). They consumed less aluminum-based phosphate binder (0 vs. 1800 mg, P < 0.01), but showed no significant disparities in other clinical parameters. Residual renal function in both groups declined comparably, nonetheless NHHD group had lower serum phosphate (1.37 vs. 1.71 mmol/L, P = 0.01) and calcium phosphate product (3.13 vs. 4.12 mmol(2) /L(2) , P < 0.01), with similar hemoglobin levels. NHHD appeared to offer higher employment rate, lower dosage of aluminum-based phosphate binder and mineral metabolic markers at 1 year compared with CAPD in Hong Kong. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. The Impact of Age, HIV Serostatus and Seroconversion on Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Cattie, Jordan; Morgan, Erin; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing methamphetamine use in relation to age, HIV serostatus and seroconversion is pertinent given the increasingly older age of the population with HIV and the intertwined epidemics of methamphetamine use and HIV. Objectives Study aims were to investigate whether 1) methamphetamine use differs by age and HIV serostatus and 2) receiving an HIV diagnosis impacts methamphetamine use among younger and older persons with HIV. Methods This study examined methamphetamine use characteristics among 217 individuals with a lifetime methamphetamine dependence diagnosis who completed an in-person study assessment. Results Multivariable regressions revealed that HIV serostatus uniquely attenuates methamphetamine use, such that persons with HIV report a smaller cumulative quantity (β = −.16, p = .01) and a fewer number of days (β = −.18, p = .004) of methamphetamine use than persons without HIV. Among the HIV+ sample, all participants persisted in methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis, with about 20% initiating use after seroconversion. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that density of methamphetamine use (i.e., grams per day used) was greater among the younger, relative to the older, HIV+ group (p = .02), and increased for both age groups following seroconversion (p methamphetamine use behaviors, many people with HIV initiate, or persist in, methamphetamine use after receiving an HIV diagnosis. These findings raise the question of whether tailoring of prevention and intervention strategies might reduce the impact of methamphetamine and HIV across the age continuum. PMID:26837461

  17. The effect of d-methamphetamine on simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Beata Y; Croft, Rodney J; Downey, Luke A; Papafotiou, Katherine; Camfield, David A; Stough, Con

    2012-03-01

    Methamphetamine is considered to be one of the most popularly abused drugs by drivers; however, its exact effect on driving and driving behaviour has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This being despite methamphetamine's increased prevalence in injured and deceased drivers. Twenty healthy recreational illicit stimulant users (10 male and 10 female), aged between 21 and 32 years (mean = 25.4 years, SD = 3.3 years) attended two testing sessions involving oral consumption of 0.42 mg/kg d-methamphetamine or a matching placebo. The drug administration was counter-balanced, double-blind, and medically supervised. At each session driving, performance was assessed 2.5 h post drug administration. d-methamphetamine (0.42 mg/kg) did not significantly impair overall simulated driving performance 2.5 h post drug administration. At the individual driving variable level, participants in the d-methamphetamine condition were observed to be driving slower when an emergency situation occurred (T = 44, p emergency situations occurred. The d-methamphetamine condition did also produce four times more infringements where participants did not stop at red traffic light in comparison to the placebo, but this effect was only evident at a trend level (T = 7, p = 0.11). The findings presented herein suggest that d-methamphetamine administered at the levels supplied did not impair driving performance in a manner consistent with epidemiological evidence. Further research is certainly required to elucidate the effects of various doses of methamphetamine, alone and in combination with other legal and illicit substances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Methamphetamine Craving Induced in an Online Virtual Reality Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Culbertson, Christopher; Nicolas, Sam; Zaharovits, Itay; London, Edythe D.; De La Garza, Richard; Brody, Arthur L.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess self-reported craving and physiological reactivity in a methamphetamine virtual reality (METH-VR) cue model created using Second Life, a freely available online gaming platform. Seventeen, non-treatment seeking, individuals that abuse methamphetamine (METH) completed this one-day, outpatient, within-subjects study. Participants completed four test sessions: 1) METH-VR 2) neutral-VR 3) METH-video 4) neutral-video in a counterbalanced (latin square) fash...

  19. Development of a reference material using methamphetamine abusers' hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Yang, Wonkyung; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, we developed a reference material (RM) using authentic hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA abusers' hair samples were collected, homogenized and finally bottled. The concentration of each bottle was determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Both analytical procedures were fully validated and their extraction efficiency was compared. The homogeneity of analytes was evaluated and their property values were determined with their uncertainties. The two methods were acceptable to analyze MA and AP in human hair through the validation and comparative studies using spiked and authentic hair samples as well as NIST SRM 2379 certified reference material. Satisfying homogeneity was reached for MA and AP in the prepared RM. Finally, a human hair RM containing MA and AP is prepared at the level of 7.64+/-1.24 and 0.54+/-0.07 ng/mg, respectively. This material can be useful in forensic laboratories for internal quality control and external quality assurance.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26736037

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism near CREB1, rs7591784, is associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency and outcome of outpatient treatment for methamphetamine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Demirdjian, Levon; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Although stimulant dependence is highly heritable, few studies have examined genetic influences on methamphetamine dependence. We performed a candidate gene study of 52 SNPs and pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency among 263 methamphetamine dependent Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White participants of several methamphetamine outpatient clinical trials in Los Angeles. One SNP, rs7591784 was significantly associated with pretreatment methamphetamine use frequency following Bonferroni correction (p methamphetamine urine drug screen results during 12 weeks of outpatient treatment among males with treatment outcome data available (N = 94) and found rs7591784 was significantly associated with methamphetamine use during treatment controlling for pretreatment methamphetamine use. rs7591784 is near CREB1 and in a linkage disequilibrium block with rs2952768, previously shown to influence CREB1 expression. The CREB signaling pathway is involved in gene expression changes related to chronic use of multiple drugs of abuse including methamphetamine and these results suggest that variability in CREB signaling may influence pretreatment frequency of methamphetamine use as well as outcomes of outpatient treatment. Medications targeting the CREB pathway, including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, warrant investigation as pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methamphetamine use and dependence in vulnerable female populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Srikosai, Soontaree; Wittayanookulluk, Apisak

    2017-07-01

    The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them. The prenatal exposure of ATS demonstrated the small for gestational age and low birth weight; however, more research is needed on long-term studies of methamphetamine-exposed children. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly reported by female methamphetamine users as perpetrators and victims. However, statistics and gendered power dynamics suggest that methamphetamine-related IPV indicates a higher chance of femicide. Methamphetamine-abusing women often have unresolved childhood trauma and are introduced to ATS through families or partners. Vulnerable populations of women at risk of methamphetamine abuse and dependence. Impacts on their physical and mental health, IPV, and pregnancy have been reported continuing, which guide that empowering and holistic substance abuse are necessary for specific group.

  3. Differentiating medicinal from illicit use in positive methamphetamine results in a pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Pesce, Amadeo; West, Cameron; Mikel, Charles; Velasco, Javier; Gonzales, Elizabeth; Dizon, Zenaida; Almazan, Perla; Latyshev, Sergey

    2013-03-01

    In addition to illicit methamphetamine, there are prescription and over-the-counter medications that, if ingested, may yield positive methamphetamine (MAMP) results on laboratory urine drug tests. The purpose of the study is to estimate the prevalence of medicinal and illicit MAMP in the pain population using chiral analysis to determine the relative amounts of the d and l-MAMP enantiomers. This retrospective analysis included the LC-MS/MS results and prescriber provided medication histories of 485,889 de-identified urine specimens from patients treated for pain. Two groups of 100 specimens each were subjected to chiral analysis. Group 1 contained specimens that were MAMP positive and amphetamine negative. Group 2 contained randomly selected MAMP positive specimens. The overall MAMP positivity rate of the 485,889 specimens tested was 1.6%. The prevalence of MAMP medications based on reported medications and detection of l-MAMP in Group 1 and Group 2 was 44% and 6%, respectively. These data indicate that the use of both illicit and medicinal MAMP is found in this patient population, and that medicinal use is underreported in clinical histories. Therefore, clinical laboratories should provide on request chiral analysis to aid in differentiating illicit and medicinal MAMP.

  4. Effects of home prothrombin international ratio (PT-INR) management in children with mechanical prosthetic valves - Importance of individual correlations between laboratory and CoaguChek device PT-INRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Naomi; Masutani, Satoshi; Tanikawa, Shoyo; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Saiki, Hirofumi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Tamura, Masanori; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2017-10-21

    Warfarin administration is essential but requires difficult management and frequent clinic visits in patients with mechanical prosthetic atrioventricular valve replacement (MPAVVR). This study investigated how home prothrombin international ratio (PT-INR) monitoring with CoaguChek® (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) safely reduced clinic visits in children with MPAVVR. We also compared individual correlations between the CoaguChek and laboratory PT-INR. This study included four pediatric patients who started frequent warfarin home-monitoring after MPAVVR (three mitral valves and one tricuspid valve). We collected information regarding the number of outpatient clinic visits and measurements of PT-INR before and after starting home CoaguChek monitoring (each one year) from medical records. We also compared individual correlations between laboratory and CoaguChek PT-INR in three patients. No major clinical events were encountered during the study period. The ratio of outpatient clinic visits in the second year to those in the first year was decreased in all patients (0.30-0.66). The ratio of the numbers of home measurements to all PT-INR measurements in the second year ranged from 0.55 to 0.64 indicating that CoaguChek home monitoring approximately halved the number of outpatient clinic visits. CoaguChek measurements tended to be slightly overestimated in two patients but were greatly underestimated in one patient. CoaguChek home monitoring in children with MPAVVR reduced the number of their clinic visits without compromising the safety of warfarin management. Given considerable individual differences in correlations between CoaguChek and laboratory PT-INR, individual correlation needs to be identified to fairly interpret the CoaguChek PT-INR values. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stereoselectivity in the human metabolism of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linghui; Everhart, Tom; Jacob Iii, Peyton; Jones, Reese; Mendelson, John

    2010-02-01

    To characterize the formation and urinary elimination of metabolites of S-(+) and R-(-) methamphetamine (MA) in humans. In this 12-subject, six-session, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced, crossover design study, the formation of the MA metabolites para hydroxymethamphetamine (pOH-MA) and amphetamine (AMP) were determined in urine after intravenous doses of S-(+)-MA 0.25 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), R-(-)-MA 0.25 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), racemic MA 0.5 mg kg(-1), or placebo. Parent drug and metabolite levels in urine and plasma were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental models using WinNonlin. An approximately threefold enantioselectivity difference in elimination was observed for AMP, with 7% of the dose converted to S-(+)-AMP vs. 2% to R-(-)-AMP (P biomarker of MA metabolism.

  6. Impact of methamphetamine on infection and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Salamanca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation.

  7. Reduction in brain serotonin synthesis rate following chronic methamphetamine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulson, M E; Trulson, V M

    1982-09-10

    Chronic administration of methamphetamine (20 mg/kg i.p., every 12 h for 6 days) produced significant decreased in brain 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation following decarboxylase inhibition and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid accumulation following probenecid treatment in rats. Administration of fluoxetine prior to each methamphetamine injection prevented these neurochemical changes. Acute methamphetamine treatment produced no changes in these neurochemical measures. These data demonstrate that chronic, but not acute, methamphetamine treatment reduces brain serotonin synthesis rate.

  8. Interleukin 1 receptor contributes to methamphetamine- and sleep deprivation-induced hypersomnolence

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michelle A.; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine-induced wakefulness is dependent on monoamine transporter blockade. Subsequent to methamphetamine-induced wakefulness, the amount of time spent asleep and the depth of sleep are increased relative to baseline sleep. The mechanisms that drive methamphetamine-induced hypersomnolence are not fully understood. We recently observed that methamphetamine exposure elevates the expression of the sleep-promoting cytokine, interleukin-1 β in CD11b-positive monocytes within the brain. Her...

  9. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine... and the methamphetamine they contain is being used as a substitute for amphetamine tablets...

  10. Prevalence of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barchha Nina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit methamphetamine use continues to be a public health concern in the United States. The goal of the current study was to use a relatively inexpensive methodology to examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States. Methods The sample was obtained through an internet survey of noninstitutionalized adults (n = 4,297 aged 18 to 49 in the United States in 2005. Propensity weighting methods using information from the U.S. Census and the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH were used to estimate national-level prevalence rates. Results The overall prevalence of current nonmedical methamphetamine use was estimated to be 0.27%. Lifetime use was estimated to be 8.6%. Current use rates for men (0.32% and women (0.23% did not differ, although men had a higher 3-year prevalence rate (3.1% than women (1.1%. Within the age subgroup with the highest overall methamphetamine use (18 to 25 year olds, non-students had substantially higher methamphetamine use (0.85% current; 2.4% past year than students (0.23% current; 0.79% past year. Methamphetamine use was not constrained to those with publicly funded health care insurance. Conclusion Through the use of an internet panel weighted to reflect U.S. population norms, the estimated lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use among 18 to 49 year olds was 8.6%. These findings give rates of use comparable to those reported in the 2005 NSDUH. Internet surveys are a relatively inexpensive way to provide complimentary data to telephone or in-person interviews.

  11. To what extent is clinical and laboratory information used to perform medication reviews in the nursing home setting? the CLEAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestres Gonzalvo C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carlota Mestres Gonzalvo,1 Kim PGM Hurkens,2 Hugo AJM de Wit,3 Brigit PC van Oijen,1 Rob Janknegt,1 Jos MGA Schols,4 Wubbo J Mulder,5 Frans R Verhey,6 Bjorn Winkens,7 Paul-Hugo M van der Kuy1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Orbis Medical Centre, Sittard, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, 4Department of Family Medicine and Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Alzheimer Centre Limburg/School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, 7Department of Methodology and Statistics, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent laboratory data, actual medication, medical history, and/or drug indication influence the quality of medication reviews for nursing home patients. Methods: Forty-six health care professionals from different fields were requested to perform medication reviews for three different cases. Per case, the amount of information provided varied in three subsequent stages: stage 1, medication list only; stage 2, adding laboratory data and reason for hospital admission; and stage 3, adding medical history/drug indication. Following a slightly modified Delphi method, a multidisciplinary team performed the medication review for each case and stage. The results of these medication reviews were used as reference reviews (gold standard. The remarks from the participants were scored, according to their potential clinical impact, from relevant to harmful on a scale of 3 to -1. A total score per case and stage was calculated and expressed as a percentage of the total score from the expert

  12. Differential behavioral responses of the spontaneously hypertensive rat to methylphenidate and methamphetamine: lack of a rewarding effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Lee, Jong Chan; Lee, Han Lim; Woo, Tae Seon; Lee, Hae Chang; Sohn, Aee Ree; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2012-04-18

    Several questions remain unanswered concerning the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been speculated that repeated methylphenidate treatment may facilitate abuse of the drug or psychological dependence. In the present study, we conducted conditioned place preference (CPP) tests to investigate whether the repeated treatment of methylphenidate results to greater "liking" of the drug. We compared the effect of methylphenidate with that of methamphetamine, a drug with high abuse and dependence liability; also used as a treatment of ADHD. Prior to CPP tests, adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (putative rodent model of ADHD) and Wistar rats (strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population) were administered intraperitoneally with methylphenidate (1.25, 5 and 20 mg/kg) or methamphetamine (1.25 and 5 mg/kg) for 14 days in their home cages. CPP tests were commenced and rats were conditioned with the two stimulants at the doses stated. We found that (1) repeated administration of methylphenidate and methamphetamine was rewarding in Wistar rats (2) stimulant-treated SHR showed CPP only to methamphetamine but not to methylphenidate. The observation that Wistar rats, but not SHR showed CPP to methylphenidate indicates vulnerability of "normal" individuals to methylphenidate abuse and dependence following repeated exposure or administration of the drug. The findings in SHR suggest the safety of methylphenidate as an ADHD intervention insofar as its behavioral effects are compared with those of methamphetamine, and to the extent that the SHR appropriately models ADHD in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the forensic determination of methamphetamine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifeng; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Shimin; Gao, Shuang; Ma, Xiangyuan; Deng, Youquan

    2016-07-01

    Determination of methamphetamine in forensic laboratories is a major issue due to its health and social harm. In this work, a simple, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method based on ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the analysis of methamphetamine in human urine. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate with the help of disperser solvent methanol was selected as the microextraction solvent in this process. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of methamphetamine were investigated systemically, including extraction solvent and its volume, disperser solvent and its volume, sample pH, extraction temperature, and centrifugal time. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL with determination coefficient >0.99. The limit of detection calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 1.7 ng/mL and the relative standard deviations for six replicate experiments at three different concentration levels of 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL were 6.4, 4.5, and 4.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, up to 220-fold enrichment factor of methamphetamine and acceptable extraction recovery (>80.0%) could be achieved. Furthermore, this method has been successfully employed for the sensitive detection of a urine sample from a suspected drug abuser. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Increased blood 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in methamphetamine users during early abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Lai, Ying-Ching; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chun-Hsin

    2017-07-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a role in the adverse physical and mental consequences of methamphetamine usage. The oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known biomarker of ROS-induced DNA damage. Currently, there is insufficient clinical information about methamphetamine-induced oxidative DNA damage. This study examined differences in blood levels of 8-OHdG between methamphetamine users and non-users as well as alterations in 8-OHdG levels after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence. We recruited 182 methamphetamine users (78.6% of male) and 71 healthy controls (95.8% of male). Baseline serum 8-OHdG levels were measured in both groups using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In methamphetamine users, 8-OHdG levels were measured again 2 weeks after baseline measurement. The results showed that methamphetamine users had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (0.34 ± 0.13 ng/mL) than healthy controls (0.30 ± 0.08 ng/mL) (p methamphetamine abstinence (0.32 ± 0.12 ng/mL, p = 0.051 compared to baseline measurement; p = 0.12 compared to healthy controls). No significant correlations were observed between baseline 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users and post-abstinence interval, age of the first methamphetamine use, duration of methamphetamine use, or history of frequent methamphetamine use. Our findings suggest that methamphetamine users had an enhanced level of oxidative damage, which did not normalize during early abstinence. Future studies are required to determine the effects of long-term methamphetamine abstinence and potential confounders on 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users.

  15. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P.; Hubbard, David T.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. PMID

  16. A public health response to the methamphetamine epidemic: the implementation of contingency management to treat methamphetamine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare C Bradley

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to increases in methamphatemine-associated sexually transmitted diseases, the San Francisco Department of Public Health implemented a contingency management (CM field program called the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP. Methods Methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM in San Francisco qualified for PROP following expressed interest in the program, provision of an observed urine sample that tested positive for methamphetamine metabolites and self-report of recent methamphetamine use. For 12 weeks, PROP participants provided observed urine samples on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and received vouchers of increasing value for each consecutive sample that tested negative to metabolites of methamphetamine. Vouchers were exchanged for goods and services that promoted a healthy lifestyle. No cash was provided. Primary outcomes included acceptability (number of enrollments/time, impact (clinical response to treatment and cost-effectiveness as cost per patient treated. Results Enrollment in PROP was brisk indicating its acceptability. During the first 10 months of operation, 143 men sought treatment and of these 77.6% were HIV-infected. Of those screened, 111 began CM treatment and averaged 15 (42% methamphetamine-free urine samples out of a possible 36 samples during the 12-week treatment period; 60% completed 4 weeks of treatment; 48% 8 weeks and 30% 12 weeks. Across all participants, an average of $159 (SD = $165 in vouchers or 35.1% of the maximum possible ($453 was provided for these participants. The average cost per participant of the 143 treated was $800. Conclusion Clinical responses to CM in PROP were similar to CM delivered in drug treatment programs, supporting the adaptability and effectiveness of CM to non-traditional drug treatment settings. Costs were reasonable and less than or comparable to other methamphetamine outpatient treatment programs. Further expansion of programs

  17. Distribution characteristics of methamphetamine and amphetamine in urine and hair specimens collected from alleged methamphetamine users in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Meng; Lin, Chih-Che; Li, Tien-Lai; Shih, Chun-Yao; Giang, Yun-Seng; Liu, Ray H

    2006-08-18

    This study was conducted to better understand the distribution characteristics of methamphetamine and amphetamine in urine and hair specimens collected from alleged methamphetamine users in the local population. It is anticipated that the data hereby obtained will be helpful to the interpretation of the time and pattern of drug use. Eight alleged methamphetamine-using arrestees from Keelung Police Department (north of Taipei, Taiwan) consented to contribute both urine and hair specimens. Each arrestee contributed seven urine specimens collected at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, respectively, after the arrest. Hair specimens were cut into 2-cm sections. The limits of detection and quantitation of the urine protocol were 40 and 50 ng/mL, respectively, for both amphetamine and methamphetamine, while the corresponding limits of detection and quantitation for the hair protocol were 0.8 and 1.0 ng/mg, respectively. The concentration variations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in the urine specimens exhibited three distinct patterns: (a) continuous decrease in the analytes' concentrations for specimens collected at hours 0-120; (b) increase in the analytes' concentrations in specimens collected at hours 0-12, followed by decrease; (c) increase in analytes' concentrations in specimens collected at later times. Together with the amphetamine/methamphetamine concentration ratios found in these urine specimens, the observed trends in the changes of the analytes' concentrations are helpful for the interpretation on the time of drug use. Unlike urine specimens, amphetamine/methamphetamine concentration ratios in various hair specimens and hair sections remain relatively constant.

  18. Mirtazapine to reduce methamphetamine use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfax, Grant N; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Das, Moupali; Santos, Deirdre McDermott; Matheson, Tim; Gasper, James; Shoptaw, Steve; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2011-11-01

    No approved pharmacologic treatments for methamphetamine dependence exist. Methamphetamine use is associated with high morbidity and is a major cofactor in the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). To determine whether mirtazapine would reduce methamphetamine use among MSM who are actively using methamphetamine. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, 12-week trial of mirtazapine vs placebo conducted from September 5, 2007, to March 4, 2010. San Francisco Department of Public Health. Participants were actively using, methamphetamine-dependent, sexually active MSM seen weekly for urine sample collection and substance use counseling. Random assignment to daily oral mirtazapine (30 mg) or placebo; both arms included 30-minute weekly substance use counseling. The primary study outcome was reduction in methamphetamine-positive urine test results. Secondary outcomes were study medication adherence (by self-report and medication event monitoring systems) and sexual risk behavior. Sixty MSM were randomized, 85% of follow-up visits were completed, and 56 participants (93%) completed the final visit. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, participants assigned to the mirtazapine group had fewer methamphetamine-positive urine test results compared with participants assigned to the placebo group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93, P = .02). Urine positivity decreased from 67% (20 of 30 participants) to 63% (17 of 27) in the placebo arm and from 73% (22 of 30) to 44% (12 of 27) in the mirtazapine arm. The number needed to treat to achieve a negative weekly urine test result was 3.1. Adherence was 48.5% by medication event monitoring systems and 74.7% by self-report; adherence measures were not significantly different between arms (medication event monitoring systems, P = .82; self-report, P = .92). Most sexual risk behaviors decreased significantly more among participants taking mirtazapine compared with those taking placebo

  19. Evaluation of blood lead level in methamphetamine users in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Shadnia, Shahin; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Ali; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-22

    Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of using opiates in the past 6 months confirmed by a negative urine tests, and without a history of heavy metal poisoning. Of all, 18 patients were male and the mean age was 32 ± 10 years; 17 patients were abusing the drug via inhalation and three persons via oral administration. The mean blood lead level was 2.3 ± 1.1 μg/dL and poisoning was not observed in any of the cases. Blood lead level was not associated with age, sex, dosage, and route of administration. Although blood lead level was not at poisoning level in people who only used methamphetamine in Iran, due to the simultaneous use of other substances and because of non-specific symptoms, lead poisoning must be suspected in all cases of substances poisoning.

  20. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, John; Malia, Louis; Lubben, Anneke; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Here presented for the first time is the enantioselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosm bioreactors. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mechanisms governing the fate of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the environment are mostly stereoselective and biological in nature. Several bioreactors were studied over the duration of 15 days (i) in both biotic and abiotic conditions, (ii) in the dark or exposed to light and (iii) in the presence or absence of suspended particulate matter. Bioreactor samples were analysed using SPE-chiral-LC-(QTOF)MS methodology. This investigation has elucidated the fundamental mechanism for degradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine as being predominantly biological in origin. Furthermore, stereoselectivity and changes in enantiomeric fraction (EF) were only observed under biotic conditions. Neither amphetamine nor methamphetamine appeared to demonstrate adsorption to suspended particulate matter. Our experiments also demonstrated that amphetamine and methamphetamine were photo-stable. Illicit drugs are present in the environment at low concentrations but due to their pseudo-persistence and non-racemic behaviour, with two enantiomers revealing significantly different potency (and potentially different toxicity towards aquatic organisms) the risk posed by illicit drugs in the environment should not be under- or over-estimated. The above results demonstrate the need for re-evaluation of the procedures utilised in environmental risk assessment, which currently do not recognise the importance of the phenomenon of chirality in pharmacologically active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent updates on drug abuse analyzed by neuroproteomics studies: Cocaine, Methamphetamine and MDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Kobeissy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain changes involving neurotoxicity and addiction. Given the complex interplay of genes and proteins in mediating these effects, neuroproteomics analysis has been considered among the methods of choice to complement what has already been discovered and to create targeted therapies. In this review, we will focus on three drugs, namely cocaine, methamphetamine (METH and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA. In the context of neuroproteomics, these drugs have been extensively studied by utilizing different experimental models, including primate and non-primate animals along with postmortem human samples. Even though there are many variations in the results, these drugs were shown to employ common pathways in eliciting their effects. Neuroproteomics analysis of these drugs has led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in metabolism, oxidative stress, cell signaling, cytoskeleton, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Finally, this work will discuss recent findings from our laboratory by looking at a model of chronic methamphetamine abuse and its effect on different brain regions.

  2. Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Former Foster Youth: The Mediating Role of Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-04-01

    Social network analysis can provide added causal insight into otherwise confusing epidemiologic findings in public health research. Although foster care and homelessness are risk factors for methamphetamine use, current research has failed to explicate why homeless youth with foster care experience engage in methamphetamine use at higher rates than other homeless young adults. This study examined the mediating effect of network engagement and time spent homeless on the relationship between foster care experience and recent methamphetamine use among homeless youth in Los Angeles. Egocentric network data from a cross-sectional community-based sample (n = 652) of homeless youth aged 13-25 were collected from drop-in centers in Los Angeles. Questions addressed foster care experience, time spent homeless, methamphetamine use, and perceived drug use in social networks. Path analysis was performed in SAS to examine mediation. Controlling for all other variables, results of path analysis regarding recent methamphetamine use indicated a direct effect between foster care experience and recent methamphetamine use (B = .269, t = 2.73, p network methamphetamine use were added to the model, and indirect paths from time spent homeless and network methamphetamine use became statistically significant. Foster care experience influenced recent methamphetamine use indirectly through time spent homeless and methamphetamine use by network members. Efforts to reduce methamphetamine use should focus on securing stable housing and addressing network interactions among homeless former foster youth.

  3. Genetic polymorphism in DTNBP1 gene is associated with methamphetamine-induced panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Maw Shin; Hatim, Ahmad; Diong, Shiau Hui; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    The dysbindin-1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein-1 [DTNBP-1]) gene has repeatedly been shown to be associated with psychotic disorder across diverse populations. In this study, we attempted to investigate the association of the rs3213207 (P1635) genetic polymorphism of the DTNBP1 gene with methamphetamine dependence and with methamphetamine-induced psychosis, manic episodes, and panic disorder in a male Malaysian population. This polymorphism was genotyped in 233 male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and in 301 male controls of the following 4 different ethnicities: Malay, Chinese, Kadazan-Dusun, and Bajau. Intergroup statistical analyses were performed by using the χ(2) test and the Fisher exact test where necessary. In cases of multiple comparisons, the Bonferroni correction was performed. Our results indicated that the DTNBP1 rs3213207 polymorphism did not show any significant association with risk of methamphetamine dependence, either in the pooled subjects or after stratification into the 4 different ethnic groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, we did not find any association of this polymorphism with methamphetamine-induced psychosis and episodes of methamphetamine-induced mania. However, there was a strong association between this polymorphism and the occurrence of methamphetamine-induced panic disorder in the pooled subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 6.739, P polymorphism may contribute to methamphetamine-induced panic disorder in the pooled Malaysian male population, especially in the Malay and Kadazan-Dusun ethnic groups. However, no association was found with methamphetamine dependence, methamphetamine-induced psychosis, or methamphetamine-induced mania.

  4. [Study of distribution and metabolism of methamphetamine in hair of guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Shen, M; Zhao, Z Q; Ye, Y H; Xiang, P; Shen, B H

    2001-11-01

    To study the distribution and metabolism of methamphetamine in the hair of guinea pig. Determination of methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine in hair was performed by GC/MS and GC/NPD. Concentration-time course of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair of guinea were recorded. Relationship between hair color, administrated dose and drug concentration in hair were also discussed. The concentration of amphetamine is higher than the concentration of methamphetamine in the hair of guinea administrated a single dose or seven doses of methamphetamine. The concentration of methamphetamine and amphetamine were significantly related with administration dose and the incorporation rate into white and brown hair is much poorer than that of black hair. Administration methods, dose and the color of hair affect the concentration of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

  5. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  6. Treatment utilization and barriers to treatment: Results of a survey of dependent methamphetamine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Nicole K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has one of the highest rates of methamphetamine use in the world; however, treatment access for methamphetamine is comparatively low. This descriptive study aimed to identify patterns of treatment utilization and perceived barriers to accessing treatment among dependent methamphetamine users in the hope that such information will enable services to more appropriately respond to this group. Methods One hundred and twenty-six methamphetamine users who had a current or past history of methamphetamine dependence were interviewed about their experiences of, and perceived barriers to, treatment. Results Treatment utilization among methamphetamine users was reportedly low. One of the main reasons cited for not accessing treatment was that methamphetamine users did not perceive their drug use to be a problem (despite apparent levels of dependence. Self-detoxification with the use of other licit and illicit drugs was high among this group. Participants identified a lack of confidence in the ability of treatment services to address methamphetamine dependence and the 'opiate-centric' nature of treatment services as significant blocks to treatment entry. Suggestions for improvement by participants included operating specialist services for methamphetamine users, placing an emphasis on responsiveness and routinely involving case management services for this group. Discussion and Conclusions To improve service delivery, treatment services should reorient their services to better address the needs of methamphetamine users by making small changes such as specific opening times for methamphetamine users or using a dedicated space for methamphetamine treatment. Alternative options such as online treatments and specialist methamphetamine clinics should be considered for methamphetamine users.

  7. Extended Detection of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andås, Hilde T; Enger, Asle; Øiestad, Åse Marit L; Vindenes, Vigdis; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Huestis, Marilyn A; Øiestad, Elisabeth L

    2016-02-01

    Amphetamine and methamphetamine are popular drugs of abuse worldwide and are important components of drug monitoring programs. Windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid after high doses have not been investigated. Repeated high-dose ingestions are likely to cause positive samples for extended periods. Common routes of administration of amphetamine/methamphetamine in Norway are oral intake or injection. The aim of this study was to investigate windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid from drug addicts under sustained abstinence during detoxification. Twenty-five patients admitted to a closed detoxification unit were included in this study. Oral fluid samples were collected daily in the morning and evening, and urine every morning for 10 days. A blood sample was drawn during the first 5 days after admission if the patient consented. Oral fluid results were compared with urine results to determine whether a new ingestion occurred. Oral fluid was collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device. In-house cutoff concentrations for amphetamine and methamphetamine were 6.8 and 7.5 mcg/L, respectively, in oral fluid, and 135 and 149 mcg/L, respectively, in urine. Amphetamines were detected in 11 oral fluid, 5 urine, and 2 blood specimens from 25 patients. Patients self-reported amphetamines intake of up to 0.5-2 g daily. Windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid were up to 8 days, longer than in urine at the applied cutoff values. These data confirm that oral fluid is a viable alternative to urine for monitoring amphetamine abuse, and that these substances might be detected in oral fluid for at least 1 week after ingestion of high doses. Such long detection times were, as far as we are aware, never reported previously for oral fluid amphetamines.

  8. Amelioration of methamphetamine cardiotoxicity by propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MET is a stimulant and one of the most abused drugs in worldwide. MET could cause several organ toxicity such as cardiotoxicity. Oxidative stress has been proposed as the main mechanism for MET toxicity. Propofol as a sedative-hypnotic agent has antioxidant property. In this study, we used propofol for attenuating of MET-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The groups (six rats in each group were as follows: control, MET (5 mg/kg IP and treated groups that were received propofol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, IP and vitamin E, 30 min before MET administration. After 24 hours, animals were killed, and heart tissue and blood were separated. MET cardiotoxicity was assessed by the evaluation of the levels of lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK as cardiac marker enzymes. On the other hand, oxidative stress markers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione (GSH and protein carbonyl were measured in heart tissue. Treatment with propofol significantly decreased the cardiac marker enzymes level which increased in MET-treated group. Propofol significantly inhibited the ROS formation and protected the cardiac tissue against LPO. Propofol also significantly prevented MET induced GSH oxidation in cardiac tissue. Protein carbonyl level was increased after MET exposure, but was significantly decreased with propofol pre-treatment. This study showed that propofol prevented MET-induced cardiotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress damage. Therefore, the efficacy of this antioxidant could be evaluated for the treatment of MET toxicity situation.

  9. Mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related dental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, Jason; Belin, Thomas R; Shetty, Vivek

    2017-06-01

    The authors clarified the causal mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of dental disease encountered in people who habitually use methamphetamine (meth). Using a stratified sampling approach, the authors conducted comprehensive oral examinations and psychosocial assessments for 571 study participants who used meth. Three calibrated dentists, who used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols, characterized the study participants' dental disease. The authors also collected data related to study participants' history of meth use and other attributes linked to dental disease. Study participants who used meth manifested higher rates of xerostomia and caries experience compared with NHANES control participants. Participants who used meth had a higher level of daily consumption of sugary beverages compared with NHANES control participants. Smoking meth did not increase caries experience over other modes of intake. Dental hygiene was a significant determinant of dental health outcomes. Mode of intake and frequency of meth use have a minimal impact on dental health outcomes. Behaviors, such as sugary beverage consumption and poor oral hygiene, better explain dental health outcomes. Having a better understanding of the causal mechanisms of "meth mouth" sets the stage for clinicians to provide more personalized interventions and management of dental disease in people who use meth. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Buprenorphine on Methamphetamine Cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Emadossadat, Alireza; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse and dependence present a major global problem. We investigated the efficacy of adding buprenorphine in reducing METH cravings during treatment with the Matrix program. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial of 40 men between the age of 18 and 40 years who were referred to the addiction treatment center at Noor Hospital from December 2012 to September 2013. All of the selected subjects participated in the Matrix program and were randomly assigned into 2 groups and given either buprenorphine or a placebo. A 4-month intervention program with buprenorphine or a placebo was arranged for each group. Demographic variables of the 2 groups, descriptive indices from the cocaine craving questionnaire-brief (CCQ-Brief), the ratio of urine tests positive for METH, and the frequency of drug complications were regularly evaluated in both groups every 2 weeks and, if not possible, by the third or fourth week. All analyses were performed by SPSS20 using analysis of covariance, χ, and t tests. The average of indices from the cocaine craving questionnaire-brief score, except the 2 initial measurements, was significantly lower in the intervention group in all measurements (P < 0.05). Apart from weeks 3 and 28, the ratio of positive tests was significantly different in all measurements in both groups (P < 0.05). Buprenorphine augmentation, in comparison with the placebo, significantly reduced the craving to use METH during treatment with the Matrix program.

  11. Dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and Chemometric methods for fast detection and intelligent identification of methamphetamine and 3, 4-Methylenedioxy methamphetamine in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shizhuang; Dong, Ronglu; Zhu, Zede; Zhang, Dongyan; Zhao, Jinling; Huang, Linsheng; Liang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Conventional Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) for fast detection of drugs in urine on the portable Raman spectrometer remains challenges because of low sensitivity and unreliable Raman signal, and spectra process with manual intervention. Here, we develop a novel detection method of drugs in urine using chemometric methods and dynamic SERS (D-SERS) with mPEG-SH coated gold nanorods (GNRs). D-SERS combined with the uniform GNRs can obtain giant enhancement, and the signal is also of high reproducibility. On the basis of the above advantages, we obtained the spectra of urine, urine with methamphetamine (MAMP), urine with 3, 4-Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine (MDMA) using D-SERS. Simultaneously, some chemometric methods were introduced for the intelligent and automatic analysis of spectra. Firstly, the spectra at the critical state were selected through using K-means. Then, the spectra were proposed by random forest (RF) with feature selection and principal component analysis (PCA) to develop the recognition model. And the identification accuracy of model were 100%, 98.7% and 96.7%, respectively. To validate the effect in practical issue further, the drug abusers'urine samples with 0.4, 3, 30 ppm MAMP were detected using D-SERS and identified by the classification model. The high recognition accuracy of > 92.0% can meet the demand of practical application. Additionally, the parameter optimization of RF classification model was simple. Compared with the general laboratory method, the detection process of urine's spectra using D-SERS only need 2 mins and 2 μL samples volume, and the identification of spectra based on chemometric methods can be finish in seconds. It is verified that the proposed approach can provide the accurate, convenient and rapid detection of drugs in urine.

  12. Dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and Chemometric methods for fast detection and intelligent identification of methamphetamine and 3, 4-Methylenedioxy methamphetamine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shizhuang; Dong, Ronglu; Zhu, Zede; Zhang, Dongyan; Zhao, Jinling; Huang, Linsheng; Liang, Dong

    2018-01-15

    Conventional Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) for fast detection of drugs in urine on the portable Raman spectrometer remains challenges because of low sensitivity and unreliable Raman signal, and spectra process with manual intervention. Here, we develop a novel detection method of drugs in urine using chemometric methods and dynamic SERS (D-SERS) with mPEG-SH coated gold nanorods (GNRs). D-SERS combined with the uniform GNRs can obtain giant enhancement, and the signal is also of high reproducibility. On the basis of the above advantages, we obtained the spectra of urine, urine with methamphetamine (MAMP), urine with 3, 4-Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine (MDMA) using D-SERS. Simultaneously, some chemometric methods were introduced for the intelligent and automatic analysis of spectra. Firstly, the spectra at the critical state were selected through using K-means. Then, the spectra were proposed by random forest (RF) with feature selection and principal component analysis (PCA) to develop the recognition model. And the identification accuracy of model were 100%, 98.7% and 96.7%, respectively. To validate the effect in practical issue further, the drug abusers'urine samples with 0.4, 3, 30ppm MAMP were detected using D-SERS and identified by the classification model. The high recognition accuracy of >92.0% can meet the demand of practical application. Additionally, the parameter optimization of RF classification model was simple. Compared with the general laboratory method, the detection process of urine's spectra using D-SERS only need 2 mins and 2μL samples volume, and the identification of spectra based on chemometric methods can be finish in seconds. It is verified that the proposed approach can provide the accurate, convenient and rapid detection of drugs in urine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the intake of abused methamphetamines using experimenter-administered deuterium labeled R-methamphetamine: selection of the R-methamphetamine dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linghui; Lopez, Juan Carlos; Galloway, Gantt P; Baggott, Matthew J; Everhart, Tom; Mendelson, John

    2010-08-01

    All addictive drugs produce tolerance and addicts compensate by increasing drug exposure. Thus, the quantity of illicit drug ingested is related to the severity of addiction. Unfortunately, there are no objective methods to estimate intake for most addictive drugs. Using experimenter-administered doses of deuterium-labeled R-methamphetamine (R-[-]-MA-d3), we have developed a method to estimate the amount of abused methamphetamine intake in addicts enrolled in clinical trials. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of single oral doses of R-MA in healthy adults to select a dose of R-MA-d3 to be used as a biomarker for estimation the amount of methamphetamine abuse. This was a five-session randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in eight subjects. Oral R-(-)-MA was dosed at 0 mg, 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg; bioavailability was estimated by slow intravenous dosing (30 minutes) of 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 given with the 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA oral dose condition. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures were obtained. No serious adverse events occurred during the study and all doses of R-MA were well tolerated. Linear pharmacokinetics was observed within our oral dose range of 1 to 10 mg. Complete bioavailability and pharmacologic inactivity were found for all oral doses. These characteristics indicate the advantage of using a small oral R-(-)-MA-d3 dose as a biomarker to estimate exposure to abused methamphetamine. Based on these results, 5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 has been selected as the biomarker dose in future studies. Preliminary findings from our study indicate that experimenter-administered oral R-(-)-MA-d3 may allow estimation of abused methamphetamine intake and exposure. Knowledge of the quantity of methamphetamine intake may allow better estimation of disease severity and treatment efficacy. Experience gained from this study also can be applied to the management of other drug dependence problems such as

  14. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JUSTICE CONTACT US A-Z INDEX Search for HOME ABOUT Mission History Office Locations Domestic Office Locations Foreign Office Locations Leadership Museum Wall of Honor CAREERS Occupations How to Apply ...

  15. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  16. Acute Modafinil Effects on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Methamphetamine-Dependent Humans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C.; Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Monterosso, John R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who are methamphetamine dependent exhibit higher rates of cognitive dysfunction than healthy people who do not use methamphetamine, and this dysfunction may have a negative effect on the success of behavioral treatments for the disorder. Therefore, a medication that improves cognition, such as modafinil (Provigil), may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral treatments for methamphetamine dependence. Although cognitive-enhancing effects of modafinil have been reported in several populations, little is known about the effects of modafinil in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. We thus sought to evaluate the effects of modafinil on the cognitive performance of methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals. Method: Seventeen healthy subjects and 24 methamphetamine-dependent subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of modafinil (200 mg, single oral dose) were assessed on participants’ performance on tests of inhibitory control, working memory, and processing speed/attention. Results: Across subjects, modafinil improved performance on a test of sustained attention, with no significant improvement on any other cognitive tests. However, within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, participants with a high baseline frequency of methamphetamine use demonstrated a greater effect of modafinil on tests of inhibitory control and processing speed than those participants with low baseline use of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Although modafinil produced limited effects across all participants, methamphetamine-dependent participants with a high baseline use of methamphetamine demonstrated significant cognitive improvement on modafinil relative to those with low baseline methamphetamine use. These results add to the findings from a clinical trial that suggested that modafinil may be particularly useful in methamphetamine-dependent subjects who use the drug frequently. PMID:22051208

  17. Methamphetamine reduces human influenza A virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (meth is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1 virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth's effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents.

  18. Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse and Corticostriatal Deficits Revealed by Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edythe D.; Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica; Ballard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite aggressive efforts to contain it, methamphetamine use disorder continues to be major public health problem; and with generic behavioral therapies still the mainstay of treatment for methamphetamine abuse, rates of attrition and relapse remain high. This review summarizes the findings of structural, molecular, and functional neuroimaging studies of methamphetamine abusers, focusing on cortical and striatal abnormalities and their potential contributions to cognitive and behavioral phenotypes that can serve to promote compulsive drug use. These studies indicate that individuals with a history of chronic methamphetamine abuse often display several signs of corticostriatal dysfunction, including abnormal gray- and white-matter integrity, monoamine neurotransmitter system deficiencies, neuroinflammation, poor neuronal integrity, and aberrant patterns of brain connectivity and function, both when engaged in cognitive tasks and at rest. More importantly, many of these neural abnormalities were found to be linked with certain addiction-related phenotypes that may influence treatment response (e.g., poor self-control, cognitive inflexibility, maladaptive decision-making), raising the possibility that they may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25451127

  19. 21 CFR 862.3610 - Methamphetamine test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methamphetamine test system. 862.3610 Section 862.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  20. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, it is. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa: A review of data from 8 studies conducted between 2004 and 2007. CDH Parry1,2, A Plüddemann1, B Myers1, WM Wechsberg3, AJ Flisher4. 1Alcohol & Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, South Africa.

  1. Electroenhanced solid-phase microextraction of methamphetamine with commercial fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tsze Yin; Basheer, Chanbasha; Yan Ang, Melgious Jin; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-07-05

    Electroenhanced solid-phase microextraction (EE-SPME) method with gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was investigated for the determination of methamphetamine in urine sample with commercial fibers. In this approach, commercial SPME fibers were used in direct immersion mode with an applied potential to extract methamphetamine. EE-SPME was more effective in the extraction compared to conventional SPME (i.e. application of potential). The method was simple to use, and avoided the need for alkalization and derivatization of methamphetamine. Experimental conditions were optimized to achieve better extraction performance. Various conditions including applied potential, sample pH, extraction and desorption time were investigated. Based on the optimized conditions, EE-SPME achieved a higher enrichment factor of 159-fold than conventional SPME. The calibration plot under the best selected parameters was linear in the range of 0.5-15ng/mL (r=0.9948). The feasibility of EE-SPME was demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of human urine samples. The limit of detection of methamphetamine was 0.25ng/mL with a satisfactory relative standard deviation of 6.12% (n=3) in human urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HPLC/Chemiluminescence Detection of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takayama, Nariaki; Tanaka, Seishi; Kizu, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    1998-01-01

    ...) for determining methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite, amphetamine (AP), in a single hair. MA and AP were extracted from a single hair with a solution of methanol and hydrochloric acid, evaporated to dryness, dansylated, and subjected to CL-HPLC. Bis...

  3. In-home versus laboratory sensory testing using non-expert consumers: A comparable study using testing of varieties of Danish strawberries as cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder

    The use of in-home versus experimental sensory testing not using sensory expert panels, normally gives reason for discussions of reliability and validity of the two approaches. The poster presents results from a Danish product development project aiming at testing the quality of existing and new...... and 2 well-known varieties of strawberries were tested. The testing used a split-over design where each person participated in sensory testing of 5 different varieties of strawberries. Besides all the participant in the experiment were asked to do an in-home test of 2 of the 5 varieties of strawberries....... Finally also objective sensory measures on the 11 varieties of strawberries were made, enabling a comparison of objective and subjective sensory results. Because many of the questions asked both under the experimental and during the in-home test were identical as well as the test-persons, it is possible...

  4. Chloroephedrine: contaminant of methamphetamine synthesis with cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, K J; Hein, N D; Ogden, B A; Arsenault, J R; Carter, K M; Soine, W H

    2001-11-01

    Chloroephedrine is an intermediate and possible contaminant formed when methamphetamine is manufactured using ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as precursors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this contaminant has biological activity and might contribute to methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. In conscious rats, the (-) and (+) isomers of chloroephedrine (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). The potency of the pressor effects of (-) and (+)-chloroephedrine was between that of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The increases in HR elicited by the four stimulants were similar except that the tachycardia elicited by all doses of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were preceded by a brief decrease in HR. The i.v. administration of 10 mg/kg of (+) or (-)-chloroephedrine produced biphasic (decrease followed by increase) the MAP and HR responses. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine did not decrease MAP at any dose tested. The initial decrease in HR elicited by (-)-chloroephedrine was significantly reduced and the hypotensive response abolished by atropine, indicating that these components of the MAP and HR responses resulted from vagal activation. The secondary pressor response elicited by (-)-chloroephedrine was significantly reduced and the tachycardia significantly increased by pretreatment with phentolamine (3 mg/kg, i.v.). The increase in HR was reversed by propranolol. These results indicate that (-) and (+)-chloroephedrine have sympathomimetic properties similar to other known sympathomimetic stimulants. In addition, larger doses of chloroephedrine can activate the vagus nerve. The combination of (+)-methamphetamine and (-)-chloroephedrine did not markedly alter the magnitude of the MAP and HR responses of (+)-methamphetamine alone except at high doses of (-)-chloroephedrine (10 mg/kg). Contamination of illicit methamphetamine with chloroephedrine may have toxic consequences.

  5. Detection of levorotatory methamphetamine and levorotatory amphetamine in urine after ingestion of an overdose of selegiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuji; Takahashi, Katsuo; Takei, Masao; Niitsu, Hisae; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we measured the urine concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine as metabolites of selegiline after ingestion of an overdose of selegiline. A patient who had developed Parkinson disease took selegiline in a suicide attempt. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with trifluoroacetic acid-derivatization revealed the presence of methamphetamine and amphetamine in the patient's urine at concentrations of 0.62 microg/ml and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively. To determine the stereospecificity of the methamphetamine and amphetamine, a urine sample was analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization with N-(trifluoroacetyl)-l-prolyl chloride. The methamphetamine and amphetamine were levorotatory in form. The ratio of the methamphetamine to amphetamine concentration in the urine was 2.5. This value is consistent with other case reports of ingestion of selegiline, which suggests that the methamphetamine to amphetamine concentration ratio in urine is useful information for indicating use of selegiline.

  6. Pilot randomized trial of bupropion for adolescent methamphetamine abuse/dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Gadzhyan, Janette; van Oudheusden, Henry; Rodriguez, Felipe; McCracken, James; Shoptaw, Steven

    2013-04-01

    To perform a pilot clinical trial of bupropion for methamphetamine abuse/dependence among adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with methamphetamine abuse (n = 2) or dependence (n = 17) were randomly assigned to bupropion SR 150 mg twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks with outpatient substance abuse counseling. Bupropion was well-tolerated except for one female in the bupropion group who was hospitalized for suicidal ideation during a methamphetamine relapse. Adolescents receiving bupropion and females provided significantly fewer methamphetamine-free urine tests compared to participants receiving placebo (p = .043) and males (p = .005) respectively. Results do not support the feasibility of additional trials of bupropion for adolescent methamphetamine abuse/dependence. Future studies should investigate the influence of gender on adolescent methamphetamine abuse and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stereoselectivity of the TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassay--response of urine specimens following nasal inhaler use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, A; Moore, K A

    1995-01-01

    The TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Diagnostic) for the detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine was evaluated for stereoselectivity and response to specimens collected following as recommended and double the recommended dose use of Vicks Nasal Inhaler. The assay is calibrated with d-amphetamine, at cutoff concentration of 300 ng/mL for a positive response. Cross-reactivity studies demonstrated a positive result with 1000 ng/mL l-amphetamine, 300 ng/mL d-methamphetamine, and approximately 2000 ng/mL desoxyephedrine. A good correlation was observed between urines obtained following ingestion of d-amphetamine simultaneously analyzed by TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: r2 = 0.954, N = 100. However, urine obtained following ingestion of racemic methamphetamine showed no correlation between TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results: r2 = 0.420, N = 28. Urines collected following as recommended use for five consecutive days of Vicks Nasal Inhaler containing l-desoxyephedrine did not yield positive TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II results. Only two urines from a subject using twice the recommended inhaler dose yielded positive TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II results. These urines contained 1560 and 1530 ng/mL desoxyephedrine when analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Greater than recommended use of Vicks Nasal Inhaler may yield false positive TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II results for amphetamine use when calibrated at 300 ng/mL d-amphetamine. If calibrated at 1000 ng/mL, d-amphetamine, the TDxADx/FLx Amphetamine/Methamphetamine II is unlikely to yield false positive results for amphetamine, even following excessive inhaler use.

  8. Delayed emergence of methamphetamine’s enhanced cardiovascular effects in nonhuman primates during protracted methamphetamine abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, DB; Schindler, CW; Chefer, S; Belcher, AM; Ahmet, I; Scheidweiler, KB; Huestis, MA; Stein, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine abuse is linked with brain abnormalities, but its peripheral effects constitute an integral aspect of long-term methamphetamine use. Methods Eight male rhesus monkeys with long histories of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration were evaluated 1 day, and 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after their last methamphetamine self-administration session. On test days, isoflurane-anesthetized animals received a 0.35 mg/kg IV methamphetamine challenge. A control group consisted of 10 age and gender matched drug naïve monkeys. Cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine were followed for 2.5 h. Echocardiograms were acquired at 3 and 12 months of abstinence and in the control animals. Results No pre-methamphetamine baseline differences existed among 7 physiological measures across all conditions and controls. As expected, methamphetamine increased heart rate and blood pressure in controls. However, immediately following the self-administration period, the blood pressure response to methamphetamine challenge was reduced when compared to control monkeys. The peak and 150-min average heart rate increases, as well as peak blood pressure increases following methamphetamine were significantly elevated between weeks 12 to 26 of abstinence. These data indicate the development of tolerance followed by sensitization to methamphetamine cardiovascular effects. Echocardiography demonstrated decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output at 3 months of abstinence. Importantly, both cardiovascular sensitization and cardiotoxicity appeared to be reversible as they returned toward control group levels after 1 year of abstinence. Conclusions Enhanced cardiovascular effects may occur after prolonged abstinence in addicts relapsing to methamphetamine and may underlie clinically reported acute cardiotoxic events. PMID:26775284

  9. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    prescribed by doctors as a bronchial dilator. It was also soon found to be useful against narcolepsy , attention deficit disorder, obesity, and chronic...popular and Mexican DTOs providing an unlimited supply, methamphetamine users seeking treatment more than quadrupled between 1993 and 2003. (See Figure...accessed 30 May 2008). 33 Number of Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Admissions for Treatment : 1993-2003. Figure 3. Number of Methamphetamine

  10. COMPARISON OF WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST RESULTS BETWEEN CZECH SUBJECTS DEPENDENT ON METHAMPHETAMINE VERSUS HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hosak, Ladislav; Preiss, Marek; Bazant, Jan; Tibenska, Andrea; Cermakova, Radka; Cermakova, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a neurotoxic agent. Its chronic abuse may result in cognitive impairment with negative consequences for patients´ treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to compare Wisconsin Card Sorting Test profiles of Czech subjects dependent on methamphetamine with healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Forty-three hospitalized Czech Caucasian patients including twenty-seven men at the average age of 25.3±5.2 years dependent on methamphetamine...

  11. Factors associated with sex in the context of methamphetamine use in different sexual venues among HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zians Jim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction has focused primarily on reduction of high-risk substance using behaviors rather than reductions in high-risk sexual behaviors. Furthermore, most studies focus on individual behavior change, with less attention paid to the social and environmental context. This paper promotes understanding of the interplay between the individual and the social context by examining the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of 321 methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM in San Diego, CA based on the locations or venues of their sexual activities when "high" on methamphetamine. Methods Participants in a safer-sex intervention study underwent a baseline assessment that queried demographic and psychosocial characteristics as well as drug use and sexual risk behaviors. For purposes of analysis, respondents were classified according to their preference of sexual venue: private (e.g., home, commercial (e.g., bathhouse, or public (e.g., public park or restroom. Results The commercial venue group was younger, better educated, more likely to identify as gay, and significantly more likely to have used "club drugs" as compared to the other two groups. Men in the commercial- and public-venue groups reported more high-risk sex compared to the private-venue group. The public-venue group reported heavier drug and alcohol use, had significantly higher Beck depression scores, reported more experiences of stigma, and scored higher on a measure of sexual compulsivity than did the other two groups. Conclusion In an effort to reduce HIV/STI risk-behaviors, future studies should investigate the feasibility of modifying personal, psychosocial and structural factors associated with the use of risky sexual venues where HIV-positive methamphetamine users engage in sexual activity when "high" on methamphetamine. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00432926

  12. Naltrexone and bupropion, alone or combined, do not alter the reinforcing effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Pike, Erika; Hays, Lon R; Glaser, Paul E; Rush, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Naltrexone and bupropion, when administered alone in clinical trials, modestly reduce amphetamine use. Whether combining these drugs would result in greater reductions in methamphetamine taking relative to either drug alone is undetermined. This study examined the influence of naltrexone, bupropion and a naltrexone-bupropion combination on methamphetamine self-administration in humans. Seven subjects reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study in which the reinforcing, subject-rated and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10 and 30 mg) were assessed during maintenance on placebo, naltrexone (50 mg), bupropion (300 mg/day), and naltrexone combined with bupropion. Methamphetamine maintained responding and produced prototypic subjective and physiological effects (e.g., increased ratings of good effects, elevated systolic blood pressure). Maintenance doses were well tolerated and generally devoid of effects. No maintenance condition reduced methamphetamine self-administration or systematically altered the subject-rated effects of methamphetamine. These outcomes demonstrate the robust behavioral effects of methamphetamine that could make it resistant to pharmacological manipulation. Although these outcomes indicate that this combination may be ineffective for managing methamphetamine use disorder, future work should evaluate longer maintenance dosing, individuals with different levels of amphetamine use, adding this combination to a behavioral platform and other pharmacotherapy combinations for reducing methamphetamine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  14. Protective role for the disulfide isomerase PDIA3 in methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Pendyala

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse continues to be a worldwide problem, damaging the individual user as well as society. Only minimal information exists on molecular changes in the brain that result from methamphetamine administered in patterns typical of human abusers. In order to investigate such changes, we examined the effect of methamphetamine on the transcriptional profile in brains of monkeys. Gene expression profiling of caudate and hippocampus identified protein disulfide isomerase family member A3 (PDIA3 to be significantly up-regulated in the animals treated with methamphetamine as compared to saline treated control monkeys. Methamphetamine treatment of mice also increased striatal PDIA3 expression. Treatment of primary striatal neurons with methamphetamine revealed an up-regulation of PDIA3, showing a direct effect of methamphetamine on neurons to increase PDIA3. In vitro studies using a neuroblastoma cell line demonstrated that PDIA3 expression protects against methamphetamine-induced cell toxicity and methamphetamine-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, revealing a neuroprotective role for PDIA3. The current study implicates PDIA3 to be an important cellular neuroprotective mechanism against a toxic drug, and as a potential target for therapeutic investigations.

  15. Modafinil abrogates methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation and apoptotic effects in the mouse striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raineri

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4 × 5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart and modafinil co-administration (2 × 90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections on glial cells (microglia and astroglia. We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum.

  16. Modafinil Abrogates Methamphetamine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Effects in the Mouse Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitia, Belen; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4×5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart) and modafinil co-administration (2×90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections) on glial cells (microglia and astroglia). We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum. PMID:23056363

  17. Validation of the immunalysis microplate ELISA for the detection of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Miller, Eleanor; Lee, Juseon; Park, Yonghoon; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun; Wylie, Fiona M; Oliver, John S

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study was to validate the Immunalysis Methamphetamine Microplate ELISA for detecting methamphetamine in hair. Twenty-nine scalp hair samples were obtained as routine cases submitted to the National Institute of Scientific Investigation in Seoul by the police. The hair samples were washed with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, distilled water, and dichloromethane. The samples were screened using the Immunalysis Methamphetamine Microplate ELISA and confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-eight hair samples were screened and confirmed as positive for methamphetamine. For ELISA analysis, the samples were extracted by incubation in monobasic phosphate buffer for 1 h at 60 degrees C. For GC-MS, the samples were extracted for 20 h in methanol containing 1% hydrochloric acid. The methanol/acid solution was evaporated to dryness and the resulting residue was derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Methamphetamine and amphetamine were detected using selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The Immunalysis Methamphetamine Microplate ELISA demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 100%, respectively, using a cut-off concentration of 0.5 ng/mg d-methamphetamine. The ELISA kit showed 63% cross-reactivity with d,l-methamphetamine and did not cross-react to any significant extent with the licit l-methamphetamine isomer. The intra- and interassay precisions were 2.5% and 3.7%, respectively.

  18. Analysis of methamphetamine in hair, nail, sweat, and saliva by mass fragmentography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Inoue, T; Hori, H; Inayama, S

    1989-01-01

    A method for the detection and quantitation of methamphetamine and its major metabolite in hair, nails, sweat, and saliva from habitual users of methamphetamine by mass fragmentography has been developed. Hair and nail samples were washed with water and methanol to remove the external contamination, processed with 0.6M HCl, alkalinized, and extracted with CHCl3/isopropanol (3:1 v/v). Sweat and saliva samples were extracted with methanol. After trifluoroacetyl derivatization, the samples were analyzed by mass fragmentography. Methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, were detected in hair, nail, and sweat samples, but methamphetamine alone was detected in saliva samples.

  19. Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and respiratory ), social workers, personal care aides, home medical equipment suppliers, and most importantly, informal caregivers (e.g., ... also available to help with home assessment. Assistive Technology to improve home safety can also be an ...

  20. alpha-Benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis: II. Metabolism and urinary excretion (human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Poklis, A

    1995-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse, which is readily synthesized in clandestine laboratories. Illicit synthesis results in the formation of various contaminants. Few impurities have been studied in vivo, and their metabolic fate is unknown. One such impurity is alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA). The detection of BNMPA or its metabolites in urine samples may provide a marker of use of illicitly synthesized methamphetamine. Benzphetamine is structurally similar to BNMPA. Based on metabolic studies of benzphetamine, we predicted the four major metabolites of BNMPA to be the N-demethyl compound, diphenyl-2-propanone (DP2P), p-hydroxy-N-demethyl BNMPA, and p-hydroxy-BNMPA. One male volunteer ingested 5 mg BNMPA. Seventeen urine specimens were collected over 50 h post ingestion. These specimens were analyzed for BNMPA and its four predicted major metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis or acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Specimens were also analyzed without hydrolysis to determine the abundance of nonconjugated ("free") metabolites. Only trace amounts of BNMPA and its N-demethyl metabolites were detected, and maximum excretion was from 2 to 4 h post ingestion. In the nonhydrolyzed samples, the phenyl-OH metabolites were also present in only trace amounts. Maximum excretion of DP2P was at 2 h. Following either hydrolysis procedure, phenyl-OH-BNMPA and phenyl-OH-N-demethyl BNMPA were the major metabolites detected. Maximum excretion of these two metabolites occurred at 4 h. With the exception of the parent compound and the N-demethyl metabolite, excretion of metabolites was greater than the limit of detection of this procedure (2.5 ng/mL) up to 21 h post ingestion. Metabolites were detectable in sufficient quantities to serve as an adequate marker of illicit methamphetamine consumption within the preceding 24 h.

  1. A qualitative study of methamphetamine initiation in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals’ initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. Results On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered “trendy”, which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. Conclusion The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for

  2. Methamphetamine self-administration in humans during D-amphetamine maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Hays, Lon R; Glaser, Paul E A; Rush, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    Agonist replacement may be a viable treatment approach for managing stimulant use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of D-amphetamine maintenance on methamphetamine self-administration in stimulant using human participants. We predicted that D-amphetamine maintenance would reduce methamphetamine self-administration. Eight participants completed the protocol, which tested 2 D-amphetamine maintenance conditions in counterbalanced order (0 and 40 mg/d). Participants completed 4 experimental sessions under each maintenance condition in which they first sampled 1 of 4 doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 10, 20, or 30 mg). Participants then had the opportunity to respond on a computerized progressive-ratio task to earn portions of the sampled methamphetamine dose. Subject-rated drug effect and physiological measures were completed at regular intervals prior to and after sampling methamphetamine. Methamphetamine was self-administered as an orderly function of dose regardless of the maintenance condition. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subject-rated effects on 12 items of the drug-effects questionnaires, 8 of which were attenuated by D-amphetamine maintenance (eg, increased ratings were attenuated on items such as Any Effect, Like Drug, and Willing to Take Again on the Drug Effect Questionnaire). Methamphetamine produced significant increases in systolic blood pressure, which were attenuated by D-amphetamine maintenance compared to placebo maintenance. Methamphetamine was well tolerated during D-amphetamine maintenance and no adverse events occurred. Although D-amphetamine attenuated some subject-rated effects of methamphetamine, the self-administration results are concordant with those of clinical trials showing that D-amphetamine did not reduce methamphetamine use. Unique pharmacological approaches may be needed for treating amphetamine use disorders.

  3. Buspirone maintenance does not alter the reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R

    2017-12-01

    Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies. Experimental research using maintenance dosing, which models therapeutic use, is limited. This study evaluated the influence of buspirone maintenance on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine using a self-administration procedure, which has predictive validity for clinical efficacy. The impact of buspirone maintenance on the subjective and cardiovascular response to methamphetamine was also determined. Eight research participants (1 female) reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which the pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 15, and 30mg) were assessed after at least 6days of buspirone (0 and 45mg/day) maintenance. Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like subjective (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects and Like Drug) and cardiovascular (e.g., elevated blood pressure) effects. These effects of methamphetamine were similar under buspirone and placebo maintenance conditions. Maintenance on buspirone was well tolerated and devoid of effects when administered alone. These data suggest that buspirone is unlikely to be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine-use disorder. Given the central role of monoamines in methamphetamine-use disorder, it is reasonable for future studies to continue to target these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; McEntee, Alice

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime and recent methamphetamine use (including crystal methamphetamine) differed among city, regional and rural residents and whether particular subpopulations were more at-risk. Secondary analyses of the last three National Drug Strategy Household Surveys and corresponding Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Sets (AODTS NMDS). Australian general population. Australians who completed the 2007 (n = 22 519), 2010 (n = 25 786) and 2013 (n = 23 512) NDSHS (aged 14 + ); and treatment episodes where the principal drug of concern was recorded in the 2006/2007 (n = 139 808), 2009/2010 (n = 139 608) and 2012/2013 (n = 154 489) AODTS NMDS. To determine whether rural Australians were more likely to use methamphetamine than non-rural counterparts. Lifetime and recent methamphetamine and recent crystal methamphetamine use were significantly higher among rural than other Australians. Significantly more rural men and employed rural Australians used methamphetamine than their city, regional or Australian counterparts. Rural Australians aged 18-24 and 25-29 years were significantly more likely to have used methamphetamine in their lifetime than city or Australian residents. Rural Australians aged 18-24 years were significantly more likely to have recently used crystal methamphetamine. Interventions tailored to address the specific and unique circumstances of rural settings are required to reduce and prevent methamphetamine use, particularly crystal methamphetamine. Scope exists to focus prevention efforts on rural workplaces and primary care settings. Greater understanding of the higher prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural areas is required, plus implementation of comprehensive strategies and optimised treatment utilisation. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide constructs: a potential neuroimmune-based treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Loftis

    Full Text Available Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40-60%, and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-A(b/mMOG-35-55, in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments.

  6. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  7. Histopathological study of cardiac lesions in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Maryam; Mobaraki, Homeira; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar

    2017-02-17

    Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group. Toxicology analysis of liver, gastric content, bile, urine, blood and vitreous humor were conducted to detect drugs, poisons and alcohols using thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and high performance liquid chromatography. Positive toxicology analysis results except for amphetamine and methamphetamine were excluded from the study in order to omit interfering factors. The most striking features of cardiac damage were observed by light microscopy. Methamphetamine and amphetamine were detected in either urine or gastric content samples. In all of the cases methamphetamine toxicity was determined to be a direct cause of death by forensic medicine practitioner. Cardiovascular pathology was noted in 68% of studied cases. The most common histopathologic features were myocardial fiber hypertrophy, mild, moderate to severe atherosclerosis and focal degeneration/necrosis. The results of the present study indicate that cardiotoxicity is one of the major contributing factors in methamphetamine poisoning related deaths. Overall, the current study highlights the fact that cardiotoxic effects of methamphetamine can explain increasing reports of heart failure and consequently death in young abusers. Not applicable. Histopathological study of cardiac lesions in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths.

  8. A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine- or food-seeking in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Banna, Kelly M.; Willse, Lena Vaughn; Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Noushin; See, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether continued access to methamphetamine or food reinforcement changed economic demand for both. The relationship between demand elasticity and cue-induced reinstatement was also determined. Male Long-Evans rats lever-pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). For two groups, demand curves were obtained before and after continued access (12 days, 2-hr sessions) to the reinforcer under a fixed-ratio 3 schedule. A third group was given continued access to methamphetamine between determinations of food demand and a fourth group abstained from methamphetamine between determinations. All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. Although food demand was less elastic than methamphetamine demand, continued access to methamphetamine shifted the methamphetamine demand curve upward and the food demand curve downward. In some rats, methamphetamine demand also became less elastic. Continued access to food had no effect on food demand. Reinstatement was higher after continued access to methamphetamine relative to food. For methamphetamine, elasticity and reinstatement measures were correlated. We conclude that continued access to methamphetamine – but not food – alters demand in ways suggestive of methamphetamine accruing reinforcing strength. Demand elasticity and reinstatement measures appear to be related indices of drug-seeking. PMID:21597363

  9. A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M; Banna, Kelly M; Willse, Lena Vaughn; Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Noushin; See, Ronald E

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether continued access to methamphetamine or food reinforcement changed economic demand for both. The relationship between demand elasticity and cue-induced reinstatement was also determined. Male Long-Evans rats were lever pressed under increasing fixed-ratio requirements for either food pellets or methamphetamine (20 μg/50 μl infusion). For two groups, demand curves were obtained before and after continued access (12 days, 2-h sessions) to the reinforcer under a fixed-ratio 3 schedule. A third group was given continued access to methamphetamine between determinations of food demand and a fourth group abstained from methamphetamine between determinations. All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. Although food demand was less elastic than methamphetamine demand, continued access to methamphetamine shifted the methamphetamine demand curve upward and the food demand curve downward. In some rats, methamphetamine demand also became less elastic. Continued access to food had no effect on food demand. Reinstatement was higher after continued access to methamphetamine relative to food. For methamphetamine, elasticity and reinstatement measures were correlated. Continued access to methamphetamine, but not food, alters demand in ways suggestive of methamphetamine accruing reinforcing strength. Demand elasticity thus provides a useful measure of abuse liability that may predict future relapse to renewed drug-seeking and drug use.

  10. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  11. Epigenetic landscape of amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Arthur; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction is described by specific behavioral alterations, suggesting long-lasting changes in gene and protein expression within specific brain subregions involved in the reward circuitry. Given the persistence of the addiction phenotype at both behavioral and transcriptional levels, several studies have been conducted to elucidate the epigenetic landscape associated with persistent effects of drug use on the mammalian brain. This review discusses recent advances in our comprehension of epigenetic mechanisms underlying amphetamine- or methamphetamine-induced behavioral, transcriptional, and synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that drug exposure induces major epigenetic modifications-histone acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation-in a very complex manner. In rare instances, however, the regulation of a specific target gene can be correlated to both epigenetic alterations and behavioral abnormalities. Work is now needed to clarify and validate an epigenetic model of addiction to amphetamines. Investigations that include genome-wide approaches will accelerate the speed of discovery in the field of addiction.

  12. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598

  13. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Kelly; Dryden, Donna M.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Friesen, Carol; O'Gorman, Kathleen; Durec, Tamara; Wild, T. Cameron; Klassen, Terry P

    2008-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents ...

  14. Epigenetic landscape of amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Godino, Arthur; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction is described by specific behavioral alterations, suggesting long-lasting changes in gene and protein expression within specific brain subregions involved in the reward circuitry. Given the persistence of the addiction phenotype at both behavioral and transcriptional levels, several studies have been conducted to elucidate the epigenetic landscape associated with persistent effects of drug use on the mammalian brain. This review discusses recent advanc...

  15. Response of Limbic Neurotensin Systems to Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Glen R.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Alburges, Mario E.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Robson, Christina M.; Frankel, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is personally and socially devastating. Although effects of METH on dopamine (DA) systems likely contribute to its highly addictive nature, no medications are approved to treat METH dependence. Thus, we and others have studied the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems. Neurotensin is associated with inhibitory feedback action on DA projections and NT levels are elevated in both the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum after non-contingent treatment w...

  16. Methamphetamine-using felons: Psychosocial and behavioral characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, Shirley J.; Zians, Jim; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) users with felony convictions may be important vectors in the HIV/AIDS pandemic because of their drug and sexual risk histories. This study gathered personal, psychosocial, and behavioral data from 450 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using men and women. Significant differences were found between felons and non-felons in meth use patterns, contexts and reasons for use, involvement of social networks in meth use, and certain psychosocial and sexual risk var...

  17. Methamphetamine disposition in oral fluid, plasma, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Cone, Edward J

    2007-03-01

    This review of the disposition of methamphetamine in oral fluid, plasma, and urine is based on a comprehensive controlled dosing study involving five healthy, drug-free research volunteers who resided on a closed clinical ward for 12 weeks. Subjects were administered four low (10 mg) and high (20 mg) daily oral doses of methamphetamine in two separate sessions. Near-simultaneous collections of oral fluid and plasma were performed on the first day of each low- and high-dose session. Thereafter, oral fluid was provided on each day of dosing by different oral fluid collection methods. All urine specimens were collected on an ad libitum basis throughout the study. Specimens were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry for methamphetamine and the metabolite, amphetamine, with a limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL for each analyte. Methamphetamine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid appeared to follow a similar time course in oral fluid as in plasma and were dose-proportional, but oral fluid concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations. Urine drug concentrations were substantially higher than those in oral fluid. Some drug accumulation was noted with daily dosing, but generally did not markedly influence detection times or detection rates of oral fluid tests. Detection times and detection rates for oral fluid and urine were determined at cessation of 4 days of dosing. Generally, detection times and rates for urine were longer than those observed for oral fluid at conventional cutoff concentrations. When contemplating selection of oral fluid as a test matrix, the advantages of oral fluid collection should be weighed against its shorter time of detection compared to that of urine.

  18. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga; Jason eJacobskind; Jacob eRaber

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors suc...

  19. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2011-08-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent [i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40] rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a "challenge" high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this "resistance" were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Sensing of Methamphetamine by a Specific Aptamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mashinchian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is a simple and highly sensitive technique that can be used for evaluation of the aptamer-target interaction even in a label-free approach. Methods: To pursue the effectiveness of EIS, in the current study, the folding properties of specific aptamer for methamphetamine (METH (i.e., aptaMETH were evaluated in the presence of METH and amphetamine (Amph. Folded and unfolded aptaMETH was mounted on the gold electrode surface and the electron charge transfer was measured by EIS. Results: The Ret of methamphetamine-aptaMETH was significantly increased in comparison with other folding conditions, indicating specific detection of METH by aptaMETH. Conclusion: Based on these findings, methamphetamine-aptaMETH on the gold electrode surface displayed the most interfacial electrode resistance and thus the most folding situation. This clearly indicates that the aptaMETH can profoundly and specifically pinpoint METH; as a result we suggest utilization of this methodology for fast and cost-effective identification of METH.

  1. Violence among street-involved youth: the role of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Palepu, Anita; Wood, Evan; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a possible association between violence and the use of drugs, particularly methamphetamine and alcohol. Cross-sectional, baseline data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Subjects were asked whether they had suffered or perpetrated violence in the 6 months prior to the interview. In total, 478 youth were enrolled, with a median age of 22 years (interquartile range = 20.0-23.9); 230 (48%) reported having been victims of violence, while 165 (34.5%) reported having perpetrated violence. Daily methamphetamine use was not associated with either outcome. In a multivariate analysis, daily alcohol consumption was significantly associated with being a victim (adjusted odds ratio = 2.10) and a perpetrator (adjusted odds ratio = 2.02) of violence. A history of abuse, failing a grade, and dealing drugs were also independently associated with violence, while having a regular partner was protective. Contrary to popular media reports that methamphetamine causes violence, we found no association. The association of alcohol with violence, though, has implications for screening and intervention programs. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles as a novel magnetic solid phase extraction adsorbent for simultaneous extraction of methamphetamine and ephedrine from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvimi, Arezou; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-01-15

    This paper develops a highly selective, specific and efficient method for simultaneous determination of ephedrine and methamphetamine by a new carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles (C/MNPs) as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent in biological urine medium. The characterization of synthesized magnetic nano adsorbent was completely carried out by various characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Nine important parameters influencing extraction efficiency including amount of adsorbent, amounts of sample volume, pH, type and amount of extraction organic solvent, time of extraction and desorption, agitation rate and ionic strength of extraction medium, were studied and optimized. Under optimized extraction conditions, a good linearity was observed in the concentration range of 100-2000ng/mL for ephedrine and 100-2500ng/mL for methamphetamine. Analysis of positive urine samples was carried out by proposed method with the recovery of 98.71 and 97.87% for ephedrine and methamphetamine, respectively. The results indicated that carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in clinical and forensic laboratories for simultaneous determination of abused drugs in urine media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuropsychological comparisons of cocaine versus methamphetamine users: a research synthesis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew G; Hauson, Alexander O; Wollman, Scott C; Allen, Kenneth E; Connors, Eric J; Stern, Mark J; Kimmel, Christine L; Stephan, Rick A; Sarkissians, Sharis; Barlet, Brianna D; Grant, Igor

    2017-08-21

    Previous meta-analytical research examining cocaine and methamphetamine separately suggests potentially different neuropsychological profiles associated with each drug. In addition, neuroimaging studies point to distinct structural changes that might underlie differences in neuropsychological functioning. This meta-analysis compared the effect sizes identified in cocaine versus methamphetamine studies across 15 neuropsychological domains. Investigators searched and coded the literature examining the neuropsychological deficits associated with a history of either cocaine or methamphetamine use. A total of 54 cocaine and 41 methamphetamine studies were selected, yielding sample sizes of 1,718 and 1,297, respectively. Moderator analyses were conducted to compare the two drugs across each cognitive domain. Data revealed significant differences between the two drugs. Specifically, studies of cocaine showed significantly larger effect-size estimates (i.e., poorer performance) in verbal working memory when compared to methamphetamine. Further, when compared to cocaine, methamphetamine studies demonstrated significantly larger effect sizes in delayed contextual verbal memory and delayed visual memory. Overall, cocaine and methamphetamine users share similar neuropsychological profiles. However, cocaine appears to be more associated with working memory impairments, which are typically frontally mediated, while methamphetamine appears to be more associated with memory impairments that are linked with temporal and parietal lobe dysfunction.

  4. Combating Methamphetamine Use in the Community: The Efficacy of the Drug Court Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle; Hartman, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine use was historically a problem facing Western states; however, in recent years it has methodically spread throughout the nation. Methamphetamine use impacts communities, families, and the criminal justice system in a variety of ways. As such, many jurisdictions are developing policies to reduce the sale and consumption of this drug…

  5. A Multivariate Analysis of the Sociodemographic Predictors of Methamphetamine Production and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Todd A.; Armstrong, Gaylene S.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research testing the community characteristics associated with methamphetamine production and use has found that the community-level sociodemographic predictors of methamphetamine production and use vary from those of drug use in general. In this study, the authors furthered the research in this area using data from all 102 counties in…

  6. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  7. The Impact of the Media in Influencing Extension's Perceptions of Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreault, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here explored media dependency and moral panic involving methamphetamine perceptions among a national sample of Extension Directors through survey methodology. With a 70.0% response rate, the questionnaire concentrated on demographics; methamphetamine knowledge, information sources, and dependency; and perceptions of the media.…

  8. Methamphetamine exposure during brain development alters the brain acetylcholine system in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jessica A; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    Children exposed to methamphetamine during brain development as a result of maternal drug use have long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments, but the mechanisms underlying these impairments are not understood. The acetylcholine system plays an important role in cognitive function and potential methamphetamine-induced acetylcholine alterations may be related to methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the potential long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development on the acetylcholine system in adolescence mice on postnatal day 30 and in adult mice on postnatal day 90. Methamphetamine exposure increased the density of acetylcholine neurons in regions of the basal forebrain and the area occupied by acetylcholine axons in the hippocampus in adolescent female mice. In contrast, methamphetamine exposure did not affect the density of GABA cells or total neurons in the basal forebrain. Methamphetamine exposure also increased the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus of adolescent male and female mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that methamphetamine exposure during hippocampal development affects the acetylcholine system in adolescent mice and that these changes are more profound in females than males. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. During-Treatment Outcomes among Female Methamphetamine-Using Offenders in Prison-Based Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Greener, Jack M.; Vance, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly important treatment group is the expanding population of methamphetamine-using female offenders. This study focused on women methamphetamine-using offenders (n = 359) who were treated either in a modified therapeutic community (TC) program ("Clean Lifestyle is Freedom Forever" [CLIFF]-TC: n = 234) designed for non-violent offenders…

  10. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  11. The Effects of Methamphetamine Self-Administration on Cortical Monoaminergic Deficits Induced by Subsequent High-Dose Methamphetamine Administrations

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical models suggest that repeated high-dose methamphetamine (METH) exposures, administered in a “binge-like” pattern, acutely decrease norepinephrine (NE), and acutely and persistently decrease serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) content in the frontal cortex. However, the impact of METH self-administration on this region is unknown. Because of the importance of the monoaminergic neurons in the frontal cortex to a variety of cognitive and addictive processes, effects of METH self-admi...

  12. Lamotrigine blocks repeated high-dose methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization to dizocilpine (MK-801), but not methamphetamine in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakato, Yasuya; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Ito,Koki; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2011-01-01

    We recently proposed a new psychostimulant animal model of the progressive pathophysiological changes of schizophrenia. Studies using that model produced a treatment strategy for preventing progression. Lamotrigine (LTG) blocks repeated high-dosage methamphetamine (METH)-induced initiation and expression of prepulse inhibition deficit and development of apoptosis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, it inhibits METH-induced increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the mPFC ...

  13. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  14. Determination of methamphetamine in hair after single and repeated administration to rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwaguchi, T; Suzuki, S; Inoue, T

    1983-02-01

    Methamphetamine in hair after p.o. administration to rat was identified and determined by mass fragmentography (MF). Rat hair was washed with HCl/methnanol, methanol and water. The hair was crushed in 0.6 M HCl, suspension was alkalized with Na2CO3, and extracted with chloroform/isopropanol. The extract obtained was purified by column chromatography on aluminium oxide. Concentrated eluate was trifluoroacetylated, and methamphetamine was identified and determined by MF. More than 20 pg of methamphetamine was detectable and less than 1 ng of that was determined by MF. Methamphetamine in hair collected from rat after p.o. administration of 20 mg/kg of the drug was detected and determined up to 8 days after. From hair of rat after 5-days or 14-days repeated administration of 20 mg/kg/day, methamphetamine was detected 25 or 45 days after the last administration, respectively.

  15. Barriers to accessing methamphetamine treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Craig; Troeung, Lakkhina; Young, Jesse T; Kelty, Erin; Preen, David B

    2016-11-01

    Methamphetamine use is associated with a range of poor health, social and justice outcomes. In many parts of the world increased methamphetamine use has been identified as a major public health concern. Methamphetamine treatment programmes have been effective in reducing and ceasing use, however a range of barriers have prevented these programmes being widely adopted by methamphetamine users. This review examines the barriers to accessing meth/amphetamine treatment identified in the literature. Databases were systematically searched using relevant terms for peer-reviewed articles describing original research exploring the barriers to accessing treatment for meth/amphetamine use. Reviews and grey literature were excluded. Eleven studies conducted in 5 countries were included in data synthesis; this involved a systematic review of all 11 studies, and meta-analysis of the prevalence of barriers reported in 6 studies that published sufficient quantitative data. Psychosocial/internal barriers to accessing methamphetamine treatment were most prevalent across studies (10/11 studies). Meta-analysis confirmed the four most commonly endorsed barriers to treatment access across studies all psychosocial barriers were embarrassment or stigma (60%, 95% CI: 54-67%); belief that treatment was unnecessary (59%, 95% CI:54-65%); preferring to withdraw alone without assistance (55%, 95% CI:45-65); and privacy concerns (51%, 95% CI:44-59%). The primary barriers to accessing methamphetamine treatment are psychosocial/internal. Services and treatment models that address these barriers are urgently required. There is a growing need for methamphetamine-appropriate treatment services. Further research evaluating treatment engagement and effectiveness for methamphetamine and polysubstance use, including the development of effective pharmacotherapies is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day) or extended access (6 h/day) paradigm for 17 days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct allostatic changes in

  17. Physiological and subjective effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during extended-release alprazolam maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R; Rush, Craig R

    2011-12-15

    Medications development for methamphetamine dependence is ongoing, but no widely accepted, effective pharmacotherapy has been identified. Previous studies have demonstrated neurobiological perturbations to central GABA(A) activity following chronic stimulant use, and that positive modulation of GABA(A) receptors attenuates the neurochemical and behavioral response to stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine. Therefore, GABA(A) modulators could be useful as pharmacotherapies for stimulant-use disorders. This study tested the hypothesis that intranasal methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated during maintenance on extended-release alprazolam (XR), and that the effects of methamphetamine would be attenuated. Eight non-treatment-seeking, stimulant-dependent individuals completed an inpatient experiment in which ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg) were administered after four days of alprazolam XR maintenance (0 and 1mg/day). Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical effects (e.g., increased positive subjective ratings and elevated cardiovascular signs). The combination of intranasal methamphetamine and alprazolam XR was safe and well tolerated. Alprazolam XR produced small, but orderly, reductions in some of the subjective effects of methamphetamine, and performance impairment. The present results demonstrate that methamphetamine use during alprazolam XR treatment would not pose a significant safety risk. Given the potential of GABA(A) positive modulators to manage certain aspects of stimulant abuse and dependence (i.e., drug-induced seizures, anxiety and stress), but the relatively small impact on the acute abuse-related effects of methamphetamine observed here, additional research with GABA(A) positive modulators is warranted, but should consider their use as an adjunct component of combination behavioral and/or drug treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Interleukin 1 receptor contributes to methamphetamine- and sleep deprivation-induced hypersomnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michelle A; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2012-04-04

    Methamphetamine-induced wakefulness is dependent on monoamine transporter blockade. Subsequent to methamphetamine-induced wakefulness, the amount of time spent asleep and the depth of sleep are increased relative to baseline sleep. The mechanisms that drive methamphetamine-induced hypersomnolence are not fully understood. We recently observed that methamphetamine exposure elevates the expression of the sleep-promoting cytokine, interleukin-1β in CD11b-positive monocytes within the brain. Here, we sought to determine whether activation of the interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R) drives the increase in the depth and amount of sleep that occurs subsequent to methamphetamine-induced wakefulness. IL1R-deficient mice and wild type control mice were subjected to systemic methamphetamine (1 and 2mg/kg) and saline treatments. The wake-promoting effect of methamphetamine was modestly potentiated by IL1R-deficiency. Additionally, the increase in time spent in NREMS subsequent to methamphetamine-induced wakefulness in wild type mice was abolished in IL1R-deficient mice. The increase in time spent asleep after 3h of behaviorally enforced wakefulness was also abolished in IL1R-deficient mice. Increases in EEG slow wave activity triggered by methamphetamine and sleep deprivation were of equal magnitude in IL1R-deficient and wild type mice. These data demonstrate that IL1R activation contributes to hypersomnolence that occurs after sleep loss, whether that sleep loss is triggered pharmacologically by methamphetamine or through behavioral sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methamphetamine use is an independent predictor of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Mitkov, Mario; Ducruet, Andrew F; Wilson, David A; Crowley, R Webster; Nakaji, Peter; McDougall, Cameron G

    2015-05-01

    Clinical outcomes of methamphetamine users with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are unknown. To analyze differences in presentation, in-hospital morbidity, and outcomes between methamphetamine users and non-users. All 472 patients included in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed. Patients with 1- and 3-year follow-up were included in this analysis (n=398). Methamphetamine users were identified as patients who provided a history of methamphetamine use on admission or tested positive on urine toxicology testing. Methamphetamine users were compared with non-users using univariate analysis. Outcomes were then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models for demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, radiographic and clinical presentation, and vasospasm. Thirty-one patients (7.8%) were identified as methamphetamine users in this cohort. Methamphetamine users were younger than non-users (mean age 42.8 vs 55 years, pmethamphetamine use was an independent predictor of poor Glasgow Outcome Scale score at both 1 year (OR=5.02; 95% CI 1.03 to 24.48; pMethamphetamine use was not significantly associated with vasospasm, higher Fisher or Hunt and Hess grade, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage. Methamphetamine users have significantly worse outcomes at 1 and 3 years following aSAH. Further analysis is necessary to understand the pathological response associated with methamphetamine use in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. 1H and 31P benchtop NMR of liquids and solids used in and/or produced during the manufacture of methamphetamine by the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogun, Ben; Moore, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the use of benchtop NMR spectroscopy in the analysis of solids and liquids used and/or produced during the HI reduction of pseudoephedrine was evaluated. The study focused on identifying organic precursors and phosphorus containing compounds used in and/or produced during the manufacturing process. Samples taken from clandestine laboratories, where this synthesis process was suspected of occurring, were also analysed and evaluated. Benchtop NMR was able to distinguish between ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine as the free base and hydrochloride salt. This technique was also effective at identifying and distinguishing between phosphorus containing compounds used and/or produced during the manufacture of methamphetamine. Benchtop NMR was also determined to be effective at analysing samples from suspected clandestine laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methamphetamine preconditioning alters midbrain transcriptional responses to methamphetamine-induced injury in the rat striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lud Cadet

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an illicit drug which is neurotoxic to the mammalian brain. Numerous studies have revealed significant decreases in dopamine and serotonin levels in the brains of animals exposed to moderate-to-large METH doses given within short intervals of time. In contrast, repeated injections of small nontoxic doses of the drug followed by a challenge with toxic METH doses afford significant protection against monoamine depletion. The present study was undertaken to test the possibility that repeated injections of the drug might be accompanied by transcriptional changes involved in rendering the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system refractory to METH toxicity. Our results confirm that METH preconditioning can provide significant protection against METH-induced striatal dopamine depletion. In addition, the presence and absence of METH preconditioning were associated with substantial differences in the identity of the genes whose expression was affected by a toxic METH challenge. Quantitative PCR confirmed METH-induced changes in genes of interest and identified additional genes that were differentially impacted by the toxic METH challenge in the presence of METH preconditioning. These genes include small heat shock 27 kD 27 protein 2 (HspB2, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, c-fos, and some encoding antioxidant proteins including CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1, and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1. These observations are consistent, in part, with the transcriptional alterations reported in models of lethal ischemic injuries which are preceded by ischemic or pharmacological preconditioning. Our findings suggest that multiple molecular pathways might work in tandem to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway against the deleterious effects of the toxic psychostimulant. Further analysis of the molecular and cellular pathways regulated by these genes should help to

  2. Prior methamphetamine self-administration attenuates serotonergic deficits induced by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hunt, Madison M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Muehle, Janice; Nielsen, Shannon M; Allen, Scott C; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2012-11-01

    Pre-clinical studies indicate that high-dose, non-contingent methamphetamine (METH) administration both rapidly and persistently decreases serotonergic neuronal function. Despite research indicating the hippocampus plays an important role in METH abuse and is affected by METH use, effects of METH self-administration on hippocampal serotonergic neurons are not well understood, and were thus an important focus of the current study. Because humans often administer METH in a binge-like pattern, effects of prior METH self-administration on a subsequent "binge-like" METH treatment were also examined. Rats were treated as described above, and sacrificed 1 or 8d after self-administration or 1h or 7d after the final binge METH or saline exposure. Hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) content and transporter (SERT) function were assessed. METH self-administration per se had no persistent effect on hippocampal 5HT content or SERT function. However, this treatment attenuated the persistent, but not acute, hippocampal serotonergic deficits caused by a subsequent repeated, high-dose, non-continent METH treatment administered 1 d the last self-administration session. No attenuation in persistent deficits were seen when the high-dose administration of METH occurred 15d after the last self-administration session. The present findings demonstrate that METH self-administration alters serotonergic neurons so as to engender "tolerance" to the persistent serotonergic deficits caused by a subsequent METH exposure. However, this "tolerance" does not persist. These data provide a foundation to investigate complex questions including how the response of serotonergic neurons to METH may contribute to contingent-related disorders such as dependence and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prior methamphetamine self-administration attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-06-01

    Others and we have reported that prior methamphetamine (METH) exposure attenuates the persistent striatal dopaminergic deficits caused by a subsequent high-dose "binge" METH exposure. The current study investigated intermediate neurochemical changes that may contribute to, or serve to predict, this resistance. Rats self-administered METH or saline for 7 d. On the following day (specifically, 16 h after the conclusion of the final METH self-administration session), rats received a binge exposure of METH or saline (so as to assess the impact of prior METH self-administration), or were sacrificed without a subsequent METH exposure (i.e., to assess the status of the rats at what would have been the initiation of the binge METH treatment). Results revealed that METH self-administration per se decreased striatal dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function and DA content, as assessed 16 h after the last self-administration session. Exposure to a binge METH treatment beginning at this 16-h time point decreased DAT function and DA content as assessed 1 h after the binge METH exposure: this effect on DA content (but not DAT function) was attenuated if rats previously self-administered METH. In contrast, 24 h after the binge METH treatment prior METH self-administration: 1) attenuated deficits in DA content, DAT function and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function; and 2) prevented increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein and DAT complex immunoreactivity. These data suggest that changes 24 h, but not 1 h, after binge METH exposure are predictive of tolerance against the persistence of neurotoxic changes following binge METH exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hair analysis and self-report of methamphetamine use by methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Paulus, Martin P; Wittmann, Marc; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-03-01

    The questions of whether the dose of drug that is consumed corresponds to drug concentration levels in hair and how results of hair analyses can be interpreted are still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether there is a correlation between doses of Methamphetamine (MA) use and MA concentration levels in hair and (2) whether results of hair analyses can be used to estimate dose, frequency, and patterns of MA use. In this study, segmental hair analysis was performed through consecutive 1cm as well as 1-4 cm (=3 cm) segmental hair lengths. MA dependent individuals (n=9) provided information on doses (0.25-4 g/day) of MA use as well as the frequency of MA use. The concentrations of MA and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in hair were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed to evaluate whether MA and AP concentrations in consecutive 1cm length segmental hair were consistent with the history of MA use. The cumulative doses of MA use calculated from the daily dose and the frequency during 1-4 months were well correlated to the concentrations of MA and AP in 1-4 cm segmental hair length (correlation coefficient, r=0.87 for MA and r=0.77 for AP). The results from this study show the patterns and histories of MA use from MA dependent individuals and could assist in the interpretation of hair results in forensic toxicology as well as in rehabilitation and treatment programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and application of a fortified hair reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-07-04

    Quality assurance is one of the major issues in forensic analytical laboratories, where the need for a reference material (RM) has rapidly increased. RMs are very useful for method development and validation, internal quality control or proficiency tests. In the present study, we prepared a RM using drug-free hair for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) according to the recommendations of ISO Guide 35. The concentrations of MA and AP were determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). The assignment of values was conducted through the homogeneity study and characterization of the material. Furthermore, an internal proficiency test was performed with the prepared RM, of which the results were compared with those of the authentic hair RM prepared in our previous study. As a result, a hair RM containing MA and AP was prepared at the level of 4.86+/-0.69 ng/mg and 4.63+/-0.44 ng/mg, respectively. Most participants showed satisfactory performances in the internal proficiency test with the both RMs. The hair RM prepared in this study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in forensic laboratories.

  6. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde–free laboratory is possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanini Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formaldehyde (HCHO is a gas (available as a 37% concentrated solution, stabilized with methanol. The 10% dilution (approximately 4% formaldehyde has been used as a fixative since the end of the 19th century. Alternative fixatives are also commercially available or may be prepared in-house in laboratories. Statements by the IARC, along with other USA agencies (CalEPA, RoC/NTP on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde for humans renders its substitution in Pathology Departments necessary since the annual use of formalin may exceed 3,500 liters for a medium-large laboratory. To achieve a “formalin-free laboratory” we tested straightforward-to-make fixatives along with registered reagents offered as formalin substitutes. Methods More than two hundreds specimens were fixed in parallel with in-laboratory made fixatives PAGA (Polyethylenglycol, ethyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Acetic acid, two zinc-based fixatives (ZBF, Z7, and commercially-available alternatives (RCL2 and CellBlock. Tissue micro arrays were used for morphological and immunohistochemical comparison. Extraction of RNA was carried out to evaluate preservation of nucleic acids. Results Differences compared to formalin fixation were evident in alcohol-based fixatives, mainly restricted to higher stain affinity and considerable tissue shrinkage. Conversely, nuclear detail was superior with these alcohol-based formulas compared to formalin or glyoxale-based recipes. RNA extraction was superior for Z7, PAGA and RCL2 with regard to concentration but relatively comparable regarding quality. Conclusions Abolition of the human carcinogen formaldehyde from pathology laboratories is possible even in contexts whereby commercial alternatives to formalin are unavailable or are too expensive for routine use, and aspiration devices are lacking or not adequately serviced. The use of known formulations, possibly with simple and not-noxious (“alimentary grade” constituents, comparable with

  7. At the borders, on the edge: use of injected methamphetamine in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Patricia; Patricia, Case; Ramos, Rebeca; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Pollini, Robin A; Fraga, Miguel A; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-02-01

    Injection drug use is of increasing concern along the US-Mexico border where Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez are located. Methamphetamine has long been manufactured and trafficked through Mexico, with low rates of use within Mexico. With methamphetamine use now considered epidemic in the United States, and with associated individual and community harms such as HIV, STDs, domestic violence and crime, there is concern that rates of methamphetamine in the Northwestern border regions of Mexico may be rising. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the context of injection drug use in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez and included questions about methamphetamine. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and 15 male and 8 female IDUs in Cd. Juarez (total N = 43). Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. The median age of injectors in both cities was 30. Methamphetamine was injected, either alone or in combination with other drugs by injectors in both Tijuana (85%) and Cd. Juarez (17%) in the 6 months previous to interview. Several important themes emerged with respect to methamphetamine use in both cities. IDUs in both cities considered methamphetamine to be widely used in Tijuana and infrequently used in Cd. Juarez, while the converse was true for cocaine. In both cities, stimulant (either cocaine or methamphetamine) use was widespread, with 85% in Tijuana and 83% in Cd. Juarez reporting current use of a stimulant, most often used in combination with heroin. Some injectors reported knowledge of local manufacturing and one had direct experience in making methamphetamine; some cross-border use and trafficking was reported. Injectors reported concerns or experience with serious health effects of methamphetamine such as abscesses or

  8. Home Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Furniture Tip-Overs filter Water and Drowning Apply Water and Drowning filter Space and Place: (-) Remove Home filter Home Car and Road Apply Car and Road filter Sports and Play Apply Sports and Play filter Type: Activities for ...

  9. Home hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G

    2015-01-01

    We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use.......We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....

  10. Influence of different intravenous lipid emulsions on fatty acid status and laboratory and clinical outcomes in adult patients receiving home parenteral nutrition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charis J; Calder, Philip C

    2016-12-31

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are a key component in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), providing energy and essential fatty acids (EFAs). Modification of the fatty acid (FA) composition of IVLEs may lead to changes in metabolic responses and cell and tissue function, providing opportunity for clinical improvements. Studies have suggested that, in place of conventional pure soybean oil (SO)-based IVLEs, which have a high omega-6 FA content, alternative IVLEs with different FA profiles may have beneficial effects. Our aim is to assess the effects of different IVLEs in adults dependent on HPN. A systematic literature search using specific terms was performed up to December 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing two or more IVLEs in adult patients receiving HPN were included. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was employed and data for outcomes of interest were extracted and collated for interpretation. Three RCTs met the eligibility criteria to be included in this review. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 75, giving a total of 110 patients. All three RCTs reported similar clinical safety for alternative IVLEs compared to SO. Antioxidant status improved with SO-medium-chain triglyceride-olive oil-fish oil (SMOF) but not with olive oil-SO (OO-SO). There was no effect on inflammatory markers according to IVLE used. Phospholipid FA profile was modified by SMOF and OO-SO, with SMOF resulting in a more preferable omega-6/omega-3 FA ratio than SO. There was no evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency with any IVLE. Liver function was improved with SMOF. There may be benefits in using alternative IVLEs rather than pure SO in adults on HPN, but there are currently too few RCTs to reach a firm conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Dipankar Home

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Dipankar Home. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 56 Issue 2-3 February-March 2001 pp 179-187. Facets of tripartite entanglement · Dipankar Home · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving ...

  12. Examining the role of methamphetamine in permanency: A competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship, and adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Becci A; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-03-01

    Parental methamphetamine use has drawn significant attention in recent years. Despite prior research that shows that parental substance abuse is a risk factor for lengthy foster care stay, little is known about the effect of specific types of substance use on permanency. This study sought to compare the impact of parental methamphetamine use to alcohol use, other drug use, and polysubstance use on the timing of 3 types of permanency: reunification, guardianship, and adoption. Using an entry cohort of 16,620 children who had entered foster care during a 5-year period, competing risks event history models were conducted for each permanency type. Findings showed that, after controlling for several case characteristics, parent illicit drug use significantly impacted the timing of the 3 types of permanency, but alcohol use did not. Methamphetamine, other drug, and polysubstance with methamphetamine use were associated with lower rates of reunification and higher rates of adoption. Guardianship was also predicted by other drug and polysubstance use without methamphetamine; however, methamphetamine use was not associated with guardianship. Notably, the methamphetamine groups comprised the youngest children and had the shortest median time to adoption. Results suggest that type of parental substance use is predictive of permanency exits and that parental illicit drug use may require tailored strategies for improving permanency outcomes. Further implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Creating visual differences: Methamphetamine users perceptions of anti-meth campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Whitney; Copes, Heith; Linnemann, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active). Specifically, we presented participants with images from the Faces of Meth and the Montana Meth Project campaigns to stimulate discussion. We found that participants believed these ads did not reflect their personal experiences and consequently were ineffective at curtailing their own methamphetamine use. They believed that the ads represented a certain type of methamphetamine user, particularly those they defined as dysfunctional users. They created symbolic boundaries between themselves and those portrayed in the ads to show how they differed, which allowed them to believe that the ads were not relevant to their experiences. Findings suggest that there are unintended consequences to inauthentic/dramatic imagery. Participants did not believe they were like those in the ads-thus saw no reason to quit or seek help. Consequently, overly stigmatizing portraits of users may act as barriers to desistence. The findings have implications for designing anti-methamphetamine campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methamphetamine: An Update on Epidemiology, Pharmacology, Clinical Phenomenology, and Treatment Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Ray, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite initial reports of a decline in use in the early 2000s, methamphetamine remains a significant public health concern with known neurotoxic and neurocognitive effects to the user. The goal of this review is to update the literature on methamphetamine use and addiction since its assent to peak popularity in 1990s. Methods Specifically, we first review recent epidemiological reports with a focus on methamphetamine accessibility, changes in use and disorder prevalence rates over time, and accurate estimates of the associated burden of care to the individual and society. Second, we review methamphetamine pharmacology literature with emphasis on the structural and functional neurotoxic effects associated with repeated use of the drug. Third, we briefly outline the findings on methamphetamine-related neurocognitive deficits as assessed via behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Lastly, we review the clinical presentation of methamphetamine addiction and the evidence supporting the available psychosocial and pharmacological treatments within the context of an addiction biology framework. Conclusion Taken together, this review provides a broad-based update of the available literature covering methamphetamine research over the past two decades and concludes with recommendations for future research. PMID:25176528

  15. Emotion Dysregulation and Amygdala Dopamine D2-type Receptor Availability in Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Payer, Doris E.; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals who use methamphetamine chronically exhibit emotional and dopaminergic neurochemical deficits. Although the amygdala has an important role in emotion processing and receives dopaminergic innervation, little is known about how dopamine transmission in this region contributes to emotion regulation. This investigation aimed to evaluate emotion regulation in subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence, and to test for a relationship between self-reports of difficulty in emotion regulation and D2-type dopamine receptor availability in the amygdala. Method Ninety-four methamphetamine-using and 102 healthy-control subjects completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS); 33 of those who used methamphetamine completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). A subset of 27 methamphetamine-group and 20 control-group subjects completed positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride to assay amygdala D2-type dopamine receptor availability, measured as binding potential (BPND). Results The methamphetamine group scored higher than the control group on the DERS total score (p dopamine receptors in the amygdala contribute to emotion regulation in both healthy and methamphetamine-using subjects. PMID:26880595

  16. The impact of methamphetamine use on subjective well-being in an Internet survey: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-04-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used stimulants worldwide. Common reasons for use of the drug include efforts to improve or enhance one's life and to uplift one's mood. Nevertheless, acute effects of the drug lead to temporary improvements in mood followed by negative affect. The purpose of the present study was to expand on the current literature and examine other aspects of mood and satisfaction with life in methamphetamine users. Over 6000 adults completed an Internet survey and reported on depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being, in addition to measures of methamphetamine use. We compared those who had used methamphetamine at least once within the past year (N = 610) to those who had never used (N = 6063). Methamphetamine use accounted for significant variance in depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being even when alcohol and other drugs served as covariates. Methamphetamine use may decrease one's subjective well-being instead of enhancing it, which is contradictory to the perceptions of many users. Increasing awareness about methamphetamine's negative impact on mood and life satisfaction might help decrease prevalence of the drug's use and associated troubles. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oral fluid with three modes of collection and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomer concentrations after controlled intranasal l-methamphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ronald; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programmes due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices and plasma via a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Additionally, OF were analyzed with an on-site screening device. Sixteen participants received 7 Vicks® VapoInhaler™ doses according to manufacturer's recommendations. Specimens were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any sample. All participants had measurable OF l-methamphetamine with median maximum concentrations 14.8 and 16.1 μg/L in Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively, after a median of 5 doses. One participant had measurable OF l-amphetamine with maximum concentrations 3.7 and 5.5 μg/L after 6 doses with the Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively. There were no positive DrugTest® 5000 results. In the cutoff range 20-50 μg/L methamphetamine with amphetamine ≥limit of detection, 3.1-10.1% of specimens were positive; first positive results were observed after 1-4 doses. Two participants had detectable plasma l-methamphetamine, with maximum observed concentrations 6.3 and 10.0 μg/L after 2 and 5 doses, respectively. Positive OF and plasma methamphetamine results are possible after Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. Chiral confirmatory analyses are necessary to rule out VapoInhaler™ intake. Implementing a selective d-methamphetamine screening assay can help eliminate false-positive OF results. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in

  18. Methamphetamine-using felons: psychosocial and behavioral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Zians, Jim; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) users with felony convictions may be important vectors in the HIV/AIDS pandemic because of their drug and sexual risk histories. This study gathered personal, psychosocial, and behavioral data from 450 HIV-negative, heterosexually identified, meth-using men and women. Significant differences were found between felons and non-felons in meth use patterns, contexts and reasons for use, involvement of social networks in meth use, and certain psychosocial and sexual risk variables. Our findings suggest that targeting meth use patterns and motivations, social networks, and sexual risk behaviors of meth-using felons may help to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission in and outside the prison system.

  19. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  20. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  1. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Jacobskind, Jason S; Jacosbskind, Jason S; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  2. HIV-1 TAT protein enhances sensitization to methamphetamine by affecting dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Najera, Julia A; Romoli, Benedetto; Fang, Yiding; Basova, Liana; Birmingham, Amanda; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G; Dulcis, Davide; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV-1 regulatory protein TAT induces dysfunction of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems which may result in impaired reward processes and contribute to methamphetamine abuse. These studies investigated the impact of TAT expression on methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, underlying changes in dopamine function and adenosine receptors in mesolimbic brain areas and neuroinflammation (microgliosis). Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain were tested for locomotor activity in response to repeated methamphetamine injections and methamphetamine challenge after a 7-day abstinence period. Dopamine function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Expression of dopamine and/or adenosine A receptors (ADORA) in the Acb and caudate putamen (CPu) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. Microarrays with pathway analyses assessed dopamine and adenosine signaling in the CPu. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching of a reserve pool of non-dopaminergic neurons to a dopaminergic phenotype in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified with stereology. TAT expression enhanced methamphetamine-induced sensitization. TAT expression alone decreased striatal dopamine (D1, D2, D4, D5) and ADORA1A receptor expression, while increasing ADORA2A receptors expression. Moreover, TAT expression combined with methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased adenosine A receptors (ADORA1A) expression and increased recruitment of dopamine neurons in the VTA. TAT expression and methamphetamine exposure induced microglia activation with the largest effect after combined exposure. Our findings suggest that dopamine-adenosine receptor interactions and reserve pool neuronal recruitment may represent potential targets to develop new treatments for

  3. Recent trends in the availability and use of amphetamine and methamphetamine in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Reid, Malcolm J; Solvik, Kari Frey; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    There is a concern about methamphetamine use in Europe. Methamphetamine fatalities have recently occurred in Southern European countries. The aim of this study is to examine Norwegian methamphetamine trends in recent years, comparing different data sources. Data about amphetamines were collected from five different sources; blood samples from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and apprehended by the police (during the years 2000-2012), urine samples from inmates in Norwegian prisons (during 2000-2012), post-mortem blood samples from medico-legal autopsies (2000-2012), drug seizures (1994-2012) and wastewater samples from a metropolitan/suburban population (2010-2012). The number of cases where methamphetamine was detected has increased during the period studied for the driving under the influence cases, the samples from inmates and from forensic autopsies. The increase seems to be linear up to 2009-2010, with a subsequent stabilisation or even a decline in the market share of methamphetamine for the next few years. The number of methamphetamine seizures has risen from less than 1% in 2000 to approximately 66% in 2009, and a steady share around 60% have been seen between 2010 and 2012. Wastewater samples showed that the share of methamphetamine peaked in 2010-11, before falling. It is difficult to obtain reliable data on illicit drugs. Data from different populations might give indications of changes and trends, but are always prone to different biases. By comparing results from different data sources, a better knowledge of the illicit drug market might be obtained. All our data sources confirmed that methamphetamine became a more prevalent drug during the first decade of the new millennium in Norway, but since approximately 2009 the share of methamphetamine stabilised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-05-13

    Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within 1 week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng mg(-1)). MAMP T(max) occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with C(max) ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 ng mg(-1) after the low and 1.2 to 5.3 ng mg(-1) after the high MAMP doses. AMP C(max) in hair was 0.1-0.3 ng mg(-1) and 0.2-0.5 ng mg(-1), respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose-related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng mg(-1) cut-off for at least 2 weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15 ± 0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r(2)=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r(2)=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between C(max) and melanin. This study demonstrated that despite large inter

  5. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mandillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases – Huntington’s disease [TgN(HD82Gln81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93Adl1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice] – and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25Bdr/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr. In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7–8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are

  6. What's Faith Got to Do with It? Religiosity Among Women Who Use Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn; Kral, Alex H

    2012-04-01

    Religiosity is not found to be consistently protective in mental health and substance use outcomes among illicit drug users. This study examines the association between religiosity, mental health and drug use among a community-recruited sample of women who use methamphetamine. The majority of the sample (74%) had high scores of religious faith. In multivariate analysis, those with high scores had higher odds of self-reporting a mental health diagnosis and of being psychologically dependent upon methamphetamine, and were less likely to report injection risk. Further examination of the role of religiosity in the lives of women who use methamphetamine is advised.

  7. What’s Faith Got to Do with It? Religiosity Among Women Who Use Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is not found to be consistently protective in mental health and substance use outcomes among illicit drug users. This study examines the association between religiosity, mental health and drug use among a community-recruited sample of women who use methamphetamine. The majority of the sample (74%) had high scores of religious faith. In multivariate analysis, those with high scores had higher odds of self-reporting a mental health diagnosis and of being psychologically dependent upon methamphetamine, and were less likely to report injection risk. Further examination of the role of religiosity in the lives of women who use methamphetamine is advised. PMID:23105919

  8. A comparative study of the effects of methamphetamine on memory in existing and recovering addicts from a South African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy van Wyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Memory is a complex of systems by which an organism registers, stores and retrieves exposure toan event or experience. Literature purports that methamphetamine users and dependents havebeen found to exhibits signs of memory impairment. The aim of the research was to establishthe possible existence of significant differences in memory in current methamphetamine users,recovering methamphetamine users, and a matched drug naïve control group. Cognitivefunctioning was assessed via a neurocognitive test battery that examined the memory of14 current methamphetamine users, 17 recovering methamphetamine addicts, and 18 drugnaïve control participants who were matched according to the demographic variables of age,gender and educational status. The results indicated that recovering methamphetamine usersexperienced the greatest impairment in memory in comparison to both the control group andcurrent users of methamphetamine. The current users of methamphetamine also experiencedsome impairment in memory functioning in visual acquisition and retention. The poorperformance of the recovering addicts is explained by the juxtaposition of the stimulatingand supplemental effect of methamphetamine as experienced by the current users versus theneurotransmitter depletion and structural changes in the brain experienced by the recoveringaddicts. The control group showed a superior performance since they did not suffer from theneurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

  9. Homing oneself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2009-01-01

    What is home? A building, a physical and mental phenomenon, or a concept?  There are many homes and ways `to home oneself´. Many of us quite often dwell in other places than at home (as professional commuters between two places, as travellers staying in hotels, as children of divorced parents...... expands on the notion that home indicates more than a house, but also responds to the overuse of the concept home. The aim of this article is to examine how home is done, stretched between everyday life, practices, dreams, loss and cultural ideas of home. My intention is not to remove home......, but to revitalize it to prevent it from turning into a pell-mell or a zombie (Beck 1999). This is important because we are moving away from the hegemonic idea of one home to the tactics of feeling at home, even in more mobile ways. The study is cross-disciplinary, drawing on cultural phenomenology, the history...

  10. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Mariana M.; Napier, T. Celeste; Graves, Steven M.; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the comorbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n = 18) or be given saline (control; n = 16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γand TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, CD200+ and CD11b/c+ lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administer methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Or data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. PMID:25678251

  11. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-05

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic profile of amphetamine and methamphetamine following administration of the drug famprofazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Brandy; Valtier, Sandra; Cody, John T

    2003-10-01

    There are a several drugs that lead to the production of methamphetamine and/or amphetamine in the body which are subsequently excreted in the urine. These drugs raise obvious concerns when interpreting positive amphetamine drug testing results. Famprofazone is an analgesic found in a multi-ingredient medication (Gewodin) used for pain relief. Two Gewodin tablets (50 mg of famprofazone) were administered orally to healthy volunteers with no history of amphetamine, methamphetamine, or famprofazone use. Following administration, urine samples were collected ad lib for up to six days, and pH, specific gravity, and creatinine values were determined. In order to determine the quantitative excretion profile of amphetamine and methamphetamine, samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ions monitored were 91, 118, 240 for amphetamine and 254, 210, 118 for methamphetamine. Amphetamine-d(6) and methamphetamine-d(11) were used as internal standards. Peak concentrations for amphetamine ranged from 148 to 2271 ng/mL and for methamphetamine 615 to 7361 ng/mL. Concentrations of both compounds peaked between 3 and 7 h post-dose. Amphetamine and methamphetamine could be detected (limit of detection = 5 ng/mL) at 121 and 143 h post-dose, respectively. Using a cutoff of 500 ng/mL, all subjects had individual urine samples that tested positive. One subject had 14 samples above the cutoff with the last positive being detected over 48 h post-dose. The profile of methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers was also determined using liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization with N-trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl chloride and analysis by GC-MS. Data showed the famprofazone metabolites amphetamine and methamphetamine to be both d- and l-enantiomers. The proportion of l-methamphetamine exceeded that of its d-enantiomer from the first sample collected. Initially, the

  13. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Methamphetamine Antibody Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hsiang Chen; Kuo-Jen Wu; Kuang-Lun Wu; Kun-Lieh Wu; Ho-Min Tsai; Mao-Liang Chen; Yi-Wei Chen; Wei Hsieh; Chun-Ming Lin; Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most frequently abused drugs worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that antibodies with high affinity for Meth reduce its pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for virus-based passive immunization against Meth effects. We generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-8 vector (AAV-MethAb) carrying the gene for a Meth-specific monoclonal antibody (MethAb). Infection of 293 cells with AAV-MethAb resulted i...

  14. Novel biomarkers of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in human meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Teresa R; Kelly, Tamsin; LaGasse, Linda L; Smith, Lynne M; Derauf, Chris; Haning, William; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Strauss, Arthur; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-02-01

    Meconium analysis can detect fetal exposure to drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MAMP) and amphetamine (AMP) have previously been observed in meconium of MAMP-exposed neonates; the presence of other metabolites has not been investigated. Detection of such analytes may lead to more sensitive identification and thus improved medical treatment of affected infants. Forty-three MAMP-positive meconium specimens were analyzed for newly identified MAMP biomarkers, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, p-hydroxyamphetamine, and norephedrine. Due to MAMP adulteration in illicit ecstasy and to simultaneously monitor 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and MAMP prenatal exposure, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, its metabolites, and related sympathomimetic amines were assayed. MAMP, AMP, and unconjugated p-hydroxymethamphetamine were the most prevalent and abundant analytes present in meconium; however, unconjugated p-hydroxyamphetamine and norephedrine also were identified. It is possible that one of these additional analytes could be important for predicting toxicity or maternal or neonatal outcome measures in fetuses exposed to MAMP at specific gestational ages or with different metabolic capabilities. Although these new biomarkers were present in lower concentrations than MAMP and AMP in the meconium of previously confirmed specimens, additional research will determine if inclusion of these analytes can increase identification of MAMP-exposed neonates. Novel methamphetamine biomarker concentrations were characterized in meconium of infants exposed in utero to MAMP.

  15. Racial disparities in methamphetamine-associated intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Seto, Todd B

    2015-03-10

    To assess racial disparities in the prevalence of methamphetamine-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (Meth-ICH) among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). Prospectively collected data from an ongoing, multiethnic, single-center cohort study were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the cohort study required that patients be adult (age 18 years or older) residents of Hawaii with nontraumatic spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients of race other than white, Asian, or NHOPI were excluded. Determination of Meth-ICH was made prospectively by positive urine toxicology result and lack of other clinically suspected ICH etiology. Prevalence of Meth-ICH among NHOPI was compared with that of white and Asian patients. A total of 193 patients (white 16%, Asian 61%, NHOPI 23%) were analyzed. NHOPI were younger than white (54 ± 15 vs 68 ± 15 years, respectively, p = 0.0001) and Asian (vs 65 ± 16 years, p = 0.0001) patients. Overall, 25 (13%) Meth-ICHs (mean age: 49 ± 6 years, range: 33-56 years) were identified. NHOPI had higher prevalence of Meth-ICH compared with white (24% vs 0%, respectively, p = 0.003) and Asian (vs 12%, p = 0.046) patients. The observed age differences between the racial groups persisted even after excluding the Meth-ICH group (p methamphetamine abuse. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Effects of methamphetamine on the noradrenergic activity biomarker salivary alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Colin N; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J; Newton, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) potently activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by increasing central and peripheral norepinephrine (NE). Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is a biomarker of SNS activation that correlates with plasma NE levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of METH on sAA activity and whether changes in sAA activity were correlated with subjective effects ratings. Non-treatment seeking METH-dependent volunteers (N=8) participated in this within-subjects laboratory-based study. Volunteers received randomly administered intravenous METH (0mg, 30 mg) and sAA activity, cardiovascular measures and subjective ratings were assessed at baseline (-15 min) and five post-METH time points (10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min). METH (30 mg) increased sAA activity over time. sAA activity significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure following 0mg METH and systolic blood pressure following 30 mg METH. Subjective ratings (ANY EFFECT, HIGH, GOOD, STIMULATED, LIKE, WLLING TO PAY) highly correlated with sAA over five post-METH time points (N=40; r's=0.543-0.684, p'sbiomarker sAA activity is associated with METH's subjective effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 74696 - Implementation of the Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA), which is Title VII of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization... sector, of $136,000,000 or more (adjusted for inflation) in any one year, and will not significantly or...

  18. Methamphetamine-induced changes in the mice hippocampal neuropeptide Y system: implications for memory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, J; Baptista, S; Olesen, MV

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug that causes irreversible brain damage leading to several neurological and psychiatric abnormalities, including cognitive deficits. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and has several important functions...

  19. Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence with Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT in Iran: A Critical Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Roshanaei-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This comment article reviews the literature to explore whether the use of ECT for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence can be justified by scientific rationale and/or evidence.This article reviews the literature on the use of ECT in addictive disorders. It describes a patient with methamphetamine dependence treated with ECT. It then offers a historical review of the moral and ethical difficulties encountered in the treatment of addictive disorders. It proposes a dynamic understanding as to why clinicians might deploy such brutal actions in the face of hopeless and emotionally intense encounters.We found no scientific evidence or justification for ECT as a treatment of methamphetamine dependence or as the first line treatment for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric comorbidities.the current available evidence does not support using ECT for the treatment of addictive disorders, and hence is unethical, unacceptable and inhumane and warrants immediate social and political attention.

  20. Genetically correlated effects of selective breeding for high and low methamphetamine consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, J M; Reed, C; Burkhart-Kasch, S; Li, N; Cunningham, C L; Janowsky, A; Franken, F H; Wiren, K M; Hashimoto, J G; Scibelli, A C; Phillips, T J

    2009-01-01

    .... We produced mouse lines that orally self-administer high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) amounts of methamphetamine, representing the first demonstration of selective breeding for self-administration of any psychostimulant drug...

  1. In vivo effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication: A population-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Junjun; Wang, Minlian; Liang, Bingyu; Shi, Yi; Su, Qijian; Chen, Hui; Huang, Jiegang; Su, Jinming; Pan, Peijiang; Li, Yu; Wang, Hong; Chen, Rongfeng; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Fangning; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Although a number of in vitro studies have shown that methamphetamine (METH) can increase HIV-1 replication in human immune cells, a direct link between METH use and HIV-1 pathogenesis remains to be determined among HIV-1 patients...

  2. Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of enantiomeric composition of amphetamine and methamphetamine in hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C

    2004-01-01

    Interest in hair analysis as an alternative or complementary approach to urinalysis for drug abuse detection has grown in recent years. Hair analysis can be particularly advantageous for drugs such as amphetamine and methamphetamine that are rapidly excreted. Confirmation of abuse of these stimulants is complicated by the fact that some forms are found in legitimate medications. Examination of the enantiomeric composition of amphetamine and methamphetamine in hair samples can provide valuable assistance in interpreting drug testing results. In this work, we developed a liquid chromatographic method for the separation of amphetamine and methamphetamine enantiomers isolated from human hair samples. The drug enantiomers were separated on a chiral stationary phase after derivatization with an achiral fluorescent agent. The methodology was evaluated with a Standard Reference Material that contained several drugs of abuse including amphetamine and methamphetamine.

  3. Role of Dorsomedial Striatum Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving after Voluntary Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M; Warren, Brandon L; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-01-25

    We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving

  4. Methamphetamine in hair and interpretation of forensic findings in a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránková, Katerina; Habrdová, Vilma; Balíková, Marie; Strejc, Premysl

    2005-10-04

    Hair analysis for drugs has been developing and is considered a significant tool for distinguishing between recent and long-term drug abuse in forensic and clinical toxicology. Chronic consumption of drugs can gradually induce certain harmful effects on the human organism and can exacerbate some pre-existing diseases. Analysis for drugs in blood or urine in isolation does not provide sufficient information about the history of drug-use by a person and their results cannot be correlated directly with the toxic effects displayed. The chronic abuse of methamphetamine is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. During or after autopsy certain types of morphologic alterations are found in the hearts of stimulant addicts. The rapid increase in blood pressure after an intravenous methamphetamine dose can be risky for addicts with arteriosclerosis. However, the anamnestic data about a deceased person may not always be available to explain the pathological findings and to classify the cause of death correctly. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the value of hair analysis for drugs in the context of explaining pathological cardiovascular alterations observed during the autopsy in a case where methamphetamine consumption was involved. In this case, only methamphetamine and metabolites were detected with traces of ephedrine. Ephedrine is the precursor chemical in the illicit synthesis of methamphetamine (known in the Czech Republic as "Pervitin"). The femoral blood level of methamphetamine was 1500 ng/ml. It was documented by a witness that the 31-year-old man died within 1h after an intravenous injection of the drug. The cause of death was established as cerebral edema due to cerebellar bleeding shortly after an intravenous dose of methamphetamine. Findings of methamphetamine in the first three 2-cm hair segments (numbered from the roots) were nearly equal (132+/-9 ng/mg). In the fourth 2-cm segment, it was approximately one-half of previous values. In the

  5. Glial cell modulators attenuate methamphetamine self-administration in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E.; Hendrick, Elizabeth S.; Beardsley, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia and astrocytes can be elicited by drugs of abuse. Methamphetamine administration activates glial cells and increases proinflammatory cytokine production, and there is recent evidence of a linkage between glial cell activation and drug abuse-related behavior. We have previously reported that ibudilast (AV411; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine), which inhibits phosphodiesterase (PDE) and pro-inflammatory activity, blocks reinstatement of methamphetamine-maintained responding in rats, and that ibudilast and AV1013, an amino analog of ibudilast, which has similar glial-attenuating properties but limited PDE activity, attenuate methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and sensitization in mice. The present study's objective was to determine whether co-administered ibudilast, AV1013, or minocycline, which is a tetracycline derivative that also suppresses methamphetamine-induced glial activation, would attenuate active methamphetamine i.v. self-administration in Long-Evans hooded rats. Rats were initially trained to press a lever for 0.1 mg/kg/inf methamphetamine according to a FR1 schedule during 2-h daily sessions. Once stable responding was obtained, twice daily ibudilast (1, 7.5, 10 mg/kg), AV1013 (1, 10, 30 mg/kg), or once daily minocycline (10, 30, 60 mg/kg), or their corresponding vehicles, were given i.p. for three consecutive days during methamphetamine (0.001, 0.03, 0.1 mg/kg/inf) self-administration. Ibudilast, AV1013, and minocycline all significantly (pmethamphetamine that had maintained the highest level of infusions under vehicle conditions. These results suggest that targeting glial cells may provide a novel approach to pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine abuse. PMID:23375937

  6. Effects of Methamphetamine on Pituitary Gonadal Axis and Spermatogenesis in Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Heidari-Rarani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of methamphetamine has been significantly increased among youth in the last decade. Methamphetamine stimulates the central nervous system and affects on the body tissues and neurotransmitters like dopamine. In this study, the effect of methamphetamine as a medicine of amphetamine group is investigated on the pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mature rats with 150±10 g weight are divided into in 4 groups including 10 rats in each group. Methamphetamine powder was weighted and it was solved in the normal saline to prepare a standard solution. Three experimental groups were injected in dosage 1, 3, 5 mg/kg using insulin syringe for 14 days, every day. Then, FSH, LH and testosterone concentrations were measured from the blood samples. The testis tissue was removed and after sectioning and staining by Hematoxylin-Eosin, was inspected by optical microscope for any changes. The average values of hormones and number of seminiferous cells were analyzed in SPSS-18 software using Duncan-test. Results: Experimental results showed that by increasing the concentration of methamphetamine, the serum level of LH and testosterone increase. While the FSH concentration decrease by increasing the level of methamphetamine. Also, investigation on the testis tissue showed that spermatogenesis has decreased on it in comparison to control group. This is because of methamphetamine effect on the gonads. Conclusion: The hormonal results and microscopic observations, it can conclude that using methamphetamine may cause destructive effects on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis and as a result, it may decrease fertility.

  7. Effects of Self-Administered Methamphetamine on Discrimination Learning and Reversal in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Bergman, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Frequent exposure to methamphetamine has been reported to adversely influence cognitive behavior and, in particular, inhibitory control processes. Objective The present studies were conducted in squirrel monkeys to assess the effects of daily intravenous methamphetamine self-administration on touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks thought to reflect behavioral dimensions of, respectively, learning and response inhibition. Methods First, stable methamphetamine-maintained behavior was established (0.35-1.6 mg/kg/session) and, subsequently, a second daily session of discrimination learning was conducted (20 hr later). Subjects first learned to discriminate between two simultaneously presented stimuli (acquisition) and, subsequently, to re-learn the discrimination with the contingencies switched (reversal). The role of the interval between self-administration and touchscreen sessions was evaluated, as well as the effects of abrupt methamphetamine discontinuation. Results Results indicate that daily methamphetamine self-administration markedly disrupted the development of discrimination learning, initially requiring nearly twice the number of trials to master discriminations. The magnitude of adverse effects in individual subjects correlated to the level of daily methamphetamine intake. Importantly, however, behavioral disruption of discrimination learning was surmounted following remedial training. Once criterion levels of discrimination performance were achieved, subsequent development of reversal performance was largely unaffected except when the interval between self-administration and touchscreen session was short and, thus, likely vulnerable to methamphetamine’s direct effects. Discontinuation of methamphetamine produced no disruption in acquisition or reversal. Conclusion These results indicate that self-administered methamphetamine can markedly disrupt learning processes and, as well, highlights key differences in

  8. Cognitive deficits associated with combined HIV gp120 expression and chronic methamphetamine exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Neurocognitive outcomes tend to be worse in methamphetamine users with HIV. However, it is unclear whether discrete cognitive domains are susceptible to impairment after combined HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse. The expression of HIV/gp120 protein induces neuropathology in mice similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine exposure and gp120 expression on cognitive function in transgenic (gp120-tg) and control mice. The mice underwent an escalating methamphetamine binge regimen and were tested in novel object/location recognition, object-in-place recognition, and Barnes maze tests. gp120 expression disrupted performance in the object-in-place test (i.e., similar time spent with all objects, regardless of location), indicating deficits in associative recognition memory. gp120 expression also altered reversal learning in the Barnes maze, suggesting impairments in executive function. Methamphetamine exposure impaired spatial strategy in the Barnes maze, indicating deficits in spatial learning. Methamphetamine-exposed gp120-tg mice had the lowest spatial strategy scores in the final acquisition trials in the Barnes maze, suggesting greater deficits in spatial learning than all of the other groups. Although HIV infection involves interactions between multiple proteins and processes, in addition to gp120, our findings in gp120-tg mice suggest that humans with the dual insult of HIV infection and methamphetamine abuse may exhibit a broader spectrum of cognitive deficits than those with either factor alone. Depending on the cognitive domain, the combination of both insults may exacerbate deficits in cognitive performance compared with each individual insult. PMID:25476577

  9. A Study of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Fekrat, Alireza; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background The abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances such as amphetamines and ecstasy has had a growing trend. Tachycardia, increased blood pressure, hallucinations, panic attacks, and psychosis are the negative effects of methamphetamine abuse. The present study aimed to assess psychiatric disorders associated with methamphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from October 2013 to March 2014 on 165 patients hospitalized at Shahid B...

  10. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzis, Desey; Mahoney, James J; Kalechstein, Ari D; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Impulsivity and craving have been independently hypothesized to contribute to sustained drug use and relapse in addiction. The primary focus of this project was to determine the relationship between impulsivity and craving in 85 cocaine-dependent and 73 methamphetamine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking volunteers. Drug use was assessed with a 14-item, self-report drug and alcohol use questionnaire. Self report instruments utilized included the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which probed "just before your last use of cocaine (for cocaine-dependent participants) or methamphetamine (for methamphetamine-dependent participants), how much craving did you experience?" The groups were similar with respect to recent use of cocaine or methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal significant differences between cocaine and methamphetamine groups for total impulsivity or total craving. Simple linear regression revealed correlations between total impulsivity and total craving in cocaine (r(2)=0.05, p≤0.03) and methamphetamine users (r(2)=0.09, p≤0.008). Participants were separated into high impulsivity (HIBIS) or low impulsivity (LOBIS) subgroups using a median split. ANOVA revealed significantly higher craving in the HIBIS group versus the LOBIS group in methamphetamine users (p≤0.02), but not in cocaine users. For both cocaine and methamphetamine groups, level of impulsivity and craving were found to be related to some drug use variables including years of alcohol use, severity of withdrawal, and craving level following drug use. Taken together, this study shows a marginal relationship between impulsivity and craving, which may further the understanding of motivational factors contributing to ongoing drug use and addiction in psychostimulant users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sympathomimetic effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse on oral health: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H.; Koerdt, Steffen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Härtel-Petri, Roland; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; KESTING, MARCO R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine, a highly addictive sympathomimetic stimulant, is currently widely abused worldwide and has been associated with devastating effects on oral health, resulting in the term "meth mouth". However, "meth mouth" pathology is primarily based on case reports with a lack of systematic clinical evaluation. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate (1) the pharmacological impact of methamphetamine on oral health with regard to saliva function, including ...

  12. Deposition characteristics of methamphetamine and amphetamine in fingernail clippings and hair sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong-Liang; Yin, Rea-Ming; Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Ray H

    2004-09-01

    Fingernail clippings collected from 97 consenting females, who admitted amphetamines and/or opiates use and are currently under treatment, were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of methamphetamine and amphetamine. Sixty-two subjects were found positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine. Paired nail-hair specimens were collected from 6 of these subjects for a 12-week period and analyzed to determine the duration of detectability and deposition characteristics of amphetamines in fingernails; whether data derived from the analysis of nail clippings and hair sections are reflective of drug use patterns; and whether there is a relationship between the analytical data derived from the paired nail-hair specimens. Typical sample pre-treatment procedures and GC-MS protocols were evaluated to establish the validity of various analytical parameters and to ensure that the resulting data can be properly interpreted. Major findings include 1. Methamphetamine was found in the nails of 62 subjects collected in Week 0. The distribution of methamphetamine concentrations (ng/mg) in these nail samples are range, 0.46-61.50; mean, 9.96; and standard deviation: 13.33. The corresponding data for amphetamine are < 0.20-5.42, 0.93, and 1.01, respectively. 2. Sectional analyses of hair samples collected from 6 subjects in Week 0 show methamphetamine concentrations peak at different distances from the root. 3. The concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in nail clippings are generally lower than the first 1.5-cm section of hair samples collected at the same time from the same individual. 4. Amphetamine/ methamphetamine concentration ratios in nail clippings and hair samples are comparable. 5. Methamphetamine concentration in the nail clippings collected at Weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 decreases in a pattern similar to that exhibited by the first 1.5-cm sections of the hair samples collected at the same time.

  13. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9–10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition. PMID:24584329

  14. Investigation of the impurities found in methamphetamine synthesised from pseudoephedrine by reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windahl, K L; McTigue, M J; Pearson, J R; Pratt, S J; Rowe, J E; Sear, E M

    1995-12-18

    The synthesis of methamphetamine from pseudoephedrine via the reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus was studied and the impurities which were generated, along with the methamphetamine, were investigated. Some of the impurities found have been reported previously, while the diastereoisomers of N-methyl-N-(alpha- methylphenethyl)amino-1-phenyl-2-propanone and the cis-cinnamoyl derivative of methamphetamine are reported here for the first time. Further work on the sequence of reactions occurring in this reduction is also reported.

  15. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  16. Is brain gliosis a characteristic of chronic methamphetamine use in the human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Schmunk, Gregory A; Wickham, Dennis J; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Sherwin, Allan; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle; Kish, Stephen J

    2014-07-01

    Animal data show that high doses of the stimulant drug methamphetamine can damage brain dopamine neurones; however, it is still uncertain whether methamphetamine, at any dose, is neurotoxic to human brain. Since gliosis is typically associated with brain damage and is observed in animal models of methamphetamine exposure, we measured protein levels (intact protein and fragments, if any) of markers of microgliosis (glucose transporter-5, human leukocyte antigens HLA-DRα [TAL.1B5] and HLA-DR/DQ/DPβ [CR3/43]) and astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and heat shock protein-27) in homogenates of autopsied brain of chronic methamphetamine users (n=20) and matched controls (n=23). Intact protein levels of all markers were, as expected, elevated (+28%-1270%, Phuman recreational methamphetamine users who used the drug chronically and shortly before death. However, a logistically more difficult quantitative histopathological study is needed to confirm whether glial changes occur or do not occur in brain of human methamphetamine (and amphetamine) users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Fumihiro; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is described as a chronic neurological disorder associated with plasticity in the mesolimbic system. Recently, it has been suggested that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the induction of neuronal plasticity and the formation of pathogenesis in chronic neurological disorders. Therefore, we examined the role of CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a proinflammatory chemokine, in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine. In mice treated with methamphetamine, CCL2 mRNA was significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Moreover, phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase serine40 (pTH Ser40) levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were increased by methamphetamine. Similarly, pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA were also increased by the intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant CCL2. The increment of pTH Ser40 levels in the VTA by methamphetamine was attenuated by RS504393, a selective CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, indicating that the increased CCL2 activates the brain reward system via CCR2 activation. In the conditioned place preference test, methamphetamine produced place preference in a dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by RS504393. These results suggest that the activation of the brain reward system via CCL2-CCR2 pathway plays an important role in the development of psychic dependence on methamphetamine.

  18. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  19. Fatal Small Intestinal Ischemia Due to Methamphetamine Intoxication: Report of a Case With Autopsy Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Attaran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability. Cardiac evaluations were normal, and a toxicologic urinalysis revealed methamphetamine. Later, abdominal pain predominated, and ultrasonography revealed signs of bowel infarction. She did not consent to surgery and succumbed afterward. At autopsy gangrene and perforation of distal ileum were found. The cause of death was determined as intestinal gangrene following methamphetamine toxicity. Methamphetamine has anorectic effects and so is used in some "diet pills"; Consumers may not even know they are using methamphetamine. Hence in cases of either known MA abuse or those using unknown weight reduction drugs presenting with gastrointestinal complaints or abdominal pain, intestinal ischemia should be kept in mind and if plausible, intervened promptly.

  20. Choosing to Live or Die: Online Narratives of Recovering from Methamphetamine Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obong'o, Christopher O; Alexander, Adam C; Chavan, Prachi P; Dillon, Patrick J; Kedia, Satish K

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore motivating factors for recovering from methamphetamine abuse. The source of data was 202 anonymous letters and stories submitted to an online support platform for methamphetamine users. Qualitative data were analyzed in Dedoose software using grounded theory methodology. Ten primary motivating factors for recovering from methamphetamine abuse were identified and mapped onto four constructs from the Health Belief Model: (1) perceived susceptibility (learning from others and learning from self); (2) perceived severity (fear of death and declining health); (3) perceived benefits (reconnecting with family, reconnecting with society, and recovering self-esteem); and (4) cues to action (hitting rock bottom, finding God, and becoming pregnant). By using data from an online support group and categorizing emerging themes within a theoretical framework, findings from this study provide a comprehensive understanding of factors involved in recovery from methamphetamine abuse and offer further insights in developing theoretically informed interventions for methamphetamine users. This study suggests the utility of online platforms for obtaining anonymous but unique experiences about drug abuse and recovery. Findings may benefit healthcare professionals, counselors, and researchers by helping to develop theoretically informed interventions for methamphetamine abuse.

  1. Topiramate for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction: a multi-center placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Kahn, Roberta; Yu, Elmer; Iturriaga, Erin; Li, Shou-Hua; Anderson, Ann; Chiang, Nora; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Weiss, David; McSherry, Frances; Serpi, Tracey; Rawson, Richard; Hrymoc, Mark; Weis, Dennis; McCann, Michael; Pham, Tony; Stock, Christopher; Dickinson, Ruth; Campbell, Jan; Gorodetzky, Charles; Haning, William; Carlton, Barry; Mawhinney, Joseph; Li, Ming D; Johnson, Bankole A

    2012-07-01

      Topiramate has shown efficacy at facilitating abstinence from alcohol and cocaine abuse. This double-blind, placebo-controlled out-patient trial tested topiramate for treating methamphetamine addiction.   Participants (n = 140) were randomized to receive topiramate or placebo (13 weeks) in escalating doses from 25 mg/day [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] to the target maintenance of 200 mg/day in weeks 6-12 (tapered in week 13). Medication was combined with weekly brief behavioral compliance enhancement treatment.   The trial was conducted at eight medical centers in the United States.   One hundred and forty methamphetamine-dependent adults took part in the trial.   The primary outcome was abstinence from methamphetamine during weeks 6-12. Secondary outcomes included use reduction versus baseline, as well as psychosocial variables.   In the intent-to-treat analysis, topiramate did not increase abstinence from methamphetamine during weeks 6-12. For secondary outcomes, topiramate reduced weekly median urine methamphetamine levels and observer-rated severity of dependence scores significantly. Subjects with negative urine before randomization (n = 26) had significantly greater abstinence on topiramate versus placebo during study weeks 6-12. Topiramate was safe and well tolerated.   Topiramate does not appear to promote abstinence in methamphetamine users but can reduce the amount taken and reduce relapse rates in those who are already abstinent. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Improved Chiral Separation of Methamphetamine Enantiomers Using CSP-LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lauren F; Enders, Jeffrey R; Bell, David S; Cramer, Hugh M; Wallace, Frank N; McIntire, Gregory L

    2016-05-01

    To determine the true enantiomeric composition of methamphetamine urine drug testing results, chiral separation of dextro (D) and levo (L) enantiomers is necessary. While enantiomeric separation of methamphetamine has traditionally been accomplished using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chiral separation of D- and L-methamphetamine by chiral stationary phase (CSP) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has proved more reliable. Chirally selective detection of methamphetamine by GC-MS is often performed using L-N-trifluoroacetyl-prolyl chloride (TPC). L-TPC, a chiral compound, is known to have impurities that can affect the chiral composition percentages of the methamphetamine sample, potentially leading to inaccurate patient results. The comparative analysis of the samples run by GC and LC methods showed preferential bias of the GC method for producing error rates, consistent with previous research, of 8-19%. The CSP-LC-MS-MS method produces percent deviation errors of methamphetamine isomer racemization is seen in samples when analyzed by GC-MS using L-TPC-derivatizing agent. This racemization is not seen when these samples are tested with CSP-LC-MS-MS. Thus, a more accurate method of enantiomeric analysis is provided by CSP-LC-MS-MS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical Laboratory Science: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Medical Laboratory Science: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Depression mediates and moderates effects of methamphetamine use on sexual risk taking among treatment-seeking gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2015-08-01

    Mounting evidence suggests a syndemic relation between methamphetamine use and depression to increase sexual risk taking (i.e., HIV transmission risk behavior) among men who have sex with men. This prospective analysis of longitudinal data collected from an outpatient methamphetamine abuse treatment program for gay and bisexual men assessed whether symptoms of depression mediated and/or moderated the associations between methamphetamine use and unprotected insertive/receptive anal intercourse. From November 2005 through October 2007, 167 treatment-seeking gay and bisexual men (63% HIV-positive) enrolled in and attended a 16-week methamphetamine abuse outpatient treatment program. Participants' depressive symptoms, biomarker-confirmed methamphetamine use, and self-reported sexual risk taking were assessed at baseline and follow-up evaluations. Path analysis tested the mediating and moderating effects of depression on the associations between methamphetamine use and unprotected insertive/receptive anal intercourse. Methamphetamine use during the treatment period had a significant indirect (Coef. = -.15; 95% CI [-.23, -.06]), but no direct (Coef. = .11; ns) or total effect (Coef. = -.04; ns) on participants' sexual risk taking after accounting for the significant mediating (Coef. = .56; 95% CI [.33, .78]) and moderating (Coef. = -.03; 95% CI [-.04, -.02]) effects of depression. Depression fully mediated and weakly moderated associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk taking in this sample. Interventions and treatment programs to reduce sexual risk taking among gay and bisexual men should simultaneously address methamphetamine use and depression to optimize health outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Binge Use and Sex and Drug Use Behaviors among HIV(−), Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, W. Susan; Richard S. Garfein; Semple, Shirley J.; Steffanie A Strathdee; Zians, James K.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified sociodemographic factors, drug using practices, sexual behaviors, and motivational factors associated with binge (a period of uninterrupted) methamphetamine (MA) use among heterosexual MA users.

  8. Halfway Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandham, Jessica L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the pros and cons of Alaska's unique Family Partnership Charter School, which oversees distribution of public funding to home-schooling families, offers support to help home-schooling parents meet district standards on their own terms, and monitors required purchase of teacher time and expenditures. A sidebar describes an Alaskan…

  9. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... homes have nursing aides and skilled nurses on hand 24 hours a day. Some nursing homes are set up like a hospital. The staff provides medical care, as well as physical, speech and occupational therapy. There might be a nurses' station on each ...

  10. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to time. At least one-third of nursing home residents have problematic behaviors. These behaviors may include verbal and physical abuse, ... accessible are they? How close is the nursing home to family members? How close is it to the ... is the food like? How much do basic services cost? What ...

  11. Unimaginable homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Klausen, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The chapter draw from critical mediatization theory, critical intimacy theory, and cultural gerontology and asks: How do elderly people practice their mediatized homes? Which roles do media play in constituting and disturbing the flows of bodies into the home? Moreover: how do dominant categoriza...

  12. Sex differences in the reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after forced abstinence in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eKucerova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventing relapse to drug abuse is one of the struggles faced by clinicians in order to treat patients with substance use disorders (DSM-5. There is a large body of clinical evidence suggesting differential characteristics of the disorder in men and women which is in line with preclinical findings as well. The aim of this study was to assess differences in relapse-like behavior in methamphetamine (METH seeking after a period of forced abstinence which simulates the real clinical situation very well. Findings from such study might add new insights in gender differences in relapse mechanisms to previous studies, which employ a classical drug or cue-induced reinstatement procedure following the extinction training.Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in IV self-administration procedure conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulborn Instruments, USA. Active nose-poke resulted in activation of the infusion pump to deliver one intravenous infusion of METH (0.08 mg/kg. After baseline drug intake was established (maintenance phase, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept singly in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session in operant boxes was conducted. Females were found to self-administer significantly lower dose of METH. The relapse rate was assessed as a number of active nose-pokes during the reinstatement session, expressed as a percentage of active nose-poking during the maintenance phase. Females displayed approximately 300 % of active nose-pokes compared to 48 % in males. This indicates higher vulnerability to relapse of METH seeking behavior in female rats. This effect was detected in all females, independently of current phase of their estrous cycle. Therefore, this paradigm using operant drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug-seeking after forced abstinence model can be used for preclinical screening for potential new anti-relapse medications specific for

  13. Methamphetamine-using felons: Psychosocial and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J.; Zians, Jim; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) users with felony convictions may be important vectors in the HIV/AIDS pandemic because of their drug and sexual risk histories. This study gathered personal, psychosocial, and behavioral data from 450 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using men and women. Significant differences were found between felons and non-felons in meth use patterns, contexts and reasons for use, involvement of social networks in meth use, and certain psychosocial and sexual risk variables. Our findings suggest that targeting meth use patterns and motivations, social networks, and sexual risk behaviors of meth-using felons may help to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission in and outside the prison system. PMID:18214720

  14. Recent Advances in Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity Mechanisms and Its Molecular Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a sympathomimetic amine that belongs to phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs, which are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, METH produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin release in nerve terminals, gliosis, and apoptosis. This review summarized the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excessive dopamine, ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction, protein nitration, endoplasmic reticulum stress, p53 expression, inflammatory molecular, D3 receptor, microtubule deacetylation, and HIV-1 Tat protein that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. In addition, the feasible therapeutic strategies according to recent studies were also summarized ranging from drug and protein to gene level.

  15. Methamphetamine and MDMA (ecstasy) neurotoxicity: 'of mice and men'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Achat-Mendes, Cindy

    2004-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-meythylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') are currently major drugs of abuse. One of the major concerns of amphetamines abuse is their potential neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Although data from human studies are somewhat limited, compelling evidence suggests that these drugs cause neurotoxicity in rodents and primates. Recent studies in transgenic and knockout mice identified the role of dopamine transporters, nitric oxide, apoptotic proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in amphetamines neurotoxicity. Further research into the mechanisms underlying the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity and the behavioral corollaries of these neuronal insults could facilitate our understanding of the consequences of human abuse of METH and MDMA on cognition, drug-seeking behavior, extinction and relapse.

  16. Report of Methamphetamine use and Cardiomyopathy in Three Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sadeghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Methamphetamine (meth is a stimulant used illegally around the world, including in Iran. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure may occur following chronic meth use and may cause the patients referred to the emergency department. Case reportsA 28-year old man and two women, ages 29 and 31-year-old, with a history of meth use, were admitted to the emergency department with severe dyspnea at rest. Each had sinus tachycardia with tachypnea and an echocardiogram that showed severe systolic dysfunction consistent with heart failure. Additional evaluation in the hospital revealed cardiomyopathy with no other etiology other than the meth use. Conclusion:There are several reports that show an increase in frequency of meth use, suggesting that cardiomyopathy and acute heart failure may be a new medical concern.

  17. Role of microglia in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Liu, Han; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant widely abused around the world. The chronic use of Meth produces neurotoxicity featured by dopaminergic terminal damage and microgliosis, resulting in serious neurological and behavioral consequences. Ample evidence indicate that Meth causes microglial activation and resultant secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules leading to neural injury. However, the mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain to be determined. In this review, we attempt to address the effects of Meth on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated microglia activation both in vitro and in-vivo. Meth abuse not only increases HIV transmission but also exacerbates progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through activation of microglia. In addition, the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory drugs on ameliorating Meth-induced microglia activation and resultant neuronal injury is discussed. PMID:28694920

  18. Analysis of methamphetamine and its metabolites in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Nariaki; Iio, Reiko; Tanaka, Seishi; Chinaka, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2003-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a sympathomimetic amine whose abuse has become a serious problem in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and other Southeast Asian countries. The use of hair for the determination of MA use has become more commonplace. The maximum period in which MA and its main metabolites (amphetamine and p-hydroxymethamphetamine) can be detected in urine is about 10 days after its use. However, proof of MA use is possible in hair even several years after its use if the part of the hair that grew in the period of its use is available. In addition, segmental analysis of hair is capable of clarifying the history of MA abuse. This paper reviews the clean-up, extraction, analytical method and distribution of MA and its metabolites in hair from reports published in the last 20 years. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Sympathomimetic effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse on oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Koerdt, Steffen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Härtel-Petri, Roland; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2016-05-26

    Methamphetamine, a highly addictive sympathomimetic stimulant, is currently widely abused worldwide and has been associated with devastating effects on oral health, resulting in the term "meth mouth". However, "meth mouth" pathology is primarily based on case reports with a lack of systematic clinical evaluation. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate (1) the pharmacological impact of methamphetamine on oral health with regard to saliva function, including the parameters saliva flow rate and total saliva production (ml/5 min) and the buffering capacity of saliva; (2) the contribution of the symptoms of bruxism and muscle trismus to potential oral health damage. We assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine abusers and 100 matched-pair comparison participants. Primarily, we conducted an anamnesis with all methamphetamine abusers with regard to saliva dysfunctions, jaw clenching and pain in the temporomandibular joint. Subsequently, in the first part of the clinical enquiry, we tested the saliva flow rate and the total saliva production (ml/5 min) by using the sialometry method and the buffer capacity of saliva by determining the pH-value. In the second part of the clinical enquiry, we evaluated bruxism symptoms with respect to generalized tooth attrition, dentine exposure and visible enamel cracks and examined a potential muscle trismus by measuring the maximal opening of the mouth. The majority of methamphetamine abusers reported a dry mouth (72 %) and jaw clenching (68 %). Almost half of all methamphetamine abusers experienced pain in the temporomandibular joint (47 %). With regard to the clinical findings, methamphetamine abusers showed significantly lower total saliva production (ml/5 min) (p  0.05). The sympathomimetic effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse may lead to dry mouth and extensive bruxism and therefore can increase the risk for caries decay, periodontal lesions and tooth wear. Furthermore, a significant

  20. Methamphetamine compromises gap junctional communication in astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Paul; Nwagbo, Chisom; Martinez, Luis R; Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that results in psychological and physical dependency. The long-term effects of meth within the CNS include neuronal plasticity changes, blood-brain barrier compromise, inflammation, electrical dysfunction, neuronal/glial toxicity, and an increased risk to infectious diseases including HIV. Most of the reported meth effects in the CNS are related to dysregulation of chemical synapses by altering the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. However, little is known about the effects of meth on connexin (Cx) containing channels, such as gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC). We examined the effects of meth on Cx expression, function, and its role in NeuroAIDS. We found that meth altered Cx expression and localization, decreased GJ communication between neurons and astrocytes, and induced the opening of Cx43/Cx36 HC. Furthermore, we found that these changes in GJ and HC induced by meth treatment were mediated by activation of dopamine receptors, suggesting that dysregulation of dopamine signaling induced by meth is essential for GJ and HC compromise. Meth-induced changes in GJ and HC contributed to amplified CNS toxicity by dysregulating glutamate metabolism and increasing the susceptibility of neurons and astrocytes to bystander apoptosis induced by HIV. Together, our results indicate that connexin containing channels, GJ and HC, are essential in the pathogenesis of meth and increase the sensitivity of the CNS to HIV CNS disease. Methamphetamine (meth) is an extremely addictive central nervous system stimulant. Meth reduced gap junctional (GJ) communication by inducing internalization of connexin-43 (Cx43) in astrocytes and reducing expression of Cx36 in neurons by a mechanism involving activation of dopamine receptors (see cartoon). Meth-induced changes in Cx containing channels increased extracellular levels of glutamate and resulted in higher

  1. Enantiomeric quantification of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine in urine by an immunoaffinity column and liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lua, Ahai C. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology and Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, 701, Chung Yang Road Section 3, Hualien, 970, Taiwan (China); Sutono, Yenny [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology and Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, 701, Chung Yang Road Section 3, Hualien, 970, Taiwan (China); Chou, T.-Y. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology and Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, 701, Chung Yang Road Section 3, Hualien, 970, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cty@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2006-08-18

    A method using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for on-line detecting the presence of MA in the effluent was developed for the quantitative and enantiomeric determination of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine (D-MA) in urine. The IAC was made in our laboratory and utilized in the LC/MS to simultaneously extract and separate enantiomers of MA from urine samples. An aqueous ammonium acetate buffer was used as the mobile phase. Urine samples were spiked with racemic deuterated methamphetamine (MA-d{sub 14}) as internal standard (IS), filtered through a membrane, and injected into the LC/MS without any further pre-treatment. Protonated molecular ion of MA and MA-d{sub 14} (m/z 150 and 164) were isolated and further fragmented, the respective product ions, m/z 119 and 130, were collected for quantitative determination. This is an improvement of our previous method (A.C. Lua, Tsong-Yung Chou, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 191). In the previous method, MA was separated with HPLC, the efflux was fractionated and each fraction was either determined with an immunoassay or GC/MS. Monitoring of MA in the efflux is tedious and time consuming. Urine samples spiked with different concentrations of D-MA were measured by this method. A linear relationship exists in the 150-1050 ng/mL range, and the detection limit (defined as signal-to-noise ratio 3) of D-MA was determined to be 18 ng/mL. The linearity of the method for D-MA can be described by the equation (Y = 1.415 x 10{sup -3} X + 0.034, correlation coefficient: r {sup 2} = 0.999). Within run, accuracy and precision (n = 6, relative error: -7.2 to +4.0% and relative standard deviation: 3.8-9.3%) of the method are fairly good.

  2. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  3. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  4. Methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men in Australia : Trends in recent and regular use from the Gay Community Periodic Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Hopwood, Max; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the

  5. Serum proteomics of methamphetamine addicts and up-regulation of complement factor H related to methamphetamine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wan-Lu; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Bing-Ying; Pu, Xiao-Ping

    2012-09-06

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a new type of drug with strong tolerance and addiction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of METH addiction are still not fully understood. To determine possible biomarkers and mechanisms that are responsible for METH addiction, a 2-DE based proteomics approach was used to evaluate the changes in protein expression of the serum in Chinese patients addicted to METH, which to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind. We identified five proteins that were markedly altered and complement factor H (CFH), the most stably up-expressed protein in each 2-DE experiment, was further studied using the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) model to detect any changes to its expression in the sera and six brain regions of interest. We report, for the first time, that CFH was positive related to METH addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) study of the alterations in brain pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in methamphetamine sensitized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Hospital

    2001-08-01

    I investigated the differences in brain pharmacokinetics of [{sup 11}C]methamphetamine ([{sup 11}C]MAP) in normal and MAP sensitized animals using positron emission tomography (PET). [{sup 11}C]MAP was synthesized by an automated on-line [{sup 11}C]methylation system. I newly produced MAP sensitized dog and monkey by repeated MAP treatment. The maximal level of accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized dog brain was 1.4 times higher than that in the control. This result suggests the changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of MAP in the brain affect the development or expression of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization. However, the overaccumulation of [{sup 11}C]MAP in the sensitized monkey brain was not observed due to the influence of anesthesia. (author)

  7. Naltrexone moderates the relationship between cue-induced craving and subjective response to methamphetamine in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Worley, Matthew J; Courtney, Kelly E; Bujarski, Spencer; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Ray, Lara A

    2017-07-01

    Reductions in cue-induced craving and subjective response to drugs of abuse are commonly used as initial outcome measures when testing novel medications for the treatment of addiction. Yet neither the relationship between these two measures at the individual level nor the moderating effects of pharmacotherapies on this relationship has been examined. This secondary data analysis sought to examine (1) the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and subsequent acute subjective response to methamphetamine (MA) and (2) whether the opioid-receptor antagonist naltrexone moderated this association in a sample of non-treatment-seeking individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for MA use disorder (abuse or dependence). Participants (n = 30) completed two 4-day medication regimens (oral naltrexone 50 mg or placebo, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion). On day 4 of each medication regimen, participants completed a cue-reactivity paradigm followed by intravenous MA administration. Methamphetamine craving was assessed after the cue-reactivity paradigm, and subjective response to MA was assessed during MA infusion. Cue-induced craving for MA was positively associated with post-infusion subjective MA effects, including positive (i.e., stimulation, good effects, feel drug, high), negative (i.e., anxious and depressed), and craving-related (i.e., want more, would like access to drug, crave) responses. Naltrexone, vs. placebo, significantly reduced the association between cue-induced craving and positive subjective response to MA. The findings indicate that naltrexone moderates the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and positive subjective effects of MA, thereby suggesting a behavioral mechanism by which naltrexone may be efficacious in treating MA use disorder.

  8. Extended access methamphetamine decreases immature neurons in the hippocampus which results from loss and altered development of neural progenitors without altered dynamics of the S-phase of the cell cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Clara J; Quiocho, Jovy Marie D.; Kim, Airee; Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired hippocampal-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration partially contributes to the maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis were identified in the present stu...

  9. Home Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of home hemodialysis training. Diet and Liquids Strict limits on liquids, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium Fewer ... Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  10. Nursing Home

    OpenAIRE

    Allocca Hernandez, Giacomo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Getting old involves a lot of changes in life. Family and social relations change and mobility can decrease. These variations require new settings, and of course special care. A nursing home is a place dedicated to help with this situation. Sometimes nursing homes can be perceived as mere institutions by society, and even by future residents. Inside, senior citizens are suppose to spend the rest of their lives doing the same activities day after day. How can we improve these days? Archite...

  11. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  12. Initial Feasibility and Acceptability of a Comprehensive Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Pregnant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population.

  13. Comparison of behavioral activation subscales of Gray’s original reinforcement sensitivity theory in opioid and methamphetamine dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaderi

    2017-10-01

    Results: The methamphetamine-dependents group had a higher BAS-DR subscale score than the opioid dependent group (P0.05. The BAS-RR scores of the methamphetamine-dependents group were higher than the other two groups (P

  14. Varenicline and GZ-793A differentially decrease methamphetamine self-administration under a multiple schedule of reinforcement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangiser, Megan M; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A; Stairs, Dustin J

    2017-08-31

    Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant with high abuse rates. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine addiction. Ideally, a pharmacotherapy should selectively decrease methamphetamine self-administration without affecting responding for other reinforcers. One way to test this is with the use of a multiple schedule of reinforcement, in which drug and food are available in alternating components within a session. The present study evaluated GZ-793A, a vesicular monoamine transporter-2 inhibitor, and varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, for their ability to decrease methamphetamine and food self-administration using a multiple schedule of reinforcement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/intravenous infusion) and food pellets under a multiple schedule of reinforcement. GZ-793A or varenicline was administered before multiple schedule sessions. GZ-793A (5 and 20 mg/kg) significantly decreased methamphetamine intake compared with saline and did not alter food-maintained responding. In contrast, varenicline decreased methamphetamine intake less specifically across time. The results suggest that vesicular monoamine transporter-2 inhibition may be a viable pharmacological target for the treatment of methamphetamine-use disorders.

  15. Risk behaviors of Filipino methamphetamine users in San Francisco: implications for prevention and treatment of drug use and HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don; Soma, Toho

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes the demographics, HIV risk and drug use behaviors, and psychosocial status of Filipino American methamphetamine users in the San Francisco Bay area. METHODS: Individual interviews were conducted with 83 Filipino American methamphetamine users, recruited through snowball sampling methods. A structured survey questionnaire included measures of drug use behaviors, HIV-related sexual behaviors, psychosocial factors, and demographics. RESULTS: Filipino methamphetami...

  16. Rapid Quantification of Methamphetamine: Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Juanita; Ayoko, Godwin; Collett, Simon; Golding, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In Australia and increasingly worldwide, methamphetamine is one of the most commonly seized drugs analysed by forensic chemists. The current well-established GC/MS methods used to identify and quantify methamphetamine are lengthy, expensive processes, but often rapid analysis is requested by undercover police leading to an interest in developing this new analytical technique. Ninety six illicit drug seizures containing methamphetamine (0.1%–78.6%) were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance attachment and Chemometrics. Two Partial Least Squares models were developed, one using the principal Infrared Spectroscopy peaks of methamphetamine and the other a Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model. Both of these models were refined to choose the variables that were most closely associated with the methamphetamine % vector. Both of the models were excellent, with the principal peaks in the Partial Least Squares model having Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 3.8, R2 0.9779 and lower limit of quantification 7% methamphetamine. The Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model had lower limit of quantification 0.3% methamphetamine, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 5.2 and R2 0.9637. Such models offer rapid and effective methods for screening illicit drug samples to determine the percentage of methamphetamine they contain. PMID:23936058

  17. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  18. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure is associated with corticostriatal white matter changes in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, Fleur L; Taylor, Paul A; Warton, Christopher M R; Molteno, Christopher D; Wintermark, Pia; Lindinger, Nadine M; Zöllei, Lilla; van der Kouwe, Andre; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2017-10-23

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown that prenatal exposure to methamphetamine is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure, but to date no tractography studies have been performed in neonates. The striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal circuit and its associated limbic-striatal areas, the primary circuit responsible for reinforcement, has been postulated to be dysfunctional in drug addiction. This study investigated potential white matter changes in the striatal-orbitofrontal circuit in neonates with prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Mothers were recruited antenatally and interviewed regarding methamphetamine use during pregnancy, and DTI sequences were acquired in the first postnatal month. Target regions of interest were manually delineated, white matter bundles connecting pairs of targets were determined using probabilistic tractography in AFNI-FATCAT, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusion measures were determined in white matter connections. Regression analysis showed that increasing methamphetamine exposure was associated with reduced FA in several connections between the striatum and midbrain, orbitofrontal cortex, and associated limbic structures, following adjustment for potential confounding variables. Our results are consistent with previous findings in older children and extend them to show that these changes are already evident in neonates. The observed alterations are likely to play a role in the deficits in attention and inhibitory control frequently seen in children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

  19. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  20. Double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the PROMETA™ protocol for methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Walter; Shoptaw, Steven; Hillhouse, Maureen; Bholat, Michelle A; Charuvastra, Charles; Heinzerling, Keith; Chim, David; Annon, Jeffrey; Dowling, Patrick T; Doraimani, Geetha

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the PROMETA™ Protocol for treating methamphetamine dependence. A double-blind, placebo-controlled 108-day study with random assignment to one of two study conditions: active medication with flumazenil (2 mg infusions on days 1, 2, 3, 22, 23), gabapentin (1200 mg to day 40) and hydroxazine (50 mg to day 10) versus placebo medication (with active hydroxazine only). Three substance abuse treatment clinics: two in-patient, one out-patient. Treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent adults (n = 120). Primary outcome was percentage of urine samples testing negative for methamphetamine during the trial. No statistically significant between-group differences were detected in urine drug test results, craving, treatment retention or adverse events. The PROMETA protocol, consisting of flumazenil, gabapentin and hydroxyzine, appears to be no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, retaining patients in treatment or reducing methamphetamine craving. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. HPLC with fluorescence detection of methamphetamine and amphetamine in segmentally analyzed human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dirbashi, O; Kuroda, N; Inuduka, S; Menichini, F; Nakashima, K

    1999-04-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for determining methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, in abusers' hair segments was developed. Methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair samples collected from addicts were extracted into acidified methanol, derivatized with 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzoyl chloride, separated isocratically on an ODS column using TRIS-HCl buffer (0.1 mol dm-3, pH 7.0)-methanol (30 + 70 v/v) as the mobile phase and the derivatives were detected fluorimetrically at 440 nm (lambda ex 330 nm). Calibration curves obtained by using control human hair spiked with standard solutions were linear (r > or = 0.999) up to at least 676.1 ng mg-1 for amphetamine and 746.1 ng mg-1 for methamphetamine. The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 51.4 and 74.6 pg mg-1 hair for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively. Using control hair spiked with standard solutions, the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (n = 5) were < or = 8.6% for both the target compounds. The method was successfully applied to the segmental analyses of methamphetamine abusers' hair samples.

  2. ELISA Detection of 30 New Amphetamine Designer Drugs in Whole Blood, Urine and Oral Fluid using Neogen® "Amphetamine" and "Methamphetamine/MDMA" Kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Maria; Burrai, Lucia; Baralla, Elena; Pasciu, Valeria; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Briguglio, Irene; Demontis, Maria Piera; Boatto, Gianpiero

    2016-09-01

    Amphetamine designer drugs are central nervous system stimulants that are widely disseminated in the illegal market. Generally, in forensic laboratories, immunoassay methods are the first line of screening for these types of drugs in a biological specimen (typically blood, urine or oral fluid). In this article, we describe the cross-reactivity profiles of 30 new amphetamine designer drugs, using the Neogen(®) [Amphetamine Specific and Methamphetamine/3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) assays] drug tests. To assess the potential matrix influence on the response, each assay was tested on whole blood, urine and oral fluid. Concentrations of 10,000 ng/mL were not sufficient to produce a positive response for the majority of the analyzed amphetamines. This clearly demonstrates that, although these kits are extremely effective for the target drugs for which they are intended (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA), they cannot be used to reliably identify the tested designer drugs in real cases, as these concentrations greatly exceed those expected to be found in forensic samples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of methamphetamine on the noradrenergic activity biomarker salivary alpha-amylase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (METH) potently activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by increasing central and peripheral norepinephrine (NE). Salivary α-amylase (sAA) is a biomarker of SNS activation that correlates with plasma NE levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of METH on sAA activity and whether changes in sAA activity were correlated with subjective effects ratings. Methods Non-treatment seeking METH-dependent volunteers (N=8) participated in this within-subjects laboratory-based study. Volunteers received randomly administered intravenous METH (0mg, 30mg) and sAA activity, cardiovascular measures and subjective ratings were assessed at baseline (−15 min) and five post-METH time points (10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min). Results METH (30mg) increased sAA activity over time. sAA activity significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure following 0mg METH and systolic blood pressure following 30mg METH. Subjective ratings (ANY EFFECT, HIGH, GOOD, STIMULATED, LIKE, WLLING TO PAY) highly correlated with sAA over five post-METH time points (N=40; r’s=0.543–0.684, p’s <0.001). Age, body mass index and METH amount received on a mg/kg basis were significantly associated with sAA activity. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated sAA activity remained a significant predictor of subjective ratings following METH after controlling for these factors. Conclusions The NE peripheral biomarker sAA activity is associated with METH’s subjective effects. PMID:23968815

  4. Snails home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  5. Simultaneous use of alcohol with methamphetamine but not ecstasy linked with aggression among young adult stimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ellen M; Smirnov, Andrew; Cherney, Adrian; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert; Najman, Jake M

    2017-07-01

    Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility. Prediction models of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility were developed using multivariate logistic regression. Simultaneous alcohol consumption and amphetamine-type stimulant use was prevalent, with drinking generally occurring before consuming amphetamine-type stimulants and while 'high'. Methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility was significantly associated with recurrent risky simultaneous methamphetamine and alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI 1.09-6.89), a high frequency and increasing use methamphetamine trajectory (AOR 7.23, 95% CI 1.27-41.03), and high trait aggression (AOR 5.78, 95% CI 2.53-13.20). In contrast, only trait aggression (moderate: AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.55-5.84; high: AOR 5.02, 95% CI 2.38-10.61) was associated with ecstasy-related aggression and hostility. These findings indicate a link between risky patterns of simultaneous alcohol and methamphetamine use and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility, independent of separate use of alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis, trait aggression, psychosis, and gender. The policy challenges of amphetamine-type stimulant and alcohol use require a targeted, multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in methamphetamine use and responses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzen, Dean E; Liu, Bin

    2008-03-01

    Men and women differ markedly with regard to their use of, and responses to, methamphetamine (MA) and related amphetamines. However, these gender differences oftentimes are given only a cursory consideration in the analyses of these MA effects. In this brief review, we summarize the data on gender differences in various parameters of MA use and responses. Such information on the pattern of male versus female differences in the use and responses to this psychostimulant can aid in tailoring gender-dependent treatment strategies. English-language articles were identified from MEDLINE as well as from reference lists of identified articles for the years 1966 to 2007. Search terms included various combinations of men/male, women/female, methamphetamine, and gender/sex differences. Only studies with human subjects were reviewed. Women tend to begin MA use at earlier ages, appear more dependent on MA, but also respond better to treatment than do men. MA use appears to be associated with depression in women, and women seem more committed to MA, whereas men are more likely to use other drugs in the absence of access to MA. Female MA abusers had both larger volumes within the corpus callosum and more hyperperfused regions in the parietal and occipital areas of the brain, along with more genetic alterations but less MA-induced toxicity. Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release was greater in men. When considered in total, women seem more dependent on and committed to MA but show diminished (amphetamine-stimulated) dopamine responses and a decreased degree of toxicity, as indicated by a lower incidence of emergency department-related deaths involving MA. A pervasive comorbidity of depression or depression-related characteristics were present in women MA users, suggesting that MA may serve as a type of self-medication for their depression. These findings not only highlight the need for consideration of gender when assessing MA use, but also can serve to direct efforts at

  7. Effects of the Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 Agonist RO5263397 on Abuse-Related Behavioral Indices of Methamphetamine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Zhang, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a major drug of abuse with no effective pharmacotherapy available. Trace amine associated receptor 1 is implicated in cocaine addiction and represents a potential therapeutic target. However, the effects of trace amine associated receptor 1 agonists on addiction-related behavioral effects of methamphetamine are unknown. Methods: This study examined the effects of a trace amine associated receptor 1 agonist RO5263397 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, methamphetamine self-administration, cue- and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behaviors in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to examine the effects of methamphetamine alone and in combination with the trace amine associated receptor 1 agonist RO5263397 (3.2–10mg/kg). Results: RO5263397 dose-dependently attenuated the expression of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine, reduced methamphetamine self-administration, and decreased both cue- and a priming dose of methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors. However, RO5263397 did not alter cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Taken together, trace amine associated receptor 1 agonists attenuate some abuse-related behavioral effects of methamphetamine, strongly suggesting that drugs activating trace amine associated receptor 1 may be potentially useful for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction and warrant further studies. PMID:25522401

  8. The emergence of potent forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, Australia: a case study of the IDRS as a strategic early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane

    2002-12-01

    A striking finding of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) in recent years has concerned the emergence in Sydney of a number of different forms of potent methamphetamine. This paper demonstrates the operation of the IDRS in detecting and documenting an increase in both the availability and use of these forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, and Australia more widely, since 1998. Data from different components of the IDRS are utilized to propose that there are currently at least three forms of methamphetamine available in Sydney that are considered by the market to be distinct commodities: methamphetamine powder ('speed'), base methamphetamine ('base') and crystalline methamphetamine ('ice'/'shabu'/'crystal meth'). Base and ice are more potent forms of methamphetamine than speed, and international experience, along with preliminary data obtained from the IDRS, suggest that their use is associated with harms in a number of domains.

  9. Retrospective study of urinalysis for dl-amphetamine and dl-methamphetamine analysis under current Department of Defense guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, R L; Kippenberger, D J

    2000-09-01

    Under current Department of Defense (DOD) directive, the laboratories certified to conduct urinalyis testing in support of the DOD Drug Deterrence Program are required to conduct dl-isomer analysis on all specimens that confirm at a concentration greater than 500 ng/mL methamphetamine (METH). Although the same cutoff concentration is required for amphetamine (AMP) reporting, there is no requirement for dl-isomer analysis of AMP-positive specimens. Of the 894,823 specimens screened by the Army Drug Testing Laboratory at Ft. Meade, MD during a 19-month period, 339 confirmed positive for METH. From this positive population, seven specimens failed to confirm at or above the DOD cutoff of > 20% d-isomer. One of the seven specimens contained 534 ng/mL l-AMP and was reported positive for AMP. Although 100% of the AMP was the l-isomer, under current DOD directive, this information was not passed along to the Medical Review Officers (MRO) to assist them during the interview process. Although this situation appears to be a rare event, consideration should be given to requiring dl-isomer analysis of AMP-positive specimens and forwarding this information to the MRO.

  10. Feasibility of rat hair as a quality control material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-04-01

    A quality control material (QCM) is a necessity in hair drug analysis, but it is not always easy to have an authentic hair sample containing various target drugs and metabolites. In the present study, the feasibility of rat hair as a QCM was examined for its application in the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA was administered to lean Zucker rats, from which only pigmented hair was collected for the preparation of a QCM. The rat hair was then washed, homogenized and finally bottled. Both homogeneity and stability were examined in order to demonstrate the suitability of rat hair as a QCM in hair drug analysis. The concentrations of MA and AP in each bottle were determined using extraction with 1% HCl in methanol at 38°C followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Furthermore, the prepared QCM was used in an inter-laboratory quality assurance program. In the homogeneity test, no significant difference was observed between bottles of the QCM. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability for three months at room temperature. An inter-laboratory quality assurance program was also performed successfully using this material. Thus, rat hair will be useful as an alternative QCM sample for the determination of a variety of drugs and their metabolites in human hair.

  11. Influence of dopamine synthesis on methamphetamine-induced changes in striatal and adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, J W; Kogan, F J

    1979-12-01

    Methamphetamine in large doses decreases striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity. This effect is prevented by neuroleptic agents such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol which would suggest that released dopamine may be involved in the response. To test this hypothesis, we have altered dopamine synthesis with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and L-Dopa and found that dopamine synthesis is necessary for the observed depression of striatal TH activity by methamphetamine. In the adrenal gland, however, the increase in TH activity by methamphetamine is not prevented by inhibition of catecholamine synthesis. It is possible that released dopamine may be inhibiting TH activity by activation of pre- or postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the neostriatum resulting in activation of the neuronal feedback pathway or released dopamine may act on dendrodendritic autoreceptors in the substantia nigra.

  12. Home Dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Building a home and creating a family are highly inter­connec­ted processes. So what happens with the home when people separate or divorce? In this paper we address this question both from a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Based on an extensive database with socio-economic background data...... of 42,000 separated Danish couples in 2002, we follow the housing careers of both partners, to see how the housing situation of different types of people was affected by the separation. In the qualitative approach, nine interviews with couples who have parted shed light on the emotions and practical...

  13. Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Levin, Frances R.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Anecdotally, methamphetamine is considered to have a greater abuse potential compared to d-amphetamine, but there are no studies directly comparing self-administration of these drugs. This study characterized and compared self-administration as well as the mood, performance, and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine- and d-amphetamine. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Setting An outpatient research unit at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Participants Male recreational methamphetamine users (n = 13). Measurements Five 2-day blocks of sessions were conducted. On the first day of each block, participants “sampled” a single methamphetamine or d-amphetamine dose (0, 12, 50 mg/70 kg) and a monetary reinforcer ($5 or $20). Amphetamines plasma levels, cardiovascular, mood, and psychomotor performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. On the second day of each block, participants chose between the sampled reinforcers (drug or money). Findings There were no significant differences between the drugs on the majority of measures. Under the $5 condition, both amphetamines dose-dependently increased self-administration, whereas under the $20 condition, few drug options were selected. Overall, participants selected more drug choices under the $5 condition compared with the $20 condition (41% versus 17%). Both drugs increased cardiovascular activity and “positive” mood, although methamphetamine produced more prominent effects on some measures (e.g., heart rate and ratings of ‘high’). Conclusions These data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that the two amphetamines produce a similar dose-related profile of acute effects in humans, with methamphetamine producing greater effects on some mood and cardiovascular measures. The amphetamines were self-administered equally indicating their equivalence for abuse potential. PMID:22050030

  14. Methamphetamine treatment outcomes among gay men attending a LGBTI-specific treatment service in Sydney, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lea

    Full Text Available Gay and bisexual men (GBM report higher rates of methamphetamine use compared to heterosexual men, and thus have a heightened risk of developing problems from their use. We examined treatment outcomes among GBM clients receiving outpatient counseling at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI-specific, harm reduction treatment service in Sydney, Australia. GBM receiving treatment for methamphetamine use from ACON's Substance Support Service between 2012-15 (n = 101 were interviewed at treatment commencement, and after 4 sessions (n = 60; follow-up 1 and 8 sessions (n = 32; follow-up 2. At each interview, clients completed measures of methamphetamine use and dependence, other substance use, injecting risk practices, psychological distress and quality of life. The median age of participants was 41 years and 56.4% identified as HIV-positive. Participants attended a median of 5 sessions and attended treatment for a median of 112 days. There was a significant reduction in the median days of methamphetamine use in the previous 4 weeks between baseline (4 days, follow-up 1 (2 days and follow-up 2 (2 days; p = .001. There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants reporting methamphetamine dependence between baseline (92.1%, follow-up 1 (78.3% and follow-up 2 (71.9%, p < .001. There were also significant reductions in psychological distress (p < .001, and significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001. Clients showed reductions in methamphetamine use and improved psychosocial functioning over time, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of a LGBTI-specific treatment service.

  15. Aripiprazole for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Phillip Oliver; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Das, Moupali; Santos, Deirdre M; Huffaker, Shannon; Matheson, Tim; Gasper, James; Vittinghoff, Eric; Colfax, Grant N

    2013-04-01

    To test aripiprazole for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent adults, compared to placebo. Participants were randomized to receive 12 weeks of aripiprazole or placebo, with a 3-month follow-up and a platform of weekly 30-minute substance abuse counseling. The trial was conducted from January 2009 to March 2012 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Ninety actively using, methamphetamine-dependent, sexually active adults were recruited from community venues. The primary outcome was regression estimated reductions in weekly methamphetamine-positive urines. Secondary outcomes were study medication adherence [by self-report and medication event monitoring systems (MEMS)], sexual risk behavior and abstinence from methamphetamine. Participant mean age was 38.7 years, 87.8% were male, 50.0% white, 18.9% African American, and 16.7% Latino. Eighty-three per cent of follow-up visits and final visits were completed. By intent-to-treat, participants assigned to aripiprazole had similar reductions in methamphetamine-positive urines as participants assigned to placebo [risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-1.19, P = 0.41]. Urine positivity declined from 73% (33 of 45 participants) to 45% (18 of 40) in the placebo arm and from 77% (34 of 44) to 44% (20 of 35) in the aripiprazole arm. Adherence by MEMS and self-report was 42 and 74%, respectively, with no significant difference between arms (MEMS P = 0.31; self-report P = 0.17). Most sexual risk behaviors declined similarly among participants in both arms (all P > 0.05). There were no serious adverse events related to study drug, although participants randomized to aripiprazole reported more akathisia, fatigue and drowsiness (P methamphetamine use significantly among actively using, dependent adults. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. How Long Does Craving Predict Use of Methamphetamine? Assessment of Use One to Seven Weeks After the Assessment of Craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantt P. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study lays the foundation for a clinical prediction model based on methamphetamine craving intensity and its ability to predict the presence or absence of within-treatment methamphetamine use.Design: We used a random effects logistic approach for estimating repeated-measures, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM using craving as the sole predictor of methamphetamine. A multivariate GLMM included craving, length of treatment, treatment assignment, and methamphetamine use the previous week as covariates to control for potential confounds. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses to evaluate predictive accuracy. We investigated further whether methamphetamine craving predicted subsequent use more accurately at intervals more proximal to versus those more distal to assessment, examining one-week periods ending one to seven weeks after assessment of craving.Setting: The study was part of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP.Subjects: Analyses were based on data from 691 methamphetamine dependent outpatients enrolled in the MTP.Measurements: Craving was assessed by self-report on a 0–100 scale. Self-reported methamphetamine use was toxicologically verified. Craving and drug use were assessed weekly for 8 weeks.Findings: In the univariate analysis craving predicted methamphetamine use in the week immediately following the craving report (p <0.0001, with subject-specific use increasing 0.38% for each one-point increase in craving on a 0–100 scale. In the multivariate analysis the probability of use decreased by 2.45% for each week in treatment, increased by 33.11% for previous methamphetamine use, and the probability of methamphetamine use still increased with craving, rising 0.28% for each one-point increase in craving score (all p <0.0001. Predictive accuracy was strongest at the one-week time-lag and declined in magnitude the more distal the assessment period

  17. How Long Does Craving Predict Use of Methamphetamine? Assessment of Use One to Seven Weeks after the Assessment of Craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantt P. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims This study lays the foundation for a clinical prediction model based on methamphetamine craving intensity and its ability to predict the presence or absence of within-treatment methamphetamine use. Design We used a random effects logistic approach for estimating repeated-measures, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM using craving as the sole predictor of methamphetamine. A multivariate GLMM included craving, length of treatment, treatment assignment, and methamphetamine use the previous week as covariates to control for potential confounds. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses to evaluate predictive accuracy. We investigated further whether methamphetamine craving predicted subsequent use more accurately at intervals more proximal to versus those more distal to assessment, examining one-week periods ending one to seven weeks after assessment of craving. Setting The study was part of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP. Subjects Analyses were based on data from 691 methamphetamine dependent outpatients enrolled in the MTP. Measurements Craving was assessed by self-report on a 0–100 scale. Self-reported methamphetamine use was toxicologically verified. Craving and drug use were assessed weekly for 8 weeks. Findings In the univariate analysis craving predicted methamphetamine use in the week immediately following the craving report (p < 0.0001, with subject-specific use increasing 0.38% for each one-point increase in craving on a 0–100 scale. In the multivariate analysis the probability of use decreased by 2.45% for each week in treatment increased by 33.11% for previous methamphetamine use, and the probability of methamphetamine use still increased with craving, rising 0.28% for each one-point increase in craving score (all p < 0.0001. Predictive accuracy was strongest at the one-week time-lag and declined in magnitude the more distal the assessment period

  18. Disappearance of R/S-methamphetamine and R/S-amphetamine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shen, Baohua; Wu, Hejian; Hu, Jingying; Xu, Huili; Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) are widely abused drugs. These compounds contain a chiral center, and their enantiomers exhibit different pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and metabolic properties due to differences in binding affinities to their receptor sites. Until now, there was a lack of information on the decline in the concentration of drugs in hair after abstinence. A simple procedure for the chiral separation and determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AM) enantiomers by LC-MS/MS in hair samples has been developed and fully validated. The LODs and LLOQs were 0.02ng/mg and 0.05ng/mg for all analytes, respectively. This method was successfully applied to both real hair specimens from chronic MA users and after the discontinuation of MA. The concentration of total MA, and total AM in fifty-eight authentic hair specimens ranged from 7.8ng/mg to 521.0ng/mg, and from 0.3ng/mg to 84.0ng/mg, respectively. Both enantiomers of MA and/or AM were detected in seven of fifty-eight authentic hair specimens. Hair specimens were from thirteen women with a known history of MA abuse, who went to a rehabilitation center and ceased consuming MA (for 4-5 months). The S-isomers of MA and AM were detected in all the 5-6cm segments. Both enantiomers of MA were detected in nine of the 5-6cm segments and the enantiomers of AM were found in only five of the nine samples. Assuming a hair growth rate of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of S-MA, R-MA, S-AM, and R-AM were 0.64(95% CI, 0.46-0.96), 0.58(95% CI, 0.41-0.93), 0.62(0.49-0.88), and 0.50 months (95% CI, 0.42-0.56), respectively. With the developed method, R/S-MA and R/S-AM could be detected in the hair of former drug users for approximately 4 months after abstinence. S-MA is the most commonly found analyte in hair segments and is principally used by abusers. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of MA abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, a 3-cm

  19. Behavioral metabolomics analysis identifies novel neurochemical signatures in methamphetamine sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D E; McClay, J L; Vunck, S A; Batman, A M; Vann, R E; Clark, S L; Souza, R P; Crowley, J J; Sullivan, P F; van den Oord, E J C G; Beardsley, P M

    2013-11-01

    Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In this study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine (MA)-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate, FDR biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Acquisition of Conditioning between Methamphetamine and Cues in Healthy Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Cavallo

    Full Text Available Environmental stimuli repeatedly paired with drugs of abuse can elicit conditioned responses that are thought to promote future drug seeking. We recently showed that healthy volunteers acquired conditioned responses to auditory and visual stimuli after just two pairings with methamphetamine (MA, 20 mg, oral. This study extended these findings by systematically varying the number of drug-stimuli pairings. We expected that more pairings would result in stronger conditioning. Three groups of healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive 1, 2 or 4 pairings (Groups P1, P2 and P4, Ns = 13, 16, 16, respectively of an auditory-visual stimulus with MA, and another stimulus with placebo (PBO. Drug-cue pairings were administered in an alternating, counterbalanced order, under double-blind conditions, during 4 hr sessions. MA produced prototypic subjective effects (mood, ratings of drug effects and alterations in physiology (heart rate, blood pressure. Although subjects did not exhibit increased behavioral preference for, or emotional reactivity to, the MA-paired cue after conditioning, they did exhibit an increase in attentional bias (initial gaze toward the drug-paired stimulus. Further, subjects who had four pairings reported "liking" the MA-paired cue more than the PBO cue after conditioning. Thus, the number of drug-stimulus pairings, varying from one to four, had only modest effects on the strength of conditioned responses. Further studies investigating the parameters under which drug conditioning occurs will help to identify risk factors for developing drug abuse, and provide new treatment strategies.

  1. Behavioral regulation in methamphetamine abusers: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Buonocore, Michael H.; Ursu, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to extend our previous findings of abnormal prefrontal function in methamphetamine (MA) abusers and controls and to link the imaging data to behavioral, demographic and drug use variables. Methods We employed a fast-event related fMRI design to examine trial to trial reaction time (RT) adjustments in 30 MA abusers and 30 controls. A variant of the Stroop task was employed to measure influence of response conflict on RT, including the level of trial-to-trial RT adjustments seen after conflict trials. Results Compared to control subjects, MA abusers exhibited reduced RT adjustments and reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after conflict trials. RT adjustment correlated negatively with PFC brain activity in the MA group, while a trend for a positive correlation was observed in controls. No correlations were observed between task performance or brain activity and age, education or drug use variables. Conclusions These data support our previous findings that the ability to adapt a behavioral response based on prior experience is compromised in MA abusers. Interestingly, these impairments do not appear to be linked to drug use patterns or to educational levels. PMID:23149023

  2. Overlapping Cognitive Patterns in Schizophrenia and Methamphetamine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Ravizza, Susan; Fassbender, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether overlapping cognitive deficits exist in currently drug-abstinent chronic methamphetamine (MA) abusers and schizophrenia (SZ) patients. Background Both SZ and chronic MA abuse are associated with frontostriatal disruption as well as deficits in cognitive control such as selective attention. To identify overlapping cognitive profiles, we compared performance of the two groups on the Stroop attention task. Method Data were analyzed from 69 MA abusers who had been MA-abstinent for differing periods of time and from 23 SZ patients and 38 non-substance-abusing controls. Results The MA abusers in early abstinence displayed more Stroop interference than the SZ patients (p= 0.004), long-term abstinent MA abusers (p= 0.009), and controls (p = 0.002). In the MA abusers, the magnitude of Stroop interference correlated positively with longer drug use [p = 0.01] and negatively with longer drug abstinence [p= 0.04]. No correlations were found between psychotic symptoms and task performance. Conclusions On this task of attentional selection, only the MA abusers in early stages of abstinence showed performance deficits compared to controls. More research is needed to further elucidate overlapping patterns between MA abuse and SZ. PMID:22123586

  3. Pregnancy and Fetal Loss Reported by Methamphetamine-Using Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Lynn Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand substance use disorder treatment needs of pregnant and parenting women who use methamphetamine (MA, this paper describes pregnancy histories and fetal losses for women who were treated for MA use (N = 153 with reference to a national sample, and describes their drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health status. MA users reported an average of 4.6 total pregnancies and 2.1 fetal losses, whereas women in a general population survey reported 3.2 and 1.2, respectively. Higher numbers of pregnancies and fetal losses were correlated with specific substance abuse and mental health problems including early sexual abuse and cognitive problems. The combination of MA users’ especially high numbers of pregnancies, fetal losses, and rates of risk behaviors suggest high social and health care costs for this population. Prenatal care may provide a vector through which women can be connected to risk reduction interventions and gender-responsive treatment services addressing substance use and mental health needs.

  4. Sex differences in impulsivity and brain morphometry in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogachi, Shannon; Chang, Linda; Alicata, Daniel; Cunningham, Eric; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive stimulant, and METH users have abnormal brain structures and function. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between impulsivity, brain structures, and possible sex-specific differences between METH users and non-drug using Controls. Structural MRI and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) questionnaire were completed in 124 subjects: 62 METH (ages 41.2 ± 1.4 years, 34 males) and 62 Controls (ages 43.3 ± 2.3 years, 36 males). Independent and interactive effects of METH use status and sex were evaluated. Relationships between METH usage characteristics, brain morphometry, and impulsivity scores were examined. METH users had higher impulsivity scores, on both the Cognitive and Behavioral Factors from the BIS (p impulsivity (interaction-p ≤ 0.05). Only female METH users showed relatively larger nucleus accumbens (interaction-p = 0.03). Greater impulsivity and thinner frontal cortices in METH users are validated. Larger superior frontal cortex in male METH users with greater cognitive impulsivity suggest decreased dendritic pruning during adolescence might have contributed to their impulsive and drug use behaviors. In the female METH users, smaller frontal cortices and the associated greater impulsivity suggest greater neurotoxicity to these brain regions, while their relatively larger nucleus accumbens suggest an estrogen-mediated neuroprotective glial response. Men and women may be affected differently by METH use.

  5. HIV-1, Methamphetamine and Astrocytes at Neuroinflammatory crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eBorgmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a popular psychostimulant, methamphetamine (METH use leads to long-lasting, strong euphoric effects. While METH abuse is common in the general population, between 10-15% of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 patients report having abused METH. METH exacerbates the severity and onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND through direct and indirect mechanisms. Repetitive METH use decreases adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens, increasing the likelihood of HIV-1 disease progression towards AIDS. METH exposure also directly affects both innate and adaptive immunity, altering lymphocyte number and activity, cytokine signaling, phagocytic function, and CNS infiltration through the blood brain barrier. Further, METH triggers the neuronal dopamine reward pathway and leads to altered neuronal activity and direct toxicity. Concurrently, METH and HIV-1 alter the neuroimmune balance and induce neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation modulates a wide range of brain functions including neuronal signaling and activity, glial activation, viral infection, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Pathologically, glial activation is a hallmark of both HIV-1 and METH-associated neuroinflammation. Significant commonality exists in the neurotoxic mechanisms for both METH and HAND; however, the pathways dysregulated in astroglia during METH exposure are less clear. Thus alterations in astrocyte intracellular signaling pathways, gene expression and function during METH and HIV-1 comorbidity, neuroinflammation and HAND are carefully reviewed. Interventions targeting astrocytes in HAND and METH are presented as potential novel therapeutic approaches.

  6. Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.

  7. The Complex Interaction Between Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Ryan Colby; Pandhare, Jui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-09-01

    The global HIV/AIDS pandemic has claimed the lives of an estimated 35 million people. A significant barrier for combating this global pandemic is substance use since it is associated with HIV transmission, delayed diagnosis/initiation of therapy, and poor adherence to therapy. Clinical studies also suggest a link between substance use and HIV-disease progression/AIDS-associated mortality. Methamphetamine (METH) use is one of the fastest-growing substance use problems in the world. METH use enhances high-risk sexual behaviors, therefore increases the likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition. METH use is also associated with higher viral loads, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral resistance. Moreover, METH use has also been correlated with rapid progression to AIDS. However, direct effects of METH on HIV-1 disease progression remains poorly understood because use of METH and other illicit drugs is often associated with reduced/non adherence to ART. Nevertheless, in vitro studies demonstrate that METH increases HIV-1 replication in cell cultures and animal models. Thus, it has been proposed that METH's potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication may in part contribute to the worsening of HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, our recent data demonstrate that METH at physiologically relevant concentrations has no effect and at higher concentrations inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Thus, the goal of this review is to systematically examine the published literature to better understand the complex interaction between METH abuse and HIV-1 disease progression.

  8. Famprofazone use can be misinterpreted as methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kuei-Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Tseng, Chen-Yu; Chu, Wei-Lan

    2010-01-01

    Famprofazone, a major ingredient of Gewolen, is an analgesic that has been demonstrated to be metabolized to methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) following administration. Therefore, a famprofazone user may be interpreted as an illicit MA abuser in Taiwan because the user's urine tested positive for MA. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the concentration of MA metabolized from a single dose of Gewolen users would offend the official controlled substance regulation and be identified as MA-positive. Subjects (n = 6) received 25 mg of famprofazone and collected all urine specimens at certain timed intervals for 48 h after drug administration. The urine specimens were screened by immunoassay and then confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration of amphetamines by immunoassay was 1954 ng/mL, and 18.8% of the urine specimens' amphetamines concentrations exceeded 500 ng/mL. The MA and AM concentrations by GC-MS analysis of these urine specimens ranged from 901 to 2670 ng/mL and 208 to 711 ng/mL, respectively. These urine specimens were interpreted as MA-positive (>or= 500 ng/mL MA and >or= 100 ng/mL AM), according to the official test methods of Taiwan. The MA positive results appeared within 2-34 h. It is therefore clearly possible to misinterpret the legitimate famprofazone user as an MA abuser in Taiwan.

  9. Elements concentrations in the scalp hair of methamphetamine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ruxin; Zhang, Sujing; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Zhuo, Xianyi; Ma, Dong

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of 16 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr and Zn) in the hair of 40 methamphetamine (METH) abusers and control subjects were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons of the element levels in the hair of properly matched METH abuser and control groups revealed significant imbalances in the concentrations of 6 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cu, Mg and Sr) between the abuser and control groups. Ca (p<0.01), Cu (p<0.05), Mg (p<0.01) and Sr (p<0.01) levels are significantly lower in the hair samples of METH abusers compared to control subjects, whereas the As (p<0.01) and Au (p<0.01) concentrations are higher. The concentration of the remaining elements in the hair of METH abusers was similar to the concentration in the control subjects. The geometric means for each element in hair of METH abuser and control subjects are presented. The cause of these alterations is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of methamphetamine and amphetamine in drug abusers' head hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun

    2009-09-10

    In order to aid the interpretation of hair results from methamphetamine (MA) abusers the MA and amphetamine (AP) concentrations in 2070 hair samples were statistically evaluated. The MA and AP concentrations in hair were put into three groups arbitrarily representing low, medium and high ranges and the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios of each group were examined. The concentration ranges proposed here were also applied to the interpretation of five authentic cases. The low, medium and high ranges of MA were 0.5-4.2, 4.2-24.5 and 24.5-608.9 ng/mg and those of AP were 0.1-0.4, 0.4-1.7 and 1.7-41.4 ng/mg. The AP-to-MA ratios showed large variation but a tendency that it decreased as the MA ranges increased. This evaluation was very useful to presume the severity of individuals' MA abuse and to provide law enforcement agencies more understandable information. It could also facilitate the court's decision regarding specific circumstances surrounding the drug-related crimes.

  11. Development of an automated data processing method for sample to sample comparison of seized methamphetamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Jaesin; Choi, Hyeyoung; Park, Yujin; Lee, Heesang; Pyo, Jaesung; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Kim, Suncheun

    2012-11-30

    The information about the sources of supply, trafficking routes, distribution patterns and conspiracy links can be obtained from methamphetamine profiling. The precursor and synthetic method for the clandestine manufacture can be estimated from the analysis of minor impurities contained in methamphetamine. Also, the similarity between samples can be evaluated using the peaks that appear in chromatograms. In South Korea, methamphetamine was the most popular drug but the total seized amount of methamphetamine whole through the country was very small. Therefore, it would be more important to find the links between samples than the other uses of methamphetamine profiling. Many Asian countries including Japan and South Korea have been using the method developed by National Research Institute of Police Science of Japan. The method used gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), DB-5 column and four internal standards. It was developed to increase the amount of impurities and minimize the amount of methamphetamine. After GC-FID analysis, the raw data have to be processed. The data processing steps are very complex and require a lot of time and effort. In this study, Microsoft Visual Basic Application (VBA) modules were developed to handle these data processing steps. This module collected the results from the data into an Excel file and then corrected the retention time shift and response deviation generated from the sample preparation and instruments analysis. The developed modules were tested for their performance using 10 samples from 5 different cases. The processed results were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient for similarity assessment and the correlation coefficient of the two samples from the same case was more than 0.99. When the modules were applied to 131 seized methamphetamine samples, four samples from two different cases were found to have the common origin and the chromatograms of the four samples were appeared visually identical

  12. The untold story of Mexico's rise and eventual monopoly of the methamphetamine trade

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, Steven Scott.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to tell the untold story of the ascendance of Mexican DTOs over the production and distribution of methamphetamine. By adding this dimension to a story that has typically focused on the role of Mexican DTOs in the cocaine trade, it explains the spread of meth use in the U.S. and the challenges currently facing U.S. law enforcement officials attempting to combat the illegal methamphetamine trade. It concludes that the trick is to formulate international anti-dru...

  13. [Homing behavior in Salamandra salamandra (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasa, L

    1979-10-01

    Homing behavior in salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) was studied in the field (52 adults) and in laboratory experiments (75 adult animals). Displacements, occluding of sense organs and experiments with different visual patterns revealed that the home-site orientation is guided by vision. While visual landmarks are most important, Salamandra is also able to use a moon-compass.

  14. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  15. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  16. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  17. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  18. Functional impairment of the frontal lobe in methamphetamine dependent patients detected on FDG-PET and WCST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Tae; Kwon, Do Hoon [Bugok National Hostipal, Changnyeong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Woo; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daeug (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    There are mounting evidences from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to support the view that patients with substance dependence have abnormalities in prefrontal cortex. However, functional deficits in prefrontal cortex has not been adequately studied in methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether methamphetamine dependent patients have metabolic abnormalities and executive dysfunction. Twenty-one abstinent methamphetamine dependent patients who were hospitalized in Bugok National Hospital underwent resting FDG-PET, after which they completed computerized versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Brain PET images were obtained 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. Significant differences of glucose metabolism were estimated for every voxel using t-statistics on SPM2 implemented in Matlab between methamphetamine dependent patients and age-matched normal controls. FDG-PET revealed significant hypometabolism in the left inferior frontal white matter (Talairach coordinates (x, y, z): -34, 7, 31) in methamphetamine dependent patients compared to the normal controls (uncorrect p<0.001, t>3.39). The nearest gray matter region was the left inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9). Methamphetamine dependent patients completed significantly fewer categories (3.662.19) and made more perseveration errors (22.0411.94) and total errors (44.5719.70) on the WCST compared to the normal controls (p<0.01). These data suggest that patients with methamphetamine dependence have functional impairments in prefrontal cortex.

  19. Evaluation of the cardiovascular and subjective effects of rivastigmine in combination with methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Shoptaw, Steve; Newton, Thomas F

    2008-09-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has been implicated in the reinforcing and locomotor-activating effects produced by methamphetamine (Meth). Of interest, recent data suggest that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors attenuate Meth-seeking behaviour in rats. We conducted this study in order to determine the safety (adverse events, mood changes, cardiovascular effects) and preliminary efficacy (subjective effects) of the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine (Riv) when tested in combination with Meth. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking Meth-dependent participants resided in an in-patient unit at UCLA for 2mg i.v.) and Meth (day 5, 30mg, n=7) or Riv (1.5mg, n=9). On day 11, the subjects received saline and Meth infusions again (randomized to either 11:30 or 14:30 hours), under double-blind conditions. The data analyses compared across-study measures of adverse events and mood, and a post-randomization analysis of cardiovascular and subjective effects (on day 11). The data reveal that rivastigmine was not associated with increased adverse events or alterations in mood. As expected, acute Meth exposure (30mg, significantly attenuated Meth-induced increases in diastolic blood pressure, and self-reports of and (p<0.05). Taken together, the findings in the current report suggest that pharmacological manipulations that enhance brain ACh warrant continued investigation as potential treatments for Meth addiction.

  20. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Methamphetamine Antibody Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuo-Jen; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Wu, Kun-Lieh; Tsai, Ho-Min; Chen, Mao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hsieh, Wei; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun

    2017-04-07

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most frequently abused drugs worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that antibodies with high affinity for Meth reduce its pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for virus-based passive immunization against Meth effects. We generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-8 vector (AAV-MethAb) carrying the gene for a Meth-specific monoclonal antibody (MethAb). Infection of 293 cells with AAV-MethAb resulted in the expression and secretion of antibodies which bind to Meth. The viral vector was then examined in adult ICR mice. Systemic administration of AAV-MethAb resulted in long-term expression of MethAb in the serum for up to 29 weeks. Serum collected from the animals receiving AAV-MethAb retained a high specificity for (+)-Meth. Animals were challenged with Meth five weeks after viral injection. Meth levels in the brain and serum were reduced while Meth-induced locomotor activity was significantly attenuated. In conclusion, AAV-MethAb administration effectively depletes Meth from brain and serum while reducing the behavioral response to Meth, and thus is a potential therapeutic approach for Meth abuse.

  1. Lamotrigine blocks repeated high-dose methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization to dizocilpine (MK-801), but not methamphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakato, Yasuya; Abekawa, Tomohiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Ito, Koki; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2011-10-24

    We recently proposed a new psychostimulant animal model of the progressive pathophysiological changes of schizophrenia. Studies using that model produced a treatment strategy for preventing progression. Lamotrigine (LTG) blocks repeated high-dosage methamphetamine (METH)-induced initiation and expression of prepulse inhibition deficit and development of apoptosis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, it inhibits METH-induced increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the mPFC (Nakato et al., 2011, Neurosci. Lett.). Abnormal behavior induced by METH or NMDA receptor antagonists is regarded as an animal model of schizophrenia. This study examined the effects of LTG on the development of behavioral sensitization to METH and cross-sensitization to dizocilpine (MK-801) by repeated administration of high-dose METH (2.5mg/kg, 10 times s.c.). Rats were injected repeatedly with LTG (30mg/kg) after 120min METH administration (2.5mg/kg). Repeated co-administration of LTG blocked the development of behavioral cross-sensitization to MK-801 (0.15mg/kg), but it did not prevent behavioral sensitization to METH (0.2mg/kg). The LTG-induced prevention of increased glutamate by high-dose METH might be related to the former finding. Combined results of our previous studies and this study suggest that LTG is useful to treat schizophrenia, especially at a critical point in its progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Home Away from Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2008-01-01

    “techniques” of parentcraft in place; and 4) doing “becoming” the proper object of family therapy or counseling in a simulated “home” laboratory. I conclude that the HTT house is a domesticated laboratory, both for (re)producing problem behaviors and communicative troubles, and for affording participants...

  3. Trends in methamphetamine use in young injection drug users in San Francisco from 1998 to 2004: the UFO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Hahn, Judith A; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer; Davidson, Peter; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2008-05-01

    To describe temporal trends in methamphetamine use among young injection drug users (IDU) in San Francisco. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data collected for a longitudinal study of young IDU from 1998 to 2004. Participants were 1445 young IDU (<30 years old) who reported injection in the previous month, English-speaking, and recruited by street outreach methods. We examined trends for: lifetime (ever) and recent (30-day) methamphetamine use, including injected and non-injected, and by age group and sexual risk behaviour [men who have sex with men injecting drug users (MSM-IDU), male IDU (non-MSM) and female IDU]. In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004 we interviewed 237, 276, 431, 310, 147 and 44 participants, respectively. Overall, median age was 22 years [interquartile range (IQR) 20-25], 30.3% were women and median duration of injecting was 4.4 years (IQR 2-7). Prevalence of methamphetamine use was high, with 50.1% reporting recent injection, but overall there were no temporal increases in reported 'ever' injected use. Recent methamphetamine injection (past 30 days) increased significantly, and peaked at 60% in 2003. MSM-IDU had higher methamphetamine injection ever (92.3%) and recently (59.5%) compared to heterosexual male (non-MSM) IDU (81.6% and 47.3%, respectively) and to female IDU (78.4% and 46.1%, respectively). Despite reports of ubiquitous increases in methamphetamine use, there were no significant increases in 6 years in ever injecting methamphetamine overall among young IDU. MSM-IDU who reported the highest methamphetamine use overall reported some increases in recent injected use. The methamphetamine 'epidemic' was probably under way among young IDU earlier than other populations.

  4. Methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion and its two hydroxy metabolites in male rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L.; Smith, Douglas A.; Blough, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist bupropion is being investigated as a candidate ‘agonist’ medication for methamphetamine addiction. In addition to its complex pharmacology, bupropion also has two distinct pharmacologically active metabolites. However, the mechanism by which bupropion produces methamphetamine-like ‘agonist’ effects remains unknown. The present aim was to determine the role of DAT inhibition, nACh receptor antagonism, and the hydroxybupropion metabolites in the methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion in rhesus monkeys. In addition, varenicline, a partial agonist at the nACh receptor, and risperidone, a dopamine antagonist, were tested as controls. Monkeys (n=4) were trained to discriminate 0.18 mg/kg intramuscular methamphetamine from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Potency and time course of methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects were determined for all compounds. Bupropion, methylphenidate, and 2S,3S-hydroxybupropion produced full, ≥90%, methamphetamine-like effects. 2R,3R-hydroxybupropion, mecamylamine, and nicotine also produced full methamphetamine-like effects, but drug potency was more variable between monkeys. Varenicline produced partial methamphetamine-like effects, whereas risperidone did not. Overall, these results suggest DAT inhibition as the major mechanism of the methamphetamine-like ‘agonist’ effects of bupropion, although nACh receptor antagonism appeared, at least partially, to contribute. Furthermore, the contribution of the 2S,3S-hydroxybupropion metabolite could not be completely ruled out. PMID:26886209

  5. The infant development, environment, and lifestyle study: effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure, polydrug exposure, and poverty on intrauterine growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M

    2006-09-01

    Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study. The Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study screened 13808 subjects at 4 clinical centers: 1618 were eligible and consented, among which 84 were methamphetamine exposed, and 1534 were unexposed. Those who were methamphetamine exposed were identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Those who were unexposed denied amphetamine use and had a negative meconium screen. Both groups included prenatal alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use, but excluded use of opiates, LSD, PCP or cocaine only. Neonatal parameters included birth weight and gestational age in weeks. One-way analysis of variance and linear-regression analyses were conducted on birth weight by exposure. The relationship of methamphetamine exposure and the incidence of small for gestational age was analyzed using multivariate logistic-regression analyses. The methamphetamine exposed group was 3.5 times more likely to be small for gestational age than the unexposed group. Mothers who used tobacco during pregnancy were nearly 2 times more likely to have small-for-gestational-age infants. In addition, less maternal weight gain during pregnancy was more likely to result in a small-for-gestational-age infant. Birthweight in the methamphetamine exposed group was lower than the unexposed group. These findings suggest that prenatal methamphetamine use is associated with fetal growth restriction after adjusting for covariates. Continued follow-up will determine if these infants are at increased risk for growth abnormalities in the future.

  6. The effect of methamphetamine and heroin price on polydrug use: A behavioural economics analysis in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Bradford, Deborah; Jones, Craig

    2010-09-01

    A key aim of supply-side drug law enforcement is to reduce drug use by increasing the retail price of drugs. Since most illicit drug users are polydrug users the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the extent to which drug users reduce their overall consumption of drugs. The literature shows that drug users do reduce their consumption of a drug when its price increases. However the extent of that decrease and the implications for the use of other drugs vary across studies. A sample of 101 Australian methamphetamine users was surveyed using a behavioural economics approach. Participants were given a hypothetical fixed drug budget, presented with a range of drug price lists and asked how many units of each drug they would purchase. Methamphetamine and heroin prices were varied independently across trials. While demand for both methamphetamine and heroin was found to be price elastic, elasticity estimates were influenced by the nature of participants' drug dependence. The group least responsive to changes in methamphetamine price were those dependent only on methamphetamine, while the group most responsive were dependent only on heroin. Similar findings emerged in relation to changes in heroin price. Cross-price elasticity analysis showed limited substitution into other drugs as the price of methamphetamine increased. In contrast, for heroin, there was significant substitution into pharmaceutical opioids and to a lesser extent, benzodiazepines and methamphetamine. However, for the most part, the decreases in methamphetamine or heroin consumption outweighed any substitution into other drugs. The reduction in overall drug consumption and expenditure in response to price increases in heroin and methamphetamine observed in this sample lend support to supply-side enforcement strategies that aim to increase retail drug price. Notably, this analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the nature of users' drug dependence in estimating price responsiveness

  7. Evaluating Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Abuse Frequency in Hospitalized Patients of the Psychiatric Ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangard L

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amphetamine and methamphetamine are man-made materials. They were only used as drugs at the beginning, but gradually outspreaded as psychedelics because of their sympathomimetic effects. Different studies have shown that the frequency of amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse has been increasing; also, there is a close relationship in amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse with psychiatric disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse in psychiatric inpatients and evaluate the effects of different factors on that. Methods: In this cross-sectional-descriptive study, 2543 patients were admitted to the psychiatric ward of Hamadan Farshchian hospital in 2013; in order to evaluate amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse, they were enrolled. For detection of amphetamine and methamphetamine, urine test using immunochemical and chromatographic methods was conducted. Results: The frequency of amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse in psychiatric inpatients was 7.3% (186 cases. Most of the abusers were male (87%, young (mean age: 36 years and married (60%. However, there was no significant association between age, gender, marital status and frequency of abuse (P > 0.05. Half of abusers were unemployed and 67% of them did not have high school diploma. The most important psychiatric disorder among the abusers of these two substances was bipolar mood disorder (65.1%. Moreover, in this study, there was no significant association between amphetamine and methamphetamine test results (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that the frequency of amphetamine and methamphetamine abuse in psychiatric patients was more than other people and patients with mood disorders were at a greater risk. Furthermore, this study indicated that the prevalence of abuse of these substances among females has increased compared to previous studies.

  8. Contingency management to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk among men who have sex with men: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Damon R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine use is associated with HIV acquisition and transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM. Contingency management (CM, providing positive reinforcement for drug abstinence and withholding reinforcement when abstinence is not demonstrated, may facilitate reduced methamphetamine use and sexual risk. We compared CM as a stand-alone intervention to a minimal intervention control to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger, more definitive trial of CM; to define the frequency of behavioral outcomes to power such a trial; and, to compute preliminary estimates of CM's effectiveness. Methods We randomly assigned 127 MSM from Seattle, WA who use methamphetamine to receive a 12-week CM intervention (n = 70 or referral to community resources (n = 57. Results Retention at 24 weeks was 84%. Comparing consecutive study visits, non-concordant UAI declined significantly in both study arms. During the intervention, CM and control participants were comparably likely to provide urine samples containing methamphetamine (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.71, 1.56 and to report non-concordant UAI (aRR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.47, 1.35. However, during post-intervention follow-up, CM participants were somewhat more likely to provide urine samples containing methamphetamine than control participants (aRR = 1.21; 95%CI: 0.95, 1.54, P = 0.11. Compared to control participants, CM participants were significantly more likely to report weekly or more frequent methamphetamine use and use of more than eight quarters of methamphetamine during the intervention and post-intervention periods. Conclusions While it is possible to enroll and retain MSM who use methamphetamine in a trial of CM conducted outside drug treatment, our data suggest that CM is not likely to have a large, sustained effect on methamphetamine use. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01174654

  9. Contingency management to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk among men who have sex with men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menza, Timothy W; Jameson, Damon R; Hughes, James P; Colfax, Grant N; Shoptaw, Steven; Golden, Matthew R

    2010-12-20

    Methamphetamine use is associated with HIV acquisition and transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Contingency management (CM), providing positive reinforcement for drug abstinence and withholding reinforcement when abstinence is not demonstrated, may facilitate reduced methamphetamine use and sexual risk. We compared CM as a stand-alone intervention to a minimal intervention control to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger, more definitive trial of CM; to define the frequency of behavioral outcomes to power such a trial; and, to compute preliminary estimates of CM's effectiveness. We randomly assigned 127 MSM from Seattle, WA who use methamphetamine to receive a 12-week CM intervention (n = 70) or referral to community resources (n = 57). Retention at 24 weeks was 84%. Comparing consecutive study visits, non-concordant UAI declined significantly in both study arms. During the intervention, CM and control participants were comparably likely to provide urine samples containing methamphetamine (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.71, 1.56) and to report non-concordant UAI (aRR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.47, 1.35). However, during post-intervention follow-up, CM participants were somewhat more likely to provide urine samples containing methamphetamine than control participants (aRR = 1.21; 95%CI: 0.95, 1.54, P = 0.11). Compared to control participants, CM participants were significantly more likely to report weekly or more frequent methamphetamine use and use of more than eight quarters of methamphetamine during the intervention and post-intervention periods. While it is possible to enroll and retain MSM who use methamphetamine in a trial of CM conducted outside drug treatment, our data suggest that CM is not likely to have a large, sustained effect on methamphetamine use.

  10. Home Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nakmaura, H.; Wu, C.; Rydelek, P.; Kachi, M.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed an automated system for analyzing Hi-net seismograms for earthquake early warning (EEW) in Japan. Because of limitations imposed by station spacing, our system generally cannot issue an EEW to areas within about 30 km distance of the earthquake's hypocenter. We estimate that about 10 times the number of stations would be needed to issue an EEW in these areas, but the overhead would be cost prohibitive for governmental agencies. The practical deployment of EEW in Japan has started in October, 2007 and millions of people are expected to purchase and install the receiving/alarm unit of EEW. Since most of these units are connected to internet and equipped with a CPU and memory, we realized that the addition of an inexpensive seismometer and digitizer would transform the receiver into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer; these modifications only cost about $20. The home seismometer can help to generate alerts at the time of the occurrence of a large local earthquake by using locally observed data. Also, home seismograms can be used to estimate the amplification factor in sedimentary layers, which will be used to determine the site correction for shaking intensity by comparing the waveform data from the home seismometer against those from nearby Hi-net or K-NET stations. This amplification factor, which is essentially the basis of a shake-map with very-high spatial resolution, will help to establish a safety index of houses/buildings for large earthquakes, since a structure located at a site with large seismic amplification can be damaged more seriously than those with small amplification factors. The installation of home seismometers will create an extremely dense seismic network that is without precedence. We are developing an automatic system that collects waveform data from all home seismometer installations, calculates earthquake parameters in real-time, and then sends back alarms signals based on computed

  11. Presumption of a history of methamphetamine abuse by postmortem analyses of hair and nails: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, F; Miyaishi, S; Ishizu, H

    1992-04-01

    By sectional analyses of hair, pubic hair, fingernail and toenail of the descendent who had been a habitual abuser of methamphetamine, the drug was detected in each specimen and the drug concentration in the section containing root was higher than that in the other sections. However, no methamphetamine was detected in the other body fluids and tissues. It was considered that the decedent had used methamphetamine for about 18 months and that the dosage of the drug used for the last 10 days or so was relatively large though he had discontinued injecting the drug for 3-5 days.

  12. Analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine in municipal wastewater influent and effluent using weak cation-exchange SPE and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Tammy H; Wells, Martha J M

    2016-12-01

    Amphetamine and methamphetamine are emerging contaminants-those for which no regulations currently require monitoring or public reporting of their presence in our water supply. In this research, a protocol for weak cation-exchange (WCX) SPE coupled with LC-MS/MS was developed for determination of emerging contaminants amphetamine and methamphetamine in a complex wastewater matrix. Gradient LC parameters were adjusted to yield baseline separation of methamphetamine from other contaminants. Methamphetamine-D5 was used as the internal standard (IS) to compensate for sample loss during SPE and for signal loss during MS (matrix effects). Recoveries were 102.1 ± 7.9% and 99.4 ± 4.0% for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, using WCX sorbent. Notably, methamphetamine was determined to be present in wastewater influent at each sampling date tested. Amphetamine was present in wastewater influent on two of four sampling dates. Amphetamine concentrations ranged from undetectable to 86.4 ng/L in influent, but it was undetectable in wastewater effluent. Methamphetamine was detected in influent at concentrations ranging from 27.0-60.3 ng/L. Methamphetamine concentration was reduced but incompletely removed at this facility. Although absent in one post-UV effluent sample, concentrations of methamphetamine ranged from 10.8-14.8 ng/L. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    Migration to domestic and international destinations has become an emblematic feature of Nepal’s societal changes. Part of this development is education migration from rural to urban areas within the borders of Nepal, an often overlooked but increasingly important aspect of contemporary migration...... flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...

  14. Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    田端, 克至; タバタ, カツシ; Katsushi, TABATA

    2002-01-01

    This article discussed on, what we call, the home bias puzzle and international equity investment transactions, in which international security has less been invested in foreign countries After 1989, US and German foreign capital outflow have drastically increased, however. It is the background why this article focuses on these maters. Some changes might be happen in the international financial market. These developments in the world have important implications for us.

  15. The Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print A ... for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a place ...

  16. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  17. alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis: III. Detection of BNMPA and metabolites in urine of methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Ismaiel, A; Poklis, A

    1996-01-01

    Eighty urine specimens collected from drug rehabilitation programs, which had been screened by immunoassay and confirmed positive by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for methamphetamine, were further analyzed for alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA) and its urinary metabolites, N-demethyl-BNMPA, diphenyl-2-propanone (DP2P), diphenyl-2-propanol, p-OH-N-demethyl-BNMPA, and p-OH-BNMPA. BNMPA is an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis. Analysis of BNMPA and its metabolites was performed by quantitative GC-MS following beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Two urine specimens contained detectable amounts of BNMPA and/or its metabolites. One contained trace amounts (greater than the limit of detection but less than the limit of quantitation) of N-demethyl-BNMPA and DP2P, as well as 0.04 mg/L p-OH-N-demethyl-BNMPA. The other contained trace amounts of BNMPA, p-OH-BNMPA, and p-OH-N-demethyl-BNMPA, as well as 0.03 mg/L N-demethyl-BNMPA. Prior to analyzing these urine specimens, pure reference material of p-OH-BNMPA was made available, and analysis confirmed our previous tentative identification of p-OH-BNMPA as a major metabolite of BNMPA. Detection of BNMPA or its metabolites in biological samples may serve as a marker of illicit methamphetamine administration.

  18. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  19. Effect of prenatal methamphetamine administration during gestational days on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Danafar, Amirhossein; Halvaei, Iman; Golzadeh, Jalal; Hosseini, Mahya; Mirjalili, Tahereh; Anvari, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is one of most common illicit drugs which were reported that nearly half of MA consumers are women. MA can cross through placenta and affects pregnancy and fetus development. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate effects of injected MA on crown-rump length, head and placental circumference, body weight, histological changes and apoptosis in fetus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four NMRI pregnant mice were randomly divided into five groups. First, second and third groups were injected intraperitoneally 10 mg/kg/day MA during gestational days (GD): GD1-7, GD8-14, and GD1-14, respectively. Forth group, as sham, was injected saline from GD1-14, and finally control which was received neither MA nor saline. On GD15 cervical dislocated pregnant mice, fetus and placenta were weighed and fetus crown-rump length was measured. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and TUNEL assay were applied to assess histological changes and apoptosis respectively. Results: Fetus body weight and crown-rump length showed significant decrease in third compared to first and second groups (p≤0.001). There were significant differences in head circumference in control and sham compared to third group (0.5 (0.5-0.6), 0.6 (0.5-0.8), 0.4 (0.4-0.5) cm respectively, p≤0.001). Also fetus that treated with MA showed lower placenta circumference compared to control and sham groups. Histological changes such as exencephaly, hemorrhage and immature fetus were observed in second and third groups. Apoptotic cells in second and third groups were higher than controls, but differences were not significant. Conclusion: It seems MA abuse during pregnancy can cause morphological and histological changes in mice fetus but the exact mechanism remains unclear. PMID:25653675

  20. Self-administration of methamphetamine alters gut biomarkers of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Amanda; Persons, Amanda L; Kousik, Sharanya M; Celeste Napier, T; Moszczynska, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly abused psychostimulant that is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This enhanced vulnerability likely relates to the toxic effects of METH that overlap with PD pathology, for example, aberrant functioning of α-synuclein and parkin. In PD, peripheral factors are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. For example, α-synuclein levels in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are elevated, and this precedes the onset of motor symptoms. It remains unclear whether neurons of the ENS, particularly catecholaminergic neurons, exhibit signs of METH-induced toxicity as seen in the CNS. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-administered METH altered the levels of α-synuclein, parkin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) in the myenteric plexus of the distal colon ENS. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered METH for 3 h per day for 14 days and controls were saline-yoked. Distal colon tissue was collected at 1, 14, or 56 days after the last operant session. Levels of α-synuclein were increased, while levels of parkin, TH, and DβH were decreased in the myenteric plexus in the METH-exposed rats at 1 day following the last operant session and returned to the control levels after 14 or 56 days of forced abstinence. The changes were not confined to neurofilament-positive neurons. These results suggest that colon biomarkers may provide early indications of METH-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in young chronic METH users who may be more susceptible to progression to PD later in life. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Methamphetamine-induced changes in the object recognition memory circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Carmela M; Ramsey, Lauren A; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F; See, Ronald E

    2012-02-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (meth) can lead to persisting cognitive deficits in human addicts and animal models of meth addiction. Here, we examined the impact of either contingent or non-contingent meth on memory performance using an object-in-place (OIP) task, which measures the ability to detect an object relative to its location and surrounding objects. Further, we quantified monoamine transporter levels and markers of neurotoxicity within the OIP circuitry and striatum. Male Long-Evans rats received an acute meth binge (4 × 4 mg/kg i.p., 2 h intervals) or self-administered meth (0.02 mg/infusion, i.v.; 7 days for 1 h/day, followed by 14 days for 6 h/day). Rats were tested for OIP recognition memory following one week of withdrawal. Subsequently, transporters for serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) were quantified using Western blot in tissue obtained from the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, striatal dopamine transporters, tyrosine hydroxylase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were measured to assess potential neurotoxicity. Control (saline-treated) rats spent more time interacting with the objects in the changed locations. In contrast, contingent or non-contingent meth resulted in disrupted OIP performance as seen by similar amounts of time spent with all objects, regardless of location. While only acute meth binge produced signs of neurotoxicity, both meth regimens decreased SERT in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus. Only meth self-administration resulted in a selective decrease in NET. Meth-induced changes in SERT function in the OIP circuitry may underlie memory deficits independently of overt neurotoxic effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reaction time variability and related brain activity in methamphetamine psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Lesh, Tyler A; Ursu, Stefan; Salo, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of cognitive control instability in methamphetamine (MA) abuse, as well its relationship to substance-induced psychiatric symptoms and drug use patterns. We used an ex-Gaussian reaction time (RT) distribution to examine intraindividual variability (IIV) and excessively long RTs (tau) in an individual's RT on a Stroop task in 30 currently drug-abstinent (3 months to 2 years) MA abusers compared with 27 nonsubstance-abusing control subjects. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the Stroop task, which allowed us to measure the relationship between IIV and tau to functional brain activity. Elevated IIV in the MA compared with the control group did not reach significance; however, when the MA group was divided into those subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosis (MAP+) (n = 19) and those who had not (n = 11), the MAP+ group had higher average IIV compared with the other groups (p < .03). In addition, although control subjects displayed a relationship between IIV and conflict-related brain activity in bilateral prefrontal cortex such that increased IIV was associated with increased activity, the MAP+ group displayed this relationship in right prefrontal cortex only, perhaps reflecting elevated vigilance in the MAP+ group. Greater IIV did not correlate with severity of use or months MA abstinent. No group differences emerged in tau values. These results suggest increased cognitive instability in those MA-dependent subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methamphetamine addiction: involvement of CREB and neuroinflammatory signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnova, Irina N.; Justinova, Zuzana; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and objectives Addiction to psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) remains a major public health problem in the world. Animal models that use METH self-administration incorporate many features of human drug-taking behavior and are very helpful in elucidating mechanisms underlying METH addiction. These models are also helping to decipher the neurobiological substrates of associated neuropsychiatric complications. This review summarizes our work on the influence of METH self-administration on dopamine systems, transcriptional and immune responses in the brain. Methods We used the rat model of METH self-administration with extended access (15 hours/day for 8 consecutive days) to investigate the effects of voluntary METH intake on the markers of dopamine system integrity and changes in gene expression observed in the brain at 2 hours – 1 month after cessation of drug exposure. Results Extended access to METH self-administration caused changes in the rat brain that are consistent with clinical findings reported in neuroimaging and post-mortem studies of human METH addicts. In addition, gene expression studies using striatal tissues from METH self-administering rats revealed increased expression of genes involved in CREB signaling pathway and in the activation of neuroinflammatory response in the brain. Conclusion These data show an association of METH exposure with activation of neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory cascades in the brain. The neuroplastic changes may be involved in promoting METH addiction. Neuroinflammatory processes in the striatum may underlie cognitive deficits, depression, and parkinsonism reported in METH addicts. Therapeutic approaches that include suppression of neuroinflammation may be beneficial to addicted patients. PMID:26873080

  4. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G; Lundberg, Kelly J; McGlade, Erin C; Hellem, Tracy L; Huber, Rebekah S; Fiedler, Kristen K; Harrell, Renee E; Nickerson, Bethany R; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with high-energy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0g) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7g), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=.02). The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmental hair analysis and estimation of methamphetamine use pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Yang, Heejin; Seol, Ilung; Park, Yunshin; Lee, Bongwoo; Song, Joon Myong

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the results of segmental hair analysis can be used to estimate patterns of methamphetamine (MA) use. Segmental hair analysis for MA and amphetamine (AP) was performed. Hair was cut into the hair root, consecutive 1 cm length segments and 1-4 cm length segments. Whole hair was also analyzed. The hair samples were incubated for 20 h in 1 mL methanol containing 1 % hydrochloric acid after washing the hair samples. Hair extracts were evaporated and derivatization was performed using trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethylacetate at 65 °C for 30 min. Derivatized extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 15 subjects consisted of 13 males and two females and their ages ranged from 25 to 42 (mean, 32). MA and AP concentrations in the whole hair ranged from 3.00 to 105.10 ng/mg (mean, 34.53) and from 0.05 to 4.76 ng/mg (mean, 2.42), respectively. Based on the analysis of the 1 cm length segmental hair, the results were interpreted in a way to distinguish between continuous use of MA (n = 10), no recent but previous use of MA (n = 3), and recent but no previous use of MA (n = 2). Furthermore, the individuals were interpreted as light, moderate, and heavy users based on concentration ranges previously published.

  6. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of dextroamphetamine sulfate and methamphetamine hydrochloride from D-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repke, D B; Bates, D K; Ferguson, W J

    1978-08-01

    Starting from D-phenylalanine, dextroamphetamine sulfate and methamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized. The reaction sequence proceeds through three intermediates, in which the absolute configuration of the asymmetric carbon atom is changed but the relative configuration remains the same. Either product can be obtained from a common intermediate by altering the reductive conditions employed for the removal of a carbamate protecting group.

  8. Personality Characteristics of Adolescents with Hallucinogen, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis Dependence: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Glen A.; Daiss, Doyle D.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of personality factors on scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) was conducted with a sample of adolescents referred to a residential substance abuse treatment program. A total of sixty adolescents identified with hallucinogen (n = 20), cannabis (n = 20), or methamphetamine (n = 20) as their drug…

  9. Gender and Sex Trading Among Active Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Meade, Christina S

    2017-05-12

    South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women. In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug use severity was correlated with sex trading. Women with experiences of violence and trauma were also more likely to trade sex. Conclusions/importance: The results stress a need for linkage to drug treatment, as addiction may be fueling sex trading. Targeted interventions geared towards safe sex practices may reduce risky sexual behaviors. Women need interventions that are attuned to their specific vulnerabilities. More research is needed to explore the experiences of men who have sex with men given their particularly high rates of sex trading behavior.

  10. Methamphetamine Treatment Issues and Considerations among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but treatment has lagged for this group. The author reviews literature concerning use, individual effects of the drug, and treatment for MSM and discusses implications for counselor training, future practice, and research.

  11. Evaluating methamphetamine use and risks of injection initiation among street youth: the ARYS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaner Julio SG

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many Canadian cities are experiencing ongoing infectious disease and overdose epidemics among injection drug users (IDU. These health concerns have recently been exacerbated by the increasing availability and use of methamphetamine. The challenges of reducing health-related harms among IDU have led to an increased recognition that strategies to prevent initiation into injection drug use must receive renewed focus. In an effort to better explore the factors that may protect against or facilitate entry into injection drug use, the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS has recently been initiated in Vancouver, Canada. The local setting is unique due to the significant infrastructure that has been put in place to reduce HIV transmission among active IDU. The ARYS study will seek to examine the impact of these programs, if any, on non-injection drug users. In addition, Vancouver has been the site of widespread use of methamphetamine in general and has seen a substantial increase in the use of crystal methamphetamine among street youth. Hence, the ARYS cohort is well positioned to examine the harms associated with methamphetamine use, including its potential role in facilitating initiation into injection drug use. This paper provides some background on the epidemiology of illicit drug use among street youth in North America and outlines the methodology of ARYS, a prospective cohort study of street youth in Vancouver, Canada.

  12. Differences in Reasons for Living in College Methamphetamine Users and Non-Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jon B.; Kaniuk, Andrea; Barnes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies suggest an association between substance use and suicidal behavior. However, relatively few studies have examined reasons for living, adaptive beliefs that prevent one from committing suicide, in substance using populations. The current study examines reasons for living and methamphetamine use in 240 college students.…

  13. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  14. Sex- and histamine-dependent long-term cognitive effects of methamphetamine exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acevedo, S.F.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Raber, J.

    2007-01-01

    As prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure results in long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits, the increased MA use in women of childbearing age is of great concern. As mice are most commonly used in genetic models, we started to study the potential effects of neonatal MA exposure in

  15. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  16. An Investigation of Bioecological Influences Associated with First Use of Methamphetamine in a Rural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anne; Moring, John; Williams, Mark; Hopper, Glenna; Daniel, Candice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a significant problem in rural areas of the United States. Yet, little theoretically driven formative research has been conducted on the interactions of factors influencing initiation. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model. Methods: Eighty-three MA users participated in an…

  17. Methamphetamine Exposure, Iron Deficiency, and Implications for Cognitive-Communicative Function: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Heiss, Cynthia J.; White, Letitia; Kaf, Wafaa A.; Becker, Alan; Schindler, Jessica B.; Dion, Nancy; Oswalt, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) exposure during fetal development has the potential to adversely affect the development of multiple organ systems. An interdisciplinary case study of a 4-year 11-month-old child born to a mother addicted to meth revealed significant cognitive and communicative delays. Possible meth-related consequences for these delays…

  18. Role of the Ventral Tegmental Area in Methamphetamine Extinction: AMPA Receptor-Mediated Neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Han-Ting; Chen, Jin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying drug extinction remain largely unknown, although a role for medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate neurons has been suggested. Considering that the mPFC sends glutamate efferents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we tested whether the VTA is involved in methamphetamine (METH) extinction via conditioned…

  19. Distributed Attentional Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods: Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month-5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults…

  20. Blonanserin treatment in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis comorbid with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki,Kosuke; Makinodan,Manabu; Yamamuro,Kazuhiko; Takata,Tomoyo; Kishimoto,Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Kosuke Okazaki, Manabu Makinodan, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Tomoyo Takata, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, JapanObjective: Methamphetamine (MA) use has recently been associated with high levels of psychiatric hospitalization and serious social dysfunction. MA use causes frequent psychotic symptoms, which can be treated with antipsychotics. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are vulnerable to adverse effects resulti...

  1. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    0601_release01.asp Anderson, Rachel, and Neil Flynn, “The Methamphetamine-HIV Connection in Northern California,” in Hilary Klee, ed., Amphetamine...Males,” Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 24, No. 1, January 2006, pp. 52–63. Rockett, Ian R. H., Sandra L. Putnam , Haomiao Jia, and Gordon S. Smith

  2. Low dose, short-term rivastigmine administration does not affect neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalechstein, Ari D; Yoon, Jin H; Croft, Daniel E; Jaeggi, Susanne; Mahoney, James J; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a well-documented consequence of methamphetamine addiction. Not surprising, methamphetamine-associated neurocognitive impairment has been identified as an important target of treatment. Thus, this study sought to determine whether rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and cognition enhancing agent, could improve neurocognitive performance in a sample of long-term, high-dose methamphetamine addicts who were not seeking treatment at the time of enrollment in the study. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether a daily dose 0, 3, or 6 mg of rivastigmine, administered over six consecutive days, would enhance performance on measures of attention/information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive/frontal lobe functioning relative to test performance at baseline. The results revealed that rivastigmine did not alter neurocognition in this cohort. There are a number of factors that may have mitigated the effects of rivastigmine in this particular study, including especially the short-term, low-dose treatment regimen utilized. The negative findings notwithstanding, the study serves as a springboard for future investigations that will examine whether other medications can alter neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent study participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  4. Spend today, clean tomorrow: predicting methamphetamine abstinence in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Murtaugh, Kimberly; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alexander L; Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven

    2013-09-01

    This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial tested two behavioral economics mechanisms (substitutability and delay discounting) to explain outcomes using contingency management (CM) for methamphetamine dependence. Frequency and purchase type (hedonic/utilitarian and consumable/durable) of CM payments were also examined. A total of 82 methamphetamine-dependent gay/bisexual men randomly assigned to conditions delivering CM received monetary vouchers in exchange for stimulant-negative urine samples in a 16-week trial requiring thrice weekly visits (Shoptaw et al., 2005). At any visit participants could redeem vouchers for goods. A time-lagged counting process Cox Proportional Hazards model for recurrent event survival analysis examined aspects of the frequency and type of these CM purchases. After controlling for severity of baseline methamphetamine use and accumulated CM wealth, as measured by cumulative successful earning days, participants who redeemed CM earnings at any visit ("spenders") were significantly more likely to produce stimulant-negative urine samples in the subsequent visit, compared with those who did not redeem ("savers") 1.011* [1.005, 1.017], Z = 3.43, p economic concept of substitutability of CM purchases and explain trial outcomes as a function of frequency of CM purchases rather than frequency or accumulated total CM earnings. Promotion of frequent purchases in incentive-based programs should facilitate substitution for the perceived value of methamphetamine and improve abstinence outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Carney, Tara; Lombard, Carl

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated involvement in substance use and sexual activities among adolescents in Cape Town, and specifically the associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviours. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected and 15 matched schools in Cape Town via quantitative questionnaires. Students used hand-held computers (PDAs) to answer the questions. A total of 4605 grade 9 students were sampled. Male and female students were almost equally likely to have used methamphetamine at least once (13% versus 12%). Students who had used methamphetamine in the past 30 days were significantly more likely to have had vaginal, anal or oral sex than students who had never used it, to have been pregnant/been responsible for a pregnancy and to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant associations between methamphetamine use in the past 12 months and engaging in vaginal and anal sex. Drug abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention services should incorporate the link between drugs and STI into their prevention and education strategies, especially those aimed at school-going adolescents.

  6. Cocaine-but not methamphetamine-associated memory requires de novo protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Min; Liang, Keng Chen; Chen, Hsiang-Hua; Cherng, Chianfang G; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Lin, Yinchiu; Huang, A-Min; Liao, Ruey-Ming; Yu, Lung

    2007-01-01

    Context-induced drug craving and continuous drug use manifest the critical roles of specific memory episodes associated with the drug use experiences. Drug-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57BL/6J mouse model, in this regard, is an appropriate behavioral paradigm to study such drug use-associated memories. Requirement of protein synthesis in various forms of long-term memory formation and storage has been phylogenetically demonstrated. This study was undertaken to study the requirement of protein synthesis in the learning and memory aspect of the conditioned place preference induced by cocaine and methamphetamine, two abused drugs of choice in local area. Since pCREB has been documented as a candidate substrate for mediating the drug-induced neuroadaptation, the pCREB level in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex was examined for its potential participation in the formation of CPP caused by these psychostimulants. We found that cocaine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/dose)-induced CPP was abolished by the pretreatment of anisomycin (50 mg/kg/dose), a protein synthesis inhibitor, whereas methamphetamine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg/dose)-induced CPP was not affected by the anisomycin pretreatment. Likewise, cocaine-induced CPP was mitigated by another protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (15 mg/kg/injection) pretreatment, whereas methamphetamine-induced CPP remained intact by such pretreatment. Moreover, anisomycin treatment 2h after each drug-place pairing disrupted the cocaine-induced CPP, whereas the same treatment did not affect methamphetamine-induced CPP. An increase of accumbal pCREB level was found to associate with the learning phase of cocaine, but not with the learning phase of methamphetamine. We further found that intraaccumbal CREB antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion diminished cocaine-induced CPP, whereas did not affect the methamphetamine-induced CPP. Taken together, these data suggest that protein synthesis and accumbal CREB

  7. A Pilot Study of Creatine as a Novel Treatment for Depression in Methamphetamine Using Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellem, Tracy L.; Sung, Young-Hoon; Shi, Xian-Feng; Pett, Marjorie A.; Latendresse, Gwen; Morgan, Jubel; Huber, Rebekah S.; Kuykendall, Danielle; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression among methamphetamine users is more prevalent in females than males, but gender specific treatment options for this comorbidity have not been described. Reduced brain phosphocreatine levels have been shown to be lower in female methamphetamine users compared to males, and, of relevance, studies have demonstrated an association between treatment resistant depression and reduced brain phosphocreatine concentrations. The nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been reported to reduce symptoms of depression in female adolescents and adults taking antidepressants, as well as to increase brain phosphocreatine in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate creatine monohydrate as a treatment for depression in female methamphetamine users. Methods Fourteen females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence were enrolled in an 8 week open label trial of 5 grams of daily creatine monohydrate and of these 14, eleven females completed the study. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and brain phosphocreatine levels were measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy pre- and post-creatine treatment. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), as well as methamphetamine use, monitored by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-reported use. Results The results of a linear mixed effects repeated measures model showed significantly reduced HAMD and BAI scores as early as week 2 when compared to baseline scores. This improvement was maintained through study completion. Brain phosphocreatine concentrations were higher at the second phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan compared to the baseline scan; Mbaseline = 0.223 (SD = 0.013) vs. Mpost-treatment = 0.233 (SD = 0.009), t(9) = 2.905, p methamphetamine positive urine drug screens of greater than 50% was observed by week 6. Finally

  8. Creatine as a Novel Treatment for Depression in Females Using Methamphetamine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellem, Tracy L; Sung, Young-Hoon; Shi, Xian-Feng; Pett, Marjorie A; Latendresse, Gwen; Morgan, Jubel; Huber, Rebekah S; Kuykendall, Danielle; Lundberg, Kelly J; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-01-01

    Depression among methamphetamine users is more prevalent in females than males, but gender-specific treatment options for this comorbidity have not been described. Reduced brain phosphocreatine levels have been shown to be lower in female methamphetamine users compared to males, and, of relevance, studies have demonstrated an association between treatment-resistant depression and reduced brain phosphocreatine concentrations. The nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been reported to reduce symptoms of depression in female adolescents and adults taking antidepressants, as well as to increase brain phosphocreatine in healthy volunteers. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate creatine monohydrate as a treatment for depression in female methamphetamine users. Fourteen females with depression and comorbid methamphetamine dependence were enrolled in an 8-week open label trial of 5 g of daily creatine monohydrate and of these 14, 11 females completed the study. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and brain phosphocreatine levels were measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy pre- and post-creatine treatment. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), as well as methamphetamine use, monitored by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-reported use. The results of a linear mixed effects repeated measures model showed significantly reduced HAMD and BAI scores as early as week 2 when compared to baseline scores. This improvement was maintained through study completion. Brain phosphocreatine concentrations were higher at the second phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan compared to the baseline scan; Mbaseline = 0.223 (SD = 0.013) vs. Mpost-treatment = 0.233 (SD = 0.009), t (9) = 2.905, p methamphetamine positive urine drug screens of greater than 50% was observed by week 6. Finally, creatine was well tolerated and adverse

  9. Alcohol, Methamphetamine, and Marijuana Exposure Have Distinct Effects on the Human Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing

  10. Screening method for the detection of methamphetamine in hair using fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jae Chul; Suh, SungIll; Ko, Beom Jun; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Jin Young; Suh, Yong Jun; In, Moon Kyo

    2013-05-01

    A hair screening method has been developed for the detection of methamphetamine using an immunoassay analyzer (AxSYM) with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) technique. The method consisted of washing, cutting and digesting a hair sample (5 mg) with an enzymatic digestion solution. The digested hair sample was centrifuged, and then an aliquot of the supernatant was used to conduct the screening. The results obtained from FPIA, in most cases, showed concentrations above 70.0 ng/mL of methamphetamine for hair samples that contained 0.5 ng/mg of methamphetamine, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percent sensitivity, defined as the true positive rate of screened and confirmed results, and the percent specificity, defined as the true negative rate of screened and confirmed results, of the FPIA screening method were 100.0 and 96.7% (false positive rate of 3.3%), respectively, when the threshold level for FPIA analysis was set at 70.0 ng/mL (n = 60).The correlation coefficient (r) for the linear relationship between FPIA and GC-MS results was 0.91 in real hair samples. The recommended amount of hair sample was found to be 5.0 mg for FPIA screening analysis when the concentration of methamphetamine in hair samples determined by GC-MS was found to be more than 0.5 ng/mg. The method developed in this study was reliable and effective for the screening of methamphetamine in routine hair analysis.

  11. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  12. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on cortical monoaminergic deficits induced by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2013-12-01

    Preclinical models suggest that repeated high-dose methamphetamine (METH) exposures, administered in a "binge-like" pattern, acutely decrease norepinephrine (NE), and acutely and persistently decrease serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) content in the frontal cortex. However, the impact of METH self-administration on this region is unknown. Because of the importance of the monoaminergic neurons in the frontal cortex to a variety of cognitive and addictive processes, effects of METH self-administration on cortical NE and 5HT content were assessed. Results revealed several novel findings. First, METH self-administration decreased cortical NE content as assessed 24 h after last exposure. Consistent with previous preclinical reports after a binge METH regimen, this decrease was reversed 8 days after the final METH exposure. Second, and in contrast to our previous reports involving the hippocampus or striatum, METH self-administration caused persistent decreases in 5HT content as assessed 8 days after the final METH exposure. Of note, the magnitude of this decrease (≈ 20%) was less than that observed typically after a binge METH treatment. Third, prior METH self-administration attenuated METH-induced serotonergic deficits as assessed 7 days, but not 1 h, following a neurotoxic METH regimen. No protection was observed when the binge exposure occurred 15 days after the last self-administration session. Taken together, these data demonstrate important and selective alterations in cortical serotonergic neuronal function subsequent to METH self-administration. These data provide a foundation to investigate complex questions involving "resistance" to the persistent deficits caused by neurotoxic METH exposure and frontal cortical function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-07-01

    Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse.

  14. Effect of the acquisition enhancing drug piracetam on rat cerebral energy metabolism. Comparison with naftidrofuryl and methamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickolson, V.J.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of Piracetam, Naftidrofuryl and methamphetamine on several parameters of cerebral energy metabolism have been studied. At variance with some reports in the literature neither Piracetam nor Naftidrofuryl affected the cerebral contents of adenine nucleotides and, accordingly, both

  15. The Synthesis of Haptens and Their Use for the Development of Monoclonal Antibodies for Treating Methamphetamine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Abraham, Philip; Gong, Paul K.; Pidaparthi, Ramakrishna R.; Blough, Bruce E.; Che, Yingni; Hampton, Amber; Gunnell, Melinda; Lay, Jackson O.; Peterson, Eric C.; Owens, S. Michael

    2009-01-01

    In addition to addiction, the repeated use of (+)-methamphetamine [(+)-METH], (+)amphetamine [(+)-AMP], or (±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [(±)-MDMA, commonly called ecstasy] can lead to life-threatening medical problems including cardiovascular injury, severe depression, and psychosis. Currently, there are no specific pharmacotherapies to treat these medical problems. In this study, we report the design and synthesis of two haptens, (S)-(+)-3-(9-carboxynonyloxy)methamphetamine [3a, (+)-MET...

  16. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Judy; Xu, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ali, Syed F.; Angulo, Jesus A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptors attenuated the methamphetamine-induced toxicity of the striatal dopamine terminals. In the present study we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptors on the methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of some striatal neurons. To that end, we administered a single injection of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) to male mice. METH induced the apoptosis (TUNEL) of approximately 20% of striatal neurons. This percentage of M...

  17. Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel Sigma Receptor Ligand with Improved Metabolic Stability and Antagonistic Effects Against Methamphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Seminerio, Michael J.; Robson, Matthew J.; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Avery, Bonnie A.; Christopher R. McCurdy; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine interacts with sigma receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations suggesting a potential site for pharmacologic intervention. In the present study, a previous sigma receptor ligand, CM156, was optimized for metabolic stability, and the lead analog was evaluated against the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the lead analog, AZ66, displayed high nanomolar affinity for both sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors (2.4 ± 0.63 and 0....

  18. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter binding during early abstinence in human methamphetamine users: Is VMAT2 a stable dopamine neuron biomarker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Wilkins, Diana; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; Guttman, Mark; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; Wilson, Alan A; Kish, Stephen J

    2008-09-24

    Animal data indicate that methamphetamine can damage striatal dopamine terminals. Efforts to document dopamine neuron damage in living brain of methamphetamine users have focused on the binding of [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, as a stable dopamine neuron biomarker. Previous PET data report a slight decrease in striatal [(11)C]DTBZ binding in human methamphetamine users after prolonged (mean, 3 years) abstinence, suggesting that the reduction would likely be substantial in early abstinence. We measured striatal VMAT2 binding in 16 recently withdrawn (mean, 19 d; range, 1-90 d) methamphetamine users and in 14 healthy matched-control subjects during a PET scan with (+)[(11)C]DTBZ. Unexpectedly, striatal (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding was increased in methamphetamine users relative to controls (+22%, caudate; +12%, putamen; +11%, ventral striatum). Increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding in caudate was most marked in methamphetamine users abstinent for 1-3 d (+41%), relative to the 7-21 d (+15%) and >21 d (+9%) groups. Above-normal VMAT2 binding in some drug users suggests that any toxic effect of methamphetamine on dopamine neurons might be masked by an increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding and that VMAT2 radioligand binding might not be, as is generally assumed, a "stable" index of dopamine neuron integrity in vivo. One potential explanation for increased (+)[(11)C]DTBZ binding is that VMAT2 binding is sensitive to changes in vesicular dopamine storage levels, presumably low in drug users. If correct, (+)[(11)C]DTBZ might be a useful imaging probe to correlate changes in brain dopamine stores and behavior in users of methamphetamine.

  19. The glial cell modulators, ibudilast and its amino analog, AV1013, attenuate methamphetamine locomotor activity and its sensitization in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNIDER, SARAH E.; VUNCK, SARAH A.; VAN DEN OORD, EDWIN J.C.G.; ADKINS, DANIEL E.; MCCLAY, JOSEPH L.; BEARDSLEY, PATRICK M.

    2014-01-01

    Over 800,000 Americans abuse the psychomotor stimulant, methamphetamine, yet its abuse is without an approved medication. Methamphetamine induces hypermotor activity, and sensitization to this effect is suggested to represent aspects of the addiction process. Methamphetamine’s regulation of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels may be partially responsible for its behavioral effects, and compounds that inhibit phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme that degrades cAMP, can alter methamphetamine-induced behaviors. Methamphetamine also activates glial cells and causes a subsequent increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Modulation of glial cell activation is associated with changes in behavioral responses, and substances that oppose inflammatory activity can attenuate drug-induced behaviors. Ibudilast (aka AV411; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine), inhibits both PDE and glial pro-inflammatory activity. Ibudilast’s amino analogue, AV1013, modulates similar glial targets but negligibly inhibits PDE. The present study determined whether ibudilast and AV1013 would attenuate methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity and its sensitization in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were treated b.i.d. with ibudilast (1.8-13 mg/kg), AV1013 (10-56mg/kg) or their vehicles intraperitoneally for 7 days, beginning 48 h before 5 days of daily 1-h locomotor activity tests. Each test was initiated by either a methamphetamine (3 mg/kg) or a saline injection. Ibudilast significantly (Pmethamphetamine's locomotor activity without significantly affecting activity by itself. AV1013 had similar anti-methamphetamine effects, suggesting that glial cell activity, by itself, can modulate methamphetamine's effects and perhaps serve as a medication target for its abuse. PMID:22306241

  20. The rush to risk when interrogating the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual practice among gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Joanne; Hopwood, Max; Dowsett, Gary W; Aggleton, Peter; Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Drysdale, Kerryn; Treloar, Carla

    2017-12-23

    Much research concerning drug use in the context of sexual activity among gay and bisexual men derives from public health scholarship. In this paper, we critically examine how the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk practice is treated and understood in this body of research. While public health has made important contributions to establishing the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk-taking, the precise nature of the relationship is not well defined. This creates space for ungrounded assumptions about methamphetamine use to take hold. We outline what appear to be two dominant interpretations of the methamphetamine/sexual practice relationship: the first proposes that methamphetamine has specific pharmacological properties which lead to sexual disinhibition, risky behaviour and poor health outcomes; the second proposes that methamphetamine attracts men who are already inclined toward highly sexualised interactions and risky practice, and that such men are likely to engage in these practices with or without drugs. We suggest that both interpretations are problematic in that they individualise and cast drug and sex practices as inherently risky and biopsychologically determined. We outline a more historically, socially and politically engaged way to understand methamphetamine use in the context of sexual activity by drawing on the concept of sex-based sociality and the ways in which gay and bisexual men may use methamphetamine and sex as social resources around which to build identities, establish relationships, participate in gay communities, and maximise pleasure while protecting themselves and others from harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  2. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  3. Effects of 7-day continuous D-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice. In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32mg/kg/h). During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. The present subchronic treatment results support the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of 7-day continuous d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice.In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Methods Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32 mg/kg/h). Results During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1 mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. Conclusions The present subchronic treatment resultssupport the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. PMID:26361713

  5. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: About this journal. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a novel sigma receptor ligand with improved metabolic stability and antagonistic effects against methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminerio, Michael J; Robson, Matthew J; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; Mesangeau, Christophe; Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Avery, Bonnie A; McCurdy, Christopher R; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2012-03-01

    Methamphetamine interacts with sigma receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations suggesting a potential site for pharmacologic intervention. In the present study, a previous sigma receptor ligand, CM156, was optimized for metabolic stability, and the lead analog was evaluated against the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the lead analog, AZ66, displayed high nanomolar affinity for both sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors (2.4 ± 0.63 and 0.51 ± 0.15, respectively). In addition, AZ66 had preferential affinity for sigma receptors compared to seven other sites and a significantly longer half-life than its predecessor, CM156, in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of male, Swiss Webster mice with intraperitoneal (10-20 mg/kg) or oral (20-30 mg/kg) dosing of AZ66 significantly attenuated the acute locomotor stimulatory effects of methamphetamine. Additionally, AZ66 (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the expression and development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated methamphetamine administration. Taken together, these data indicate that sigma receptors can be targeted to mitigate the acute and subchronic behavioral effects of methamphetamine and AZ66 represents a viable lead compound in the development of novel therapeutics against methamphetamine-induced behaviors.

  8. A mouse model for binge-level methamphetamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Shabani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge/crash cycles of methamphetamine (MA use are frequently reported by individuals suffering from MA use disorders. An MA binge is self-reported as multiple daily doses that commonly accumulate to 800 mg/day (~10 mg/kg/day for a 170 pound human. A genetic animal model with a similar vulnerability to binge-level MA intake is missing. We used selectively bred MA high drinking (MAHDR and low drinking (MALDR mouse lines to determine whether several procedural variations would result in binge-level MA intake. Data were also collected in two progenitor populations of the MA drinking lines, the DBA/2J (D2 strain and the F2 cross of the D2 and C57BL/6J strains. The impact of 3 factors was examined: (1 concentration of MA in the two-bottle choice procedure used for selective breeding; (2 ratio of bottles containing MA vs. water, and (3 length of the withdrawal (or abstinence period between MA drinking sessions. When MA concentration was progressively increased every 4 days in 20 mg/l amounts from 20 to 140 mg/l, maximum intake in MALDR mice was 1.1 mg/kg, whereas MAHDR mice consumed as much as 14.6 mg/kg. When these concentrations were tested in a multiple bottle choice procedure, the highest ratio of MA to water bottles (3:1 was associated with escalated MA intake of up to 29.1 mg/kg in MAHDR mice and 12.0 mg/kg in F2 mice; MALDR mice did not show a ratio-dependent escalation in MA intake. Finally, MAHDR and D2 mice were offered 3 bottles of MA vs. water at increasing concentrations from 20 to 80 mg/l, and tested under an intermittent 6-h withdrawal period, which was lengthened to 30 hours (D2 mice or to 30 or 78 hours (MAHDR. D2 and MAHDR mice initially consumed similar amounts of 14-16 mg/kg MA, but D2 mice reduced their MA intake 3-fold after introduction of 30-h abstinence periods, whereas MAHDR mice retained their high level of intake regardless of withdrawal period. MAHDR mice provide a genetic model of binge-level MA intake appropriate for the

  9. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M Paola; Madeddu, Camilla; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Casti, Paola; Scherma, Maria; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant with neurotoxic properties. Heavy use increases the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), production of peroxynitrites, microglia stimulation, and induces hyperthermia and anorectic effects. Most METH recreational users also consume cannabis. Preclinical studies have shown that natural (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC) and synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists exert neuroprotective effects on different models of cerebral damage. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Δ9-THC on METH-induced neurotoxicity by examining its ability to reduce astrocyte activation and nNOS overexpression in selected brain areas. Rats exposed to a METH neurotoxic regimen (4 × 10 mg/kg, 2 hours apart) were pre- or post-treated with Δ9-THC (1 or 3 mg/kg) and sacrificed 3 days after the last METH administration. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against nNOS and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). Results showed that, as compared to corresponding controls (i) METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the caudate-putamen (CPu) was significantly attenuated by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-19% and -28% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -25% and -21% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals); (ii) METH-induced GFAP-immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly reduced in the CPu by post-treatment with 1 mg/kg Δ9-THC1 (-50%) and by pre-treatment with 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC (-53%); (iii) METH-induced GFAP-IR was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-34% and -47% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -37% and -29% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A attenuated METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the CPu, but failed to counteract the Δ9-THC-mediated reduction of METH-induced GFAP-IR both in the PFC and CPu. Our

  10. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara ePhillips

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the

  11. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Paola Castelli

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a potent psychostimulant with neurotoxic properties. Heavy use increases the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, production of peroxynitrites, microglia stimulation, and induces hyperthermia and anorectic effects. Most METH recreational users also consume cannabis. Preclinical studies have shown that natural (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC and synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists exert neuroprotective effects on different models of cerebral damage. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Δ9-THC on METH-induced neurotoxicity by examining its ability to reduce astrocyte activation and nNOS overexpression in selected brain areas. Rats exposed to a METH neurotoxic regimen (4 × 10 mg/kg, 2 hours apart were pre- or post-treated with Δ9-THC (1 or 3 mg/kg and sacrificed 3 days after the last METH administration. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against nNOS and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP. Results showed that, as compared to corresponding controls (i METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the caudate-putamen (CPu was significantly attenuated by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-19% and -28% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -25% and -21% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; (ii METH-induced GFAP-immunoreactivity (IR was significantly reduced in the CPu by post-treatment with 1 mg/kg Δ9-THC1 (-50% and by pre-treatment with 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC (-53%; (iii METH-induced GFAP-IR was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-34% and -47% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -37% and -29% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A attenuated METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the CPu, but failed to counteract the Δ9-THC-mediated reduction of METH-induced GFAP-IR both in the PFC and CPu. Our

  12. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Dryden, Donna M; Liang, Yuanyuan; Friesen, Carol; O'Gorman, Kathleen; Durec, Tamara; Wild, T Cameron; Klassen, Terry P

    2008-10-28

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth.More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse) and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center). Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8-87.8), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8-7.9), risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46) and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8-7.9), family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8-5.6), and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6-12.9). Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated with MA use. A history of a psychiatric disorder was a risk factor for MA for both low- and high-risk youth. Family environment was also associated with MA use. Many of the included studies were cross-sectional making it difficult to assess causation. Future research should utilize prospective

  13. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durec Tamara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (≤ 18 years who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center. Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46 and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6, and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9. Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated

  14. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: Impact of oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M.; Young, Amy B.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1 mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female rats across various stages of the estrous cycle (Experiment 1). Freely cycling Long Evans female rats self-administered meth (IV) in 2-h daily sessions, followed by daily extinction sessions. Following extinction, rats received oxytocin (0, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg, IP) 30 min before a meth priming injection (1 mg/kg, IP) to assess reinstatement of meth seeking. Next, we examined the effects of oxytocin on motivated meth- and sucrose-taking and seeking in male and female rats. In separate experiments, males and females self-administered meth (Experiment 2) or sucrose (Experiment 3) until responding was stabilized along a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats received either oxytocin or vehicle prior to self-administration along a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were subsequently tested for cue-, meth-, and stress-induced reinstatement after pretreatment with oxytocin or vehicle. While oxytocin reduced meth seeking in females, we found that estrous cycle stage (as determined from vaginal cytology) did not influence meth-primed reinstatement or the ability of oxytocin to decrease reinstatement of meth seeking. Oxytocin reduced PR responding for meth only in females. Females responded more than males during cue-induced reinstatement of meth and sucrose seeking, and oxytocin reduced this responding only in meth females. In both sexes, oxytocin attenuated meth seeking in response to a meth prime and yohimbine (a pharmacological stressor

  15. Duration of detection of methamphetamine in hair after abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannachom, Natiprada; Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; O'Brien, Timothy E; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2015-09-01

    Researchers in the field of hair analysis have known for at least two decades that test results for many chemical compounds remain positive for a considerable period of time after subjects have reported cessation of use. These findings were generally based on small sample populations or individual case studies. Within the last decade, hair analyses of larger populations have investigated the phenomenon of residual positives in abstinent individuals in order to determine the period of time required for various compounds to present negative hair test results at internationally accepted cutoff levels. Such data has primarily been used to establish guidelines for retesting former abusers of illicit drugs in order to evaluate claims of abstinence. To date, research has focused on cocaine and opiates. The present study is the first to examine the duration of detection of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the hair of chronic MA users who recently ceased their consumption of the drug. The study population (n=63) consisted of inpatients at a hospital drug rehabilitation program in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Drug taking behavior was collected by personal interview at the time of enrollment. Subjects provided hair samples at approximately monthly intervals for MA and AP analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0.2ng/mg cutoff levels. The correlation of baseline MA and AP concentrations in hair at the beginning of abstinence with corresponding duration of detection indicated great individual variability for the rate of clearance of MA and AP from hair. In regard to duration of detection, the majority of chronic MA users remained MA positive for up to about 90 days of reported abstinence, but by 120 days, the detection rate had fallen to about 16%. All subjects tested negative for MA after 153 days of abstinence. For AP, the limit of the duration of detection was reached at 106 days. With the adoption of a margin of safety to compensate for

  16. Brain Computer Interfaces on Track to Home: Results of the Evaluation at Disabled End-Users's Homes and Lessons Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felip eMiralles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The BackHome system is a multi-functional BCI system, the final outcome of a User Centred Design approach, whose ambition is to move BCI systems from laboratories into the home of people in need for their independent home use. The paper presents the results of testing and evaluation of the BackHome system with end-users at their own homes. Results show moderate to good acceptance from end-users, caregivers and therapists; which reported promising usability levels, good user satisfaction and levels of control in the use of services and home support based on remote monitoring tools.

  17. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Home Program ■■ MBTA Pass Program Brown Bag Seminars The Human Resources Department at Lincoln Laboratory offers a wide range of seminars, free of...food and clothing drives that support local charities. Food items are distributed to food pantries in the area, and clothing is given to a number of

  18. Home Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home care is care that allows a person with special needs stay in their home. It might be for people who are getting ... are chronically ill, recovering from surgery, or disabled. Home care services include Personal care, such as help ...

  19. Dementia - home care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Dementia - home care URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007428.htm Dementia - home care To use the ...

  20. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  1. HOME Grantee Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) is authorized under Title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act. HOME provides formula grants to...

  2. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  3. Laboratory Microcomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  4. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  5. What evidence is there that the UK should tackle the potential emerging threat of methamphetamine toxicity rather than established recreational drugs such as MDMA ('ecstasy')?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D M; Button, J; Ashraf, T; Walker, S; Greene, S L; Drake, N; Ramsey, J; Holt, D W; Dargan, P I

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing interest in whether methamphetamine is an emerging recreational drug in the UK. To determine what evidence is there that methamphetamine use is an emerging drug in the UK compared to established recreational drugs such as MDMA. We undertook a retrospective study collating data on the number of enquiries to both our poisons centre and the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) relating to all recreational drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA; presentations to our Emergency Department (ED) with acute methamphetamine toxicity and the frequency of positive urine tests for methamphetamine and MDMA in workplace drug screening programmes. There was a small increase in the number of methamphetamine-related calls to our poisons centre, but it remained uncommon (0.1% of all recreational drugs cases in 2000 to 1.23% in 2006) compared to MDMA (17.3-42.7% of all recreational drugs cases). The number of 2005/6 enquiries to the UK NPIS for methamphetamine was 12, compared to 455 MDMA enquiries (0.014 and 0.52% of all enquiries, respectively). There were five presentations to our ED relating to methamphetamine over a 15-month period compared to 171 for MDMA. Of the 254 440 urine samples screened for the presence of drugs in the workplace (2000-06), three were positive for methamphetamine and 147 for MDMA. There is no evidence of increasing use of methamphetamine or that acute methamphetamine poisoning is a significant clinical problem compared to established recreational drugs such as MDMA. In our opinion, healthcare, educational and law enforcement resources should be proportionally directed towards tackling drugs that pose an immediate and continuing healthcare risk to the population rather than emerging recreational drugs.

  6. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  7. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  8. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  9. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  10. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  11. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  12. Getting Off: development of a model program for gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reback, Cathy J; Veniegas, Rosemary; Shoptaw, Steven

    2014-01-01

    An evidence-based gay-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) intervention for methamphetamine-using gay and bisexual men was adapted for use in a community-based setting, thereby moving research into practice. The 48-session, 16-week GCBT intervention was revised to 24 sessions requiring 8 weeks and renamed Getting Off: A Behavioral Treatment Intervention for Gay and Bisexual Male Methamphetamine Users. GCBT was modified for implementation within the limited resources and capacity of community-based organizations while also retaining drug use and HIV risk reduction outcomes. Since 2007, Getting Off has been sustained with public health funding at the community site and has been adopted by multiple community-based sites.

  13. Rapid analysis of methamphetamine in hair by micropulverized extraction and microchip-based competitive ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Takahashi, Hiroko; Ohashi, Toshinori; Mawatari, Kazuma; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-01-30

    An automated full-range quantitation method for identifying d-methamphetamine in human hair using a microchip-based ELISA system (microELISA) in combination with a micropulverized extraction method for sample preparation has been developed. An antibody and a peroxidase-linked methamphetamine, both are commercially available, were used for the competitive ELISA assay. Method validation was carried out using doped hair samples, and segmental analyses of real-case specimens were carried out by both microELISA and LC/MS/MS to verify the reliability and applicability of this new method. Due to the small size of the system and the lack of an evaporation process, sample preparation and quantitation can be accomplished easily and quickly (less than 30 min) in small-scale contamination-free environments.

  14. Association between hair cortisol concentration and perceived stress in female methamphetamine addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xiang, Peng; Yang, Jin; Shen, Hui; Sang, Zhiqin

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to explore whether hair cortisol concentration is associated with explicit stress or implicit stress in female methamphetamine addicts. Hair samples were collected from 51 female methamphetamine addicts from inpatient addiction treatment programs. Perceived stress was assessed by both explicit and implicit measures through the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Implicit Association Test (IAT), respectively. The positive relationship between hair cortisol concentration with D-scores of the IAT reached statistically significant difference. A marginal correlation between hair cortisol concentration and scores of the PSS was observed. Additionally, linear regression analysis indicated that D-scores of the IAT are strongly predictive of hair cortisol concentration. Hair cortisol concentration is strongly related to implicit stress but only weakly related with explicit stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selfish DNA: Homing Endonucleases Find a Home

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgell, David R

    2009-01-01

    ...] . Intriguingly, many self-splicing introns (and inteins) are also mobile genetic elements at the DNA level because they encode mobility-promoting proteins termed homing endonucleases that have the interesting property of being site-specific but sequence-tolerant DNA endonucleases [4–7] . Intron-encoded homing endonucleases recognize a site, the homing ...

  16. Methamphetamine-induced psychosis is associated with DNA hypomethylation and increased expression of AKT1 and key dopaminergic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohesara, Shabnam; Ghadirivasfi, Mohammad; Barati, Mahmood; Ghasemzadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Narimani, Samira; Mousavi-Behbahani, Zohreh; Joghataei, Mohammadtaghi; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Taban, Mozhgan; Mehrabi, Soraya; Thiagalingam, Sam; Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi

    2016-12-01

    Methamphetamine, one of the most frequently used illicit drugs worldwide, can induce psychosis in a large fraction of abusers and it is becoming a major problem for the health care institutions. There is some evidence that genetic and epigenetic factors may play roles in methamphetamine psychosis. In this study, we examined methamphetamine-induced epigenetic and expression changes of several key genes involved in psychosis. RNA and DNA extracted from the saliva samples of patients with methamphetamine dependency with and without psychosis as well as control subjects (each group 25) were analyzed for expression and promoter DNA methylation status of DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, MB-COMT, GAD1, and AKT1 using qRT-PCR and q-MSP, respectively. We found statistically significant DNA hypomethylation of the promoter regions of DRD3 (P = 0.032), DRD4 (P = 0.05), MB-COMT (P = 0.009), and AKT1 (P = 0.0008) associated with increased expression of the corresponding genes in patients with methamphetamine psychosis (P = 0.022, P = 0.034, P = 0.035, P = 0.038, respectively), and to a lesser degree in some of the candidate genes in non-psychotic patients versus the control subjects. In general, methamphetamine dependency is associated with reduced DNA methylation and corresponding increase in expression of several key genes involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. While these epigenetic changes can be useful diagnostic biomarkers for psychosis in methamphetamine abusers, it is also consistent with the use of methyl rich diet for prevention or suppression of psychosis in these patients. However, this needs to be confirmed in future studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Live to tell: Narratives of methamphetamine-using women taken hostage by their intimate partners in San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K

    2015-09-01

    Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman's risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women's Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26-57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship when the partner is incarcerated. Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and providing comprehensive services that address the

  18. Methamphetamine Causes Degeneration of Dopamine Cell Bodies and Terminals of the Nigrostriatal Pathway Evidenced by Silver Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares-Santos, Sara; Granado, Noelia; Espadas, Isabel; Martinez-Murillo, Ricardo; Moratalla, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a widely abused illicit drug. Recent epidemiological studies showed that methamphetamine increases the risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) in agreement with animal studies showing dopaminergic neurotoxicity. We examined the effect of repeated low and medium doses vs single high dose of methamphetamine on degeneration of dopaminergic terminals and cell bodies. Mice were given methamphetamine in one of the following paradigms: three injections of 5 or 10 mg/kg at 3 h intervals or a single 30 mg/kg injection. The integrity of dopaminergic fibers and cell bodies was assessed at different time points after methamphetamine by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and silver staining. The 3 × 10 protocol yielded the highest loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals, followed by the 3 × 5 and 1 × 30. Some degenerating axons could be followed from the striatum to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). All protocols induced similar significant degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc, evidenced by amino-cupric-silver-stained dopaminergic neurons. These neurons died by necrosis and apoptosis. Methamphetamine also killed striatal neurons. By using D1-Tmt/D2-GFP BAC transgenic mice, we observed that degenerating striatal neurons were equally distributed between direct and indirect medium spiny neurons. Despite the reduced number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 30 days after treatment, there was a partial time-dependent recovery of dopamine terminals beginning 3 days after treatment. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were robustly decreased 1–3 days after treatment, but recovered at later times along with dopaminergic terminals. These data provide direct evidence that methamphetamine causes long-lasting loss/degeneration of dopaminergic cell bodies in the SNpc, along with destruction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum. PMID:24169803

  19. Frequency of Methamphetamine Use as a Major Contributor Toward the Severity of Cardiomyopathy in Adults ≤50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeki, Michael M; Kulczycki, Michael; Toy, Jake; Dong, Fanglong; Lee, Carol; Borger, Rodney; Adigopula, Sasikanth

    2016-08-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most commonly abused illegal drugs in the United States. Health care providers are commonly faced with medical illness caused by methamphetamine. This study investigates the impact of methamphetamine use on the severity of cardiomyopathy and heart failure in young adults. This retrospective study analyzed patients seen at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center from 2008 to 2012. Patients were between 18 and 50 years old. All patients had a discharge diagnosis of cardiomyopathy or heart failure. The severity of disease was quantified by left ventricular systolic dysfunction: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to mildly reduced if ejection fraction was >40% and moderate to severely depressed if ejection fraction was ≤40%. Methamphetamine abuse was determined by a positive urine drug screen or per documented history. Of the 590 patients, 223 (37.8%) had a history of methamphetamine use. More than half the population was men (n = 389, 62.3%); 41% was Hispanic (n = 243), 25.8% was Caucasian (n = 152), and 27.8% was African-American (n = 164); 60.9% were in the age range of 41 to 50 years (n = 359). Patients with a history of methamphetamine use had increased odds (odds ratio = 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 2.57) of having a moderately or severely reduced ejection fraction. Additionally, men were more likely (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.56) to have worse left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In conclusion, methamphetamine use was associated with an increased severity of cardiomyopathy in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is regulated by quinone formation-related molecules

    OpenAIRE

    宮﨑, 育子

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the neurotoxicity of dopamine (DA) quinone formation by auto-oxidation of DA has focused on dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined DA quinone formation in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death using METH-treated dopaminergic cultured CATH.a cells and METH-injected mouse brain. In CATH.a cells, METH treatment dose-dependently increased the levels of quinoprotein (protein-bound quinone) and the expression of quinone r...

  1. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioural, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Weinshenker, David; Ferrucci, Michela; Busceti, Carla L.; Biagioni, Francesca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Liles, L. Cameron; Lenzi, Paola; Murri, Luigi; Paparelli, Antonio; Fornai, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) lesions of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major brain noradrenergic nucleus, exacerbate the damage to nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) terminals caused by the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). However, because noradrenergic terminals contain other neuromodulators and the noradrenaline (NA) transporter, which may act as a neuroprotective buffer, it was unclear whether this enhancement of METH neurotoxicity was caused by the loss of noradrene...

  2. Therapeutic Anti-Methamphetamine Antibody Fragment-Nanoparticle Conjugates: Synthesis and In Vitro Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Nanaware-Kharade, Nisha; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lay, Jackson O.; Hendrickson, Howard P.; Peterson, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Treatments specific to the medical problems caused by methamphetamine (METH) abuse are greatly needed. Towards this goal, we are developing new multivalent anti-METH antibody fragment-nanoparticle conjugates with customizable pharmacokinetic properties. We have designed a novel anti-METH single chain antibody fragment with an engineered terminal cysteine (scFv6H4Cys). Generation 3 (G3) polyamidoamine dendrimer nanoparticles were chosen for conjugation due to their monodisperse properties and ...

  3. Refining a personalized mHealth intervention to promote medication adherence among HIV+ methamphetamine users

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, JL; GEORGES, S.; Poquette, A; Depp, CA; Atkinson, JH; Moore, DJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions to promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence have shown promise; however, among persons living with HIV who abuse methamphetamine (MA), effective tailoring of content to match the expressed needs of this patient population may be necessary. This study aimed (1) to understand patient perspectives of barriers and facilitators of ART adherence among people with HIV who use MA, and (2) to obtain feedback on the thematic content...

  4. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

    2009-01-01

    This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

  5. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  6. Methamphetamine use and neuropsychiatric factors are associated with antiretroviral non-adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, DJ; Blackstone, K; Woods, SP; Ellis, RJ; Atkinson, JH; Heaton, RK; Grant, I

    2012-01-01

    The present study assesses the impact of methamphetamine (METH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV+ persons, as well as examines the contribution of neurocognitive impairment and other neuropsychiatric factors [i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and attention deficit disorder (ADHD)] for ART non-adherence. We examined HIV+ persons with DSM-IV-diagnosed lifetime history of METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /METH+; n=67) as compared to HIV+...

  7. Preclinical and Clinical Development of Low Dose Methamphetamine for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Mexico ; Philippines; Republic of Korea; Russian Federation; South Africa; and the United States. All applications...Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, Japan, Australia, and South African. Patent claims are about to be issued in Mexico and Philippines...methamphetamine is FDA approved for the treatment of ADHD and obesity as an oral daily dose of up to 25 mg (Administration F.a.D, 2007). Under this dosing

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies as Pharmacokinetic Antagonists for the Treatment of (+)-Methamphetamine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, S. Michael; Atchley, William T.; Hambuchen, Michael D; Peterson, Eric C.; Gentry, W. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    Developing specific medications to treat (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a difficult challenge because METH has multiple sites of action that are intertwined with normal neurological function. As a result, no small molecule medication for the treatment of METH addiction has made it through the FDA clinical trials process. With the invention of a new generation of protein-based therapies, it is now possible to consider treating drug addiction by an entirely different approach. This new...

  9. Chronic modafinil effects on drug-seeking following methamphetamine self-administration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Carmela M.; See, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Acute administration of the cognitive enhancing drug, modafinil (Provigil®), reduces methamphetamine (meth) seeking following withdrawal from daily self-administration. However, the more clinically relevant effects of modafinil on meth-seeking after chronic treatment have not been explored. Here, we determined the impact of modafinil on meth-seeking after chronic daily treatment during extinction or abstinence following meth self-administration. Rats self-administered intravenous meth during ...

  10. Response of Neurotensin Basal Ganglia Systems during Extinction of Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Glen R.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Robson, Christina M.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Frankel, Paul S.; Alburges, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    Because of persistent social problems caused by methamphetamine (METH), new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Thus, we investigated the response of central nervous system neurotensin (NT) systems to METH self-administration (SA) and their interaction with basal ganglia dopamine (DA) pathways. Neurotensin is a peptide associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections. We observed that NT levels decreased in rats during extinction of METH SA when lever pres...

  11. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  12. Risk of neurobehavioral disinhibition in prenatal methamphetamine-exposed young children with positive hair toxicology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia M; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa, and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child's neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared with child hair results. A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n = 133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n = 131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared with PME children without postnatal exposure. Child hair testing offered a noninvasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years.

  13. Methamphetamine increases locomotion and dopamine transporter activity in dopamine d5 receptor-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Hayashizaki

    Full Text Available Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behavioral response to methamphetamine. Interestingly, D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice displayed increased ambulation in response to methamphetamine. Furthermore, dopamine transporter threonine phosphorylation levels, which regulate amphetamine-induced dopamine release, were elevated in D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. The increase in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was eliminated by pretreatment with the dopamine transporter blocker GBR12909. Taken together, these results suggest that dopamine transporter activity and threonine phosphorylation levels are regulated by D5 dopamine receptors.

  14. Gut Microbiota Analysis in Rats with Methamphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is a major public health crisis. Because accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the gut microbiota plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS function, and research on the roles of the microbiome in CNS disorders holds conceivable promise for developing novel therapeutic avenues for treating CNS disorders, we sought to determine whether administration of methamphetamine leads to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. In this study, the gut microbiota profiles of rats with methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP were analyzed through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal microbial diversity was slightly higher in the METH CPP group. The propionate-producing genus Phascolarctobacterium was attenuated in the METH CPP group, and the family Ruminococcaceae was elevated in the METH CPP group. Short chain fatty acid analysis revealed that the concentrations of propionate were decreased in the fecal matter of METH-administered rats. These findings provide direct evidence that administration of METH causes gut dysbiosis, enable a better understanding of the function of gut microbiota in the process of drug abuse, and provide a new paradigm for addiction treatment.

  15. Blonanserin treatment in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis comorbid with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Okazaki, Manabu Makinodan, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Tomoyo Takata, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, JapanObjective: Methamphetamine (MA use has recently been associated with high levels of psychiatric hospitalization and serious social dysfunction. MA use causes frequent psychotic symptoms, which can be treated with antipsychotics. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID are vulnerable to adverse effects resulting from treatment with antipsychotic medications.Method: We report two cases of MA-induced psychosis (MAP in patients with ID who were treated with the antipsychotic blonanserin.Results: In both the cases presented, symptoms of psychosis were improved by switching medications from other antipsychotic drugs to blonanserin. Despite the presence of ID in these patients, no significant adverse effects, such as sedation, were detected after treatment with blonanserin.Conclusion: Blonanserin may be an effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapeutical treatment for patients with MAP comorbid with ID. However, further work is necessary to validate this claim.Keywords: methamphetamine, methamphetamine-induced psychosis, intellectual disabilities, blonanserin

  16. Clinical perception: a study of intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use as presenting problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Holly; Haaken, Janice; Lewy, Colleen S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on theory by Solomon Asch (1946, 1952) to examine how presenting with intimate partner violence versus methamphetamine use shapes characteristics of substance abuse assessment interviews. When responding to an initial open-ended question from a substance abuse counselor, the methamphetamine user and intimate partner violence survivor may elicit very different reactions from the counselor. We predicted that these differing presenting problems would initiate different trajectories for overall impression formation. To test this hypothesis, 18 substance abuse practitioners interviewed one standardized patient (an actor portraying a substance abuse client) who alternated her presenting problem between a) violence in a domestic setting and b) methamphetamine use. The remainder of her story was identical for counselors in either presenting problem group. Results included differences between the two groups in median length of the interviews and failure of both groups to explore domestic violence as a cooccurring problem. Clinical practices related to substance abuse counseling and intimate partner violence are discussed in light of these findings.

  17. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Cellular Telephones in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mendelson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predictors of relapse to methamphetamine use are poorly understood. State variables may play an important role in relapse, but they have been difficult to measure at frequent intervals in outpatients.Methods: We conducted a feasibility study of the use of cellular telephones to collect state variable data from outpatients. Six subjects in treatment for methamphetamine dependence were called three times per weekday for approximately seven weeks. Seven questionnaires were administered that assessed craving, stress, affect and current type of location and social environment.Results: 395/606 (65% of calls attempted were completed. The mean time to complete each call was 4.9 (s.d. 1.8 minutes and the mean time to complete each item was 8.4 (s.d. 4.8 seconds. Subjects rated the acceptability of the procedures as good. All six cellular phones and battery chargers were returned undamaged.Conclusion: Cellular telephones are a feasible method for collecting state data from methamphetamine dependent outpatients.

  18. Feasibility of Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Cellular Telephones in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantt P. Galloway

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Predictors of relapse to methamphetamine use are poorly understood. State variables may play an important role in relapse, but they have been difficult to measure at frequent intervals in outpatients. Methods We conducted a feasibility study of the use of cellular telephones to collect state variable data from outpatients. Six subjects in treatment for methamphetamine dependence were called three times per weekday for approximately seven weeks. Seven questionnaires were administered that assessed craving, stress, affect and current type of location and social environment. Results 395/606 (65% of calls attempted were completed. The mean time to complete each call was 4.9 (s.d. 1.8 minutes and the mean time to complete each item was 8.4 (s.d. 4.8 seconds. Subjects rated the acceptability of the procedures as good. All six cellular phones and battery chargers were returned undamaged. Conclusion Cellular telephones are a feasible method for collecting state data from methamphetamine dependent outpatients.

  19. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  20. Prevalence of Primary Methamphetamine-Related Cases and Treatment-Centre Preparedness among Youth Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Centres in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell C.; Rush, Brian; Tavares, Joey; Taylor, Lawren; Victor, J. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent methamphetamine use is a prominent concern for Canadian media and government. Few empirical studies, however, have established the scope of adolescent methamphetamine use or associated outpatient substance abuse treatment utilization. The current study aimed to answer the following questions: (1) What was the overall proportion of…