Sample records for holthuis caridea hippolytidae

  1. Genome Sequences of Marine Shrimp Exopalaemon carinicauda Holthuis Provide Insights into Genome Size Evolution of Caridea. (United States)

    Yuan, Jianbo; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jiankai; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai


    Crustacea, particularly Decapoda, contains many economically important species, such as shrimps and crabs. Crustaceans exhibit enormous (nearly 500-fold) variability in genome size. However, limited genome resources are available for investigating these species. Exopalaemon carinicauda Holthuis, an economical caridean shrimp, is a potential ideal experimental animal for research on crustaceans. In this study, we performed low-coverage sequencing and de novo assembly of the E. carinicauda genome. The assembly covers more than 95% of coding regions. E. carinicauda possesses a large complex genome (5.73 Gb), with size twice higher than those of many decapod shrimps. As such, comparative genomic analyses were implied to investigate factors affecting genome size evolution of decapods. However, clues associated with genome duplication were not identified, and few horizontally transferred sequences were detected. Ultimately, the burst of transposable elements, especially retrotransposons, was determined as the major factor influencing genome expansion. A total of 2 Gb repeats were identified, and RTE-BovB, Jockey, Gypsy, and DIRS were the four major retrotransposons that significantly expanded. Both recent (Jockey and Gypsy) and ancestral (DIRS) originated retrotransposons responsible for the genome evolution. The E. carinicauda genome also exhibited potential for the genomic and experimental research of shrimps.

  2. New and additional records of Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 (Decapoda, Caridea, Alpheidae from Brazil, with a key to the southern Atlantic species

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    Arthur Anker


    Full Text Available Two species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, are reported from shallow waters of São Sebastião (SP, southeastern Brazil. Salmoneus depressus Anker, 2011 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic; this species was previously known only from the Caribbean region. Salmoneus ortmanni (Rankin, 1898 is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil (23°S, being previously known in Brazilian waters from a single confirmed record from Atol das Rocas (03°S, with older records referring to Salmoneus carvachoi Anker, 2007. A hitherto unknown morphological variation in S. depressus is discussed and illustrated. Both species are shown in colour to facilitate their identification in the field. A key to the southern Atlantic species of Salmoneus is also provided.

  3. Checklist of decapods (Crustacea) from the coast of the São Paulo state (Brazil) supported by integrative molecular and morphological data: I. Infraorder Caridea: families Hippolytidae, Lysmatidae, Ogyrididae, Processidae and Thoridae. (United States)

    Terossi, Mariana; Almeida, Alexandre O; Buranelli, Raquel C; Castilho, Antonio L; Costa, RogÉrio C; Zara, Fernando J; Mantelatto, Fernando L


    The current checklist is the result of a long-term multidisciplinary project which combined molecular techniques (mitochondrial DNA markers) and morphological analyses of adult specimens for an accurate and detailed identification of the total biodiversity of decapod crustaceans from marine and coastal (including estuaries) environments of São Paulo State (Brazil). This is the first of a series of reports and providing a checklist of caridean shrimps of the families Hippolytidae (5 spp.), Lysmatidae (6 spp.), Ogyrididae (2 spp.), Processidae (5 spp.) and Thoridae (1 sp.). We collected material of 13 species out of 19 recorded, with sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I - barcode region and 16S generated from 10 species. The previous record of Lysmata cf. intermedia for São Paulo is actually L. jundalini, as the first record in São Paulo/South Atlantic waters. The molecular data were helpful to confirm the identification of some species, as the occurrence of L. wurdemanni which is confirmed in the South Atlantic Ocean based on morphological, color pattern and molecular data.

  4. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Decapoda (Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Caridea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Palinura del Pacífico

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    Rita Vargas


    Full Text Available En el Pacífico de Costa Rica se ha encontrado 117 especies de camarones y langostas. Estas se ubican en el Suborden Dendrobranchiata (Penaeoidea, 25 spp.; Sergestoidea, 1 sp.; y en el Suborden Pleocyemata (Caridea, 73 spp.; Astacidea, 1 sp; Thalassinidea, 13 spp. y Palinura, 4 spp.. Veintisiete especies (23% son nuevos infomes para Costa Rica. Cinco informes representan ampliaciones de ámbito, tres de importancia: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 se extiende la distribución desde la bahía Tenacatitán, México hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 se amplia la distribución al norte desde La Libertad, Ecuador hasta Sámara, Guanacaste y Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 también al norte desde la isla Gorgona, Colombia hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste. Nueve especies fueron descritas con material recolectado en Costa Rica y dos son endémicas. 43% de las especies de camarones del Pacífico este se encuentran en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. El total de especies indicado aquí es probablemente una subestimación de la diversidad de estos grupos en el Pacífico de Costa Rica.A total of 117 species of shrimp and lobster are known from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. They belong to the Suborders Dendrobranchiata, Superfamily Penaeoidea (26 species and Pleocyemata, Infraorder Caridea (73, Astacidea (one, Thalassinidea (13, and Palinura (four species. Twenty seven species (23% are reported for the first time for Costa Rica. The distribution range of five species is extended, three of which are significant: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 from Tenacatitán Bay, México to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 from La Libertad, Ecuador to Sámara, Guanacaste and Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 from Gorgona Island, Colombia to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste. Nine species, two of which are endemic, were described based on specimens collected in Costa Rica. Forty

  5. The genus Hippolyte Leach, 1814 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) in the East Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a checklist of all species in the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Udekem d'Acoz, C.


    The genus Hippolyte Leach in the East Atlantic and the Mediterranean is revised and a list of the world species is given. Eleven species occur in the area studied: H. coerulescens (Fabricius), H. garciarasoi spec. nov., H. inermis Leach, H. lagarderei d'Udekem d'Acoz, H. leptocerus (Heller), H.

  6. On the type material of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae

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    Marcos Tavares


    Full Text Available The only specimen listed in the original description of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 is the holotype from São Paulo, Brazil, presently housed in the Leiden Museum. From the original description, however, it is clear that the new species was actually based on a number of additional specimens. Six of them exist in the collections of the Museum of Zoology in São Paulo, and are shown herein to be paratypes of S. deceptor. Scyllarides deceptor and S. brasiliensis Rathbun, 1906, continue to be confounded with one another, in consequence of their very similar color patterns and locally sympatric distributions. As many as 251,786 tons of slipper lobsters have been landed in Santa Catarina between 2000 and 2007. These catches have been attributed to S. deceptor alone and did not take into consideration the existence of a second species in the area, S. brasiliensis. Correct recognition of slipper-lobster species will be critical to properly evaluate the lobster stocks in southeastern Brazil. An opportunity is taken herein to elaborate on the taxonomy of S. deceptor and S. brasiliensis.

  7. Two new species of shrimp of the Indo-West Pacific genus Hamodactylus Holthuis, 1952 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae

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    Ivona HORKÁ


    Full Text Available Two new alcyonacean-associated species, Hamodactylus paraqabai sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef and H. pseudaqabai sp. nov. from Indonesia and Malaysia, are described and illustrated. To evaluate the status of the new species and their relationship within the genus Hamodactylus Holthuis, 1952, we combined morphology and phylogenetic analyses based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mitochondrial gene. Both new species are closely related, with their mutual genetic divergence reaching 3-4%. They are further most related to Hamodactylus aqabai Bruce & Svoboda, 1983, originally described from the Red Sea. Both new species are distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of multiple teeth distally on the cutting edges of the fingers of the first pereiopods, and, in the case of H. paraqabai sp. nov., by a full reduction of the fixed finger on the second pereiopod chela. In H. pseudaqabai sp. nov. the finger is greatly reduced to a small but distinct stub, and the telson bears only a single pair of dorsal spines, as in H. aqabai. A key for the identification of all six currently known species is proposed.

  8. Reproductive strategy of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonoidea on the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Rafaela Torres Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the reproductive investment (RI and the fecundity of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Holthuis, 1950, caught by trawling in the southeastern Brazilian coast in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The carapace length (CL of ovigerous females was measured and the development stage of their ovaries and embryos were analyzed. A significant relationship was observed between the female body and embryo weights (Linear regression: r² = 0.26, F = 20.77, P < 0.0001, Ln BDW = 0.92. Ln FBDW - 2.24 and between number of embryos and CL (Linear regression; stage I: r² = 0.38, F = 36.15, P < 0.0001; stage II: r² = 0.34, F = 14.10, P < 0.001, but not between the RI and CL (ANOVA: F = 0.47, df = 7, P = 0.85. Association of the changes in embryo development and ovarian maturation of ovigerous females was tested. Females with rudimentary ovaries predominantly showed embryos in stage I (early development and females with developed ovaries only showed embryos in stage II (final development, showing synchrony between the development of both, thus supporting the hypothesis of a continuous reproductive cycle for N. schmitti in the region. Such information is fundamental for understanding the reproductive biology of these crustaceans, as well as other caridean shrimps, in order to promote the maintenance and preservation of natural stocks.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Pasiphaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) reveals systematic incongruence of the current classification. (United States)

    Liao, Yunshi; De Grave, Sammy; Ho, Tsz Wai; Ip, Brian H Y; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou


    Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses conducted on the concatenated dataset of 2265bp suggest the family Pasiphaeidae is not monophyletic, with Psathyrocaris more closely related to other carideans than to the other five pasiphaeid genera included in this analysis. Leptochela occupies a sister position to the remaining genera and is genetically quite distant from them. At the generic level, the analysis supports the monophyly of Pasiphaea, Leptochela and Psathyrocaris, while Eupasiphae is shown to be paraphyletic, closely related to Parapasiphae and Glyphus. The present molecular result strongly implies that certain morphological characters used in the present systematic delineation within Pasiphaeidae may not be synapomorphies and the classification within the family needs to be urgently revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Digging deeper: new gene order rearrangements and distinct patterns of codons usage in mitochondrial genomes among shrimps from the Axiidea, Gebiidea and Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda

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    Mun Hua Tan


    Full Text Available Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters and Caridea (true shrimps are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages.

  11. pacificus (Caridea) and Upogebia africana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aemon pacificus and Upogebia africana in and out of .... bottom plankton samples were obtained using two 57-cm WP2 ... KAHLSICO model 005-W A 130 flowmeter. ..... Figure 7 Catch per unit effort of Pa/aemon paci/icus zoea 6 and adults.

  12. Feeding dynamics of Palaemon peringueyi (Decapoda, Caridea) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding ecology of the caridean shrimp Palaemon peringueyi in the temporarily open/closed Kasouga Estuary, Eastern Cape, was examined during summer and winter employing stomach fullness index (SFI) analysis. Mean SFI values for male and female shrimp during summer ranged from 0.85% to 2.36% and from ...

  13. Tidal exchange of two decapod larvae Palaemon pacificus (Caridea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net fluxes were 97,1% and 99,9%. Larval life is then spent at sea after which the pre-postlarvae invade the estuary to reach the estuarine nursery areas. For P. pacificus this was during zoea 6, mainly on the nocturnal flood-tides. Net fluxes of P. pacificus zoea 6 were 95,8% and 100%. Most larval movement occurred at peak ...

  14. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio


    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  15. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression (United States)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  16. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

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    Rodrigo Sant'Ana


    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estimó la talla de primera madurez de machos y hembras mediante la utilización del crecimiento alométrico de la quela y el abdomen, con respecto al ancho del caparazón (CW, proporción de hembras con vulvas abiertas y huevos en los pleópodos y machos con marcas de cópula en las primeras patas ambulatorias. La madurez morfométrica para los machos fue obtenida en promedio a 8,9 cm de CW y para las hembras a 8,8 cm de CW. El CW50./d fue estimado en 8,4 cm para machos y para hembras, tomando en cuenta la condición de la vulva o los huevos en los pleópodos, en 6,9 y 9,7 cm respectivamente. Las maximas proporciones estimadas de hembras ovígeras y machos con marcas de cópula por talla fueron de 0,8 y 0,7 respectivamente, lo que sugiere que el ciclo reproductivo a nivel poblacional e individual es anual. El análisis de la composición de tallas indicó que el 97% de las hembras capturadas, eran inmaduras. A partir de estos resultados se consideró un aumento en la selectividad de las trampas y la disminución de las hembras ovígeras en las capturas como objetivos nuevos e inmediatos para el mejor manejo de este recurso.

  17. Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the shallow waters from Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean coast Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de las aguas someras de Quintana Roo, Caribe mexicano

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    Ramiro Román-Contreras


    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the palaemonid fauna of the Mexican Caribbean. This study provides a list of shallow water free-living and symbiont shrimps of the family Palaemonidae collected on turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Ten species in 8 genera are reported, of which the genus Periclimenes is the most diverse with 3 species. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic and other regions is provided for all the species. The greatest affinity of the palaemonid fauna studied, besides that with the Caribbean province, is with the Brazilian, Argentinian, and Texan zoogeographic provinces. Of the 10 species reported in this paper, 8 represent new local records in the studied area.Los crustáceos de la familia Palaemonidae del Caribe mexicano han sido poco estudiados. En este trabajo se presenta un listado de palemónidos de vida libre y simbiontes recolectados en el pasto marino Thalassia testudiuim de Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo y la laguna arrecifal de Mahahual, Quintana Roo, México. Se registran 10 especies pertenecientes a 8 géneros, siendo el género Periclimenes el más diverso con 3 especies. Para todas las especies se proporciona su distribución geográfica en la costa del Atlántico americano así como en otras regiones. Además de la provincia Caribeña, los palemónidos recolectados también muestran alta afinidad con otras provincias zoogeográficas como la Brasileña, Argentina y Texana; de las 10 especies registradas en este estudio, 8 representan nuevo registro local en el área estudiada.

  18. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

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    Lauren VanMaurik


    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  19. Growth and reproductive pattern of the caridean shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda:Caridea) in southern Brazil


    Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D´Incao, Fernando


    In crustaceans, due to the absence of permanent hard parts which can be used for age determination, methods on length frequency distribuitions (e.g., Modal progression Analysis - MPA) are commonly employed for ageing. However, the linkage of the coborts followed during a period of time, brings uncertainty to the analysis. The present study suggests inclusion of biological aspects to validate the parameters estimatcd by the von Bertalanffy growth model (VBGM). The population of Palaemonetes ar...

  20. Redescription of the early larval stages of the pandalid shrimp Chlorotocus crassicornis (Decapoda: Caridea: Pandalidae). (United States)

    Landeira, Jose M; Jiang, Guo-Chen; Chan, Tin-Yam; Shih, Tung-Wei; Gozález-Gordillo, J Ignacio


    The first four larval stages of the pandalid shrimp Chlorotocus crassicornis (A. Costa, 1871) are described and illustrated from laboratory-reared material obtained from ovigerous females collected in the southwestern Spain and south Taiwan. The second to fourth larval stages of this species are reported for the first time to science. Detailed examination of the first larval stages reveals that previous description misidentified some key larval characters which have prevented its identification in plankton samples. It is found that the zoeal morphology of Chlorotocus is not very different from other pandalid larvae, and in fact closely resembles Plesionika and Heterocarpus.

  1. The male reproductive system of Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815 (Decapoda, Caridea) (United States)

    Cobos, Vanesa; Díaz, Vanessa; Raso, Jose Enrique García; Manjón-Cabeza, M. E.


    The present work completes a series of studies on the biology of the shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815, where we suggested the species to be gonochoristic. The morphology of the male reproductive system (testes, vasa deferentia, gonopores) and the different stages of male germ cell development are described for the first time in the genus Hippolyte, using TEM, SEM, and histological methods. All males from 1.70 to 3.42 mm in carapace length had active testes and well-developed vasa deferentia. No case of sex reversal could be found.

  2. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) (United States)

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.


    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  3. First occurrence of the crab Calappa nitida Holthuis, 1958 (Brachyura, Calappidae, Calappinae on the coast of the state of Piauí, Brazil

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    Lissandra Corrêa Fernandes-Góes


    Full Text Available The present study reports a female of Calappa nitida found at a water-pump station on a shrimp farm, in a mangrove located in Cajueiro da Praia, state of Piauí, within the Parnaíba River Delta Environmental Preservation Area. Although C. nitida occurs in northern and northeastern Brazil, this first record from Piauí fills one of the gaps in its known range.

  4. Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva

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    Full Text Available In this paper we review functional and evolutionary relationships among mating systems of caridean shrimp and specific traits such as general biology/ecology, sexual systems, behavior and morphology. Four mating systems are described based on reports from available literature, and a fifth system is recognized but published information is insufficient to describe it in detail. `Monogamy' occurs in many species inhabiting monopolizable refuges or hosts, especially when environmental conditions restrict the probability of intraspecific interactions. In contrast, free-living species experience higher encounter rates and males can dominate or search. In `neighborhoods of dominance' mating systems, large males have higher reproductive success since they perform better in fights for receptive females. In `pure searching' mating systems, small and agile males do better because they search more efficiently for mates within the population. The fourth mating system is `search & attend' occurring in solitary symbionts, which experience variable ecological and demographic environments: depending on environmental conditions and ontogenetic stages it may either be profitable for males to search or to attend hosts with sexually attractive females. Sexual systems of caridean shrimp are characterized by their high diversity and intraspecific plasticity, including gonochorism and different forms of protandric or simultaneous hermaphroditism. The identified mating systems partially explained this diversity: In monogamous species, low encounter rates and lack of sexual dimorphism favors simultaneous hermaphroditism but gonochory usually occurs among these species probably because mates are not strictly faithful. Species with neighborhoods of dominance mating are gonochoristic because both sexes benefit from being large. Pure searching species have a wide opportunity for the evolution of protandry since small males benefit while the opposite is true for females. In species with search & attend the situation is variable, and only some males benefit by acquiring large size while others do better by searching or changing sex. In contrast to other crustaceans free-living shrimp do not exhibit precopulatory mate guarding and they are relatively unaggressive. The characteristic and efficient escape behavior of shrimp using their contractile abdomen might be one important trait that has constrained the evolution of such behaviors. Our review indicates that the mating systems of caridean shrimp depend both on environmental and on biological characteristicsEn este articulo revisamos relaciones funcionales y evolutivas entre los sistemas de apareamiento de camarones carideos, y características específicas tales como biología/ecología general, sistemas sexuales, conducta y morfología. Basados en reportes bibliográficos se describió cuatro sistemas de apareamiento, y un quinto fue reconocido pero la informaci��n disponible fue insuficiente para describirlo en detalle. `Monogamia' ocurre en muchas especies que habitan en refugios monopolizables o huéspedes, especialmente cuando las condiciones ambientales restringen la probabilidad de encuentros entre conespecíficos. En contraste, las especies de vida libre experimentan encuentros más frecuentes y los machos pueden dominar o buscar: En el sistema de apareamiento `dominancia vecinal' los machos más grandes rinden mayor éxito reproductivo porque son los que tienen el mejor desempeño en la competencia agresiva por las hembras receptivas. En el sistema `pura búsqueda' son los machos pequeños los que lo hacen mejor porque su agilidad les permite buscar pareja eficazmente entre la población. El cuarto sistema de apareamiento es `búsqueda & compañía' que ocurre en simbiontes solitarios que experimentan condiciones demográficas y ecológicas variables: dependiendo de las condiciones ambientales y del estado ontogenético, puede ser conveniente para los machos buscar o permanecer en huéspedes con hembras sexualmente atractivas. Los sistemas sexuales de los carideos se caracterizan por su diversidad y plasticidad intraespecífica, habiendo especies gonocóricas, otras con diferentes formas de hermafroditismo protándrico e incluso hermafroditas simultáneas. Los sistemas de apareamiento identificados parcialmente explican esta diversidad: en especies monogamas las bajas tasas de encuentro y la falta de dimorfismo sexual, favorecen el hermafroditismo simultáneo pero la gonocoría normalmente domina posiblemente porque las parejas no son estrictamente fieles. Especies con dominancia vecinal son gonocóricas porque ambos sexos se benefician con ser grandes. Las especies con pura búsqueda tienen una amplia oportunidad para la evolución de protandría ya que los más beneficiados son los machos pequeños y las hembras grandes. En especies con búsqueda & compañía la situación es variable, solo algunos machos se benefician al ser suficientemente grandes, mientras que otros lo hacen mejor buscando o cambiando de sexo. En comparación con otros crustáceos, los camarones de vida libre se caracterizan por la ausencia de custodia precopulatoria e infrecuentes conductas agresivas. La eficiente y característica conducta de escape de los camarones usando su abdomen contractil podría ser un importante impedimento para la evolución de tales conductas. Nuestra revisión provee buenos indicios de que los sistemas de apareamiento de camarones carideos dependen tanto de características ambientales como biológicas propias de este taxón

  5. New Records of Hippolytid Shrimps, Lebbeus speciosus and Lebbeus comanthi (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the East Sea, Korea

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    Chu Lee


    Full Text Available Two species of the hippolytid shrimps, Lebbeus speciosus and Lebbeus comanthi, are described and illustrated for the first time in Korea. They were collected from the East Sea. Lebbeus speciosus was found in a scallop farm of Jumunjin, Gangneung, and L. comanthi associated with crinoids, was found in Gampo, Gyeongju. The difference between these two related species is in the number of dorsal teeth of the rostrum, five teeth in L. speciosus and a single tooth in L. comanthi. The Korean Lebbeus species has increased to 6 species by the present report. They are L. grandimana, L. polaris, L. unalaskensis, L. groenlandicus, L. speciosus, and L. comanthi.

  6. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

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    Andrea L Meireles


    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  7. Salmoneus kekovae, a new species of alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the south-western coast of Turkey

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    Full Text Available A new species of Salmoneus collected in Turkish waters is described. It appears to live in burrows associated with gobiid fish or thalassinidean decapods, as do other species in the genus. Previously, twenty Salmoneus species have been recognised worldwide, two of which are known from the Mediterranean. Some morphological features are discussed in order to determine their taxonomic value. A table summarises the geographical distribution of the 21 species currently recognised.

  8. Comparison between the shrimp species richness (Caridea and Dendrobranchiata, Decapoda, Crustacea of the south and north mid Atlantic ridge

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    Irene Azevedo Cardoso


    Full Text Available The Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR is a seamount chain extending for 60.000 km, divided into south and north regions by the Equatorial Fracture which cuts across it. This latter has a maximum depth of 7,760 m and an average width of 19 km. In this study we include data from the two cruises of the international project MAR-ECO, undertaken, respectively, one on the north and the other on the south MAR. Our main objective is to compare the species richness and species composition of pelagic and benthic decapod shrimps of these two areas to observe the patterns of their latitudinal distribution along the MAR. Using rarefaction methods, we obtained interesting results: the pelagic samples curve of the northern MAR is almost an asymptote, so we concluded that we are close to the true number of pelagic shrimp species for this region. The pelagic samples curve of the southern MAR had the greatest slope, so our conclusion is that we are still far from the true number of species for this region. A comparison of species richness at 12 samples (the smallest number of samples shared by both the surveys revealed that the pelagic species richness was greater than the demersal, and that the northern MAR contained a larger number of species than the southern.

  9. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in a non-native population (United States)

    Vázquez, M. Guadalupe; Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.


    The magnitude of variations in reproductive traits of Palaemon macrodactylus females throughout a breeding season was studied in a non-native population at Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina. Fecundity, egg size, reproductive output, weight and elemental composition of eggs, and larvae were analyzed in females collected at the beginning, in the mid point, and near the end of a reproductive season and designated as early, middle season, and late females. The highest reproductive output was observed in early females, while the highest fecundity and egg volume occurred in middle season females. Eggs and larvae showed larger body mass in early than in late females. Embryos from early females contained and consumed more carbon during development than embryos from late females, and they also used part of the available nitrogen. Differences in reproduction were observed among the three groups of females. On the one hand, late females matured early but had a poor first reproduction, with few embryos and high egg loss; however, they had longer reproductive life and an enhanced reproductive output in the following season when they became early females. On the other hand, females collected at the midpoint in the reproductive season matured later and had the highest fecundity and egg volume. In addition, larvae with different characteristics resulted from each type of female and were presumably well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the moment they hatched. The extended reproductive period and the diversity of embryos and larvae produced may favor the invading ability of the species.

  10. Seasonal variations in larval biomass and biochemical composition of brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Caridea), at hatching (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Anger, Klaus


    The "brown shrimp", Crangon crangon (Linnaeus 1758), is a benthic key species in the North Sea ecosystem, supporting an intense commercial fishery. Its reproductive pattern is characterized by a continuous spawning season from mid-winter to early autumn. During this extended period, C. crangon shows significant seasonal variations in egg size and embryonic biomass, which may influence larval quality at hatching. In the present study, we quantified seasonal changes in dry weight (W) and chemical composition (CHN, protein and lipid) of newly hatched larvae of C. crangon. Our data revealed significant variations, with maximum biomass values at the beginning of the hatching season (February-March), a decrease throughout spring (April-May) and a minimum in summer (June-September). While all absolute values of biomass and biochemical constituents per larva showed highly significant differences between months ( P larvae" hatching from larger "winter eggs" showed higher initial values of biomass compared to "summer larvae" originating from smaller "summer eggs". This indicates carry-over effects persisting from the embryonic to the larval phase. Since "winter larvae" are more likely exposed to poor nutritional conditions, intraspecific variability in larval biomass at hatching is interpreted as part of an adaptive reproductive strategy compensating for strong seasonality in plankton production and transitory periods of larval food limitation.

  11. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans. (United States)

    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes


    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification. (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W


    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New records of Decapod Crustacea from the Mediterranean coast of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.


    Since the publication by Holthuis & Gottlieb (1958) of a list of the Decapod Crustacea known at that time to inhabit the Mediterranean waters of Israel, several additional species, 18 in number, have been found in the area, while just prior to the issue of the paper by Holthuis & Gottlieb a

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Decapoda, Caridea): Insight into the mitochondrial genetic basis of deep-sea hydrothermal vent adaptation in the shrimp. (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Hui, Ming; Wang, Minxiao; Sha, Zhongli


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing. The mitogenome of S. leurokolos was 15,903bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The gene order and orientation were identical to those of sequenced alvinocaridids. It has the longest concatenated sequences of protein-coding genes, tRNAs and shortest pooled rRNAs among the alvinocaridids. The control regions (CRs) of alvinocaridid were significantly longer (penergy metabolism to adapt to the hydrothermal environment. Phylogenetic analysis supported that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps may have originated from those living in shallow area. Positive selection analysis reveals the evidence of adaptive change in the mitogenome of Alvinocarididae. Thirty potentially important adaptive residues were identified, which were located in atp6, cox1, cox3, cytb and nad1-5. This study explores the mitochondrial genetic basis of hydrothermal vent adaptation in alvinocaridid for the first time, and provides valuable clues regarding the adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shrimps of the crangonid genus Paracrangon Dana (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the northwestern Pacific: taxonomic review and description of a new species from Japan

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    Tomoyuki Komai


    Full Text Available The northwestern Pacific species of the crangonid genus Paracrangon Dana, 1852 are reviewed. Five species, including one new species, are recognised from the region: P. echinata Dana, 1852 (type species of the genus, P. abei Kubo, 1937, P. furcata Kubo, 1937, P. okutanii Ohé and Takeda, 1986, and P. ostlingos sp. nov. The geographical range of P. okutanii is extended to the northern South China Sea off southwestern Taiwan, representing the first discovery of species of the genus from tropical waters in the western Pacific. These species are diagnosed and illustrated. They are classified into two informal species groups, the P. echinata species group (including P. echinata, P. abei and P. okutanii, and two species from other regions, P. areolata Faxon, 1893 and P. australis Hanamura, Wadley and Taylor, 1999 and the P. furcata species group (P. furcata and P. ostlingos sp. nov.. New findings on the morphology of the genus are presented. The monophyly of Paracrangon is highly corroborated by a number of autapomorphic characters, but its relationship to other crangonid genera remains obscure. A revised key to aid in the identification of the species of Paracrangon is presented.

  16. Biologia e ecologia de crustáceos decápodos (Caridea e Brachyura) do infralitoral não consolidado da costa sudeste do Brasil


    Pereira, Rafaela Torres [UNESP


    The specimens of Nematopalaemon schmitti were captured in southeastern Brazil from 2008 to 2011, for reproductive output (RO) and fecundity analysis of species. Changes in the egg development associated to the ovary maturation of ovigerous female were also analyzed in order to verify possible synchronous relationship between them. Obtained ovigerous females were measured (carapace length [CL]) and analyzed as the stage of development of their ovaries and eggs. The RO was calculated based on d...

  17. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae). (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki


    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  18. Research on the river shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium (Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae with known or potential economic importance: strengths and weaknesses shown through scientometrics

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    Olimpia Chong-Carrillo


    Full Text Available This study revealed that the scientific interest in the genus Macrobrachium was not restricted to a biological point of view, but included also social and economic aspects. Many species of the genus are subject of traditional fisheries and culture worldwide. Several research groups across the globe have developed projects in various subject areas on commercial or non-commercial native species of this genus. This investigation aimed to contribute to the development of the genus Macrobrachium research through a scientometric study. The study was based on publications (1980 to 2013 registered in the following databases: Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, SciELO Citation Index, BioOne, Science Direct, Scopus, and Redalyc. A total of 2165 publications on Macrobrachium in the last 33 years were included in this analysis. The themes that yielded most posts were related to culture, nutrition/feeding, and genetics with almost 60% of the total. Publications concerning M. rosenbergii represented more than 60% of the total with the remaining 40% encompassing 22 other species. Analysis performed by geographical regions evidenced that Latin America produced 23% of the publications, South Asia 22%, and East Asia 16%. Brazil generated 65% of the percentage mentioned for the Latin American region. It is necessary to strengthen research on topics of basic biology, especially those of native species. This will allow rapid progress in the generation of production technologies sustained by a solid biological knowledge base.

  19. Effects of temperature and salinity on larval survival and development in the invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Caridea: Palaemonidae) along the reproductive season (United States)

    Guadalupe Vázquez, M.; Bas, Claudia C.; Kittlein, Marcelo; Spivak, Eduardo D.


    The invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus is associated mainly with brackish waters. Previous studies raised the question if tolerance to low salinities differs between larvae and adults. To answer this question, the combined effects of two temperatures (20 and 25 °C) and four salinities (5, 12, 23 and 34 psu) on survival and development of larvae that hatched at the beginning, in the midpoint and near the end of a reproductive season (denoted early, middle season and late larvae respectively) were examined. The three types of larvae were able to survive and reach juvenile phase at salinities between 12 and 34 psu and at both temperatures. At 5 psu all larvae died, but 45% molted at least once. Temperature and salinity to a lesser extent, had effects on the duration of development and on the number of larval stages in all larval types. Development was longer at the lower temperature, especially in middle season and late larvae. Most early larvae reached the juvenile phase through 5 larval stages; the number of larval stages of middle season and late larvae was higher at 20 °C and in late larvae also low salinity produced extra stages. Low salinity (12 psu) and, in early and middle season larvae, low temperature produced lighter and smaller individuals. Response of larvae to environmental factors seems to be related in part to the previous conditions (maternal effects and/or embryo development conditions). The narrower salinity tolerance of larvae compared to adults and the ability of zoea I to survive at least some days at 5 psu may be related with an export larval strategy.

  20. Immunolocalization and expression of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase in embryos, early larval stages and adults of the freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae). (United States)

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Lignot, Jehan-Hervé; Charmantier, Guy; Spivak, Eduardo; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine


    The euryhaline shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus exemplifies an evolutionary transition from brackish to freshwater habitats that requires adequate osmoregulatory capacities. Hyperosmoregulation is functional at hatching and it likely begins during the embryonic phase allowing this species to develop entirely in fresh water. Here, we investigated the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit gene (nka-α) expression using quantitative real-time PCR and localized Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in ion-transporting epithelia through immunofluorescence microscopy. We reared shrimps from spawning to juvenile stages at two salinities (1, 15 ‰) and maintained adults for 3 weeks at three salinity treatments (1, 15, 25 ‰). nka-α gene expression was measured in: (1) embryos at an early (SI), intermediate (SII) and late (SIII) stage of embryonic development; (2) newly hatched larvae (Zoea I, ZI); and (3) isolated gill tissue of adults. The nka-α expression was low in SI and SII embryos and reached maximum levels prior to hatching (SIII), which were similar to expression levels detected in the ZI. The nka-α expression in SIII and ZI was highest at 15 ‰, whereas salinity did not affect expression in earlier embryos. In SIII, in ZI and in a later zoeal stage ZIV, NKA was localized in epithelial cells of pleurae, in the inner-side epithelium of branchiostegite and in the antennal glands. Gills appeared in the ZIV but NKA immunolabeling of the cells of the gill shaft occurred in a subsequent developmental larval stage, the decapodid. Extrabranchial organs constitute the main site of osmoregulation in early ontogenetic stages of this freshwater shrimp.

  1. Aquarium hitchhikers: attached commensals imported with freshwater shrimps via the pet trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patoka, J.; Bláha, M.; Devetter, Miloslav; Rylková, K.; Čadková, Z.; Kalous, L.


    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2016), s. 457-461 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aquarium * introduction pathway * ornamental animal * Caridea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  2. The recent genera of the Caridean and Stenopodidean shrimps (class Crustacea, order Decapoda, supersection Natantia) with keys for their determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.


    CONTENTS Introduction.......... 1 Supersection Natantia ...... 2 Section Caridea....... . 7 Superfamily Oplophoroida ... 12 Family Oplophoridae .... 12 Family Nematocarcinidae . . 17 Family Atyidae ..... 18 Superfamily Stylodactyloida . . 31 Family Stylodactylidae ... 31 Superfamily Pasiphaeoida . .

  3. Additional slipper lobsters of the subfamily Scyllarinae Latreille, 1825 (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae) from Taiwan. (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam


    Five scyllarine lobsters are recorded from Taiwan for the first time. They are Bathyarctus rubens (Alcock & Anderson, 1894), Biarctus sordidus (Stimpson, 1860), Chelarctus aureus (Holthuis, 1963), Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905) and Petrarctus veliger Holthuis, 2002. The distributions of B. rubens, C. aureus and P. veliger are extended northwards to Taiwan. Distinguishing characters of these five species are illustrated and color photographs of all but B. sordidus are provided. Altogether, nine genera and 17 species of scyllarine lobsters are now known from Taiwan. 

  4. Glycolipid transfer protein: clear structure and activity, but enigmatic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.; Opacic, M.; Wechselberger, R.W.; Sprong, H.; Egmond, M.R.


    Glycosphingolipids comprize a small (typically 5–10% by weight) but vital fraction of membrane lipids in eukaryotes (Holthuis et al., 2001). They provide the plasma membrane with chemical and mechanical stabilities and take part in fundamental biological processes including differentiation,

  5. Distribution of slipper lobsters (Decapoda: Scyllaridae in Uruguayan waters

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    Fabrizio Scarabino


    Full Text Available Abstract Scyllarid lobsters are commonly found in tropical waters with scarce records from temperate zones in the southwestern Atlantic. Here, we provide new information about the distribution of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 along the Uruguayan continental shelf and include a new austral record for Scyllarus depressus (Smith, 1881.

  6. The earliest figures of the Blaauwbok, Hippotragus Leucophaeus (Pallas, 1766) and of the Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus Strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.


    INTRODUCTION A recent study of the lectotype specimen of the Blaauwbok (Husson & Holthuis, 1969) had awakened our interest in this South African Antilope, which became extinct around 1800. One of us got the chance to procure a copy of the 1727 Dutch edition of Peter Kolb's account of Cape of Good

  7. A new ostracod (Entocytheridae, Notocytherinae) on New Guinea crayfish1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, D.G.; Hart, C.W.


    In 1967 we examined the crayfish collections in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, to determine if the crayfishes collected in New Guinea in 1954 by Dr. L. B. Holthuis, Dr. L. D. Brongersma, and Dr. M. Boeseman (Boeseman, 1963) were hosts to commensal ostracods. Of the collections

  8. A key to the "X-Species" of North American fiddler crabs (genus uca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, von H.-O.


    Up to the late sixties of this century the number of species of the genus Uca occurring on the East and Gulf coasts of North America seemed rather well established. Usually ten species were listed: U. burgersi Holthuis ( = U. affinis (Streets)), U. leptodactyla Rathbun, U. minax (Le Conte), U.

  9. Descriptions of Five Species of Scyllarine Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Scyllaridae in Korea

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    Joo Il Kim


    Full Text Available Five scyllarine lobster species, belonging to the family Scyllaridae, are described from Korean waters: Chelarctus cultrifer (Ortmann, 1897, Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905, Galearctus kitanoviriosus (Harada, 1962, G. timidus (Holthuis, 1960, and Petrarctus brevicornis (Holthuis, 1946. Of these, three species, C. bicuspidatus, G. timidus, and P. brevicornis are new to Korean marine carcinological fauna. This report extends the known range of G. timidus to the southern coast of Korea from Taiwan in the East China Sea. Excluding C. bicuspidatus and G. kitanoviriosus, the other three species are relatively rare in Korean waters. They are described herein with color photographs, and a key to the Korean genera and species of Scyllarinae is also presented.

  10. 噴火湾およびその沖合におけるクロザコエビArgis larの産卵と成長


    武藤, 卓志; 前田, 辰昭; 中谷, 敏邦; 高津, 哲也; 松島, 寛治; 高橋, 豊美


    Argis lar (Decapoda, Caridea) were collected by experimental bottom trawls in Funka Bay and offshore (less than 200m depths) from May 1987 to September 1989. More than 85% of them were adult female. The seasonal changes in gonadosomatic index, the occurrence of the ovigerous female, and carapace length composition suggested that most of A. lar spawned at the age of 30 months, and spawning and hatching period were August to September and February to March, respectively. The regressions of body...

  11. New primers for amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region designed for species of Decapoda (Crustacea

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    Fernando L. Mantelatto

    Full Text Available Abstract We designed 14 new primers for amplification of the COI barcode region of decapod crustacean species. We tested, with high level of success, the generation of ~ 640 ± 49 base-pair sequences in selected groups of decapods (hermit crabs, squat lobsters, marine and freshwater crabs and shrimps, encompassing representatives of 27 genera of 15 families, 11 of Pleocyemata (Anomura, Brachyura, and Caridea and 4 of Dendrobranchiata. Based on the results we expect the applicability of these primers for several studies with different taxa within Decapoda.

  12. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

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    Z. DURIS


    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  13. Revisão taxonômica dos camarões de água doce (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae da Amazônia Peruana Taxonomic revision of the freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia

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    Carmen Rosa García-Dávila


    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies de camarões de água doce da Amazônia peruana que abrangeu oito espécies da família Palaemonidae e uma espécie da família Sergestidae. São descritas duas novas espécies do gênero Pseudopalaemon e feitos os primeiros registros de Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 para o Peru. São fornecidos chave de identificação, dados distribucionais e ilustrações para as espécies estudadas.A taxonomic revision of eight species of freshwater shrimps of the family Palaemonidae and one of the family Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia was made. Two new species of the genus Pseudopalaemon are described, and Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 are recorded from Peru for the first time. Key, distributional data and ilustrations for the species are presented

  14. Evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium inferred from mitochondrial markers: a molecular clock approach. (United States)

    Jose, Deepak; Harikrishnan, Mahadevan


    Caridea, an infraorder of shrimps coming under Pleocyemata was first reported from the oceans before 417 million years followed by their radiation recorded during the Permian period. Hitherto, about 3877 extant caridean species were accounted within which one quarter constitute freshwater species. Freshwater prawns of genus Macrobrachium (Infraorder Caridea; Family Palaemonidae), with more than 240 species are inhabitants of diverse aquatic habitats like coastal lagoons, lakes, tropical streams, ponds and rivers. Previous studies on Macrobrachium relied on the highly variable morphological characters which were insufficient for accurate diagnosis of natural species groups. Present study focuses on the utility of molecular markers (viz. COI and 16S rRNA) for resolving the evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium using a combination of phylogeny and timescale components. It is for the first time a molecular clock approach had been carried out towards genus Macrobrachium in a broad aspect with the incorporation of congeners inhabiting diverse geographical realms including endemic species M. striatum from South West coast of India. Molecular results obtained revealed the phylogenetic relationships between congeners of genus Macrobrachium at intra/inter-continental level along with the corresponding evolutionary time estimates.

  15. An improved taxonomic sampling is a necessary but not sufficient condition for resolving inter-families relationships in Caridean decapods. (United States)

    Aznar-Cormano, L; Brisset, J; Chan, T-Y; Corbari, L; Puillandre, N; Utge, J; Zbinden, M; Zuccon, D; Samadi, S


    During the past decade, a large number of multi-gene analyses aimed at resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Decapoda. However relationships among families, and even among sub-families, remain poorly defined. Most analyses used an incomplete and opportunistic sampling of species, but also an incomplete and opportunistic gene selection among those available for Decapoda. Here we test in the Caridea if improving the taxonomic coverage following the hierarchical scheme of the classification, as it is currently accepted, provides a better phylogenetic resolution for the inter-families relationships. The rich collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris are used for sampling as far as possible at least two species of two different genera for each family or subfamily. All potential markers are tested over this sampling. For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This result probably explains the taxon-heterogeneity among previously published studies. The analysis is thus restricted to the genes homogeneously amplified over the whole sampling. Thanks to the taxonomic sampling scheme the monophyly of most families is confirmed. However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly resolved. Genome-wide analyses, like transcriptome-based exon capture facilitated by the new generation sequencing methods might provide a sounder approach to resolve deep and rapid radiations like the Caridea.

  16. Kinetic Model of Growth of Arthropoda Populations (United States)

    Ershov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, M. A.


    Kinetic equations were derived for calculating the growth of crustacean populations ( Crustacea) based on the biological growth model suggested earlier using shrimp ( Caridea) populations as an example. The development cycle of successive stages for populations can be represented in the form of quasi-chemical equations. The kinetic equations that describe the development cycle of crustaceans allow quantitative prediction of the development of populations depending on conditions. In contrast to extrapolation-simulation models, in the developed kinetic model of biological growth the kinetic parameters are the experimental characteristics of population growth. Verification and parametric identification of the developed model on the basis of the experimental data showed agreement with experiment within the error of the measurement technique.

  17. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

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    Setuko Masunari


    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  18. Prevalence, geographic distribution, and fitness effects of Microphallus turgidus (trematoda: Microphallidae) in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) from coastal Georgia. (United States)

    Pung, Oscar J; Khan, Ritindra N; Vives, Stephen P; Walker, Casey B


    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis and P. vilgaris (Say), were collected at 11 localities along the coast of Georgia and surveyed for digenetic trematode metacercariae. The effect of trematode infection on grass shrimp fitness was also examined. Microphallus turgidas (Leigh) was the only trematode observed. The prevalence of metacercarial cysts of this parasite in P. pugio (75%) was higher than in P. vulgaris (24%), as were the mean intensity, abundance, and population density (no. cysts/cm host body length) of the parasite. Infected shrimp were found at every collection locality and parasite prevalence and density were greatest in P. pugio from higher salinity localities (> or = 20 parts per thousand [ppt]). There was no relation between host body size and parasite density in P. vulgaris, and parasite density increased with host body size in P. pugio, suggesting that the parasite does not affect host survival. There was no relation between parasite density and shrimp egg mass, but nonovigerous female P. pugio were more heavily infected than ovigerous ones. In addition, 1 metacercaria of M. turgidus in each of 2 specimens of P. vulgaris was parasitized by the haplosporidian Urosporidium crescens De Turk. This represents a new shrimp host record for this hyperparasite.

  19. Interference competition as a mechanism of coexistence between two sympatric species of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes (Decapoda: Palaemonidae)

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    Thorp, J.H.


    Various theories have been developed to explain the puzzling coexistence of species which have broad niche overlap in critical resource utilization. The coexistence of two sympatric species of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis and p. vulgaris (Say), whose niches overlap with respect to space, food, and time, was examined in an experimental field and laboratory study. A seasonal fluctuation between sympatric and contiguous allopatric distribution of the two species of grass shrimp on natural shell, mud, and eelgrass substrata suggests that competition may be an important factor determining distribution of Palaemonetes. Field and laboratory experiments confirm that P. vulgaris can competitively displace P. pugio from the preferred shell substratum by interference competition but the tendency of grass shrimp to separate spatially in winter by bottom-depths (as in field enclosure cages) could have allowed both species to coexist on shell. Spatial separation by bottom-depth was not so evident in spring, since P. vulgaris apparently displaced P. pugio from shell to mud substratum. Occupancy of shell substratum is shown to be adaptive in that shell provides greater protection from predators than does mud. It is suggested that the spatial partitioning resulting from this interference competition promotes coexistence by reducing agonism while permitting efficient utilization of other common resources.

  20. Late rise in hemolymph osmolality in Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous freshwater shrimp) exposed to brackish water: Early reduction in branchial Na+/K+ pump activity but stable muscle HSP70 expression. (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Maraschi, Anieli C; Lara, Alessandra F; Amado, Enelise M; Prodocimo, Viviane


    Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression. Hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations remained relatively stable and close to control levels until ~9h of exposure, but later increased consistently (~50%). A fast reduction in NKA activity (3-6h) was observed; these shrimps seem to shut off salt absorption already in the first hours. Later on, especially after 24h, hemolymph concentrations rise but HSP70 expression is not induced, possibly because constitutive levels are already sufficient to prevent protein damage. Time-dependent response mechanisms effective in high salinity brackish water, resulting in salt loading avoidance and suggestive of hyporegulation should be further investigated in decapods that evolutionary invaded freshwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alimentação de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Feeding of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Vendel


    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of food items of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830 classified by size was analysed based on monthly samples between september/1993 and september/1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. The stomach contents of a hundred eighty-two fishes were analysed by the Occunence Frequency Method and Point Count for a Lot Method. The individuais were divided in two groups, smaller and longer than 140mm, and a comparative study of digestive tract and branchial are was performed for these groups. For fishes smaller than 140mm the following sequence of items was obtained matching both methods by using the Preponderance índices: decapods (subdivided in Brachyura, Caridea and Penaeidea, polychaets, isopods, fishes, unidentified material, copepods, amphipods, molluscs and plant material. For fishes longer than or equal to 140mm the sequence was decapods, polychaets, fishes, copepods, amphipods, isopods, molluscs and plant material, in this order. These results suggest that Bairdiella ronchus at the Guaratuba Bay is a carnivorous species using mainly decapod crustaceans as food throughout the year.

  2. Dynamic patterns of zooplankton transport and migration in Catuama Inlet (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on the decapod crustacean larvae Patrones dinámicos de transporte y migración de zooplancton en el estuario Catuama (Pernambuco, Brasil, con énfasis en las larvas de crustáceos decápodos

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    Ralf Schwamborn


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify and to model zooplankton transport with emphasis on decapod crustacean larvae. Sampling was carried out at three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300-/¿m mesh. Current data were obtained with an ADCP. Our data showed the existence of vertically and horizontally heterogeneous current and transport fields. We identified 27 groups of Decapoda (larvae of Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Cari dea, Brachyura. Most of the species and larval phases showed characteristic vertical migration patterns, in phase with the diurnal tidal cycles, thus enhancing retention or export from the estuary.Esta investigación tiene como objetivo cuantificar y modelar el transporte de zooplancton, con énfasis en las larvas de Crustacea Decapoda. El muestreo se realizó a tres profundidades con una bomba de plancton acoplada a una red con malla de 300 /¿m. Se obtuvieron los datos de corrientes con un ADCP. Los datos mostraron la existencia de campos de corrientes y de transporte vertical y horizontal heterogéneos. Se identificaron 27 grupos de Decapoda (larvas de Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Caridea, Brachyura. La mayoría de las especies y fases larvales mostraron patrones de migración vertical característicos, en fase con los ciclos de la marea diurnos, favoreciendo la retención o exportación del estuario.

  3. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

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    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato


    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of decapod larvae in the subtropical waters of the Arvoredo archipelago, SC, Brazil Distribuição espacial e temporal de larvas de decápodos nas águas subtropicais do arquipélago do Arvoredo, SC, Brasil

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    Andréa G. Koettker


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the temporal and spatial distribution of the composition and abundance of Decapoda larvae in the shallow waters around Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. Stomatopod occurrence is also discussed. Plankton samples were collected at five sites around the Arvoredo Island every two months for one year from May, 2002 to April, 2003. Thirty-nine morphotypes, 11 genus and 4 species (Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, Hexapanopeus schmitii Rathbun, 1930, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888 were identified, among them only two morphotypes of Stomatopoda larvae, and the remainder Decapoda larvae. Brachyuran zoeae were the most abundant group and they were well represented by Portunidae and Xanthidae zoeae. Lucifer sp. and Caridea zoeae were the most abundant non-brachyuran taxa. Decapod larvae were observed to occur at all sampling sites, however the spatial distribution demonstrated a general tendency to greater abundance and diversity at the southern sites of the Island. Decapoda and Stomatopoda larvae occurred throughout the year, showing that reproduction is continuous, but that larval input in planktonic community was significantly higher during autumn and spring.Este trabalho tem como objetivo a descrição da distribuição temporal e espacial da composição e abundância de larvas de decápodes nas águas rasas ao redor da Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo. A ocorrência de larvas de estomatópodes também foi discutida. Foram realizadas coletas de plâncton em cinco estações ao redor da Ilha do Arvoredo, de maio de 2002 a abril de 2003 a cada dois meses. Foram identificados 39 morfotipos, 11 gêneros e 4 espécies (Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, Hexapanopeus schmitii Rathbun, 1930, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888, sendo apenas dois morfotipos da Ordem Stomatopoda e o restante da Ordem Decapoda. Zoés de Brachyura foi o grupo mais abundante

  5. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

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    Luis Rólier Lara


    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  6. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science (United States)

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning


    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  7. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms

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    Bonnivard Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs. Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They

  8. Deep-water shrimp fisheries in Latin America: a review Pesquerías de camarones de aguas profundas en América Latina: una revisión

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    Ingo S Wehrtmann


    Full Text Available Commercial fisheries are expanding their activities into deeper water. The life history features of these deep-water resources make them more vulnerable to exploitation than most shallow-water resources. Moreover, the apparent lack of solid information about the ecology of most deep-water species represents a major limitation for the development and implementation of management strategies. This scenario has caused great concern regarding the sustainability of these resources and the possible environmental impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem. In Latin America, commercial fisheries are going deep as well, and considering the above-mentioned concerns, we felt the need to compile the available information about the deep-water shrimp resources and the current status of their fisheries in Latin America. Focusing on Mexico, Central America, Peru, Chile and Brazil, this review describes the exploited species, and, whenever available, the fishing fleet, fishery statistics, and management strategies. A total of 17 species (10 spp. of Penaeoidea; 7 spp. of Caridea are of commercial interest in Latin America, but deep-water shrimps are currently fished only in Costa Rica, Colombia and Chile. An implemented management plan exists in Chile and Colombia, while Brazil approved fishery regulations for the aristeid fishery, which were never implemented. Considering the lack of information about the biology of the deep-water shrimps, which hinders the development of adequate management strategies, we see the urgent need to improve the communication and collaboration between the different stakeholders in Latin American. We suggest the establishment of a searchable and constantly updated database, which may serve as a valuable source of information for researcher and decision makers. Finally, we propose the development of regional research plans aimed towards supporting measurements for a sustainable use of deep-water shrimps in Latin America.La pesca comercial est

  9. Practicality of marine protected areas - Can there be solutions for the River Indus delta? (United States)

    Kidwai, Samina; Fanning, Paul; Ahmed, Waqar; Tabrez, Mohsin; Zhang, Jing; Khan, Muhammad Wasim


    The River Indus delta is the most prominent feature on the Pakistan coast. Owing to its prominence, mangrove ecosystem, historical, ecological and economic significance it is also a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA). Currently there are no designated MPAs in Pakistan. This paper presents findings of the Fishery Resource Appraisal Project of Pakistan (FRAPP) a fishery stock assessment carried out for the pelagic and demersal fishery resource of Pakistan from 2009 to 2015 and the Creek Survey Program (CSP) which was part of FRAPP. And discusses how the delta suffers from physical stress. The observations from FRAPP indicates deterioration in the mangrove ecosystem, that are evident in the form of loss of biodiversity and biological productivity. The 600 observations from 10 major creeks showed that trawl catches were a mix of generally small size fish and shrimp. Catches averaged less than 1 kg per tow in all the creeks sampled. Catch weights were somewhat higher in Isaro, WadiKhuddi, Paitiani, Dabbo, Richaal Creeks all of which were near mangrove areas and open sea. The most frequently occurring species of shrimps caught in the trawls belonged to 7 major taxa. The Khobar Creek and Upper Wari Creek are notable for the high rates of occurrence of every group except the Caridea. They are also the only two creeks where the freshwater family Paleomonidae is common. The size composition of the important penaeid family of shrimps in all study areas combined suggests that the smallest shrimps (0.5-1.5 cm carapace length CL) enter the creeks in February/March and adults (5-6 cm CL) move out again 6-12 months later. Four species of Penaeus (monodon, japonicus, semisulcatus, merguiensis), two species of Metapenaeus (monoceros, affinis), Parapeneoposis stylifera and Solenosera sp. were caught, all in low abundance, less than 0.5 Kg tow-1. The shrimp catches in the area off the Sindh coast, the catches averaged 4.30 ± 13.40 kg h-1 on the inner shelf (20-50 m) and 1.7 ± 6