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Sample records for holstein-friesian cattle electronic

  1. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  2. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  3. Effect of THI on milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Simone Beux

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI on the milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle from northeast part of Italy. A total of 592 individual milk samples from six dairy herds were evaluated. The milk coagulation properties traits analysed were milk rennet coagulation time and curd firmness, as well as the fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC, and the somatic cell count. The THI was determined during the periods of sample collection. The THI results showed that values of up to 75 did not significantly change the IAC values; however, when the THI values were above 75, the IAC decreased significantly. The control of THI can be used to guarantee appropriate milk coagulation properties.

  4. Genotyping of the Holstein-Friesian crossbred cattle for CD18 gene using PCR-RFLP

    A. S. Khade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cattle with the objective to find out genotype of HF crossbred cattle for Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD by using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: 50 blood samples were collected from HF crossbred cattle and subjected to PCR. The amplified PCR products were digested using Taq I restriction enzyme at 65 oC overnight. After restriction digestion, the final PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5 % agarose gel. Results: All the 50 animals under present investigation were found to be normal as the amplified PCR product upon digestion with Taq I restriction enzyme, revealed two bands of 313 bp and 54 bp for normal animals. Conclusions: In the present investigation D128G carrier frequency was found to be 0 %. However, recent reports suggest that the mutant gene has already been observed in the HF crossbred cattle population of India, which makes it necessary to screen the animals to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population.

  5. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  6. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  7. A comparison study of the inflammatory response in Holstein Friesian versus a local cattle breed (Rendena

    Joel Fernando Soares Filipe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective pressure for increased milk production brought about great difficulties in the adaptation of cows to their environment. However, not much is known about the biological mechanisms behind the relationship between genetic selection and higher risk of metabolic and infectious diseases (Oltenacu, P.A., and Broom, D.M., 2010. It is well known that during the calving period, high-yielding dairy cattle are more susceptible to common environmental stressors, affecting disease occurrence and milk production levels (Bach, A., 2011. In this study we compared innate immune response of 6 Holstein Friesian (HF and 4 Rendena (R cows reared in the same farm and under the same management conditions. Milk and blood samples were collected at dry-off (T1, 1 day after calving (T2, 7-10 days after calving (T3, and 30 days after calving (T4. Milk samples were subjected to measurement of the inflammation marker cathelicidin and assessment of different innate immune-related mediators; blood samples were used for the analysis of plasma metabolites indicators of systemic inflammation. HF cows showed a more severe systemic inflammatory response at T2 and T3 in comparison with R cows (fig.1. Concerning the milk protein abundance profile, higher levels in R cows were observed in the colostrum (T2. Moreover, at all time points HF showed higher levels of the inflammation marker cathelicidin in milk (fig.2. In addition, the expression of innate immune related genes were different in HF compared with R (fig.3. Our results suggest that HF cows develop a systemic and local mammary inflammatory response that confirms their higher susceptibility to disease compared with R cows. Our findings reveal that fundamental effector activities of innate immunity in the mammary gland could be included in the breeding programs of HF cows and suggest the spread of autochthonous cow farming in order to maintain the biodiversity, reduce the antibiotic consumption and production of

  8. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Meredith Brian K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems. This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input. Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework

  9. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the

  10. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  11. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  12. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  13. Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...

  14. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  16. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  17. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  18. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole genome association study identifies regions of the bovine genome and biological pathways involved in carcass trait performance in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Doran, Anthony G; Berry, Donagh P; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Four traits related to carcass performance have been identified as economically important in beef production: carcass weight, carcass fat, carcass conformation of progeny and cull cow carcass weight. Although Holstein-Friesian cattle are primarily utilized for milk production, they are also an important source of meat for beef production and export. Because of this, there is great interest in understanding the underlying genomic structure influencing these traits. Several genome-wide association studies have identified regions of the bovine genome associated with growth or carcass traits, however, little is known about the mechanisms or underlying biological pathways involved. This study aims to detect regions of the bovine genome associated with carcass performance traits (employing a panel of 54,001 SNPs) using measures of genetic merit (as predicted transmitting abilities) for 5,705 Irish Holstein-Friesian animals. Candidate genes and biological pathways were then identified for each trait under investigation. Following adjustment for false discovery (q-value carcass traits using a single SNP regression approach. Using a Bayesian approach, 46 QTL were associated (posterior probability > 0.5) with at least one of the four traits. In total, 557 unique bovine genes, which mapped to 426 human orthologs, were within 500kbs of QTL found associated with a trait using the Bayesian approach. Using this information, 24 significantly over-represented pathways were identified across all traits. The most significantly over-represented biological pathway was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. A large number of genomic regions putatively associated with bovine carcass traits were detected using two different statistical approaches. Notably, several significant associations were detected in close proximity to genes with a known role in animal growth such as glucagon and leptin. Several biological pathways, including PPAR signaling, were

  20. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  1. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  2. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  3. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0.01), angularity (P

  4. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Mullen Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215 that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep. Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01 were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05 were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3 gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05 with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215 was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05, progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05, culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0

  5. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  6. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  7. Short communication. Behavioural activities of two dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian vs. Jersey x Holstein-Friesian in two milk production systems (grazing vs. confinement

    A. I. Roca-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the behavioural activities of two cow genotypes, Holstein-Friesian (HF vs. Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (Jx, when managed within two production systems, a low inputs grazing (G system vs. a high inputs confinement (C system. Eighty spring calving cows (HF, n=40 and Jx, n=40, from AFBI Hillsborough (Northern Ireland experimental dairy cattle, were randomly assigned to one of two production systems (G, n=40 and C, n=40 in a block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments (HF-G, HF-C, Jx-G and Jx-C. Cow behavioural activities (feeding, lying, standing and ruminating were registered on three periods at 20-min intervals, between 16.00-22.00 h and 07.00-14.00 h. Average milk yields (kg cow-1 day-1 were higher (p<0.001 in the C system (27.0 than in the G system (20.1, with differences (p<0.001 between the two cow genotypes (HF, 25.1 vs. Jx, 22.0 kg cow-1 day-1. Milk production system showed an effect on cow behavioural activities. Animals on the G system spent more time (p<0.001 grazing (522 min than those on the C system spent feeding (173 min. Cows on the C system spent more time (p<0.001 lying (C, 411 vs. G, 212 min, standing (C, 236 vs. G, 85 min and ruminating (C, 244 vs. G, 141 min than those on the G system. There were differences between periods for time spent lying (p<0.001, feeding (p<0.05 and ruminating (p<0.001, while time spent standing did not differ between periods. Cow genotype had no effect on any of the behavioural activities.

  8. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  9. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  10. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P dystocia (calving difficulty score = 4 or 5), with sensitivity = 0.50 and specificity = 0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  12. Crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian with Ethiopian Boran cattle in a ...

    Unknown

    Friesian with Boran (unselected for milk), the epistatic interaction genes might have been lost due to the free recombination process during meiosis. Similar negative recombination effects on milk yield were reported even for crossing between two B.

  13. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  14. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  15. Fore limb bilateral polydactyly and ocular dermoid in a Holstein Friesian calf

    Spadari, A.; Spinella, G.; Venturini, A.; Gentile, A.

    2003-01-01

    A clinical case of polydactyly in fore limbs of a Holstein Friesian calf was radiographically and ultrasonographically examined and thus was surgically treated by amputation of the first right digit and of the first left digit, the latter present in a vestigial form. Furthermore, a ocular dermoid cyst was removed in the same animal [it

  16. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Teodor Bugeac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  17. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (reasons for cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  18. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  19. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  20. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  1. Development of breeding strategy based on body coloration and phenotype in Holstein Friesian crossbreds for sustainable milk production

    Md. Shahjahan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Holstein Friesian crossbreds were categorized based on white coloring in different body parts, hump status, and known generations derived from controlled breeding and recording. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of morphological features on milk production; grading of Holstein Friesian crossbreds and implement a sustainable breeding strategy based on phenotypic grading. Data of peak milk production and morphological characteristics were collected on 51 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows after primary sorting from three districts (Sirajganj, Chittagong and Mymensingh of Bangladesh. The data analyses were conducted following one-way ANOVA with descriptive statistics. The animals were graded according to the white coloring pattern (absent or present in horn, eyelid and eyelash, muzzle, hoof, tail switch, and the presence of a hump. It was observed that the presence of white color (18.86±1.01 to 22.00±1.57 liters in different body parts of Holstein Friesian crossbreds were significantly (p [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 498-504

  2. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  3. Identification and dissection of four major QTL affecting milk fat content in the German Holstein-Friesian population.

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P = 8.91×10-(198 and BTA20 (P = 7.03×10(-12 within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P = 2.00×10(-13 and BTA27 (P = 9.83×10(-5 encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P = 1.40×10(-12 and GPAT4 (P = 5.18×10(-5, respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

  4. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    Bobby

    1 ARC-Livestock Business Division, P/Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa .... Descriptive statistics of all traits were computed using the Proc Means procedure of the Statistical. Analysis System (SAS ..... of Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle. Anim.

  5. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  6. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  7. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  8. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757

  9. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015

    Doekes, Harmen P.; Veerkamp, Roel F.; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J.; Windig, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS;

  10. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  11. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  12. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning.

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-09-01

    Haematological profiles indicate the health status of an animal and can be used to identify sub-clinical stress responses. The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii) the effect of breed on immune response genes in bovine whole blood using real-time quantitative PCR. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves were group housed indoors and individually fed using an automatic feeder. They were allocated to a high, medium or low plane of nutrition, based on milk replacer (MR) and concentrate. The nutrition treatments were calculated using National Research Council guidelines in order to achieve a high, medium or low growth rate for each respective breed. During the weaning phase MR was gradually reduced over a 14-day (d) period (d -13 to d 0). Calves were blood sampled on d -14, -6, -3, 0, 1, 3, 8 and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) for subsequent haematological analysis. On d -14, 1 and 8, a subset of eight Holstein-Friesian calves randomly selected from the medium nutrition treatment and eight Jersey calves randomly selected from the high nutrition treatment, were blood sampled for gene expression profiling, targeting biomarkers of weaning stress. These two treatment groups were chosen to examine the effect of breed on expression of the genes of interest, as energy intake and animal performance were similar. There was no effect of breed×plane of nutrition interaction nor effect of plane of nutrition on any variable measured (P>0.05). Gradual weaning produced differential biological responses in the two breeds evidenced by breed×time interactions for lymphocyte, monocyte and red blood cell number, plasma haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations (Plevel of the pro-apoptotic gene, Fas, increased on d 1 relative to d -14 (Plevels were greater in Jersey calves compared with Holstein-Friesian for

  13. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  14. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  15. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  16. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  17. Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage

  18. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  19. A comparison of three strains of Holstein-Friesian cows grazed on pasture: growth, development, and puberty.

    Macdonald, K A; McNaughton, L R; Verkerk, G A; Penno, J W; Burton, L J; Berry, D P; Gore, P J S; Lancaster, J A S; Holmes, C W

    2007-08-01

    With the introduction of a protein milk payment system in New Zealand in 1988, there was an influx of North American (NA) Holstein-Friesian (HF) genetics into New Zealand (NZ) dairy herds, leading to an increase in the average percentage of NA genetics in NZ HF cows--from 2% in 1980 to 38% in 1999. Of interest has been the effect this change has had on farm profitability and on the management required for these animals, as well as the phenotypic changes that have occurred within the national herd under the breeding programs operated in NZ from 1970 to 1990. The objective of this study was to quantify differences in body dimensions, body weights, and puberty-related parameters among 3 strains of HF, representing animals of NZ origin representative of the genetics present in 1970 and 1990 and of NA origin with 1990s genetics. A total of 172 animals born in 1999 were compared. The strains were 1) NZ70, a strain of NZ Friesian (average 7% NA genetics) equivalent to high-genetic-merit (high Breeding Worth) cows farmed in the 1970s; 2) NZ90, a strain of HF of NZ origin (average 24% NA genetics) typical of the animals present in the 1990s; and 3) NA90, a strain of HF of NA origin (average of 91% NA genetics) typical of animals present in the 1990s. The differences in BW among all strains were significant at 6 and 12 mo of age. At 15 and 24 mo, the 2 NZ strains were significantly lighter than the NA90 animals. At 24 mo of age (i.e., prior to first calving), the NA90 strain animals (BW = 515 kg) were 22 and 34 kg heavier than the NZ90 and NZ70 strains. The body length of the NA90 strain was greater than either of the 2 NZ strains; the differences among the NA90 strain and the 2 NZ strains varied from 2 to 6 cm, with the differences generally being greater at older ages. The trend in heart girth difference among strains was similar to that observed for body length. The wither height of the NA90 animals was greater than that of the NZ strains by 1 to 7 cm, although there was

  20. A comparison of three strains of holstein-friesian grazed on pasture and managed under different feed allowances.

    Macdonald, K A; Verkerk, G A; Thorrold, B S; Pryce, J E; Penno, J W; McNaughton, L R; Burton, L J; Lancaster, J A S; Williamson, J H; Holmes, C W

    2008-04-01

    This experiment compared Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows of New Zealand (NZ) origin representative of genetics present in the 1970s (NZ70; n = 45) and 1990s (NZ90; n = 60), and a group of HF cows of North American origin with 1990s genetics (NA90; n = 60), which were managed in grazing systems with a range of feeding allowances (4.5 to 7.0 t/cow per yr) over 3 yr. The NZ70 cows had the lowest Breeding Worth genetic index and the lowest breeding values for yields of fat, protein, and milk volume; the NZ90 and NA90 cows were selected to have similar breeding values for milk traits and were representative of cows of high genetic merit in the 1990s. The NZ90 cows had a higher milk protein concentration (3.71%) than either the NA90 (3.43%) or the NZ70 cows (3.41%), and a higher milk fat concentration (4.86%) than the NA90 cows (4.26%) with a level similar to the NZ70 cows (4.65%). The NZ90 cows produced significantly greater yields of fat, protein, and lactose than the NA90 and NZ70 cows. The NZ70 cows had the lowest mean annual body weight (473 kg) but the highest body condition score (BCS; 5.06). Days in milk were the same for the 2 NZ strains (286 d in milk), both of which were greater than the NA90 cows (252 d in milk). There was no genotype x environment interaction for combined milk fat and protein yield (milksolids), with NZ90 producing 52 kg/cow more than the NA90 at all feeding levels. The NZ70 strain had the highest seasonal average BCS (5.06), followed by the NZ90 (4.51) and the NA90 (4.13) strains on a 1 to 10 scale. Body condition score increased with higher feeding levels in the 2 NZ strains, but not in the NA strain. The first-parity cows commenced luteal activity 11 d later than older cows (parities 2 and 3), and the NA90 cows commenced luteal activity 4 and 10 d earlier than the NZ70 and NZ90 cows. Earlier estrus activity did not result in a higher in-calf rate. The NZ70 and NZ90 cows had similar in-calf rates (pregnancy diagnosed to 6 wk; 69%), which were

  1. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine variation in overall milk, protein, and mineral composition of bovine milk in relation to rennet-induced coagulation, with the aim of elucidating the underlying causes of milk with impaired coagulation abilities. On the basis of an initial screening of 892...... of minerals (Ca, P, Mg) were identified in poorly coagulating and noncoagulating milk in comparison with milk with good coagulation properties. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a great variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, namely, αS1...... milk samples from 42 herds with Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, a subset of 102 samples was selected to represent milk with good, poor, or noncoagulating properties (i.e., samples that within each breed represented the most extremes in regard to coagulation properties). Milk with good...

  2. Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.

    Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production

  3. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  4. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  5. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  7. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  8. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  9. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015.

    Doekes, Harmen P; Veerkamp, Roel F; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J; Windig, Jack J

    2018-04-11

    In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS; around 2010). These changes are expected to have influenced genetic diversity trends. Our aim was to evaluate genome-wide and region-specific diversity in HF artificial insemination (AI) bulls in the Dutch-Flemish breeding program from 1986 to 2015. Pedigree and genotype data (~ 75.5 k) of 6280 AI-bulls were used to estimate rates of genome-wide inbreeding and kinship and corresponding effective population sizes. Region-specific inbreeding trends were evaluated using regions of homozygosity (ROH). Changes in observed allele frequencies were compared to those expected under pure drift to identify putative regions under selection. We also investigated the direction of changes in allele frequency over time. Effective population size estimates for the 1986-2015 period ranged from 69 to 102. Two major breakpoints were observed in genome-wide inbreeding and kinship trends. Around 2000, inbreeding and kinship levels temporarily dropped. From 2010 onwards, they steeply increased, with pedigree-based, ROH-based and marker-based inbreeding rates as high as 1.8, 2.1 and 2.8% per generation, respectively. Accumulation of inbreeding varied substantially across the genome. A considerable fraction of markers showed changes in allele frequency that were greater than expected under pure drift. Putative selected regions harboured many quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to a wide range of traits. In consecutive 5-year periods, allele frequencies changed more often in the same direction than in opposite directions, except when comparing the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods. Genome-wide and region-specific diversity trends reflect major changes in the Dutch-Flemish HF breeding program. Introduction of

  10. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  11. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of candidate gene polymorphisms with milk technological traits, yield, composition, and somatic cell score in Italian Holstein-Friesian sires.

    Viale, E; Tiezzi, F; Maretto, F; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2017-09-01

    Advances in DNA-based marker technology have enabled the identification of genomic regions underlying complex phenotypic traits in livestock species. The incorporation of detected quantitative trait loci into genetic evaluation provides great potential to enhance selection accuracies, hence expediting the genetic improvement of economically important traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in 53 candidate genes previously reported to have effects on milk production and quality traits in a population of highly selected Holstein-Friesian bulls. A total of 423 semen samples were used to genotype the bulls through a custom oligo pool assay. Forty-five SNP in 32 genes were found to be associated with at least 1 of the tested traits. Most significant and favorable SNP trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CCL3 and AGPAT6 genes for fat yield (0.037 and 0.033 kg/d, respectively), DGKG gene for milk yield (0.698 kg/d), PPARGC1A, CSN1S1, and AGPAT6 genes for fat percentage (0.127, 0.113, and 0.093%, respectively), GHR gene for protein (0.064%) and casein percentage (0.053%), and TLR4 gene for fat (0.090%), protein (0.066%), and casein percentage (0.050%). Somatic cell score was favorably affected by GHR (-0.095) and POU1F1 (-0.137), and interesting SNP-trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CSN2, POU1F1, and AGPAT6 genes for rennet coagulation time (-0.592, -0.558, and -0.462 min, respectively), and GHR and CSN2 genes for curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (1.264 and 1.183 mm, respectively). In addition to the influence of individual SNP, the effects of composite genotypes constructed by grouping SNP according to their individual effects on traits considered in the analysis were also examined. Favorable and significant effects on milk traits were observed for 2 composite genotypes, one including 10 SNP and the other 4 SNP. The former was associated

  13. Effect of some candidate genes on meat characteristics of three cattle breeds

    Alessio Valentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to assess if some molecular markers can help to select animals for meat characteristics, we studied 84 individuals equally representing the Marchigiana, Maremmana, and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds genotyped at 288 SNPs located within candidate genes. Several SNPs were found associated with meat quality parameters but with P which was higher than the Bonferroni threshold. However, several SNPs had a low P at different times during meat maturation, suggesting their involvement in the meat quality variation. Of particular interest for the biological role and potential for selection were: cathepsin G affecting MFI, IGF1R affecting pH and collagen XVIII affecting colour.

  14. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  15. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  16. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  17. Efeito da estrutura ovárica e da idade de bovinos da raça Holstein Friesian na quantidade e qualidade de ovócitos e de embriões produzidos in vitro

    A. Reis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho, foi o estudo dos efeitos da idade e da fase do ciclo estral dos bovinos na quantidade e qualidade de ovócitos e de embriões produzidos in vitro. Para isso, foram utilizados ovócitos de 63 vacas da raça Holstein-Friesian abatidas em matadouro, com idades compreendidas entre 1 e 15 anos, as quais foram divididas em 5 lotes de acordo com a idade. Cada lote foi subdividido de acordo com a fase do ciclo estral em que o animal se encontrava no dia do abate, pela presença ou não de corpo lúteo funcional na superfície do ovário. Os lotes referentes à idade foram: ;8 anos. Após punção dos folículos, os ovócitos foram divididos nas classes A, B, C e D, tendo em conta o seu aspecto morfológico, em que apenas os de classe A e B foram usados para a FIV. Observou-se que o número de ovócitos produzidos foi diretamente proporcional à idade das vacas (R=0,99 - P<0,001. Quanto à fase do ciclo estral, as vacas em fase luteínica, produziram maior número de ovócitos que as vacas em fase folicular (P<0,001, respetivamente 7,05 ± 0,11 e 10,87 ± 1,01. Relativamente à qualidade dos ovócitos em função da idade das vacas, observou-se uma correlação positiva (R = 0,94 p<0,01 até aos [7, 8] anos, começando a baixar a partir desta idade. As vacas em fase luteínica produziram ovócitos de melhor qualidade relativamente às vacas em fase folicular (6,77 ± 0,64 e 3,84± 0,64; respetivamente. Quanto à quantidade de zigotos que clivaram, esta foi superior para os lotes de vacas em fase luteínica em comparação com os de vacas em fase folicular (59,03% e 45,52%; respetivamente, observando-se ainda que as vacas em fase luteínica produziram igualmente, em geral, maior número de embriões aos 7 dias após FIV que as vacas em fase folicular(44,23% e 31,48%; respetivamente. Os resultados do presente trabalho permitem concluir que existe uma estreita relação entre a idade e a fase do ciclo estral das vacas e a

  18. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  19. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows.

    van Gastelen, S; Visker, M H P W; Edwards, J E; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Bovenhuis, H; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH 4 and H 2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets. Both diets consisted of 40% corn silage, 30% grass silage, and 30% concentrates (DM basis). Apparent digestibility, lactation performance, N and energy balance, and CH 4 emission were measured in climate respiration chambers, and rumen fluid samples were collected using the oral stomach tube technique. No linseed oil by DGAT1 interactions were observed for digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, CH 4 and H 2 emissions, and rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, and with a higher milk fat and protein content, and proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat compared with the DGAT1 AA genotype, whereas the fat- and protein-corrected milk yield was unaffected by DGAT1. Also, DGAT1 did not affect nutrient digestibility, CH 4 or H 2 emission, ruminal fermentation or ruminal archaeal and bacterial concentrations. Rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was also unaffected in terms of the whole community, whereas at the genus level the relative abundances of some bacterial genera were found to be affected by DGAT1. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower metabolizability (i.e., ratio of metabolizable to gross energy intake), and with a tendency for a lower milk N efficiency compared

  20. Radiography of syndactylous limbs of cattle

    Taura, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uchino, T.

    1985-01-01

    Fore and hind limbs of 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian cattle ♀ (No.I) and those of 1-month-old Holstein-Friesian×Japanese Black cattle ♀ (No.II) suffering from syndactyly were dissected by means of radiographic examinations. The details were reported as follows. 1. The phalanges of both fore and left hind limbs of No.II cattle were completely fused. But, all the phalanges of left fore limb and proximal phalanges of right fore limb in No.I and the distal phalanges of right hind limb in No.II were normal, the others being of partial synostosis. 2. The distal parforating canal was absent in the metacarpus and the right metatarsus in No.II cattle. Also, in No.II on the distal part of the metacarpal or metatarsal, bone vestiges were noted, not only of the fifth and second metacarpus or metatarsus, but also the mutually jointed phalanges. 3. In No.I cattle, the left fore limb and 4 proximal sesamoid bones and 2 distal sesamoid bones, but the right limb had 4 sesamoid bones and 0 distal one. In No.II cattle, the fore limbs had 2 proximal and 0 distal sesamoid bones, left hind limb had 3 proximal and 0 distal ones, right hind limb had 3 proximal and 1 distal ones. 4. The arteries accommodated the syndactylous deformities. The median and radial arteries were fixed to be descended on to the palmar side of the metacarpus and mutually anastomosed to form a deep palmar arch. arising from the deep palmar arch, two branches (palmar proper digital aa. III and IV) were terminated by the lateral and medial palmar surfaces of the digit, where some anastomosing arches were formed by them. The arteries of the hind limbs were also similar to those of the fore limbs. 5. In radiographic examinations of syndactyly (in No.II) after 7-month feeding, hoof and digital bones were noted to have been developed, but distal phalanges were destructed and left in suspicion of bad prognosis

  1. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  2. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  3. Longitudinal changes in telomere length and associated genetic parameters in dairy cattle analysed using random regression models.

    Luise A Seeker

    Full Text Available Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1 characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2 estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3 investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan. RLTL measurements were analysed using Legendre polynomials in a random regression model to describe TL profiles and genetic variance over age. The analyses were based on 1,328 repeated RLTL measurements of 308 female Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. A quadratic Legendre polynomial was fitted to the fixed effect of age in months and to the random effect of the animal identity. Changes in RLTL, heritability and within-trait genetic correlation along the age trajectory were calculated and illustrated. At a population level, the relationship between RLTL and age was described by a positive quadratic function. Individuals varied significantly regarding the direction and amount of RLTL change over life. The heritability of RLTL ranged from 0.36 to 0.47 (SE = 0.05-0.08 and remained statistically unchanged over time. The genetic correlation of RLTL at birth with measurements later in life decreased with the time interval between samplings from near unity to 0.69, indicating that TL later in life might be regulated by different genes than TL early in life. Even though animals differed in their RLTL profiles significantly, those differences were not correlated with productive lifespan (p = 0.954.

  4. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    Patel, Sangeeta; Wei, Shanghai; Han, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  5. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    Patel, Sangeeta, E-mail: spt658@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Wei, Shanghai [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Han, Jie [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-11-15

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  6. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  7. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  8. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  9. Activities of some stress enzymes as indicators of slaughter cattle welfare and their relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of beef.

    Chulayo, A-Y; Muchenje, V

    2017-09-01

    The study determined the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in transported cattle as indicators of welfare and how they relate to beef quality. A total of 219 (n=219) (85 Beefmaster, 48 Charolaise, 32 Holstein-Friesian and 54 nondescript) cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were used in the study. Disposable vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) were used to collect 4 ml of blood samples to determine the activities of CK and LDH. The measurements of pHu and colour coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were carried out at 48 h after slaughter on the representative samples of muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL). Longer distance travelled by cattle had a significant effect (P3000 to 5000) and those that travelled for 1263 km had lower CK activities (1000). The activities of LDH were observed in cattle that travelled for 366 and 1012 km (7000) and for those that travelled for 877 and 922 km (6000). Results of the principal component analysis showed that the first three principal components (PCs) explained about 53% of the total variability. The first PC was correlated with meat quality attributes (pHu, Tm, a* and b* values). The activities of CK and LDH were related and useful to define the second PC. However, CK and LDH were not related to beef quality. Therefore, CK and LDH can be used as indicators of welfare in slaughter cattle but cannot be used to predict the quality of meat.

  10. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  11. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.

    Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

    2014-09-01

    Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research.

  12. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  13. Análise das relações da curva de crescimento e eficiência produtiva de vacas da raça Holandesa Analysis of the relationships of growth curve and productive efficiency of Holstein-Friesian cows

    Janaína Galvão Coelho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi analisar as relações entre parâmetros da curva de crescimento (peso à maturidade e taxa de maturação e medidas da eficiência produtiva de 333 vacas da raça Holandesa nascidas de 1992 a 2002. Dados de idade ao primeiro parto, produção de leite e duração da primeira lactação, primeiro intervalo de partos e produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos foram analisados por meio de um modelo linear generalizado com o efeito fixo de grupo contemporâneo (ano-estação de nascimento, os efeitos aleatórios de pai da vaca e erro e os efeitos lineares e quadráticos do peso à maturidade e da taxa de maturação. Nas análises de longevidade e de duração da vida útil, incluiu-se o efeito fixo de motivo de descarte da vaca. Houve efeitos linear e quadrático da taxa de maturação sobre a maioria das características, exceto o primeiro intervalo de partos e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos. As estimativas das taxas de maturação ótimas variaram de 0,0896 a 0,1187 kg/kg de peso vivo/mês. O peso à maturidade influenciou a longevidade de forma linear e quadrática. A combinação ótima foi de 701 kg de peso à maturidade e 0,0934 kg/kg de peso vivo/mês de taxa de maturação. O peso à maturidade correlacionou-se de forma desfavorável com a duração da primeira lactação (-0,11. Coeficientes de correlação significativos foram obtidos entre taxa de maturação e idade ao primeiro parto (-0,22, produção de leite na primeira lactação (0,18, duração da primeira lactação (0,18 e longevidade (0,14, o que confirma a hipótese de que vacas com taxas de maturação mais rápidas apresentam maior eficiência produtiva.The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between previously estimated individual growth curve parameters (mature weight and maturing rate and measures of productive efficiency of 333 Holstein-Friesian cows, born from 1992 to 2002. Data on age

  14. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  15. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4 Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle.

    Bertram Brenig

    Full Text Available Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4 gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA and 289 White Galloway (WGA cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed.

  16. Evaluation of an Electrochemical Point-of-Care Meter for Measuring Glucose Concentration in Blood from Periparturient Dairy Cattle.

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Townsend, J R; Messick, J B; Constable, P D

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Xtra(®) meter is a promising low cost electrochemical point-of-care unit for measuring blood glucose concentration ([gluc]) in cattle blood. The meter uses an algorithm that assumes the intra-erythrocyte [gluc] equals the plasma [gluc] on a molal basis, and that the hematocrit is similar in humans and cattle. The primary objective was to determine the accuracy of the meter for measuring plasma [gluc] in dairy cattle. Secondary objectives were to characterize the influence of hematocrit and sample temperature on the measured value for [gluc]. A total of 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cattle. Blood and plasma samples (1,109) were obtained and Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against the reference method (plasma hexokinase assay). Multivariable regression and linear regression were used to determine the effect of hematocrit and sample temperature on the plasma [gluc] measured by the meter. Intra-erythrocyte [gluc] was 18% of plasma [gluc] on a molar basis. Sample temperature had a significant linear effect on plasma [gluc] as measured by the meter for 3/5 plasma samples when measured [gluc] > 160 mg/dL. The meter utilizes an algorithm that is optimized for human blood and is inaccurate when applied to bovine blood. Until a cattle-specific algorithm is developed, we recommend using plasma as the analyte instead of blood and calculating plasma [gluc] using the equation: [gluc] = 0.66 × [gluc]p-meter + 15, where [gluc]p-meter is the value reported by the meter. If blood is measured, then we recommend using the equation: [gluc] = 0.90 × [gluc]b-meter + 15. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

    2008-10-01

    Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease.

  18. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  19. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.

    Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Harrison, Sabine M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-02-12

    The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by pelvic suspension (PS). HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef, whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef. HF steer beef had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas bull beef had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. In comparison to AS, PS increased redness and chroma after 24 h blooming; PS improved tenderness up to 7 days of ageing and accelerated the ageing process. For young dairy cattle, steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Alkaline phosphatase in nasal secretion of cattle: biochemical and molecular characterisation.

    Ghazali, M Faizal; Koh-Tan, H H Caline; McLaughlin, Mark; Montague, Paul; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Eckersall, P David

    2014-09-05

    Nasal secretion (NS) was investigated as a source of information regarding the mucosal and systemic immune status of cattle challenged by respiratory disease. A method for the collection of substantial volumes (~12 ml) of NS from cattle was developed to establish a reference range of analytes that are present in the NS of healthy cattle. Biochemical profiles of NS from a group of 38 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows revealed high alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of up to 2392 IU/L. The character and source of the high activity of AP in bovine NS was investigated. Histochemical analysis confirmed the localization of the AP enzyme activity to epithelial cells and serous glands of the nasal respiratory mucosa. Analysis of mRNA levels from nasal mucosa by end point RT-PCR and PCR product sequencing confirmed that the AP was locally produced and is identical at the nucleotide level to the non-specific AP splice variant found in bovine liver, bone and kidney. Analysis by isoelectric focussing confirmed that AP was produced locally at a high level in nasal epithelium demonstrating that AP from nasal secretion and nasal mucosa had similar pI bands, though differing from those of the liver, kidney, bone and intestine, suggesting different post-translational modification (PTM) of AP in these tissues. A nasal isozyme of AP has been identified that is present at a high activity in NS, resulting from local production and showing distinctive PTM and may be active in NS as an anti-endotoxin mediator.

  2. Heterogeneity of variance and its implications on dairy cattle breeding

    Milk yield data (n = 12307) from 116 Holstein-Friesian herds were grouped into three production environments based on mean and standard deviation of herd 305-day milk yield and evaluated for within herd variation using univariate animal model procedures. Variance components were estimated by derivative free REML ...

  3. The effect of calving season and age at calving on production traits ...

    Unknown

    This was done following several trials involving analysis of variance and ... are taken before and after peak yield for a non-persistent cow, the mean yield in ..... Productive performance of Holstein-Friesian cattle in North West Frontier Province.

  4. Cellular thermotolerance is independent of HSF 1 expression in zebu and crossbred non-lactating cattle

    Gill, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, J. S.; Sunil Kumar, B. V.; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kashyap, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress is an important domain of research in livestock due to its negative impact on production and disease resistance. The augmentation of stress in the body stimulates the antioxidative activity comprising various enzymes (viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase), metabolites (reduced glutathione, etc.), vitamins, minerals, etc. to combat the situation. The major key players involved in regulation of heat shock response in eukaryotes are the transcription factors, called as heat shock factors (HSF). They activate the heat shock protein (HSP) genes by binding to their promoters. Lymphocytes are considered to be the best model to evaluate the immunity in any living body as it contains plethora of white blood cells (WBCs).In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from non-lactating Sahiwal vis-à-vis crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle with 75% or more exotic inheritance were subjected to heat shock at 39, 41, and 43 °C in three different incubators, in vitro. The cell count and viability test of pre and post heat stress of concerned PBMCs indicated that the crossbreeds are more prone to heat stress as compared to Sahiwal. The reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression data revealed an increment in HSF1 expression at 41 °C which subsequently declined (non-significantly) at 43 °C in both breeds post 1 h heat shock. However, the association between the HSF 1 expression and antioxidative activity through correlation analysis was found to be non-significant ( P < 0.05), though enzymatic activity appeared to behave in a similar fashion in both breeds at 5% level of significance ( P < 0.05). This rule out the role of HSF1 expression level on the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress in vitro in zebu and crossbred cattle.

  5. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Demographics of cattle positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by faecal culture, from submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The demography of bovine infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Ireland is poorly defined. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of cattle positive to MAP on faecal culture, based on submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory (Cork RVL) from 1994 to 2006. The study focused on all available faecal samples from adult cattle with non-responsive chronic diarrhoea that were submitted by private veterinary practitioners to Cork RVL for MAP culture. For each MAP-positive by faecal culture animal, data were collated from Cork RVL and Cattle Movement Monitoring Scheme (CMMS) records. Johne's disease (JD) was confirmed in 110 animals from 86 herds by the Cork RVL between 1994 and 2006, with a rate of positive cases between 15% and 18% over last four years of the study. Two breeds (Holstein/Friesian or Limousin) made up 78% of submissions. Movements were assessed for the 57 study animals with available movement information, 90% died within one year of the test and 26% tested positive in the herd they were born into. The study provides preliminary information about movement trends and demographics of animals with MAP positive submissions. Although the study area is restricted, it includes the most intensive (and economically-important) dairy region in Ireland. The demographics of JD infection from the study area are in agreement with international reports. Further work is required to determine demographic trends, incidence and prevalence of JD throughout Ireland. It is hoped this work may contribute to the development of a surveillance strategy for MAP by regional veterinary laboratories. PMID:21851736

  7. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  8. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  9. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  10. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

    Russell Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1 are associated with clinical mastitis (CM. Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility.

  11. Genomic prediction for tuberculosis resistance in dairy cattle.

    Smaragda Tsairidou

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the UK and the limitations of the currently available diagnostic and control methods require the development of complementary approaches to assist in the sustainable control of the disease. One potential approach is the identification of animals that are genetically more resistant to bTB, to enable breeding of animals with enhanced resistance. This paper focuses on prediction of resistance to bTB. We explore estimation of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGVs for bTB resistance in UK dairy cattle, using dense SNP chip data, and test these genomic predictions for situations when disease phenotypes are not available on selection candidates.We estimated DGVs using genomic best linear unbiased prediction methodology, and assessed their predictive accuracies with a cross validation procedure and receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves. Furthermore, these results were compared with theoretical expectations for prediction accuracy and area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC. The dataset comprised 1151 Holstein-Friesian cows (bTB cases or controls. All individuals (592 cases and 559 controls were genotyped for 727,252 loci (Illumina Bead Chip. The estimated observed heritability of bTB resistance was 0.23±0.06 (0.34 on the liability scale and five-fold cross validation, replicated six times, provided a prediction accuracy of 0.33 (95% C.I.: 0.26, 0.40. ROC curves, and the resulting AUC, gave a probability of 0.58, averaged across six replicates, of correctly classifying cows as diseased or as healthy based on SNP chip genotype alone using these data.These results provide a first step in the investigation of the potential feasibility of genomic selection for bTB resistance using SNP data. Specifically, they demonstrate that genomic selection is possible, even in populations with no pedigree data and on animals lacking bTB phenotypes. However, a larger training population will be required to

  12. Molecular characterization of a long range haplotype affecting protein yield and mastitis susceptibility in Norwegian Red cattle

    Hayes Ben J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous fine mapping studies in Norwegian Red cattle (NRC in the region 86-90.4 Mb on Bos taurus chromosome 6 (BTA6 has revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL for protein yield (PY around 88 Mb and a QTL for clinical mastitis (CM around 90 Mb. The close proximity of these QTLs may partly explain the unfavorable genetic correlation between these two traits in NRC. A long range haplotype covering this region was introduced into the NRC population through the importation of a Holstein-Friesian bull (1606 Frasse from Sweden in the 1970s. It has been suggested that this haplotype has a favorable effect on milk protein content but an unfavorable effect on mastitis susceptibility. Selective breeding for milk production traits is likely to have increased the frequency of this haplotype in the NRC population. Results Association mapping for PY and CM in NRC was performed using genotypes from 556 SNPs throughout the region 86-97 Mb on BTA6 and daughter-yield-deviations (DYDs from 2601 bulls made available from the Norwegian dairy herd recording system. Highest test scores for PY were found for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and surrounding the genes CSN2 and CSN1S2, coding for the β-casein and αS2-casein proteins. High coverage re-sequencing by high throughput sequencing technology enabled molecular characterization of a long range haplotype from 1606 Frasse encompassing these two genes. Haplotype analysis of a large number of descendants from this bull indicated that the haplotype was not markedly disrupted by recombination in this region. The haplotype was associated with both increased milk protein content and increased susceptibility to mastitis, which might explain parts of the observed genetic correlation between PY and CM in NRC. Plausible causal polymorphisms affecting PY were detected in the promoter region and in the 5'-flanking UTR of CSN1S2. These polymorphisms could affect transcription or translation of

  13. Health disorders and their association with production and functional traits in Holstein Friesian cows

    Francesca Cesarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression models were used for studying the relationships between milk yield, body condition score (BCS,  somatic cell score and some disorders of periparturient cows (mammary edema and retained placenta with the occur-  rence of ovarian cysts, clinical mastitis and lameness. Data from milk recording (milk yield and somatic cell content col-  lected at nearly monthly intervals (time period: 35 ± 3 d were merged with BCS recorded on the same dates of milk  recording on periparturient heifers, lactating and dry cows, and with health disorders data (retained placenta, severe  mammary edema, ovarian cysts and clinical mastitis and lameness collected during regular herd activities over nearly  3.5 years. Data were from one commercial herd consisting of over 200 lactating dairy cows and exhibiting an average  305-d milk yield of nearly 10,000 kg. A total of 5,315 records from 728 lactations and 429 cows were used in the analy-  ses. The time period incidence rate was 11.9%, 6.6% and 4.6% for ovarian cysts, lameness and mastitis, respectively,  and the lactational incidence rate was 44.1%, 33.4% and 28.1% for ovarian cysts, lameness and mastitis, respectively.  Occurrence of both ovarian cysts and mastitis was more common in the early lactation than afterwards, whereas lame-  ness tended to occurr erratically during lactation. The risk of occurrence of mastitis and lameness was lower in primi-  parous when compared to multiparous cows. The increase of milk yield increased the risk of occurrence of ovarian cysts  (odds ratio: 1.32, P   between milk yield and lameness. An increase of somatic cell score was found to be a risk factor for mastitis (odds ratio:  1.36, P  ders was not related to BCS at calving, and monthly variation of BCS was related to the onset of mastitis only. Retained  placenta did not appear to present a risk factor for the occurrence of diseases of concern, whereas the presence of severe  mammary edema at calving increased the risk of mastitis occurrence by nearly 50%. Regular recording of herd health  data seems advisable for a better understanding of the relationships between production and functional traits and the  occurrence of health disorders. 

  14. Lactation curves of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows in Zimbabwe ...

    ,05) by die Holstein-Fries nie. Die gebruik van maandelikse of weeklikse melkproduksie totale om gemiddelde daaglikse produksie te bereken, het hoogs betekenisvolle effekte (P<0,01) op die laktasiekurwe parameters van die Jersey gehad.

  15. CLINICAL EFFICIENCY OF APITHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF UDDER WOUNDS IN HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COWS

    Benjamin Čengić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey, pollen and propolis have been used since the ancient times in the treatment of infected wounds. These substances express antimicrobial activity even against microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics and antiseptics. The goal of the research is to answer the question of whether these substances could help in healing of the udder wounds under the real field conditions. Substances subject to research were mixed in a remedy, which was applied directly into the udder wounds once daily.The wounds were treated with “Apimelem” during May and June, 2012. “Apimelem” applied into the udder wounds gave good results in elimination of infection, prevention of reinfection and faster tissue healing. Prepared “Apimelem” proved efficient, nontoxic and financially affordable, this is especially important for poor or natural disaster- affected areas.Key words: infected wound, “Apimelem”, antimicrobic activity, udder, cow

  16. Genetic Aspects of Growth of Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows from Birth to Maturity

    Coffey, M.P.; Hickey, J.M.; Brotherstone, S.

    2006-01-01

    In general, genetic selection is applied after first calving to traits that manifest themselves during the animal¿s productive life, mostly during the early part of productive life. This selection policy has had undesirable correlated responses in other economically important traits, such as health

  17. The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.

    Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control

  18. Prevalence and characterisation of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from beef cattle fed with prebiotics

    Grispoldi, Luca; Bertero, Filippo; Franceschini, Serena; Mastrosimone, Francesco; Sechi, Paola; Iulietto, Maria Francesca; Ceccarelli, Margherita; Cenci-Goga, Beniamino Terzo

    2017-01-01

    Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli. At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs) were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 69 E. coli strains were detected, 29 (42.03%) from treated animals and 40 (57.97%) from the control group. The isolates were analysed by PCR for the presence of the stx-1, stx-2, hly and eae genes and by the Kirby Bauer test for susceptibility to the most commonly used antimicrobials in cattle breeding. Hierarchical clustering of the isolates was done using Ward’s method. Thirty samples were positive for the stx-1 gene, 18 for stx- 2, 12 for both stx-1 and stx-2, 8 for hly, and 10 for eae. 4.3% were resistant to sulfamides, 8.6% to tetracycline, 1.4% to gentamicin, 94.6% to cephalothin, 2.8% to chloramphenicol, 13% to ampicillin, 13% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 7.2% to sulphonamides, 4.3% to ceftriaxone, 5.7% to nalidixic acid, 34.7% to ticarcillin, 88.5% to erythromycin, and 5.7% to streptomycin. The isolates from the samples taken from day 210 to day 300 were grouped into a single cluster. Bacteriological examinations showed a reduction in the concentration of E. coli in the feces of the treated animals compared to the control group. The presence of strains with shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence profiles and the reduction of these in the treated animal group demonstrated that diet can play an important role in reducing E. coli prevalence in cattle. PMID:29564239

  19. Is reticular temperature a useful indicator of heat stress in dairy cattle?

    Ammer, S; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reticular temperature (RT) in dairy cattle is a useful indicator of heat stress considering the effects of milk yield and water intake (WI). In total, 28 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows raised on 3 farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied from March to December 2013. During the study, RT and barn climate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity) were measured continuously and individual milk yield was recorded daily. Both the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) and the daily median RT per cow were calculated. Additionally, the individual WI (amount and frequency) of 10 cows during 100d of the study was recorded on 1 farm. Averaged over all farms, daily THI ranged between 35.4 and 78.9 with a mean (±standard deviation) of 60.2 (±8.7). Dairy cows were on average (±standard deviation) 110.9d in milk (±79.3) with a mean (±standard deviation) milk yield of 35.2kg/d (±9.1). The RT was affected by THI, milk yield, days in milk, and WI. Up to a THI threshold of 65, RT remained constant at 39.2°C. Above this threshold, RT increased to 39.3°C and further to 39.4°C when THI ≥70. The correlation between THI ≥70 and RT was 0.22, whereas the coefficient ranged between r=-0.08 to +0.06 when THI cows yielded ≥30kg/d and THI ≥70 (39.5°C) compared with milk yields <30kg and THI <70 (39.3°C). The WI, which averaged (±standard deviation) 11.5 l (±5.7) per drinking bout, caused a mean decrease in RT of 3.2°C and was affected by the amount of WI (r=0.60). After WI, it took up to 2h until RT reached the initial level before drinking. In conclusion, RT increased when the THI threshold of 65 was exceeded. A further increase was noted when THI ≥70. Nevertheless, the effects of WI and milk yield have to be considered carefully when RT is used to detect hyperthermia in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND THEIR INTERACTION IN CROSSBRED CATTLE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN DISTRICT BANNU

    M. Suhban Qureshi, Asmatullah Khan1, Khuda Bakhsh Mirbaharland M. Oris Samol

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in district Bannu located in the southern dry piedmont mountains of the NWF Province of Pakistan. Records of 300 crossbred cows, produced through use of Holstein Friesian semen in native, non-discript cows, were studies. Data on various productive and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The average age at puberty was 752 ±10.9 days, ranging from 420 to 1620 days and was positively correlated with mounting (r = 0. 14 and negatively with estrus duration, vaginal mucus and calving interval (r = -0.14, -0.13, -0.15, respectively; P<0.05. The average inter-estrus interval was 20.0 ± 9.07 days, ranging from 15 to 24 days. Estrus duration was 34.0 ± 0.85 hours, ranging from 17 to 72 hours and was positively correlated with vaginal mucus (r = 0.12 and services per conception (r = 0.14 and negative with bellowing (r = 0. 11, P< 0.05 number of services per conception in the crossbred cows averaged 1.6+0.1 ranging from 1 to 12 and was correlated positively, with daily milk yield and negatively with lactation length and vaginal mucus (r = 0.32. -0.31, -0.27 respectively, P< 0.01. calving interval was 612 ± 4.56 days, ranging from 360 to 900 days and was negatively correlated with age at puberty, daily milk yield and use of oxytocin (r = -0.15. -0.67, -0.62, respectively, P < 0.0. The average lactation length of the cows was 503 ± 6.36 days, ranging from 30 to 1441 days. The mean daily milk yield was 10.1 ± 0.14 Kg ranging from 1.0 to18.0 Kg. The standard deviation (SD for average daily milk yield was 2.36 Kg. Number of animals 1 SD above mean was 28.0% and those 2 SD above mean was 17.0%. Number of animals 1 SD below mean was 51.4% and those 2 SD below mean was 3.6%. The wide variation makes a good base for productivity enhancement through selective breeding. It may be concluded that productive and reproductive performance is satisfactory in crossbred cattle under field conditions showing their adaptability to the local

  1. Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle.

    Shehab-El-Deen, Mohamed Ahmed M M; Fadel, Moustafa S; Van Soom, Ann; Saleh, Sherif Y; Maes, Dominiek; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2010-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the circadian rhythm of blood metabolic parameters associated with summer heat stress (HS) in dairy cows. Ten healthy lactating Holstein Friesian cows were followed during HS for three successive days at six different time points. Blood was sampled from each cow starting from 07:00 AM: ; at 4-h intervals. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity were recorded, and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC) and urea were measured in each blood sample. The THI values were >68 at all times of the day, and the highest values were recorded at 11:00 AM: , 03:00 PM: and 07:00 PM: (80.9, 83.7, and 80.8, respectively). All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT coinciding with higher THI values (93 +/- 4 and 39.6 +/- 0.1; 90.2 +/- 3.4, and 40.1 +/- 0.1; 87.6 +/- 4.1, and 39.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, P < 0.05). The concentrations of glucose were the lowest at 11:00 AM: and 03:00 PM: (3.75 +/- 0.1 and 3.44 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Decreased glucose concentrations coincided with increased NEFA concentrations, (0.43 +/- 0.01 and 0.56 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05), and were highly negatively correlated (r = -0.50, P < 0.001). The highest urea and TC concentrations were registered at 11:00 AM: (6.11 +/- 0.15 mmol/L and 109.9 +/- 2.2 mg/dl, respectively) whereas the lowest urea and TC values were recorded at 03:00 AM: (4.97 +/- 0.18 mmol/L and 99.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, respectively, P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that there was a circadian variation in glucose, NEFA, urea, and TC resulting in the most unfavorable metabolic condition during the hottest moment of the day in dairy cattle. Earlier work revealed that HS-metabolic changes are reflected in the follicular fluid. The

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from cattle and buffaloes in Egypt using traditional culture, serological and molecular based methods

    G. S. Abdellrazeq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Johne's disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP represents a real threat to the agriculture and dairy food industries and believed to be a potential public health problem. Signs of infection in ruminant include weight loss, diarrhea, decreased milk production, and eventually death. The definition of an infected animal based either on the presence of anti-MAP antibodies, or positive bacterial culture. No treatment for the disease exists and controlling the disease is difficult due to its long latent period. JD is a worldwide problem and multiple studies in many countries have been carried out to determine the prevalence of MAP infections. Although some primary non intensive studies confirm presence of JD in Egypt, the disease is currently neglected by the official Egyptian veterinary agencies. There is no official data, no national control program, and no used vaccine. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate three conventional diagnostic methods for MAP under the Egyptian circumstances with a general aim to determine the appropriate strategy to develop a JD control program. These methods were pooled fecal culture, humoral response and insertion sequence IS900 targets polymerase chain reaction (IS900 PCR. Materials and Methods: Fecal and serum samples (500 each were collected from Holstein-Friesian cattle and buffaloes housed in five Egyptian governorates. Fecal samples were examined for MAP on the basis of a strategic pooling procedure and performed on Herrold's Egg Yolk Agar Medium (HEYM. Smears were prepared from developed colonies and stained using a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN technique. The identity of developed colonies was further confirmed by PCR analysis of IS900 sequence. Sera from both culture-positive and culture-negative animals were evaluated individually for humoral response. Results: Out of 50 pooled specimens, 34 (68% fecal cultures were positive for MAP. Serum positive samples of culture

  3. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

    Magee David A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1 genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results TLR4-2021 associated (P SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P Conclusion Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  4. Variation in blood serum proteins and association with somatic cell count in dairy cattle from multi-breed herds.

    Bobbo, T; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Gallo, L; Ruegg, P L; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-12-01

    Blood serum proteins are significant indicators of animal health. Nevertheless, several factors should be considered to appropriately interpret their concentrations in blood. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of herd productivity, breed, age and stage of lactation on serum proteins and (2) to investigate association between serum proteins and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cattle. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1508 cows of six different breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Simmental, Rendena and Alpine Grey) that were housed in 41 multi-breed herds. Milk samples were analyzed for composition and SCC, while blood samples were analyzed for serum proteins (i.e. total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-to-globulin ratio (A : G)). Herds were classified as low or high production, according to the cow's average daily milk energy yield adjusted for breed, days in milk (DIM) and parity. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model that included the fixed effects of DIM, parity, SCS, breed, herd productivity and the random effect of the Herd-test date within productivity level. Cows in high producing herds (characterized also by greater use of concentrates in the diet) had greater serum albumin concentrations. Breed differences were reported for all traits, highlighting a possible genetic mechanism. The specialized breed Jersey and the two dual-purpose local breeds (Alpine Grey and Rendena) had the lowest globulin concentration and greatest A : G. Changes in serum proteins were observed through lactation. Total protein reached the highest concentration during the 4th month of lactation. Blood albumin increased with DIM following a quadratic pattern, while globulin decreased linearly. As a consequence, A : G increased linearly during lactation. Older cows had greater total protein and globulin concentrations, while albumin concentration seemed to be not particularly affected by age. A linear relationship

  5. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-09-01

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  6. Fertility parameters of dairy cows with cystic ovarian disease after treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Valks, M.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Fertility data were collected every four weeks for 10 years from 40 herds of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The data collected during 925 lactations from cows with cystic ovarian disease which were treated with 500 μg gonadorelin were compared with data from a control group of 13,869 normal

  7. CATTLE FEEDER BEHAVIOR AND FEEDER CATTLE PLACEMENTS

    Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    1994-01-01

    Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profit is negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different expectations than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This study examines feeder cattle placement determinants, comparing performance of expec...

  8. Influence of temperature-humidity index on the preference of primiparous Holstein Friesians for different kinds of cubicle flooring

    P. Centoducati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High producing dairy cows need to optimize their lying time. Disturbed rest may affect milk production by reducing the secretion of growth hormone (Munksgaard et al., 1993 and reduced lying time is related to hoof health and lameness. In cubicle housing, the type of flooring in the stall may affect time spent lying down.

  9. Selection for milk coagulation properties predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Italian Holstein-Friesian breed.

    Chessa, S; Bulgari, O; Rizzi, R; Calamari, L; Bani, P; Biffani, S; Caroli, A M

    2014-07-01

    Milk coagulation is based on a series of physicochemical changes at the casein micelle level, resulting in formation of a gel. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are relevant for cheese quality and yield, important factors for the dairy industry. They are also evaluated in herd bulk milk to reward or penalize producers of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. The economic importance of improving MCP justifies the need to account for this trait in the selection process. A pilot study was carried out to determine the feasibility of including MCP in the selection schemes of the Italian Holstein. The MCP were predicted in 1,055 individual milk samples collected in 16 herds (66 ± 24 cows per herd) located in Brescia province (northeastern Italy) by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The coefficient of determination of prediction models indicated moderate predictions for milk rennet coagulation time (RCT=0.65) and curd firmness (a₃₀=0.68), and poor predictions for curd-firming time (k₂₀=0.49), whereas the range error ratio (8.9, 6.9, and 9.5 for RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀, respectively) indicated good practical utility of the predictive models for all parameters. Milk proteins were genotyped and casein haplotypes (αS₁-, β-, αS₂-, and κ-casein) were reconstructed. Data from 51 half-sib families (19.9 ± 16.4 daughters per sire) were analyzed by an animal model to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of predicted RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀; (2) the breeding values for these predicted clotting variables; and (3) the effect of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes on predicted MCP (pMCP). This is the first study to estimate both genetic parameters and breeding values of pMCP, together with the effects of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes, that also considered k₂₀, probably the most important parameter for the dairy industry (because it indicates the time for the beginning of curd-cutting). Heritability of predicted RCT (0.26) and k₂₀ (0.31) were close to the average heritability described in literature, whereas the heritability of a₃₀ was higher (0.52 vs. 0.27). The effects of milk proteins were statistically significant and similar to those obtained on measured MCP. In particular, haplotypes including uncommon variants showed positive (B-I-A-B) or negative (B-A(1)-A-E) effects. Based on these findings, FTIR spectroscopy-pMCP is proposed as a potential selection criterion for the Italian Holstein. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.

  11. Impact of early castration and health status on the performance of Holstein-Friesian and beef crossbred calves

    Wielgosz-Groth Zofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article presents the analysis of the correlation between the category and health status of calves and the results of their rearing and levels of selected blood parameters.

  12. Effects of Feeding Acidified Milk Replacer on the Growth, Health and Behavioural Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves

    YANAR, Mete; GÜLER, Olcay; BAYRAM, Bahri; METİN, Jale

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) or sweet (regular) milk replacer (SMR) at 8% of birth weight. Twenty-one calves (10 males, 11 females) were offered replacers reconstituted to 12% of dry matter over 5 weeks. In the group fed AMR, daily body weight gains of calves at the different stages of growth were comparable to those for calves fed SMR. In the preweaning period, calves offered AMR had similar dry matter intakes from st...

  13. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    McParland, S; Banos, G; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E; Coffey, M P; O'Neill, B; O'Donovan, M; Wall, E; Berry, D P

    2012-12-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk and maintenance (maintenance was predicted using body weight). Body energy content was calculated from (change in) body weight and body condition score. Following editing, 2,992 morning, 2,742 midday, and 2,989 evening milk MIR records from 564 lactations on 337 Scottish cows, managed in a confinement system on 1 of 2 diets, were available. An additional 844 morning and 820 evening milk spectral records from 338 lactations on 244 Irish cows offered a predominantly grazed grass diet were also available. Equations were developed to predict body energy status using the milk spectral data and milk yield as predictor variables. Several different approaches were used to test the robustness of the equations calibrated in one data set and validated in another. The analyses clearly showed that the variation in the validation data set must be represented in the calibration data set. The accuracy (i.e., square root of the coefficient of multiple determinations) of predicting, from MIR, direct energy balance, body energy content, and energy intake was 0.47 to 0.69, 0.51 to 0.56, and 0.76 to 0.80, respectively. This highlights the ability of milk MIR to predict body energy balance, energy content, and energy intake with reasonable accuracy. Very high accuracy, however, was not expected, given the likely random errors in the calculation of these energy status traits using field data. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    McParland, S.; Banos, G.; McCarthy, B.; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O'Neill, B.; O'Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  15. Expectations of Cattle Feeding Investors in Feeder Cattle Placements

    Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profits are negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different information than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This paper examines feeder cattle placement determinants and compares performance of ex...

  16. Infecção natural pelo Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Bovino (BRSV no Estado de Alagoas Spontaneous BRSV infection in cattle of the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de infecção pelo vírus sincicial respiratório bovino (BRSV em bezerros descendentes de animais das raças pardo-suíça e holandesa importados da Alemanha, Áustria, Suíça e Uruguai, na qual morreram em Alagoas, Brasil, pelo menos 220 cabeças, de 1995 até a presente data. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por hipertermia, tosse seca, mais tarde dispnéia acentuada e por vezes lacrimejamento; à auscultação havia estertores secos, depois úmidos, com sibilos, muitas vezes audíveis à distância. O exame histológico revelou pneumonia intersticial com formação de células sinciciais, infiltração predominantemente linfocitária com presença de eosinófilos e de corpúsculos de Russel, proliferação de pneumócitos tipo II e leve metaplasia escamosa. Células epiteliais de bronquíolos e células sinciciais marcaram-se positivamente com o anticorpo anti-BRSV. A ocorrência da enfermidade no Sul e agora no Nordeste do Brasil indica a necessidade de se promover um amplo levantamento epidemiológico para se avaliar o grau de perdas e a proporção de animais infectados no país. Lembramos que parte dos animais importados, ao que tudo indica, já estavam infectados nos países de origem, quando desembarcaram em Belém, Pará.Cases of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV infection affecting calves in the State of Alagoas, Brazil, are described. At least 220 calves, which were the progeny of Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian cattle imported from Germany, Austria, and Uruguay, have died from the disease since 1995. Clinical signs included fever, dry cough, serous ocular discharge and, towards the final stages, marked dyspnea. On auscultation there were loud and harsh breathing sounds, and a strong wheezing could be heard from a distance. Histopathology of the lung revealed interstitial pneumonia associated with syncytial cells and infiltration by lymphocytes and eosinophils. A few plasma cells containing

  17. Breeds of cattle

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  18. The Agersoe cattle

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  19. COMPARISON ON ACCURACY OF LOGISTIC, GOMPERTZ AND VON BERTALANFFY MODELS IN PREDICTING GROWTH OF NEW BORN CALF UNTIL FIRST MATING OF HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN HEIFERS

    L. Budimulyati S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The body weight records of 1221 heifers were used in this study collected from PT Taurus DairyFarm Sukabumi from year 2001 until 2011. The records that could be used for analysis were 373 out of1221 heifers, having completed data from birth to first mating period. Three different models i.e,Logistic, Gompertz, and von Bertalanffy were performed to analyze the growth rate of heifers. Theresults showed that the three models had different accuracy and heavily depend on age, environment andduration of recording. The body weights of sexual maturity and on certain ages were affected by theduration of recording. The Gompertz model was performed as the simpliest model in form ofcalculation. On the other hand, the Logistic was more difficult to calculate. All models indicated highaccuracy with the determination coefficient (R2 more than 90%. Based on the comparison, theGompertz and Logistic model are recommended for predicting the growth rate of heifers from birth tosexual maturity.

  20. Genetic and nongenetic variation in concentration of selenium, calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Sprong, R.C.; Meer, van der R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Minerals found in milk, such as Se, Ca, K, Zn, Mg, and P, contribute to several vital physiological processes. The aim of this study was to quantify the genetic variation in levels of Se, Ca, K, Zn, Mg, and P in milk and to quantify the between-herd variation in the levels of these minerals in milk.

  1. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study conclude that number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index are good indicators of semen quality, but peripheral blood testosterone concentrations may not have a direct relationship with various seminal attributes in crossbred bulls.

  2. Investigation of hormone profiles in dairy cattle with a view to controlling fertility and increasing reproductive efficiency

    Kovacevic, R.; Krsmanovic, L.; Maric, D.; Perkucin, R.; Veselinovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 677 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from one big commercial farm in Voivodina. The accuracy of the application of serum progesterone RIA for the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy was 98% (and 97% for milk progesterone samples). The figures were 49% and 60%, respectively, for positive diagnosis. The high percentage of false positive results was probably due to a high incidence of disturbances in the oestrous cycle and problems of heat detection. Investigation of progesterone profiles in post-partum dairy cows showed that the duration of post-partum anoestrous was strongly influenced by the level of nutrition. Treatment with GnRH suggested that two injections of GnRH given 15 d and 23 d post-partum could induce the onset of the first ovulation. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Genomic prediction by single-step genomic BLUP using cow reference population in Holstein crossbred cattle in India

    Nayee, Nilesh Kumar; Su, Guosheng; Gajjar, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection in a Holst......Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection...... in a Holstein Friesian crossbred population with cows kept under small holder conditions using test day records and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). Milk yield records from 10,797 daughters sired by 258 bulls were used Of these 2194 daughters and 109 sires were genotyped with customized genotyping chip...

  4. Reducing milking frequency during nutrient restriction has no effect on the hepatic transcriptome of lactating dairy cattle.

    Grala, T M; Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Bionaz, M; Walker, C G; Rius, A G; Snell, R G; Roche, J R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if a reduced milking frequency altered the effect of dietary energy restriction on the hepatic transcriptome of grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n = 120) were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 days in milk (mean ± SD). Cows were then allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of two milking frequencies [2× or once daily (1×)] and two feeding levels for 3 wk: adequately fed (AF) or underfed (UF, 60% of AF). Liver tissue was biopsied from 12 cows per treatment after 3 wk of treatment, and the hepatic transcriptome was profiled with an Agilent 4 × 44k bovine microarray. Over 2,900 genes were differentially expressed in response to the energy restriction; however, no effects resulted from changes to milking frequency. This may indicate that after 3 wk of 1× milking, any changes to the liver transcriptome that may have occurred earlier have returned to normal. After 3 wk of energy restriction, gene expression patterns indicate that glucose-sparing pathways were activated, and gluconeogenesis was increased in UF cows. Genes involved in hepatic stress were upregulated in response to the energy restriction indicative of the pressure energy restriction places on liver function. Other pathways upregulated included "cytoskeletal remodeling," indicating that a 3 wk energy restriction resulted in molecular changes to assist tissue remodeling. Overall, 1× milking does not modify the hepatic transcriptome changes that occur in response to an energy restriction.

  5. indigenous cattle breeds

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  6. Comportamento de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus The drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

    Paula Hocayen de Paula

    2002-08-01

    consisted of a phase in summer, with a longer photoperiod, and in winter, with a shorter photoperiod. Twelve weekly experimental repetitions, of 24 hours duration, were carried out in each of these seasons. For each repetition, eight non-lactating, 7/8 Holstein-Friesian x Zebu cows, naturally infested with B. microplus and maintained on pastures, were removed to an experimental area on the day in which the observations were to be made and maintained in individual stalls. At each hour, over 24 hours, all fully engorged ticks that had dropped off naturally from the cattle were collected from the stalls. The results showed a significant difference in the rhythm of their drop-off in the summer compared to winter. In the summer the greater proportion of ticks dropped off between 07 and 10 (35.3% with a maximum at 09. In winter, there were two daily periods of greater drop-off of ticks, the first between 06 and 09 (19.69% with a maximum at 06, and the second between 14 and 17 (21.79% with a maximum at 15. The percentage of ticks dropping off during the traditional milking time (05-08 and 13-16 would have been 35.15%, while those falling during an alternative sytem under consideration for Central Brazil (08-11 and 16-19 would be 45.48%, during the summer. During the winter, the proportion of ticks falling from the cattle is 40.51% and 32.71% for the two times of milking, respectively. Considering the time that the animals remain in stalls for feed supplement during the period between milkings during the dry season (May to September, the proportion of ticks falling would be 55.83% for the traditional system (05-16 and 52.36% for the milking period under consideration (08-19.

  7. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  8. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  10. Lameness in feedlot cattle.

    Stokka, G L; Lechtenberg, K; Edwards, T; MacGregor, S; Voss, K; Griffin, D; Grotelueschen, D M; Smith, R A; Perino, L J

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the various causes of lameness in feedlot cattle, with an emphasis on clinical signs, treatment, and prevention. Specific conditions are discussed, including interdigital necrobacillosis, laminitis, feedlot injuries, and feedlot lameness associated with Mycoplasma bovis. Immune management of the foot is also reviewed.

  11. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  12. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. TARGETED ANALYSIS OF JAK-STAT-SOCS GENES IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Arun Sondur Jayappa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway genes along with suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS family genes play a crucial role in controlling cytokine signals in the mammary gland and thus mammary gland development. Mammary gene expression studies showed differential expression patterns for all the JAK-STAT pathway genes. Gene expression studies using qRT-PCR revealed differential expression of SOCS2, SOCS4 and SOCS5 genes across the lactation cycle in dairy cows. Using genotypes from 1,546 Australian Holstein- Friesian bulls, a statistical model based on SNPs within 500kb of JAK-STAT pathway genes, and SOCS genes alone was carried out. The analysis suggested that these genes and pathways make a significant contribution to the Australian milk production traits. Selection of 24 SNPs close to SOCS1, SOCS3, SOCS5, SOCS7 and CISH genes were significantly associated with, Australian Profit Ranking (APR, Australian Selection Index (ASI and protein yield (PY. This study supports the view that there may be some merit in choosing SNPs around functionally relevant genes for the selection and genetic improvement schemes for dairy production traits.

  14. Effect of physiological status on endogenous excretion of purine derivatives in cattle

    Balcells, J.; Vicente, F.; Orellana-Boero, P.; Martin-Orue, S.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the endogenous urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD: allantoin and uric acid) in normally fed animals in different physiological states. Animals fitted with a simple rumen cannula and a T-shaped duodenal cannula were used in three separate experiments. In Experiment I, three heifers (about 8 months old; 225 ± 4.4 kg) fed a cereal based diet were used. In Experiment 11, two Friesian dry cows (about 24 months old; 696 ± 21 kg) fed at maintenance level on chopped barley straw and barley grain (50:50). In Experiment 3, three multiparous crossbreed Holstein-Friesian cows (560 ± 10 kg, average milk yield 25 ± 3.2 kg/d) in their third lactation were used. The cows were fed a mixed diet (48:52; roughage:concentrate). 15 N ammonium phosphate was infused continuously into the rumen to label microbial purine bases (PB). Duodenal flow of digesta and PB was determined using a dual marker system. After 72-80 h purine enrichment had reached plateau values in body pools and in urine. Daily endogenous PD excretion (μmol/W 0.75 ) obtained in dry cows (310 ± 31.0) were not significantly different from that obtained in growing steers (236 ± 6.0) but were consistently higher (512.4 ± 36.4) in lactating cows. (author)

  15. Trainability of eliminative behaviour in dairy heifers using a secondary reinforcer

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2009-01-01

    Soiled bedding influences cleanliness and disease levels in dairy cows and there is no evidence of an inherent latrine behaviour in cattle. If cows were trained to use a concrete area of the housing system as a latrine, a cleaner bed could be maintained. Thirteen group-housed, 14-16-month......-old Holstein-Friesian heifers, were clicker trained with heifer-rearing concentrate pellets as a reward. Training was carried out in four phases. (Phase 1) Association of feed reward with clicker, criterion: 34/40 correct responses. (Phase 2) Simple task (nose-butting a disc) to reinforce phase 1 association...

  16. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  17. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  18. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    T. Matsui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  19. Balkan brachicerous cattle - the first domesticated cattle in Europe.

    Hristov, Peter; Sirakova, Daniela; Mitkov, Ivan; Spassov, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial diversity among Balkan Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle and present day Shorthorn Rhodopean cattle (Busha) to throw a new insight into European cattle domestication. The results showed that both ancient- and present-day samples belonged to the macrohaplogroup T. From the 28 sequences (8 ancient and 20 modern), the T1 and T2 haplogroup represent about 3.6% (1/28; 1/28). The T3 haplogroup was with the highest frequency - 57% (16/28). Based on the SNPs on 16057A and 16133C, the new T6 haplogroup was proposed. This haplogroup represents 75% from the ancient and 20% from the present day Bulgarian brachicerous cattle population. The survey in GenBank data base did not find a similar motif, except for the recent Serbian Busha cattle. Overall, these results showed that: (i) The newly named T6 haplogroup is Balkan specific; (ii) The T6 haplogroup survives in present day Bulgarian rhodopean cattle; (iii) The Balkan brachicerous cattle is the oldest European cattle breed.

  20. Improvement of indigenous cattle to modern Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle

    Oikawa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Wagyu cattle have been improved from indigenous cattle raised in Japan since the country was opened 100 years ago. Characteristics of the breed were formed during that period. Here, the process of the breeding is described, and recent topics about breeding studies are discussed.

  1. Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) capacity in cattle serum.

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Kamogawa, Erisa; Kimura, Anna; Kitahara, Go; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Oowada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) activity in cattle and human sera was evaluated with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Scavenging rates against six active species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen were quantified. The difference in the electron spin resonance signal intensity in the presence and absence of the serum was converted into the scavenging rates. Comparative MULTIS measurements were made in sera from eight beef cattle, three fetal calves and fifteen healthy human volunteers. Further, we determined the MULTIS value of albumin, the most abundant component in serum. MULTIS values in cattle sera indicated higher scavenging activity against most free radical species tested than human sera. In particular, cattle serum scavenging activities against superoxide and methyl radical were higher than human serum by 2.6 and 3.7 fold, respectively. In cattle serum, albumin appears to play a dominant role in MULTIS activity, but in human serum that is not the case. Previous data indicated that the abundance of uric acid in bovine blood is nearly 80% less than humans; however, this difference does not explain the deviation in MULTIS profile.

  2. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  3. GPS/GIS technology in range cattle management

    Animal dominated landscapes are dynamic and not fully understood. Electronics were first employed in the mid-1970’s to monitor free-ranging cattle behavior and its impact on forage utilization. By the mid-90’s satellite positioning systems were being used to monitor wildlife and had all but remove...

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  5. Phenotypic effects of subclinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in dairy cattle.

    Pritchard, Tracey C; Coffey, Mike P; Bond, Karen S; Hutchings, Mike R; Wall, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The effect of subclinical paratuberculosis (or Johne's disease) risk status on performance, health, and fertility was studied in 58,096 UK Holstein-Friesian cows with 156,837 lactations across lactations 1 to 3. Low-, medium-, and high-risk group categories were allocated to cows determined by a minimum of 4 ELISA milk tests taken at any time during their lactating life. Lactation curves of daily milk, protein, and fat yields and protein and fat percentage, together with log e -transformed somatic cell count, were estimated using a random regression model to quantify differences between risk groups. The effect of subclinical paratuberculosis risk groups on fertility, lactation-average somatic cell count, and mastitis were analyzed using linear regression fitting risk group as a fixed effect. Milk yield losses associated with high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows in lactations 1, 2, and 3 for mean daily yield were 0.34, 1.05, and 1.61kg; likewise, accumulated 305-d yields were 103, 316, and 485kg, respectively. The total loss was 904kg over the first 3 lactations. Protein and fat yield losses associated with high-risk cows were significant, but primarily a feature of decreasing milk yield. Similar trends were observed for both test-day and lactation-average somatic cell count measures with higher somatic cell counts from medium- and high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows, and differences were in almost all cases significant. Likewise, mastitis incidence was significantly higher in high-risk cows compared with low-risk cows in lactations 2 and 3. Whereas the few significant differences between risk groups among fertility traits were inconsistent with no clear trend. These results are expected to be conservative, as some animals that were considered negative may become positive after the timeframe of this study, particularly if the animal was tested when relatively young. However, the magnitude of milk yield losses together with higher somatic cell counts and

  6. Analytical and statistical consideration on the use of the ISAG-ICAR-SNP bovine panel for parentage control, using the Illumina BeadChip technology: example on the German Holstein population.

    Schütz, Ekkehard; Brenig, Bertram

    2015-02-05

    Parentage control is moving from short tandem repeats- to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) systems. For SNP-based parentage control in cattle, the ISAG-ICAR Committee proposes a set of 100/200 SNPs but quality criteria are lacking. Regarding German Holstein-Friesian cattle with only a limited number of evaluated individuals, the exclusion probability is not well-defined. We propose a statistical procedure for excluding single SNPs from parentage control, based on case-by-case evaluation of the GenCall score, to minimize parentage exclusion, based on miscalled genotypes. Exclusion power of the ISAG-ICAR SNPs used for the German Holstein-Friesian population was adjusted based on the results of more than 25,000 individuals. Experimental data were derived from routine genomic selection analyses of the German Holstein-Friesian population using the Illumina BovineSNP50 v2 BeadChip (20,000 individuals) or the EuroG10K variant (7000 individuals). Averages and standard deviations of GenCall scores for the 200 SNPs of the ISAG-ICAR recommended panel were calculated and used to calculate the downward Z-value. Based on minor allelic frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian population, one minus exclusion probability was equal to 1.4×10⁻¹⁰ and 7.2×10⁻²⁶, with one and two parents, respectively. Two monomorphic SNPs from the 100-SNP ISAG-ICAR core-panel did not contribute. Simulation of 10,000 parentage control combinations, using the GenCall score data from both BeadChips, showed that with a Z-value greater than 3.66 only about 2.5% parentages were excluded, based on the ISAG-ICAR recommendations (core-panel: ≥ 90 SNPs for one, ≥ 85 SNPs for two parents). When applied to real data from 1750 single parentage assessments, the optimal threshold was determined to be Z = 5.0, with only 34 censored cases and reduction to four (0.2%) doubtful parentages. About 70 parentage exclusions due to weak genotype calls were avoided, whereas true exclusions (n = 34) were

  7. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  8. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  9. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    Idris, O.F.; Barri, M.E.; Ahmed, M.; El-Khedir, O.; Elbasheir, H.A.; Elsadig, A.A.; Abdel Mageed, T.O.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author)

  11. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    Idris, O F; Barri, M E; Ahmed, M; El-Khedir, O; Elbasheir, H A; Elsadig, A A; Abdel Mageed, T O [Veterinary Research Administration, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author) 6 refs, 6 tabs

  12. Electronics

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  14. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  15. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices.

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  17. The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production

    Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to estimate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual

  18. Utilización de progestágenos y prostaglandinas en la sincronización de celos e inseminación artificial en vaconas Holstein Friesian y su eficiencia en la fertilidad

    Andramuño Rodríguez, Manolo Vinicio; Manzano Cadena, Manuel Antonio; Rivadeneira Loja, Juan Carlos; Rivadeneira Rivadeneira, Mónica Soledad; Urresta Rivadeneira, Jemily

    2008-01-01

    La sincronización del estro o celo es una de las herramientas con que se cuenta en la actualidad para modificar el ciclo estral y establecer un control en la reproducción, al situar a un grupo determinado de hembras en una misma etapa de su ciclo. Al reducir el costo que representa la detección de celos e inseminar a muchos animales al mismo tiempo, el beneficio económico que esto involucra es muy importante y la sincronización del celo se ha desarrollado con el objetivo de reunir la conce...

  19. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows

    Gastelen, van S.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Edwards, J.E.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Smidt, H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal

  20. Comparative study of biogas from cattle dung and mixture of cattle ...

    This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...

  1. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals...

  3. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...

  4. Effect of milk replacer and concentrate intake on growth rate, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of pre-weaned bull calves of two dairy breeds.

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Johnston, D; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-09-01

    Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events. Calves were weighed weekly and plasma samples were collected via jugular venipuncture on weeks 1, 4 and 7 relative to the start of the trial period. The calves offered a high plane of nutrition had the greatest growth rate. However, the increased consumption of milk replacer led to a reduction in feed efficiency. Holstein-Friesian calves offered a low plane of nutrition had the greatest number of daily unrewarded visits to the feeder (Pcalves on a low plane of nutrition (Pcalves increased before weaning, concomitant with an increase in concentrate consumption. Urea concentrations were unaffected by plane of nutrition within either breed. Jersey calves on a low plane of nutrition tended to have lower triglycerides than those on a high plane (P=0.08), but greater than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Holstein-Friesian calves offered a high plane of nutrition tended to have greater triglyceride concentrations than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Triglycerides increased from the start to the end of the feeding period (Pfeeding behaviour and metabolic response comparable with a high plane of nutrition in pre-weaned bull calves of both F and J breeds.

  5. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  6. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.

  7. Seizure disorders in 43 cattle.

    D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Bertone, I; Cagnotti, G; Iulini, B; Miniscalco, B; Casalone, C; Gianella, P; Cagnasso, A

    2015-01-01

    Large animals have a relatively high seizure threshold, and in most cases seizures are acquired. No published case series have described this syndrome in cattle. To describe clinical findings and outcomes in cattle referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Turin (Italy) because of seizures. Client-owned cattle with documented evidence of seizures. Medical records of cattle with episodes of seizures reported between January 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Evidence of seizures was identified based on the evaluation of seizure episodes by the referring veterinarian or 1 of the authors. Animals were recruited if physical and neurologic examinations were performed and if diagnostic laboratory test results were available. Forty-three of 49 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 8 months. Thirty-one animals were male and 12 were female. Piedmontese breed accounted for 39/43 (91%) animals. Seizures were etiologically classified as reactive in 30 patients (70%) and secondary or structural in 13 (30%). Thirty-six animals survived, 2 died naturally, and 5 were euthanized for reasons of animal welfare. The definitive cause of reactive seizures was diagnosed as hypomagnesemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 12), and hypomagnesemia-hypocalcemia (n = 16). The cause of structural seizures was diagnosed as cerebrocortical necrosis (n = 8), inflammatory diseases (n = 4), and lead (Pb) intoxication (n = 1). The study results indicate that seizures largely are reported in beef cattle and that the cause can be identified and successfully treated in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Determinants of Cattle Feeding Profit and Cost of Gain Variability

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.

  9. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  10. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  11. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  12. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  13. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  14. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  15. The qualitative variation of Katingan cattle

    Bambang Ngaji Utomo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization is main activities in order to identify important trait of Katingan cattle. Information of its phenotypic characteristic is not available yet. The aim of the study is to describe the qualitative characteristic of Katingan cattle. Three location of the study were sub-district of Tewah Sanggalang Garing (Pendahara Village, sub-district of Pulau Malan (Buntut Bali Village, and sub-district of Katingan Tengah (Tumbang Lahang Village. The samples of Katingan cattle were taken as many as possible based on the field conditions to observe pattern of colour, growth of horn and gibbosity appear among two horns. General characteristic of Katingan cattle was various in colours of coat, having horns, humped and dewlop. The main characteristics were expressed at female of Katingan cattle. There were six variations of horn shape at female, however the growth of arching forwards was dominant (78.4%. Horn shape of male was generally grown upside (98.3%. Gibbosity was founded among horn only at female cattle (92.6%. There were 9 combinations of coat colour of female Katingan Cattle, those were brown reddish (27%, brown whitish (14.1%, brown like colour of Bali cattle (13.8%, black (12.5%, brown dull (9.6%, brown sorrel (9.3%, blackish (7.1%, white brownish (5.5% and white grayish (4.5%. Male of Katingan cattle had eight colour combinations, those were brown whitish (14.8%, brown whitish and reddish (14.8%, brown reddish (13.1%, blackish (12.3%, brown whiteish with black withers (10.7%, brown sorrel (9.8% and brown sorrel with black withers (7.8%. Based on qualitative analysis, the Katingan cattle had variations in coat of colour, growth of horn and the gibbosity. The variation of coat colour had potentially selection related to the value of cultural.

  16. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows: (1...

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  18. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  19. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from a...

  20. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  1. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  2. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    selected andfifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocatethe cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo andafter a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded to the treatment...... group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were randomly......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...

  3. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  4. Thermal balance of Nellore cattle

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change ( P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable ( P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.

  5. Establishment and biological characteristics of Piedmontese cattle ...

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... 1Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. ... Piedmontese cattle were obtained from the Institute of Animal ..... organotypical brain slice model. ... Mitosis enhances.

  6. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  7. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Giaretta,Paula R.; Panziera,Welden; Galiza,Glauco J.A.; Brum,Juliana S.; Bianchi,Ronaldo M.; Hammerschmitt,Márcia E.; Bazzi,Talissa; Barros,Claudio S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3%) presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacri...

  8. Nutrition cattle for a given farm

    PRŮŠA, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The nutrition of dairy cattle in relation to milk production forms an integral part of bigger businesses with livestock farming. This Bachelor thesis introduces a division of dairy cattle to categories according to the milk production and the number of days during the dry period at the same time. Furthermore, the nutrients needed for the milk production are mentioned. For individual nutrients, there are the standards of individual fodder and needs of the dairy cows in relation to their weight...

  9. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  10. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  11. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  12. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  13. The epidemiology of cattle abortion in Algeria.

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2018-02-01

    In Algeria, the epidemiology of cattle abortions is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the prevalence of abortion in 75 Algerian cattle herds and correlate its possible association with brucellosis positivity and some managerial risk factors. The cattle abortion herd prevalence was 41.33% [95% CI 30.16-52.5%]. As for brucellosis, the serological evidence of brucellosis exposure was observed in 9 out of 75 herds accounting for 12% [95% CI 4.65-19.35] herd seroprevalence. The risk factor analysis using the univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression did confirm that brucellosis positivity (OR = 5.19), mixed herd (OR = 2.5), contact with other herd (OR = 2.91), presence of dog in the herd (OR = 2.89), imported cattle (OR = 1.91), and farmers with less than 2 years' experience (OR = 2.69) as risk factors for abortion in Algerian cattle herds. Targeting these factors using a comprehensive control measure is needed to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with abortion in dairy cattle.

  14. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  15. Relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes for practical assesment of selenium status in dairy cows

    Danius, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study the relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes was conducted for practical assesment of selenium status in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows. The blood used in the experiment was stored in refrigerator for 7 and 10 days. Radioselenium with a specific activity at about 0.84 mCi/m was used. A high negative correlatin (r = -0.86 and r = -0.98) was found between red blood cell GSH-Px activity and red blood cell uptake of 75-Se. Results indicated that red blood cell uptake of 75-Se can be used for determination of Se status in dairy cattle, although some factors which might affect red blood cell uptake of 75-Se should be calculated first. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs

  16. Seven-legged calf: Dipygus with an extra foreleg at the pelvic region

    Hiraga, T.; Abe, M.; Iwasa, K.; Takehana, K.; Tetsuka, M.

    1989-01-01

    A male Holstein-Friesian calf with seven legs was examined macroscopically and radiographically. External features included two normal forelimbs, two normal hindlimbs (lateral hindlimbs), and two abnormal hindlimbs (medial hindlimbs) which were underdeveloped. Also, a rudimentary forelimb, which was attached to the pelvic region, was observed between both the medial hindlimbs. It consisted of an underdeveloped humerus, a duplicated ulna, several carpal bones, a partially duplicated metacarpal bone and three digits with three hoofs. This leg was connected with two sets of coxae by a irregular-shaped bone considered the vestigial vertebrae and ribs. Two penises and scrotums, three kidneys and testes were also observed. This calf is the first case of dipygus associated with pygopagus parasiticus in cattle. Based on these findings, the pathogenesis of this rare anomaly was briefly discussed from an embryological point of view

  17. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  18. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...... of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2...

  20. Cattle dipping practices in the Philippines and the degradation of coumaphos in a simulated cattle dip

    Calumpang, S.M.F.; Medina, M.J.B.; Tejada, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)

  1. Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.

    Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

    2013-03-01

    The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.

  2. Milk fatty acid profile is modulated by DGAT1 and SCD1 genotypes in dairy cattle on pasture and strategic supplementation.

    Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Dezamour, J M; Subiabre, I; Kerr, B; Morales, R; Ungerfeld, E M

    2016-05-09

    Milk fat composition is important to consumer health. During the last decade, some fatty acids (FA) have received attention because of their functional and beneficial effects on human health. The milk FA profile is affected by both diet and genetics. Differences in milk fat composition are based on biochemical pathways, and candidate genes have been proposed to explain FA profile variation. Here, the association between DGAT1 K232A, SCD1 A293V, and LEPR T945M markers with milk fat composition in southern Chile was evaluated. We selected five herds of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Frisón Negro, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado cows (pasture-grazed) that received strategic supplementation with concentrates and conserved forages. We genotyped the SNPs and calculated allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Milk fat composition was determined for individual milk samples over a year, and associations between genotypes and milk composition were studied. The most frequent variants for DGAT1, SCD1, and LEPR polymorphisms were GC/GC, C, and C, respectively. The DGAT1 GC/GC allele was associated with lower milk fat and protein content, lower saturated fatty acid levels, and higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 FA, and a linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA ratios, which implied a healthier FA profile. The SCD1 CC genotype was associated with a low cholesterolemic FA content, a high ratio of linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA, and lower conjugated-linolenic acid and PUFA content. These results suggest the possible modulation of milk fat profiles, using specific genotypes, to improve the nutritional quality of dairy products.

  3. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  4. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  6. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    Unknown

    Keywords: beef cattle, breeding, genetics, heritability, reproduction .... nature of the female reproductive traits or to the large influence of unidentified environmental effects on ..... Factors affecting some performance traits in Friesian cattle.

  8. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    behaviour on Cattle Egret numbers and distribution. Cattle Egrets ... Egret activity was classified as stationary, flying, foraging, or vigilant, while large mammal activity was .... ivLev v.s. 1961. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes.

  9. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  10. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  11. Neurohistologic and ultrastructural lesions in cattle experimentally intoxicated with the plant Prosopis juliflora.

    Tabosa, I M; Riet-Correa, F; Barros, S S; Summers, B A; Simões, S V D; Medeiros, R M T; Nobre, V M T

    2006-09-01

    Intoxication by pods of Prosopis juliflora (mesquite beans) causes an impairment of cranial nerve function in cattle and goats. In goats, vacuolation of neurons in the trigeminal motor nuclei has been reported. To study the lesions in cattle caused by consumption of P. juliflora pods and dry ground pods, eight 6- to 12-month-old male cattle were divided into 4 groups: group 1 was fed a ration containing 50% of pods; groups 2 and 3 received a ration containing 50 and 75% of dry ground pods, respectively; group 4 was the control. After 200 days, all cattle were killed and sampled for histologic evaluation. Samples of the trigeminal motor nucleus were examined by electron microscopy. All cattle from groups 1, 2, and 3 showed clinical signs resulting from impaired function of cranial nerves V, IX, X, and XII, starting 45-75 days after consumption of the plant. The main histologic lesions were vacuolation and loss of neurons in trigeminal motor nuclei and other motor cranial nerve nuclei with Wallerian-like degeneration in the cranial nerves. Mild denervation atrophy was observed in the masseter and other masticatory muscles. On electron microscopy, neurons of the trigeminal nuclei had markedly swollen mitochondria, with the mitochondrial cristae displaced peripherally, disoriented and disintegrating. Intoxication by P. juliflora seems to have a novel pathogenesis, characterized by a selective, primary, chronic, and progressive injury to mitochondria of neurons of the trigeminal and other cranial nerve nuclei. Cranial nerve degeneration and denervation atrophy of the muscles occurs as a consequence of the neuronal lesion.

  12. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  13. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in accordance...

  14. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico or...

  15. Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter

    To more fully characterize the burden of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), PLN (n=5,450) were collected from healthy cattle at slaughter in 12 commercial abattoirs that slaughtered feedlot-fattened (FF) cattle exclusively (n=7), cattle removed (or culled) from breeding herd...

  16. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  17. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  18. Experimental nitrogen dioxide poisoning in cattle

    Cutlip, R C

    1966-01-01

    Experimental nitrogen dioxide inhalation has been reported to produce signs and lesions typical of field cases of bovine pulmonary adenomatosis (BPA) as described by Monlux et al, and Seaton. Similar lesions have been produced in mice and guinea pigs. These studies were conducted because of the similarities between silo-filler's disease of man, caused by nitrogen dioxide, and BPA. Since previous studies involved inadequate numbers of cattle, a more critical evaluation of the effects of nitrogen dioxide was needed. This project was designed to study the clinical and pathologic alterations induced in cattle by repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas.

  19. Bali Cattle Carcass Characteristic of Different Butt Shape Condition

    Hafid, H.; Nuraini; Inderawati; Kurniawan, W.

    2018-02-01

    Carcass was main product on cattle slaughtering which contain beef for human consumption and it has high nutritional and economical value. Carcass production on cattle has been influenced by several factors, such as cattle breed, feed, and body conformation. Cattle Butt Shape was one of part cattle body conformation which allegedly has have positive correlation on produced carcass. This research was aimed to evaluate Butt Shape condition influenced on Bali cattle carcass characteristic. The research was using Bali cattle which slaughter in Kendari Slaughtering House (Rumah Potong Hewan/RPH - Kendari). The observation includes weighing, and measuring parts of carcass was conducted on 60 heads of Halal process slaughtered Bali cattle which traditionally maintained. The research parameters were carcass productivity parameters i.e: slaughtering weight, carcass weight and length, leg length and circumstances. Obtained data were analyzed using Complete Randomized Design and post hoc analyzed using Least Significant Different if have any influence. The research result showed that cattle Butt Shape condition have significant (pBali cattle carcass productivity parameters. Butt shape with B category was result the best carcass productivity compare the others, while C category was better than D. It can be concluded that body and carcass weight were linearly influenced by cattle butt shape.

  20. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  1. Genetic improvement of beef cattle in the United States: cattle, people and their interaction.

    Willham, R L

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds.

  2. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  3. Genetic analysis of Mexican Criollo cattle populations.

    Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Gayosso-Vázquez, A; Ramos-Kuri, M; Estrada, F J; Montaño, M; Alonso, R A

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic structure of Mexican Criollo cattle populations using microsatellite genetic markers. DNA samples were collected from 168 animals from four Mexican Criollo cattle populations, geographically isolated in remote areas of Sierra Madre Occidental (West Highlands). Also were included samples from two breeds with Iberian origin: the fighting bull (n = 24) and the milking central American Criollo (n = 24) and one Asiatic breed: Guzerat (n = 32). Genetic analysis consisted of the estimation of the genetic diversity in each population by the allele number and the average expected heterozygosity found in nine microsatellite loci. Furthermore, genetic relationships among the populations were defined by their genetic distances. Our data shows that Mexican cattle populations have a relatively high level of genetic diversity based either on the mean number of alleles (10.2-13.6) and on the expected heterozygosity (0.71-0.85). The degree of observed homozygosity within the Criollo populations was remarkable and probably caused by inbreeding (reduced effective population size) possibly due to reproductive structure within populations. Our data shows that considerable genetic differentiation has been occurred among the Criollo cattle populations in different regions of Mexico.

  4. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  5. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Intramammary immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in cattle

    Boerhout, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis in cattle is a worldwide problem in dairy farming with a major impact on animal welfare, life span and milk production. Interestingly, quarters of the same cow can differ in their susceptibility to mastitis. This indicates that susceptibility is defined on the quarter level rather than the

  7. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  8. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  9. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...

  10. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of... shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test... for use in treating animals infested with the ectoparasite involved in accordance with the label...

  11. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  12. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  13. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n =30) and naturally ... sensitive than meat inspection in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, detecting .... The second group of 15 calves was ... ined for the presence of C. bovis. .... variable and pour ' ..... appropriate intermediate host is dependent on:- the state.

  14. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ

  15. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  16. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    The study focused on determinants of cattle farmers particiaption in farmers organization in Hamadan province of Iran. Data was colleted from 75 randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score, analysis of variance and factor analysis. The findings revealed ...

  17. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    the activities of the farmer organizations in Hamadan province of Iran. All the members of the cattle-breeding cooperative in Hamadan province (N= 550) were included in the study. By use of simple random method 75 respondents were selected. The study was a descriptive-exploration, survey research. A questionnaire ...

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium andersoni in Brazilian cattle

    Feces were collected from 68 cattle, 1 to 12 mo of age, on 12 farms in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. All samples were subjected to molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) of the 18S rRNA. F...

  19. Empowering women to tackle cattle lung disease

    A new vaccine being developed will address these shortcomings. The vaccine is produced using novel, molecular technologies and bioinformatic tools in Canada and clinical trials in local Boran and Zebu cattle breeds in Kenya. The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization. (VIDO) of Canada has so far generated 69.

  20. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  1. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  2. A function accounting for training set size and marker density to model the average accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Erbe, Malena; Gredler, Birgit; Seefried, Franz Reinhold; Bapst, Beat; Simianer, Henner

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of genomic breeding values is of major practical relevance in dairy cattle breeding. Deterministic equations have been suggested to predict the accuracy of genomic breeding values in a given design which are based on training set size, reliability of phenotypes, and the number of independent chromosome segments ([Formula: see text]). The aim of our study was to find a general deterministic equation for the average accuracy of genomic breeding values that also accounts for marker density and can be fitted empirically. Two data sets of 5'698 Holstein Friesian bulls genotyped with 50 K SNPs and 1'332 Brown Swiss bulls genotyped with 50 K SNPs and imputed to ∼600 K SNPs were available. Different k-fold (k = 2-10, 15, 20) cross-validation scenarios (50 replicates, random assignment) were performed using a genomic BLUP approach. A maximum likelihood approach was used to estimate the parameters of different prediction equations. The highest likelihood was obtained when using a modified form of the deterministic equation of Daetwyler et al. (2010), augmented by a weighting factor (w) based on the assumption that the maximum achievable accuracy is [Formula: see text]. The proportion of genetic variance captured by the complete SNP sets ([Formula: see text]) was 0.76 to 0.82 for Holstein Friesian and 0.72 to 0.75 for Brown Swiss. When modifying the number of SNPs, w was found to be proportional to the log of the marker density up to a limit which is population and trait specific and was found to be reached with ∼20'000 SNPs in the Brown Swiss population studied.

  3. A function accounting for training set size and marker density to model the average accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Malena Erbe

    Full Text Available Prediction of genomic breeding values is of major practical relevance in dairy cattle breeding. Deterministic equations have been suggested to predict the accuracy of genomic breeding values in a given design which are based on training set size, reliability of phenotypes, and the number of independent chromosome segments ([Formula: see text]. The aim of our study was to find a general deterministic equation for the average accuracy of genomic breeding values that also accounts for marker density and can be fitted empirically. Two data sets of 5'698 Holstein Friesian bulls genotyped with 50 K SNPs and 1'332 Brown Swiss bulls genotyped with 50 K SNPs and imputed to ∼600 K SNPs were available. Different k-fold (k = 2-10, 15, 20 cross-validation scenarios (50 replicates, random assignment were performed using a genomic BLUP approach. A maximum likelihood approach was used to estimate the parameters of different prediction equations. The highest likelihood was obtained when using a modified form of the deterministic equation of Daetwyler et al. (2010, augmented by a weighting factor (w based on the assumption that the maximum achievable accuracy is [Formula: see text]. The proportion of genetic variance captured by the complete SNP sets ([Formula: see text] was 0.76 to 0.82 for Holstein Friesian and 0.72 to 0.75 for Brown Swiss. When modifying the number of SNPs, w was found to be proportional to the log of the marker density up to a limit which is population and trait specific and was found to be reached with ∼20'000 SNPs in the Brown Swiss population studied.

  4. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary...

  5. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    Giovanna Massei

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts, administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations.

  6. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.

  7. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  8. Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle.

    Botha, Christo J; Lessing, Dries; Rösemann, Magda; van Wilpe, Erna; Williams, June H

    2014-09-01

    Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as "cocklebur," rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  10. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  11. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Sonoda, M; Nakamura, R; Too, K; Matsuhashi, A; Ishimoto, H; Sasaki, R; Ishida, K; Takahashi, M

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  12. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  13. An apparatus for cattle-blood irradiation

    Damdinsuerehn, S.; Gunaadzav, T.; Chueltehm, D.; Sajnkhueue, Zh.; Byambaa, S.; Moenkhtsehtsehg, N.; Dorzhnyambuu, B.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for cattle-blood irradiation in vitro by low intensity ultraviolet light (10-12 w/m 2 ) emitted by mercury-quartz lamp at the wavelength range of 254-280 nm has been constructed. For this purpose a simple connection circuit for shunting the source electrodes by effective resistance and switching on electrical network in series through capacitor is presented. Stabilized cattle blood for UV-irradiation is running through 5mm diameter quartz tubes at the distance of 15mm from UV-lamp. Irradiated in this way blood sample is administered intravenously or intramuscular in various way. Method of using this source in veterinary practice is developed. Results of the use of this method during the last 4-5 years demonstrate the efficiency of treating and preventing from desease could be above 80%. 1 fig. (B.Sh.)

  14. Cattle identification based in biometric features of the muzzle

    Monteiro, Marta; Cadavez, Vasco; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Cattle identification has been a serious problem for breeding association. Muzzle pattern or nose print has the same characteristic with the human fingerprint which is the most popular biometric marker. The identification accuracy and the processing time are two key challenges of any cattle identification methodology. This paper presents a robust and fast cattle identification scheme from muzzle images using Speed-up Robust Features matching. The matching refinement technique based on the mat...

  15. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  16. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  17. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  18. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  19. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%.

  20. Update on Multiple Ovulations in Dairy Cattle.

    Macmillan, Kira; Kastelic, John P; Colazo, Marcos G

    2018-04-24

    This review updates the causal mechanisms and risk factors for multiple ovulations (MOV) in cattle. Clearly, MOV can lead to twin pregnancies, which negatively affects the health, production, and reproduction of cows. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors causing MOV may help to reduce twinning. Multiple ovulations occur after two or more follicles deviate and achieve codominance. The MOV rate is influenced by a complex network of hormones. For example, MOV is more common during periods of low progesterone (P4), that is, in anovulatory cattle or when luteolysis coincides with the selection of the future ovulatory follicle. There is also strong evidence for the luteinizing hormone (LH) being the primary factor leading to codominance, as high P4 concentrations suppress the transient LH surges and can reduce the ovulation rate in cattle or even inhibit deviation. Rates of MOV are increased in older and higher-producing dairy cows. Increased milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) increases hormone clearance, including P4; however, the association between milk yield and MOV has not been consistent. Additional risk factors for MOV include ovarian cysts, diet, season, and genetics.

  1. A review of bloat in feedlot cattle.

    Cheng, K J; McAllister, T A; Popp, J D; Hristov, A N; Mir, Z; Shin, H T

    1998-01-01

    Improvements in feedlot management practices and the use of various feed additives have reduced, but not eliminated, the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Feedlot bloat reduces the profitability of production by compromising animal performance and more directly by causing fatalities. In feedlots, bloat is associated with the ingestion of large amounts of rapidly fermented cereal grain and destabilization of the microbial populations of the rumen. An abundance of rapidly fermented carbohydrate allows acid-tolerant bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus spp.) to proliferate and produce excessive quantities of fermentation acids. As a result, ruminal pH becomes exceedingly low, and this impairs rumen motility. Further, the excessive production of mucopolysaccharide or "slime" increases the viscosity of ruminal fluid and stabilizes the foam implicated in frothy feedlot bloat. Although protocols have been developed to treat feedlot bloat, the most profitable approach is to use management strategies to reduce its likelihood. Amount of roughage, grain processing techniques, selection of cereal grain (e.g., corn, barley, and wheat), dietary adaptation periods, and various additives (e.g., ionophores) can influence the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Successful management of these factors depends on a thorough understanding of the behavioral, dietary, and microbial events that precipitate bloat in feedlot cattle.

  2. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Concepta McManus

    Full Text Available Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region. This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  3. The Effect of Change in Cattle Price on the Demand for Input and the Supply of Output in the Bali Cattle Fattening Business

    Rusdianto, Sasongko Wijoseno

    2015-01-01

    The change in cattle price faced by farmers in the cattle fattening business when buying feeders and selling the beef cattle. This study was aimed to observe the efforts done by the farmers and the solutions that could be suggested. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of cattle price change on the demand for feeders and the supply of cattle which are produced by Bali cattle fattening businesses in West Nusa Tenggara. The results showed that the change of the beef cattle price ...

  4. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  5. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  6. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The timber reforestation, mainly by Eucalyptus and Pinus sp., has low power processing, strength, good natural durability and, most importantly, provide reduce pressure on native forests. The concern with native forests and the high price of some of these woods force the market to replace those species by other, more abundant and available at most competitive prices. Anything that involves the handling of animals in its various phases has a direct dependency of husbandry facilities, pastures and actions of the people involved (best practices. With the segment of the production and export of meat increasingly competitive and globalized world, the adoption of best practices and animal welfare criteria are striking and decision makers for the acceptance of Brazilian beef in the world market, especially the European market. The use of appropriate animal husbandry facilities is critical to the proper rational management ("action with knowledge" of animals and increased productivity. The trunk restraint carries important role in the implementation and conduct of good animal welfare as having desirable features strength, durability, ability to contain cattle of various sizes, as well as easy to manipulate when the animal inside. Available on the market in the form of different models and costs, is an installation manufactured in wood and iron or galvanized, and may or may not be coupled with an analytical balance or digital, still and mechanical and other systems or electronics. The concern in this installation is perceived improvement in the number of patents filed and recorded and the constant evolution of their functions, with various companies operating in this segment. However, the development and validation of containment trunks with alternative materials, reflecting mainly the reduction of the final cost are poorly studied. In this first phase of the project will be considered the construction of trunk restraint coupled with analytical balance

  7. Online information system for data collection of cattle quality

    Sugiharti, E.; Arifudin, R.; Putra, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    Innovation and development of the science and technology which proclaimed by the government through Ristekdikti need to be supported. On the other hand, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries began introducing the Cattle Card system that contains the identity of each farm animal. Therefore, UNNES especially the Department of Computer Science of FMIPA UNNES, need to give positive contribution in the field of Science and Technology to support the manual system of Cattle Card, through the preparation of prototype of the online information system of data collection of cattle in Semarang regency. The main problem is how to monitor the data of cattle quality through online information system in Semarang regency? The purpose of this research is to produce the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle quality in Semarang regency. Main activities: (1) Prepare the flowchart of an online system for data collection of cattle quality. (2) Collecting data to obtain data on identity descriptions of each cattle, owners, mutation records, and health records of livestock cattle. (3) Creation of the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle quality in Semarang Regency. The results, (1) had been produced the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle in the region of Semarang regency. (2) Socialization of the online information system for cattle quality data collection and exploring input from various related stakeholders. (3) There had been a limited trial of prototypes of the system in Pabelan district in the working area of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries of Semarang regency and succeeded well.

  8. [Invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an aneroid pressure system in cattle].

    Mosing, M; Franz, S; Iff, I; Schwendenwein, I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an electronic pressure transducer (EPT) or an aneroid pressure system (APS) in cattle. A catheter was placed in the auricular artery of 11 adult cattle and connected to a pressure transducer via pressure line. The aneroid system was connected to the same catheter using a three-way stop-cock in the pressure line. On five occasions three consecutive measurements were performed with the APS. The mean blood pressure values of the EPT were recorded before each individual measurement. Values from each device were compared using Passing and Bablok regression of agreement and a Bland and Altman difference plot. One hundred and forty-seven paired measurements were analysed. The average bias between the two methods (EPT vs. APS) was -1.6 mmHg (95 % confidence interval [CI]: -3.0 to -0.2 mmHg). The coefficient of correlation was 1.0084. The aneroid system showed an almost perfect agreement with the EPT. This study shows that it can be used in a clinical setting as well as under field conditions to measure arterial blood pressure in cattle.

  9. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    2013-02-07

    ... microscopic parasites (Babesia) that cause bovine babesiosis. We are amending the list by clarifying that... cattle from areas of the United States that are quarantined because of ticks that are vectors for bovine... this section to indicate that the terms southern fever, cattle fever, Texas fever, bovine piroplasmosis...

  10. The Influence of Cattle Wastes on Degraded Savanna Soils of ...

    This paper examines the effects of cattle wastes on degraded savanna soils of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 40 soil samples were systematically collected from five quadrats of 12m x 12m. In 4 identified cattle sheds and 1 in adjacent fallow land (control field) on the same soil, climatic type and ecological zone. Standard ...

  11. Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic Cattle on Kenya Ranches ...

    A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, ...

  12. Interactions between Temperament, Stress, and Immune Function in Cattle

    N. C. Burdick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects caused by stressors encountered by animals during routine handling can pose economic problems for the livestock industry due to increased costs ultimately borne by the producer and the consumer. Stress adversely affects key physiological processes of the reproductive and immune systems. In recent years stress responsiveness has been associated with cattle behavior, specifically temperament. Cattle with more excitable temperaments, as measured by chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (flight speed, exhibit greater basal concentrations of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. Similar to stressed cattle, more temperamental cattle (i.e., cattle exhibiting greater exit velocity or pen and chute scores have poorer growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses. Thus, understanding the interrelationship of stress and temperament can help in the development of selection and management practices that reduce the negative influence of temperament on growth and productivity of cattle. This paper discusses the relationship between stress and temperament and the developing evidence of an effect of temperament on immune function of cattle that have been handled or restrained. Specifically, the paper discusses different methodologies used to measure temperament, including chute score, pen score, and exit velocity, and discusses the reaction of cattle to different stressors including handling and restraint.

  13. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic leptospires associated with cattle

    Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection, including cattle, and are excreted via urine. In order to identify circulating serovars of pathogenic leptospires in beef cattle, and their associated rates of urinary excretion, a cross sectional study was performed....

  14. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 anima...

  15. Growth and reproductive traits of Friesian X Sanga crossbred cattle ...

    The typical cattle production system in Ghana is predominantly pasture-based. Cattle are grazed all year round on natural pastures with minimal feed supplementation. The animals kept in this production system often experience inadequate nutrition and fluctuating nutrient supply affecting their productivity. There is ...

  16. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  17. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  18. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review.

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. © C. Gong et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  19. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  20. Image Segmentation of Cattle Muzzle Using Region Merging Statistical Technic

    Jullend Gatc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Making an identification system that able to assist in obtaining, recording and organizing information is the first step in developing any kind of recording system. Nowadays, many recording systems were developed with artificial markers although it has been proved that it has many limitations. Biometrics use of animals provides a solution to these restrictions. On a cattle, biometric features contained in the cattle muzzle that can be used as a pattern recognition sample. Pattern recognition methods can be used for the development of cattle identification system utilizing biometric found on the cattle muzzle using digital image processing techniques. In this study, we proposed cattle muzzle identification method using segmentation Statistical Region Merging (SRM. This method aims to identify specific patterns found on the cattle muzzle by separating the object pattern (foreground from unnecessary information (background This method is able to identified individual cattle based on the pattern of it muzzle. Based on our evaluation, this method can provide good performance results. This method good performance can be seen from the precision and recall : 87% and the value of ROC : 0.976. Hopefully this research can be used to help identify cattle accurately on the recording process.

  1. Seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in Estonia

    Petersson, Jennifer; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis, an infectious disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, affects grazing cattle world-wide. Liver fluke F. hepatica is prevalent and well-documented in cattle in many European countries, but for the Baltic countries such information is limited. This study investigated...

  2. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun State was carried out using ... This is the first report on protozoan parasites detected in ticks infesting cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans-boundary route in Nigeria.

  3. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    This work confirms that at type trait level Kuri cattle is a unique population within the West African taurine cattle group. The implementation of genetic analyses aiming at ascertaining the degree of uniqueness of the breed is advised. Keywords: Body measurements, Bos taurus, multivariate analyses, qualitative traits, West ...

  4. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  5. Influence of lokpa cattle market wastes on agricultural soil quality ...

    Influence of lokpa cattle market wastes on agricultural soil quality. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Soil samples were collected from the Central, 3 and 6 m Northwards, Southwards, Eastwards and Westwards of Lokpa cattle market, Umuneochi Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria at ...

  6. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  7. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    Tamminga, S.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the enteric methane production in cattle. The possibilities are discussed to influence methane production by feeding measures and the use of feed additives, and by management measures. The possibilities are discussed against the background of Dutch cattle

  8. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  9. Predicting Madura cattle growth curve using non-linear model

    Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.; Widi, T. S. M.; Baliarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Madura cattle is Indonesian native. It is a composite breed that has undergone hundreds of years of selection and domestication to reach nowadays remarkable uniformity. Crossbreeding has reached the isle of Madura and the Madrasin, a cross between Madura cows and Limousine semen emerged. This paper aimed to compare the growth curve between Madrasin and one type of pure Madura cows, the common Madura cattle (Madura) using non-linear models. Madura cattles are kept traditionally thus reliable records are hardly available. Data were collected from small holder farmers in Madura. Cows from different age classes (5years) were observed, and body measurements (chest girth, body length and wither height) were taken. In total 63 Madura and 120 Madrasin records obtained. Linear model was built with cattle sub-populations and age as explanatory variables. Body weights were estimated based on the chest girth. Growth curves were built using logistic regression. Results showed that within the same age, Madrasin has significantly larger body compared to Madura (plogistic models fit better for Madura and Madrasin cattle data; with the estimated MSE for these models were 39.09 and 759.28 with prediction accuracy of 99 and 92% for Madura and Madrasin, respectively. Prediction of growth curve using logistic regression model performed well in both types of Madura cattle. However, attempts to administer accurate data on Madura cattle are necessary to better characterize and study these cattle.

  10. Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle

    Spek, van der D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

    Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding.

  11. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  12. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    User

    This study evaluated the performance of different dairy cattle technologies ... common phenomenon in Nigeria, especially among the poor segment of the society ... considerable amounts (over 70%) of milk today (Olaloku and Debre, 1992). ..... cross-bred dairy cattle was reported to be 30 percent of total dairy animals in.

  13. Poop and pedometers: What cattle really do on the range

    Cattle serve as energy brokers between cellulose in plant biomass and energy and protein available for human consumption. Despite the global significance of cattle to society for livelihood, culture and meat production, a key question remains for nutrition of these ruminants: does grazing management...

  14. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  15. Adaptive Ventilation Control for Cattle Housing and Integrated Climate Sensing

    Wang, Xiaoshuai

    2018-01-01

    Heat stress is a common threat to profitable dairy cattle farming in most regions during warm periods. It adversely affects animal behaviour, production, and health, and reportedly incurs tremendous economic losses. Animal interacts with the ambient environment in a complex way. To alleviate...... the heat stress on cattle, systematic knowledge on the effect of environmental condition on heat stress is necessary. Thus, this study sought to reveal the linkage between environmental condition and the heat load of the animal and provide effective cooling strategies for cattle housing. In this study...... for Cattle (ETIC), was developed using regression analysis based on data from two studies. The ETIC was validated and proved to be a good thermal index for predicting the heat stress level on cattle. In addition, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to find the relationship between air...

  16. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle

    Weller, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)

  18. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  19. Fluorosis of cattle in the Wroclaw province

    Bohosiewicz, M; Jopek, Z

    1975-01-01

    Fluorosis of cattle and sheep was diagnosed in the neighborhood of glassworks and a superphosphate mill. In cows there was a brown color and loss of the enamel on incisive teeth, uneven detrition of molar teeth, osseous lesions in teeth and limb bones, and in some animals also swelling and painfulness of limb joints, hobble and cachexia. In sheep the lesions were observed in teeth only. Exacerbation of the lesions in the animals coming from the neighborhood of the glass works was greater than in those coming from the neighborhood of the superphosphate mill. There was found no relation between exacerbation of the lesions in teeth and bones.

  20. Conservation of the genetic material of Macedonian Busha cattle

    Bunevski Gjoko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Busha is an indigenous breed of cattle in many Balkan countries. It has been bred for centuries. It belongs to primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus. These cattle used to be the dominant and most important breed in almost all Balkan countries until the 1950s and 1960s, but today in lowland areas where intensive farming is practiced they have already been replaced by more productive and specialized breeds of cattle. In Macedonia this breed has officially been classified as a triple purpose breed (raised for meat, milk and draft but considering its low production capabilities it is more similar to some primitive draft breeds. This breed is part of the National Biodiversity Program for the conservation of indigenous breeds of animals in the Republic of Macedonia. Economic, cultural and scientific reasons underlie the need to protect the biological diversity of autochthonous breeds of cattle such as the Busha. The aim of the research was to establish a gene bank for different strains of adult Busha cattle in the Republic of Macedonia. To this end, 998 samples of blood, 1100 hair coat samples and 958 doses of semen were collected from adult Busha cattle. Also, a phenotypic characterization was done on adult Busha cattle for their major productive and morphological traits. During the last few years, there have been certain negative trends in the population size of Busha cattle in accordance with the decline of the rural population in the hills and uplands and young people's disinterest in rearing indigenous breeds of cattle such as the Busha.

  1. Vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop FMDV transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eblé, P.L.; Jong, de M.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission

  2. Economic impact of lumpy skin disease and cost effectiveness of vaccination for the control of outbreaks in Ethiopia.

    Molla, Wassie; de Jong, Mart C M; Gari, Getachew; Frankena, Klaas

    2017-11-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an infectious viral disease of cattle, causes considerable financial losses in livestock industry of affected countries. A questionnaire survey with the objectives of determining direct economic losses of LSD (mortality loss, milk loss, draft loss) and treatment costs (medication and labour cost) per affected herd, and assessing the cost effectiveness of vaccination as a means for LSD control was carried out in the central and north-western parts of Ethiopia. From a total of 4430 cattle (in 243 herds) surveyed, 941 animals (in 200 herds) were reported to be infected. The overall morbidity and mortality at animal level were 21.2% and 4.5%, and at herd level these were 82.3% and 24.3%. There was a significant difference in animal level morbidity and mortality between categories of animals. Over 94% of the herd owners ranked LSD as a big or very big problem for cattle production. A large proportion (92.2%) of the herd owners indicated that LSD affects cattle marketing. A median loss of USD 375 (USD 325 in local Zebu and USD 1250 in Holstein-Friesian local Zebu cross cattle) was estimated per dead animal. Median losses per affected lactating cow were USD 141 (USD 63 in local Zebu cows and USD 216 in Holstein-Friesian local Zebu cross cows) and, USD 36 per affected ox. Diagnosis and medication cost per affected animal were estimated at USD 5. The median total economic loss of an LSD outbreak at herd level was USD 1176 (USD 489 in subsistence farm and USD 2735 in commercial farm). At herd level, the largest component of the economic loss was due to mortality (USD 1000) followed by milk loss (USD 120). LSD control costs were the least contributor to herd level losses. The total herd level economic losses in the commercial farm type were significantly higher than in the subsistence farm type. The financial analysis showed a positive net profit of USD 136 (USD 56 for subsistence farm herds and USD 283 for commercial herds) per herd due to LSD

  3. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as a...

  4. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  5. Constraints on efficiency of artificial insemination and effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Viet Nam

    Chung Anh Dzung; Le Xuan Cuong; Vuong Ngoc Long; Dinh Van Cai; Dang Phuoc Chung; Pham Ho Hai

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey on 564 cows subjected to artificial insemination (AI) from March 1995 to March 1996 in 4 districts around Ho Chi Minh City. Four inseminators filled in questionnaires relating to farms, semen batches, cows and inseminations done. Milk samples were collected and analysed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA). All raw data were stored and analysed by the computer program AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application). Conception rate at first service (FSCR) was 61.7% and overall conception rate (OCR) was 68.4%. The intervals from calving to first service (CSI) and calving to conception (CCI) were 108 days 119 days respectively. Cows with lower percentage of Holstein-Friesian (HF) blood had shorter CSI and CCI than those with higher percentage of HF blood. Other factors which influenced OCR, CSI and CCI were parity, high milk yield (>20 L/cow/day), inappropriate heat signs, slight degree of uterine tone, feeding without green grass, too early or too late intervals from heat signs to AI, time of AI and difficulty in passage of AI pipette. Progesterone measurement in 796 sets of milk samples indicated that AI in 546 cows (68.6%) resulted in conception and they were subsequently diagnosed pregnant, while 24 animals (3%) conceived but underwent late embryo mortality. In 146 cows (18.3%) AI was done in the follicular phase but conception did not occur. There were 73 cows (9.1%) where progesterone values were intermediate (1-3 nmol/L). Ninety-four Holstein crossbred cows (F1 and F2) were assigned into three groups by different metabolisable energy (ME) ratios between demand and supply in order to determine effect of nutritive value of rations on reproduction. The cows in ME-balanced group were also divided into two sub-groups by different quantity of green grass in the ration to evaluate influence of the latter on fertility. Results showed that only cows fed with balanced rations in ME achieved good fertility (calving to first

  6. Uterine disease and its effect on subsequent reproductive performance of dairy cattle: a comparison of two cow-side diagnostic methods.

    Šavc, Miha; Duane, Mary; O'Grady, Luke E; Somers, Joris R; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vaginal mucus scoring and ultrasonographic assessment of uterine content as predictors of future reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 493) from seven commercial dairy farms were enrolled in this study. All cows received one prebreeding examination (PBE) between 21 and 38 days after parturition. During the PBE, vaginal mucus was scored (MS) and the transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the uterus to assess content (UTS) took place. The MS was scored on a scale of 0 to 3 using a Metricheck device and appearance of the uterus on transrectal ultrasound was scored on a scale of 0 to 4 based on the presence and consistency of intraluminal fluid. Other data collected from each cow included the farm ID (F_ID), conception rate to first service, length of breeding window, lactation number, calving month, body condition score (BCS) at calving, BCS loss after calving, BCS at PBE, days in milk at PBE, 305 day milk yield, economic breeding index (EBI), EBI fertility subindex and EBI health subindex. For each cow these parameters were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the effect of variables on the reproductive performance, measured as positive pregnancy status (PS) at the end of the breeding season. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of the diagnostic tests compared with each other took place as well. Cows with positive UTS were 7.75 times more likely to have a positive MS as well (P milk at PBE in relation to the subsequent PS (P = 0.04). Cows in lactation number 5 or more were less likely (r = 0.69) to get in calf before the end of the breeding season than cows in their first lactation. Cows that calved later in the season were less likely to become pregnant before the end of the breeding season (P mucus evaluation with the Metricheck device and an ultrasound scan of the uterus serve as a good predictor of the subsequent PS. There is overlap between the

  7. Predisposing factors of laminitis in cattle.

    Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

    1994-01-01

    Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders. Despite intensive study, both by experiment and by clinical observation, knowledge of the precise aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine laminitis is still incomplete. It is often hypothesized that changes in the micro-circulation of the corum (dermis) of the bovine claw contribute significantly to the development of laminitis; arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) playing a crucial role. Many factors have been implicated as contributing causes of laminitis in cattle; the disease has a multifactorial aetiology. The cause of laminitis should be considered as a combination of predisposing factors leading to vascular (AVAs in particular) reactivity and inhibition of normal horn synthesis. Nutrition, disease, management and behaviour appear to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. The major factors predisposing to laminitis in cattle, as reported or suggested in the literature, are reviewed, including systemic disease, nutrition (barley grain, protein, carbohydrate and fibre), management (housing, bedding and exercise), calving, season, age, growth, genetics, conformation and behaviour.

  8. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  9. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  12. Pathogenesis of trypanosome infections in cattle

    Murray, M.; Morrison, W.I.; Emery, D.L.; Akol, G.W.O.; Masake, R.A.; Moloo, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential application of radioisotopes are not discussed in this review of trypanosome pathogenesis in cattle. Initially, structural changes in the lymphoid system are characterized by marked proliferation and germinal centre formation, whereas in long-standing infections the lymphoid organs become depleted. These changes appear associated with immunodepression. Anaemia dominates the clinical disease syndrome in bovine trypanosomiasis. It develops with the onset of parasitaemia and is largely haemolytic, resulting from increased red blood cell destruction by phagocytosis. Several factors may be involved in this process including haemolysins produced by the trypanosome, immunological mechanisms, fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation and an expanded and active mononuclear phagocytic system. During this phase of the disease, cattle respond well to chemotherapy. However, in later phases of the disease, when trypanosomes cannot be detected, the anaemia sometimes persists and animals do not respond to treatment. Concerning the underlying mechanisms responsible for the anaemia, continued red cell destruction combined with some dyshaemopoiesis, associated with a defect in iron metabolism, appears responsible. Widespread tissue degeneration occurs. Organs particularly severely affected include the heart. Death in bovine trypanosomiasis is presumably due to a combination of anaemia, microcirculatory disturbances and myocardial damage. The factors incriminated in tissue damage probably vary with the species of trypanosome involved, although under natural field conditions it is common to find T. congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei in one animal. Likely pathogenic mechanisms in bovine include anoxia as a result of anaemia, microcirculatory disorders and hypersensitivity reactions

  13. Elimination of excess molybdenum by cattle

    Toelgyesi, G.; Elmoty, I.A.

    1967-01-01

    It was found that cattle would ingest spontaneously 5-15 g of molybdenum on one occasion. The uptake of this quantity caused but moderate loss of appetite and mild enteritis, both normalizing in one week. The occurrence of a severe acute molybdenum poisoning can be practically excluded, owing to refusal of the poisoned feed. Spontaneously ingested molybdenum caused on the first day a 30-100 fold rise of ruminal Mo-level, decreasing to the order of the normal value in about one week. But in the urine and faeces, Mo-level was at least 10 fold, in the blood and milk about 4 fold of the normal one, even one or two weeks after ingestion. During this period at least 90% of ingested Mo was eliminated with the faeces, urine and milk. One week after the ingestion of molybdenum, the rumen content showed no evidence on poisoning and no trace of molybdenum. Oral administration of ammonium molybdenate in an amount equivalent to 40 g molybdenum caused no fatality. In fact, cattle would never ingest spontaneously such a large dose.

  14. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian indigenous cattle populations

    Lkhagva, B [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya) and Mongolian State Agricultural University, Zaisan, Ulaanbaatar 210153 (Mongolia); Ochieng, J W; Hanotte, O; Jianlin, H [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya); Yoon, D H [National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, 441-350, Suwon (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity

  15. Toxicology of oil field pollutants in cattle: a review.

    Coppock, R W; Mostrom, M S; Khan, A A; Semalulu, S S

    1995-12-01

    Cattle are poisoned by petroleum and substances used in drilling and operating oil and gas wells. The most common reported route of exposure for non-gaseous material is oral. Exposures occur when the petroleum or chemicals used in oil and gas field activities are available to cattle and when water and feed-stuffs are contaminated. Cattle, as a leisure activity, explore and ingest crude oil. Based on morbidity patterns in cattle herds, the amount of toxic substance ingested is variable. When water and feedstuffs are contaminated, a larger number in a herd generally are affected. Cattle have been poisoned by a wide variety of chemical mixtures. For substances high in volatile hydrocarbons, the lung is a target organ. Hydrocarbons also target the kidney, liver and brain. Exposure-linked abortions have been reported in cattle. Diethylene glycol targets the brain, liver and kidney. The reported threshold dose of unweathered oil for cattle ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 ml/kg bw, and the reported threshold dose for weathered oil is 8.0 ml/kg.

  16. Retrospective study on cattle and poultry diseases in Uganda

    Joseph Byaruhanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and poultry enterprises are among the major contributors to food security and socioeconomic empowerment of households in Uganda. However, various diseases constrain their productivity. A two-year retrospective study between April 2012 and March 2014 was conducted using records for cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed at the Central Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL to determine prevalent diseases in Uganda. The laboratory received 836 samples from poultry (36.3% and cattle (63.7%. Of the 836 samples, 47.5% had a definitive diagnosis of disease causation. Most of the cattle and poultry diseases diagnosed were protozoan diseases (39.3% followed by bacterial (21.4%, viral (17.1%, helminthiasis (11.1%, nutritional diseases (4% and others (7.1%. For poultry, viral diseases (29.5% and protozoan diseases (27.1% especially newcastle disease (44.3% and coccidiosis (100% respectively, were the most diagnosed. While for cattle, hemo-protozoan parasites (52.1% were the most prevalent, of which 92.9% were east coast fever infection. Bacterial infection (20.5% in cattle were the second most diagnosed diseases and mastitis was the most diagnosed (46.2%. In summary, coccidioisis, collibacillosis, newcastle disease, gumboro disease, and avian helminthiasis were the most prevalent poultry diseases while in cattle, east coast fever, helminthiasis, mastitis, brucellosis and rabies were the most frequently diagnosed diseases. This study has identified the major diseases that hinder poultry and cattle production in Uganda. The data generated by CDL could be used for surveillance, monitoring and designing strategic interventions for control of poultry and cattle diseases in Uganda. Keywords: Coccidiosis, Collibacillosis, East coast fever, Mastitis, Newcastle disease, Rabies

  17. Los isómeros cis-9, trans-11 y trans-10, cis-12 de ácido linoleico conjugado y su relación con producción de leche de vacas Holstein-Friesian. Revisión

    Rufino López Ordaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de la presente revisión fueron estudiar los mecanismos de la adición de cis-9, trans-11 y trans-10, cis- 12 del ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC en la dieta y su relación con producción de leche. Ambos isómeros se forman por la isomerización del ALC por la bacteria ruminal Butyrivibrio fribisolvens. También pueden ser producidos por desaturación del ácido vaccénico (18:1, trans-11 en el intestino delgado o el hígado de la vaca lechera. En humanos, el consumo de ambos se relaciona con funciones antiaterogénicas hipocolesterolemia, estimulantes del sistema inmune, protector contra ciertos tipos de cáncer, antioxidante y reductor del peso corporal. Por el contrario, en la vaca la adición de los isómeros incrementa el volumen de leche y reduce su contenido de grasa. El incremento en volumen se atribuye al cis-9, trans-11; mientras que la reducción de grasa se atribuye al tras-10, cis-12. La partición de la energía reduce el periodo del balance negativo de energía (BNE postparto. Este hecho se asocia con un mejoramiento de la eficiencia reproductiva y la salud de la vaca. La reducción de la grasa de leche por los isómeros o por las dietas que inducen reducción de grasa de leche se explica por la presencia de inhibidores de la síntesis de grasas. En conclusión, la adición de los isómeros a las dietas de vacas lecheras no influye en el consumo de materia seca, los cambios de peso y la producción de proteína. Por el contrario, la inclusión en la dieta de ambos isómeros incrementa el volumen de leche y se reduce su contenido de grasa.

  18. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  19. Arsenic poisoning of cattle and other domestic animals

    Moxham, J W; Coup, M R

    1968-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one incidents of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals were recorded at Ruakura Veterinary Diagnostic Station from 1955 to 1967. Cattle was the animal species most subject to arsenic poisoning. Clincal signs, post-mortem findings and sources of arsenic are given. Arsenic poisoning was more prevalent in younger cattle and during the warmer months of the year. With cattle most incidents were associated with carelessly discarded arsenical compounds, although most deaths occurred when these compounds were deliberately used. In other species, losses were generally caused by the deliberate use of arsenical preparations for dipping, drenching and weed spraying. 10 references, 2 tables.

  20. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  1. Electronics and electronic systems

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  2. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median...

  3. Regional variation in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Islam, Md Zohorul; Musekiwa, Alfred; Islam, Kamrul; Ahmed, Shahana; Chowdhury, Sharmin; Ahad, Abdul; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates. Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression. A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16-6.20). The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35-50.04), 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44-8.26), 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41-11.29), 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21-6.09), 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05-6.33) and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77-2.53), respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001), type of cattle (p<0.001) and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074) as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110), were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle. The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157.

  4. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    2010-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to...

  5. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  6. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    Ormerod, R.J. [Dames & Moore, Brisbane (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  7. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    Porcine and bovine cell lines derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) or epiblasts of blastocysts have been maintained over extended periods of time and characterized by morphology, identification of some stem cell markers and, in few cases, by production of chimaeric offspring. However, germ line...... transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation......, or immunosurgery, and they are generally cultured on feeder cells. The resulting ES-like cells may be differentiated in vivo by chimaera and teratoma formation or in vitro by embryoid body formation and monolayer induction. It is likely that more well characterized and stable porcine and bovine ES cell lines...

  8. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  9. Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle

    Weppert Myriam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morphology and genealogy of the syndrome in Simmental to establish the basis for an effective management of the disease. Results The first pathologically confirmed arachnomelia syndrome-cases in the current Simmental population appeared in the year 2005. By 2007, an additional 140 calves with the arachnomelia syndrome were identified. The major pathological findings were malformed bones affecting the head, long bones of the legs and the vertebral column. It could be shown that, with the exception of two cases that were considered as phenocopies, all of the paternal and about two-third of the maternal pedigrees of the affected calves could be traced back to one common founder. Together with the data from experimental matings, the pedigree data support an autosomal recessive mutation being the etiology of the arachnomelia syndrome. The frequency of the mutation in the current population was estimated to be 3.32%. Conclusion We describe the repeated occurrence of the arachnomelia syndrome in Simmental calves. It resembles completely the same defect occurring in the Brown Swiss breed. The mutation became relatively widespread amongst the current population. Therefore, a control system has to be established and it is highly desirable to map the disease and develop a genetic test system.

  10. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  11. Assessing the nutritional status of beef cattle: current practices and ...

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Body condition scoring, blood metabolites, nutritional status, cattle. INTRODUCTION ... reproductive performance and good walking and foraging ..... the gastrointestinal tract while mobilization is increased in.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits in Brangus cattle

    p2492989

    3Agricultural Business Research Institute, UNE Armidale NSW 2351, ... Table 1 Descriptive statistics of data after editing that were used in the .... Variance components due to direct and maternal effects for growth traits of Australian beef cattle.

  13. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  14. vegetation biomass prediction in the cattle corridor of uganda

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    3Ministry of Water and Environment, Climate Change Unit, P. O. Box 2811, Kampala, Uganda ... (r=0.99). Precipitation has influenced vegetative biomass in the cattle corridor as there is a positive .... since they are cloud free (Campbell, 2006).

  15. Blumea lacera Plant Poisoning in Cattle; Epidemiology and Management

    Mst. Nusrat Zahan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning in grazing animals is more common in Bangladesh, especially during the scarcity period. The present study was undertaken to find out the epidemiology of Blumea lacera fresh plant poisoning and its management in cattle. A total of 765 suspected clinical cases were examined, of these 48 were diagnosed as Blumea lacera plant poisoning. The poisoning was found more in local cattle (92% than that of crossbred (8% cattle. Most of the cases were found in autumn (71%, in compare to summer (23% and winter (6%. The highest occurrence of poisoning was observed in cattle of 6 months to 2 years of age (57% in comparison to other age category. Therapeutic response (16% was found if treatments were given within 4 hours of ingestion of the plant and the effective treatment was a combination of laxative, normal saline, vitamin B1. Veterinarian can apply this treatment during Blumea lacera poisoning in animals.

  16. Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in cattle in Ireland.

    Wilson, Kim; Sammin, Donal; Harmeyer, Silke; Nath, Mintu; Livingstone, Morag; Longbottom, David

    2012-08-01

    Although few studies have investigated the prevalence of chlamydial infections in cattle, reported prevalence rates vary hugely. In order to assess the prevalence of this infection in cattle in Ireland, serum samples (100 herds, 20 samples/herd) collected for statutory screening for brucellosis were examined by soluble chlamydial antigen indirect ELISA. The assay detects antibodies to the two most common Chlamydiaceae spp. affecting cattle, namely Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum. A total of 95 samples from 57 herds were seropositive, representing an observed prevalence rate of 4.75%. The parametric bootstrap estimate of the mean disease prevalence in the population was 6.04% (95%, CI 4.70-7.50). The results suggest the prevalence of chlamydial infection is low in cattle in Ireland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    Mario Beffa

    has limited potential to improve fertility and calf survival in beef cattle (Patterson et al., ... Recent studies have, however, reported relatively high estimates for pregnancy rate ...... Genetic relationship among body condition score, type, fertility.

  18. Changes in the beef cattle industry through application of scientific ...

    insemination, oestrus synchronization, and management systems for ... Most of these changes have had and will have an economic impact on the ..... of ET to produce bulls for use in AI in beef cattle is still in ..... and future implications - 1983.

  19. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.

  20. Characterization and Strains of Mycobacteria Isolated from Cattle ...

    Characterization and Strains of Mycobacteria Isolated from Cattle Carcasses in Refrigerated Slaughterhouse Bamako Goal. Y S Kone, A Cisse, S S Sidibe, Z Tarnagda, S Diarra, D Yassa, P Coulibaly, B Traore ...

  1. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    Mario Beffa

    A selection and line x environment interaction study with grade Afrikaner cattle ... Relatively large negative (-0.4) direct-maternal genetic correlations were indicated for .... or management groups which inflate the variance between paternal.

  2. Ensiling characteristics and feeding value of silage made from cattle ...

    In this investigation, silage made from cattle waste being ensiled with maize residues (ECW), was evaluated ... high concentrate ration tended to be of a better quality and scored 8,9 points out of 13in comparison ..... reclaimed fecal residue.

  3. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    Schetters, T.P.; Bishop, R.; Crampton, M.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.; Miller, R.; Mosqueda, J.; Patarroyo, J.; Rodriguez-Valle, M.; Scoles, G.A.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 24 (2016), s. 105 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CATVAC * vaccine * cattle * tick * Rhipicephalus microplus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  4. Empowering women to tackle cattle lung disease | IDRC ...

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... While Somali women play a key role in cattle rearing, only men tend to ... addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to ... to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, ... Solutions.

  5. Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact

    Stallings, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Describes how distiller's grain's with solubles (DDGS) are produced, covers their protein, fat or oil and phosphorous quantity and quality, provides recommendations for use as feed for dairy cattle, as well as recommendations to minimize environmental impacts.

  6. New hematological key for bovine leukemia virus-infected Japanese Black cattle.

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Mari; Kirino, Yumi; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo

    2018-02-20

    The European Community's (EC) Key, which is also called Bendixen's Key, is a well-established bovine leukemia virus (BLV) diagnostic method that classifies cattle according to the absolute lymphocyte count and age. The EC Key was originally designed for dairy cattle and is not necessarily suitable for Japanese Black (JB) beef cattle. This study revealed the lymphocyte counts in the BLV-free and -infected JB cattle were significantly lower than those in the Holstein cattle. Therefore, applying the EC Key to JB cattle could result in a large number of undetected BLV-infected cattle. Our proposed hematological key, which was designed for JB cattle, improves the detection of BLV-infected cattle by approximately 20%. We believe that this study could help promote BLV control.

  7. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  8. Image Segmentation of Cattle Muzzle using Region Merging Statistical Technic

    Jullend Gatc

    2015-01-01

    Making an identification system that able to assist in obtaining, recording and organizing information is the first step in developing any kind of recording system. Nowadays, many recording systems were developed with artificial markers although it has been proved that it has many limitations. Biometrics use of animals provides a solution to these restrictions. On a cattle, biometric features contained in the cattle muzzle that can be used as a pattern recognition sample. Pattern recognition ...

  9. Unethical practices relating to cattle freedom, care and control ...

    In animal care, 40.0%, 31.3%, 30.0%, 12.5%, 7.5% and 5.0% were of the opinion that cattle could be respectively tired, hungry, sick, heady, injured and being in a strange environment might be the reasons for their refusal to obey the instruction of the handlers. In controlling the cattle for a direction, 85.7%, 10.4% and 3.9% ...

  10. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  11. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  12. Genomic Characterisation of the Indigenous Irish Kerry Cattle Breed

    Browett, Sam; McHugo, Gillian; Richardson, Ian W.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Fahey, Alan G.; Kearney, John F.; Correia, Carolina N.; Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; MacHugh, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne) revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH) showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland. PMID:29520297

  13. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomic Characterisation of the Indigenous Irish Kerry Cattle Breed

    Sam Browett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland.

  16. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria.

  17. A meta-analysis of cortisol concentration, vocalization, and average daily gain associated with castration in beef cattle.

    Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Mederos, America; Manteca, Xavier; Turner, Simon; McManus, Concepta; Zago, Daniele; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2017-10-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) were performed to summarize all scientific evidence for the effects of castration in male beef cattle on welfare indicators based on cortisol concentration, average daily gain (ADG), and vocalization. We searched five electronic databases, conference proceedings, and experts were contacted electronically. The main inclusion criteria involved completed studies using beef cattle up to one year of age undergoing surgical and non-surgical castration that presented cortisol concentration, ADG, or vocalization as an outcome. A random effect MA was conducted for each indicator separately with the mean of the control and treated groups. A total of 20 publications reporting 26 studies and 162 trials were included in the MA involving 1814 cattle. Between study heterogeneity was observed when analysing cortisol (I 2 =56.7%) and ADG (I 2 =79.6%). Surgical and non-surgical castration without drug administration compared to uncastrated animals showed no change (P≥0.05) in cortisol level. Multimodal therapy for pain did not decrease (P≥0.05) cortisol concentration after 30min when non-surgical castration was performed. Comparison between surgical castration, with and without anaesthesia, showed a tendency (P=0.077) to decrease cortisol levels after 120min of intervention. Non-surgical and surgical castration, performed with no pain mitigation, increased and tended to increase the ADG by 0.814g/d (P=0.001) and by 0.140g/d (P=0.091), respectively, when compared to a non-castrated group. Our MA study demonstrates an inconclusive result to draw recommendations on preferred castration practices to minimize pain in beef cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  19. Evaluation of response to super-ovulation, estrous synchronization ...

    Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... For embryo recipient about 113 females of pure Boran and Holstein Friesian x Boran crossbred cows and heifers ... All data were analyzed using frequency distribution and Chi-square test. Results ...

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of Vietnamese indigenous cattle populations by microsatellites

    Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong

    2013-01-01

    Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese...... geographic distances. Structure analysis indicated five homogeneous clusters. The Brahman, Lang Son, Ha Giang and U Dau Riu cattle were assigned to independent clusters while Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen cattle were grouped in a single cluster. We conclude that Vietnamese indigenous cattle have high levels...

  1. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  2. A method to discriminate between closely related bovine major histocompatibility complex class I alleles by combining established PCR-SSP assays with RFLPs.

    Svitek, N; Nzau, B; Steinaa, L; Nene, V

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-SSP-RFLP) method to rapidly differentiate between the A18 and A18 variant (v) BoLA haplotypes and between A14 and A15/A15v BoLA haplotypes in Holstein/Friesian cattle. We used published SSP to PCR amplify BoLA alleles expressed in animals of known haplotype and exposed the amplicons to the restriction enzyme PvuII that was predicted to cut at a unique site in the middle of BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) and BoLA-1*00901 (A15) but not in BoLA-6*01301 (A18) or BoLA-1*02301 (A14) alleles. Whereas the method does not discriminate between the A15 and A15v haplotypes, as the BoLA-1*00902 allele associated with A15v also contains a PvuII site, we are interested in cattle of A18 and A14 haplotype for vaccine related studies. Our results also indicated that the BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) allele is much more abundant than BoLA-6*01301 (A18) in the cattle that we sampled. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2018-01-02

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive F IS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, F ST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  4. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  5. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Methods recognized as acceptable for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The most common injectable anesthetic agent used for euthanasia is pentobarbital and while it may be the preferred method for euthanasia in sensitive situations, it creates significant challenges for disposal of animal remains. Gunshot and captive bolt are the more common methods used on farms and ranches because they are inexpensive, humane and do not complicate carcass disposal. Firearms must be of the proper caliber and loaded with the proper ammunition. Captive bolt, equipped with a penetrating bolt, is to be used on adult animals, whereas the non-penetrating (mushroom head) bolt should be reserved for use in calves (three months of age or less). In addition to selection of the proper firearm or captive bolt, successful euthanasia requires use of the proper anatomic site and adjunctive steps to assure death. The indicators of unconsciousness and death must be clearly understood and confirmed in all situations involving euthanasia. Tools for the efficient depopulation of a large feedlot, dairy or beef cattle operation as may be required in a national animal health emergency situation have been developed and validated as effective. Finally, the human impact of euthanasia cannot be underestimated. Symptoms of mental illness including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals. Abstract Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and

  6. Conservation and Improvement Strategy for Fogera Cattle: A Lesson for Ethiopia Ingenious Cattle Breed Resource

    Assemu Tesfa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is initiated to design appropriate conservation strategies and breeding scheme for Fogera cattle breed that will be used as a guide for other Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed. Two types of data, on-farm and on-station, were used; the on-farm data was collected from three districts, namely, Fogera, Dera, and Bahir Dar Zuria; those are expected as the home of the breed. A total of 150 farmers, which are knowledgeable and having at least one cattle of Fogera phenotype in their herd, were purposively selected and interviewed. Additionally, farmer’s focus group discussion (FGD was conducted to capture the historical background, population, and distribution of the breed. SPSS (version 16 and index method was used to analyze the quantitative and scoring data’s, respectively. A meeting at national and regional level was also conducted to evaluate the existing conservation strategy and to identify the major stakeholders for the strategy. The main reasons to conserve Fogera breed are due to presence of interrelated constraints, presence of unique traits of the breed, better attitude of farmers, and decreasing population trend of the breed. Community-based in situ conservation strategy, to ensure the participation of the community, was designed for the breed. With the conservation strategy, related activities like feed development, animal health interventions, market linkage, and development of cooperatives will be implemented to improve the working environment. The stakeholders that are identified as an actor in the strategy should realize their honest participation for the sustainability of conservation and improvement of the breed.

  7. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  8. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle. PMID

  9. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  10. Causes of postpartum anoestrus in cattle in the tropics

    Hansel, W.; Alila, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anoestrus is a major cause of economic losses in cattle in most tropical countries. The length of the period from parturition to first oestrus varies greatly in cattle in the tropics and is influenced by many factors, including endocrine events, management, nutrition, heat and humidity, genetic-environmental interactions, diseases and internal and external parasites. Results of recent research on endocrinology of the postpartum cow are particularly relevant to the problem in tropical cattle. Development of a pulsatile pattern of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion is necessary for induction of the first postpartum oestrus, and many cows undergo a short episode of elevated plasma progesterone levels immediately before the first oestrus. Adrenal corticosteroids inhibit development of the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion. The concept is developed that elevated levels of cortisol, resulting from the stresses of heat, high humidity, malnutrition, parasites and diseases to which tropical cattle are often exposed, contribute to anoestrus. Techniques developed for oestrous cycle synchronization of cyclic cattle have been found to induce first oestrus and a fertile ovulation in a significant percentage of anoestrous lactating beef cattle. These treatments involve short-term (6-7 day) progesterone treatments, followed by single injections of prostaglandin Fsub(2α) and insemination 80 hours later. Some success has also been achieved in shortening the postpartum interval by pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone which, in turn, causes pulsatile release of LH, and by administering progestational compounds for short periods of time. Improved management, particularly oestrus detection and insemination at the optimum time, could contribute greatly to reducing the postpartum interval in tropical cattle. Nutritional factors that result in reduced haemoglobin levels (trace mineral deficiencies and parasite infestations) also cause

  11. Spontaneous coffee senna poisoning in cattle: report on 16 outbreaks

    Priscila M.S. Carmo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen outbreaks of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna that occurred in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were reviewed. The great majority (75% of the outbreaks occurred in adult cattle at pasture during the autumn and winter months with 50% in May, evidencing a striking seasonality. Mortality rates varied from 4.2% to 55.2% and cattle died 2 days up to 2 weeks after showing clinical signs that included dry feces (occasionally diarrhea, muscle weakness, reluctance to move, tachypnea, instability of the hind limbs with dragging of the toes, tremors in muscles of the thighs, neck, and head, ear dropping, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency and death. Myoglobinuria characterized by a dark red or black discolored urine was a consistent finding in cattle affected at pasture but not in those poisoned by ration contaminated with coffee senna beans. Creatine phosphokinase serum activity was marked ly elevated. Main gross changes observed in 23 necropsies involved skeletal muscles of the hind limbs. These changes consisted of varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages were present in the hearts of all affected cattle. Histologically a segmental degenerative myopathy of striated muscles was present in every case and had a multifocal polyphasic or monophasic character. Myocardial (3/23, hepatic (3/13, renal (3/10, and splenic (1/6 microscopic lesions were observed occasionally. Myocardial lesions were mild and consisted of vacuolation of cardiomyocytes or focal fibrosis. Hepatic changes consisted of diffuse hepatocelular vacuolation, cytosegrosomes within hepatocytes, and individual hepatocellular necrosis. Kidneys had vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium associated with acidophilic casts (proteinosis within tubular lumina. In the spleen there was marked necrosis of lymphocytes of the white pulp. No histological changes were found in the brains of 13 affected cattle. The data of this

  12. Impressions of cattle farming in the landscape of Uruguay

    Leonardo Gómez Sena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of cattle farming has influenced and modeled the social and economic organization of Uruguay along history and has culturally acquired several expressions, including decisive evidence in the historical organization of its territory and the conformation of its rural landscape. The historic marks of cattle farming are key to understand the logics of land use planning and the natural-culturalconstruction of the Uruguayan landscape and have exerted great influence on the country’s internal policy organization, the division of land, the organization of roads and trails, its toponymy, etc. From the modifications of flora and fauna caused by the first introduction of cattle in the country, the conformation of the rural landscape of our territory has been linked to cattle farming, especially to the economic unit represented by the “estancia ganadera” (cattle farm. Its historic evolution delineated processes for land occupancy, holding and exploitation which lasted very long periods and with the so called “modernization of cattle farming” established the way and typology of rural architecture as well as forestry treatment and equipment which defined the predominant profile of rural areas in the country. The estate systems related to the industrialization of meat, which resulted from the productive situation of the country in the 70’s are also as significant, although their territorial dimension is much less. These industrial remains (unequally preserved, recognized and restored require to be approached as cultural landscapes and demand the set up of their links with the territory and the productive chain. This approach focuses on recognizing and activating the most significant elements of this cultural heritage, integrating its management to cattle farming today and to sustainable strategies of local and regional productive development.

  13. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application.

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-04-17

    Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  14. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Jan Keith Shearer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  15. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  16. [Laminitis in cattle: a literature review].

    Lischer, C; Ossent, P

    1994-10-01

    Worldwide afflictions of the claws belong to the economically important diseases in dairy cattle. The significance of laminitis has gained importance in the last years since the condition is regarded as the most important predisposing factor for the development of lesions such as sole ulcer, white line disease and heel horn erosion. Apart from the clinical stages (acute, subacute, chronic, chronic-recurrent) there is also a subclinical form of laminitis which does not cause lameness. It is characterized by soft yellowish sole and heel horn with haemorrhages in the sole and along the white line. Laminitis is a multifactorial event in which nutrition, genetic disposition and the perinatal period, combined with the associated diseases of high-yielding cows, have a particular significance. Currently, two principally different hypotheses on the pathogenesis are discussed. The generally accepted theory bases on a disturbance in the microcirculation of the corium. According to the other theory the circulatory disturbances are secondary to changes which occur in the horn producing cells of the stratum basale of the epidermis. The predisposing factors and the pathogenesis of laminitis are discussed in the light of possible therapeutic and prophylactic measures.

  17. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G.; Leidl, W.

    1982-01-01

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus. (author)

  18. Synchronization of Estrus in Cattle: A Review

    R. Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numbers of estrus synchronization programmes are available in cattle based on the use of various hormones like progesterone, prostaglandin F2a and their various combinations with other hormones like estrogen and Gonadotrophin Releasing hormone (GnRH. Selection of appropriate estrus synchronization protocol should be made on the basis of management capabilities and expectations of the farmer. Synchronization of oestrus can be accomplished with the injection of prostaglandin F2a alone, but it needs proper detection of the ovarian status of the cows as prostaglandin F2a is active in only functional corpus luteum in between 8 to 17 days of estrous cycle. Progesterone may reduce fertility up to 14 percent, but short time progesterone exposure (less than 14 days is beneficial. Addition of GnRH in the Progesterone or Prostaglandin based synchronization programme is helpful for more synchrony in estrus as GnRH may be helpful to synchronize the oestrous cycle in delayed pubertal heifers and post partum cows (Post partum anoestrum and further a single, timed artificial insemination is possible with this method. New methods of synchronizing estrus in which the GnRH-PG protocol is preceded by progesterone treatment offer effective synchronization of estrus with high fertility. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 136-141

  19. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep

    Allcroft, R

    1951-09-15

    The danger of paint and other lead compounds to the bovine is well recognized and has been recorded and discussed fairly extensively from time to time. The literature indicates that the calf is extremely susceptible to lead poisoning, but relatively little has been reported regarding the levels of lead in tissues of animals which have died as a result of lead poisoning, and still less in animals suspected of suffering from sub-lethal doses of lead compounds. In order to provide sufficient data to enable interpretation of figures obtained from tissues in cases of suspected lead poisoning sent in from the field, and to provide information on the metabolic fate of lead in ruminants, investigations were made at Weybridge on the absorption, excretion, retention and general metabolic effects of lead in both cattle and sheep and the results have been published in a series of five papers. In this brief review it is intended to discuss points from these and subsequent investigations which are likely to be of interest to the veterinarian.

  20. Dynamical patterns of cattle trade movements.

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions.

  1. CATTLE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CONFINED SUBMITTED IMMUNOCASTRATION

    J. M. Maluf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle cross breeds ½ Aberdeen Angus x ½Nelore and Nelore confined submitted to immunocastration 218 male animals were used, feedlot, averaging 342 kg, divided into three experimental groups, T1: 117 steers ½ Angus x ½ Nelore no castrated (ANC, T2: 51 Nelore steers uncastrated (NNC and T3: 50 Nellore steers immunocastrated (NIC. The experiment lasted 144 days of confinement. The selection of animals for group formation was according to the individual weight, breed, sex condition and age. For immunocastration it wasused Bopriva® vaccine. The rating was finished according to the parameter used by the meatpacking industry ranging from 1 to 5. The experimental design was completely randomized in three groups. For the analyzes the variables studied statistics were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test both at the 5% level of significance. The results showed differences (p <0.01 at various features of productive performance and carcass between treatments. For slaughter weight, the ANC animals were higher (with 582.1 kg to Nelore, regardless of sexual condition, and the NNC were in turn heavier than the NIC, 527.4 and 503.7 respectively. Finally, it observed that the use of immunocastration in Nellore animals provided a decrease in productive performance of confined animals, but provided better finish carcass similar to crossbred (ANC.

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF BALI CATTLE BREEDERS IN NUSA PENIDA

    Putu Agus Trisna Kusuma Antara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Penida is a pure breeding area of bali cattle, in which the cattle are mainly kept in conventional maintenance system and potentially infected by parasite, especially gastrointestinal nematodes. This study aims were to determine the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal nematodes in bali cattle breeders in Nusa Penida. Fecal samples were taken from 50 bali cattle breeders kept in cages (simantri and another 50 samples were from cattle not kept in cage. The floating method was used for morphological examination and prevalence, the data was analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results showed, the prevalence of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Nusa Penida was 25%. The prevalence of nematode infection in bali cattle that kept cages was lower compared to the cattle that were not kept in cage. Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria bovis were the gastrointestinal nematodes found in the infected cattle.

  3. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle. PMID:25875203

  4. Relationship of hepatic lipidosis to health and performance in dairy cattle.

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Emery, R S

    1986-04-15

    In a field study of 80 cows in 9 dairy herds, serial liver biopsies were performed over the peripartum period to determine degree of hepatic lipidosis. Cattle were separated into categories of mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis on the basis of maximal amounts of hepatic triglyceride that accumulated during this period. Number of cattle with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis were 52, 16, and 12, respectively. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had greater concentrations of hepatic triglyceride before calving and after parturition, and greater serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and body condition loss after parturition than cattle with mild hepatic lipidosis. Rate of disease and culling and death rate because of disease were greater in cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had reproductive performance equal to clinically normal cattle; however, cattle with moderate hepatic lipidosis had increased days to conception, possibly related to greater milk production.

  5. A novel SNP of Chemerin gene in cattle and its association with ...

    User

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... with carcass and meat quality traits of Qinchuan Cattle. Fubiao Song1 ... 2National Beef Cattle Improvement Centre, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, P. R. China. .... chemerin gene (GenBank: NC_007302) by Primer 5.0 software,.

  6. effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle dung ...

    Admin

    dung/poultry manure supplemented with 25 kg of urea (CDPMU) and (iii) cattle dung (CD) as ... Key words: Nitrogen Enrichment, Heavy Metals, Cattle Dung, Poultry Manure, Compost. .... available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base.

  7. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  8. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  9. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  10. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  11. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  12. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with 125 I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of 35 S and 125 I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any 125 I or 35 S-labeled surface proteins

  13. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  14. Assessing land use by cattle in heterogeneous environments

    Aline Cristina Sant'Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to describe preliminary results on assessment of land use by cattle, obtained in a pilot study using Geographic Information System (GIS. The research was carried out on a semi-natural pasture in Sweden, where the geographic positions of one cow were recorded during 25 consecutive days during summer. The cow, wearing a GPS collar, was integrated in a herd of 53 Hereford cattle. Each location point registered for the animal was considered as a sampling unit (N=3,097. The spatial distribution of ground declivity, water sources, cattle tracks, and classes of woody vegetation cover (forest, grassland with trees and open grassland were recorded. The storage, processing and data analysis were carried out using the Idrisi and GS+ softwares. Three occupation zones were identified in function of the variation in the space used by the animal, which were occupied in a cyclical pattern; with the animal moving from one zone to another in cycles of five days. It was also clear that the cattle distribution in the area was neither random nor uniform, and it was affected by environmental characteristics that act as conditioners on its distribution. These preliminary results suggest that definition of zones of occupation and the environmental conditioners are promising tools to understand the land use by cattle

  15. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water bu...

  16. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering

    Chro??kov?, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottov?, Dana; ?imek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of...

  17. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  18. Comparative Economics of Cattle and Wildlife Ranching in the Zimbabwe Midlands

    Kreuter, Urs P.

    1992-01-01

    The economics of ranches in the Zimbabwe Midlands, generating income from cattle, or wildlife, or both, were compared during 1989/90 to test the claim that wildlife ranching can generate greater profits than cattle ranching on semi-arid African savannas. Both financial (market) prices and economic prices (opportunity cost) were used. Financial data were obtained from 15 cattle, 7 wildlife and 13 mixed ranches in four areas with wildlife and from 15 cattle ranches in two areas with sparse w...

  19. Indigenous Bali cattle is most suitable for sustainable small farming in Indonesia.

    Martojo, H

    2012-01-01

    Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  1. The genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across Europe

    Scheu, Amelie; Powell, Adam; Bollongino, Ruth; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Tresset, Anne; Çakirlar, Canan; Benecke, Norbert; Burger, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background Cattle domestication started in the 9th millennium BC in Southwest Asia. Domesticated cattle were then introduced into Europe during the Neolithic transition. However, the scarcity of palaeogenetic data from the first European domesticated cattle still inhibits the accurate reconstruction

  2. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan.

    Abaker, Ismail A; Salih, Diaeldin A; Haj, Lima M El; Ahmed, Rawia E; Osman, Manal M; Ali, Awadia M

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one Darfur region.

  3. Virulence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus Ibis)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for insect control in households. In this study, six Cattle Egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) A/duck/Vietnam/40D/04 (H5N1) to investigate a possible epidemiologic role for Cattle Egrets in outbreaks of H5N1 AI in Vietnam. The Cattle Egrets were...

  4. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in OK. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency is consistent in different...

  5. Loci and pathways associated with uterine capacity for pregnancy and fertility in beef cattle

    Infertility and subfertility negatively impact the economics and reproductive performance of cattle. Of note, significant pregnancy loss occurs in cattle during the first month of pregnancy, yet little is known about the genetic loci influencing pregnancy success and loss in cattle. To identify quan...

  6. The effect of dietary rations on the gut morphology of Zebu Cattle ...

    Studies in the Bos taurus cattle have shown the gut morphology to be affected by diet, but there is a paucity of such information in the Bos indicus cattle. A study was conducted to evaluate the morphology of digestive tract of the Tanzanian Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle under different dietary treatments. A total of 54 TSHZ ...

  7. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    2010-01-01

    ... same individual, and (A) The cattle being moved originate from a herd in which (1) All the cattle were... affected may be moved interstate without further restriction. Female cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to be affected may be moved interstate only in accordance with § 78.10 of...

  8. The effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle in Dar es ...

    A retrospective study was carried out to assess the effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle. Trypanosome infection was monitored in free grazing dairy cattle before and after El Nino in Dar es Salaam. The study involved 49 smallholder dairy herds with a total of 570 dairy cattle. Trypanosomes were identified by ...

  9. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  10. Cattle mortality due to poisoning in Spain: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    García-Arroyo, R.; Míguez, M.P.; Hevia, M.L.; Quiles, A.

    2015-07-01

    The lack of nationwide public databases on poisoning in cattle makes it difficult to investigate this issue. Hence, we conducted an epidemiological study using the data on cattle poisoning provided by an insurance company (2000-2005), to determine the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain and to assess the influence of the following variables: type of farming, age, sex, time of year, year and region. We observed a mortality rate of 23.25 per 100,000 animals in Spain with a higher rate in beef than dairy cattle (32.14 vs. 4.51 per 100,000 animals). There were also differences in the mortality rate between breeding cattle and future breeders, affecting dairy and beef cattle in a different way. In dairy cattle, we found differences between the years analysed. In beef cattle, the time of year with highest risk of poisoning was the last quarter (19.45 per 100,000 animals), while the lowest mortality rate was observed in the first quarter (1.33 per 100,000). There were pronounced differences between regions in beef cattle, differences being non-significant in dairy cattle. Lastly, in beef cattle, no differences were found between sexes. In summary, the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain is low, and the risk of poisoning is determined by the farming system, animals’ stage of development, time of year and region. (Author)

  11. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  12. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  13. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  14. Comparative studies of fibre digestion in cattle and buffaloes

    Abdullah, N.; Ho, Y.W.; Mahyuddin, M.; Jalaludin, S.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to compare the rumen function in swamp buffaloes and Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle fed fibrous diets. The parameters investigated involved rumen function, microbial population and urea transfer to the digestive tract. The results showed that swamp buffaloes had a higher rumen ammonia and fermentation activity than KK cattle when the two species were fed guinea grass or straw diets. Buffaloes also showed a faster rate of in situ dry matter degradation of grass and straw diets. The bacteria and fungal species involved in plant digestion were morphologically indistinguishable between the two animal species. Urea transfer to the rumen seemed to be better in buffaloes than in cattle. The superiority of buffaloes in digesting fibrous feed material could partly be explained by their ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia and a more efficient urea-N metabolism. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Structure of the nucleoli in domestic cattle spermatocytes.

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Smalec, Elżbieta

    2012-10-08

    The work was aimed at determining the number and morphology of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division in domestic cattle males. The use of AgNO₃ staining, commonly applied in cytogenetics for the identification of nucleolar organiser regions, made it possible to identify nucleoli in first-order spermatocytes. One nucleolus was identified in each analysed cell. Considerable morphological differentiation of the nucleoli during the prophase of the first meiotic division, particularly in leptotene, unobserved in other farm animal species, was noticed. Dark-hued grain-like structures were found within the disintegrating nucleoli, corresponding approximately or exactly to the number of the nucleolar organiser regions in the domestic cattle karyotype. Dark areas were identified in the selected prometaphase chromosomes. Their number corresponded with the number of active NORs defined in the domestic cattle karyotype.

  16. Bartonella bovis and Candidatus Bartonella davousti in cattle from Senegal.

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Sambou, Masse; Scandola, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2017-02-01

    In Senegal, domestic ruminants play a vital role in the economy and agriculture and as a food source for people. Bartonellosis in animals is a neglected disease in the tropical regions, and little information is available about the occurrence of this disease in African ruminants. Human bartonellosis due to Bartonella quintana has been previously reported in Senegal. In this study, 199 domestic ruminants, including 104 cattle, 43 sheep, and 52 goats were sampled in villages from the Senegalese regions of Sine Saloum and Casamance. We isolated 29 Bartonella strains, all exclusively from cattle. Molecular and genetic characterization of isolated strains identified 27 strains as Bartonella bovis and two strains as potentially new species. The strains described here represent the first Bartonella strains isolated from domestic ruminants in Senegal and the first putative new Bartonella sp. isolated from cattle in Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle.

    Brown, C G

    1990-04-01

    Tropical bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma may be controlled by one or more of the following methods: i) management, with particular emphasis on movement control; ii) vector control by application of acaricides, preventing transmission of disease; iii) treatment of clinical disease using specific chemotherapeutics; iv) immunization with live vaccines; and v) the use of cattle resistant to ticks or the disease. Of these the most important and effective control method is the use of a live cell culture vaccine attenuated by prolonged culture in vitro of mononuclear cells persistently infected with macroschizonts of T. annulata. This vaccine, used chiefly in susceptible taurine dairy cattle, can now be complemented by using novel chemotherapeutic naphthoquinones--parvaquone and buparvaquone--which are very effective in treatment of the clinical disease in these valuable cattle.

  18. Direct effects of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.

    Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S

    2014-06-01

    Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Structure of the nucleoli in domestic cattle spermatocytes

    Katarzyna Andraszek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The work was aimed at determining the number and morphology of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division in domestic cattle males. The use of AgNO3 staining, commonly applied in cytogenetics for the identification of nucleolar organiser regions, made it possible to identify nucleoli in first-order spermatocytes. One nucleolus was identified in each analysed cell. Considerable morphological differentiation of the nucleoli during the prophase of the first meiotic division, particularly in leptotene, unobserved in other farm animal species, was noticed. Dark-hued grain-like structures were found within the disintegrating nucleoli, corresponding approximately or exactly to the number of the nucleolar organiser regions in the domestic cattle karyotype. Dark areas were identified in the selected prometaphase chromosomes. Their number corresponded with the number of active NORs defined in the domestic cattle karyotype.

  20. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  1. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    Ali Nikpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Re­cently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Fi­nally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, en­gorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.

  2. Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

    A. Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18% followed by white (28.53%, fawn (15.29%, grey (13.53%, black (4.41% and mixed (7.06%. The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%. Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%, black hooves (84.71% and black horn (100%. Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

  3. Differences in adaptation to tropical weather between buffaloes and cattle

    Wang Shi Chang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty buffaloes and twenty Vietnamese yellow cattle from peri-urban Hue city were kept indoor and used for measurement of effect of environmental temperature (To and humidity (H%. The To and H% were recorded by thermo-hygrometers for temperature and humidity index (THI measurement. Breathing rate was observed by moving rate of diaphragm, heart beat rhythms was calculated by stethoscope around 3 to 4 ribs and body To tested by 42oC thermo-meters in animal rectums. The results showed that the To in the area studied varied widely during the day and when To increased H% often decreased. During the study period the average To changed from 24oC in February to 39oC in May. The H% varied from 57 to 86. The environmental To and H% had very little effect on body To for both types of animals (37oC to 39oC but there were changes in heart beat from 42 to 45 in cattle but from 44 to 57 in buffaloes. In warmest period with high H% (THI 83 breathing rates in cattle varied from 18 to 21 while in buffaloes from 20 to 35 and in May it increased to 50. At the warmest time of the day the heart beat in cattle were 42 while in buffaloes 57. The breathing rate in cattle only increased when ambient To was above 39 degrees. The results clearly showed that buffaloes were easily stressed when To and H% increased. Buffaloes need water and swamps to help to avoid heat stress while indigenous cattle are much better adapted to high environmental To and H%.

  4. Cobalt-deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinaemia and oxidative status of cattle.

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Jahn, B; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-01-01

    In ruminants, Co is required for the synthesis of vitamin B12, which in turn is needed for the resynthesis of methionine by methylation of homocysteine and thus, cobalamin deficiency may induce hyperhomocysteinaemia which is brought into context with perturbations of the antioxidative-prooxidative balance. The present study was conducted to explore whether Co deficiency in cattle is also associated with homocysteine-induced disturbances of oxidative status. Co deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals on either a basal maize-silage-based diet that was moderately low in Co (83 micrograms Co/kg DM), or the same diet supplemented with Co to a total of 200 micrograms Co/kg DM, for 43 weeks. Co deficiency was apparent from a reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver and an accumulation of homocysteine in plasma which was in excess of 4.8 times higher in Co-deprived cattle than in controls. The much increased level of circulating homocysteine did not indicate severe disturbances in antioxidant-prooxidant balance as measured by individual markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and the antioxidative defence system. There were no quantitative difference in plasma thiol groups, nor were there significant changes in concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, microsomal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl groups in liver. However, there was a trend toward increased plasma carbonyl levels indicating a slight degradation of plasma proteins in the hyperhomocysteinaemic cattle. Analysis of the hepatic catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity revealed an 11% reduction in Co-deficient cattle relative to the controls. These results indicate that long-term moderate Co deficiency may induce a severe accumulation of plasma homocysteine in cattle, but considerable abnormalities in oxidative status failed to appear.

  5. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. The value of embryo transfer to cattle breeding in Britain.

    Wilmut, I; Hume, A

    1978-08-05

    An analysis is made of the maximum expenditure which could be justified in embryo transfer in cattle is used to: increase the rate of genetic improvement of dairy or beef cattle; increase the frequency of twin-pregnancies; and expedite a change of breed. Estimates of maximum justifiable expenditure have been compared with an estimate of the cost of non-surgical transfer. Embryo transfer should be used in elite beef herds to increase selection intensity, particularly if bulls from such herds can be used for artificial insemination. Other commercial applications will not be economically justifiable until the cost of transfer has fallen by 50 to 80 per cent.

  7. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  8. Conservation versus traditional cattle farming - the economic implications

    J.W. Hearne

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of South Africa traditional subsistence farming practices entail overstocking of cattle. The resulting damage to the veld can be arrested only by providing the farmers with economic incentives to reduce stocking densities. In this paper cattle offtake strategies are investigated with a view to maximising revenue at lower stocking densities. This is achieved by developing a mathematical model which predicts the revenue generated by a given strategy. It is shown that although the model is nonlinear, a transformation can be made to enable optimisation by linear programming.

  9. Banteng and Bali cattle in Indonesia: status and forecasts.

    Purwantara, B; Noor, R R; Andersson, G; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Bali cattle still represents 27% of the total cattle population in Indonesia, and it is considered the pillar breed for small farmers. Moreover, it is a breed of evolutionary importance regarding its direct ancestry from Banteng. However, there is a need for the establishment of a rational system for the evaluation of breeding soundness for indigenous Bali bulls to be used as sires for artificial insemination breeding programmes. Moreover, there is a need for cryobanking of well-identified genetic resources pertaining their use in evolutionary research and application as essential germplasm in breeding programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  11. Caractérisations quantitative et qualitative des performances laitières des troupeaux bovins menés en hors sol dans une zone littorale semi-aride (Tunisie

    Amani HOUCHATI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article referred to the dairy cattle population of breeders adherents in program of Dairy Control led by the Office of Livestock and Pasture (OEP. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the milk yields (quantity and chemical composition. Data collected from 2006 to 2014 on productive traits (nine herds; n=264 lactations of Holstein Friesian (HF dairy cattle in Monastir (semi-arid coastal zone in Tunisia were used to determine milk yield. These data were from 119 dairy cows/heifers. Data were analyzed using fixed effect analysis of variance. Results showed that milk production and composition were relatively low, with a large variation between animals. The average of milk production is 4963 ± 1520 kg for total production and 14 ± 4 kg for daily production. The means of fat and protein counts were respectively 3.64 ± 0.46% and 2.94 ± 0.26%. Lactation number and lactation length were the main sources of variation affecting the milk yield. Calving year had a significant effect on chemical composition of milk. This confirms the influence of environmental effects on milk constituents. Improving the level of nutrition as well as herd management is required for optimal milk yields and rich chemical composition.

  12. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  13. Electronic technology

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  14. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged cattle and calves cattle than for beef or dairy calves, for both haematology (pcattle and calves aged cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged cattle.

  15. Differences in innate and adaptive immune response traits of Pahari (Indian non-descript indigenous breed) and Jersey crossbred cattle.

    Verma, Subhash; Thakur, Aneesh; Katoch, Shailja; Shekhar, Chander; Wani, Aasim Habib; Kumar, Sandeep; Dohroo, Shweta; Singh, Geetanjali; Sharma, Mandeep

    2017-10-01

    Cattle are an integral part of the largely agrarian economy of India. Indigenous breeds of cattle comprise about 80% of total cattle population of the country and contribute significantly to the overall milk production. There are 40 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle and a number of uncharacterized non-descript cattle. Pahari cattle of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India are one such non-descript indigenous breed. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of haematobiochemical parameters and innate and adaptive immune response traits of Pahari cattle and a comparison with Jersey crossbred cattle. The study shows demonstrable differences in the two breeds with respect to some innate and adaptive immunological traits. This is a first attempt to characterize immune response traits of Pahari cattle and the results of the study provide an understanding of breed differences in immune status of cattle which could be useful for their breeding and conservations programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Web Based Cattle Disease Expert System Diagnosis with forward Chaining Method

    Zamsuri, Ahmad; Syafitri, Wenni; Sadar, Muhamad

    2017-12-01

    Cattle is one of the livestock who have high economic potential, whether for livestock, cattle seed, or even for food stock. Everything that comes from Cattle is a treasure for example the Milk, the Meat, and Cattle-hide. The factor that cause Cattles to die is the spread of disease that could crock up the Cattle’s health. So that the Expert system is needed to utilize and analye the Cattle’s disease so it could detect the disease without going to the veterinarian. Forward chaining method is one of the correct method in this expert system wherein began with Symptoms to determine the illness. From this matter, we built a web based expert system application on Cattles disease to ease the disease detection and showing the brief information about the Cattles itself.

  17. Independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in North Eastern Asian cattle.

    Mannen, H; Kohno, M; Nagata, Y; Tsuji, S; Bradley, D G; Yeo, J S; Nyamsamba, D; Zagdsuren, Y; Yokohama, M; Nomura, K; Amano, T

    2004-08-01

    In order to clarify the origin and genetic diversity of cattle in North Eastern Asia, this study examined mitochondrial displacement loop sequence variation and frequencies of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Y chromosome haplotypes in Japanese, Mongolian, and Korean native cattle. In mitochondrial analyses, 20% of Mongolian cattle carried B. indicus mitochondrial haplotypes, but Japanese and Korean cattle carried only B. taurus haplotypes. In contrast, all samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotypes. This may be due to the import of zebu and other cattle during the Mongol Empire era with subsequent crossing with native taurine cattle. B. taurus mtDNA sequences fall into several geographically distributed haplogroups and one of these, termed here T4, is described in each of the test samples, but has not been observed in Near Eastern, European or African cattle. This may have been locally domesticated from an East Eurasian strain of Bos primigenius.

  18. The Electron

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  19. Oligofructose overload induces lameness in cattle.

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, J M D; Telezhenko, E; Capion, N; Ekstrøm, C T; Thoefner, M B

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to describe the clinical orthopedic implications of oligofructose overload. A group of 8 nonpregnant dairy heifers were given an oral dose of oligofructose (17 g/kg of body weight). At predefined times during a period spanning 3 d before and 9 d after oligofructose overload, the heifers underwent a clinical examination including locomotion scoring, hoof-testing, and palpation of tarso-crural joints, as well as the collection of blood and ruminal fluid samples. Locomotion sessions were videotaped; subsequently, locomotion was blind-scored. Locomotion scores increased after oligofructose overload and declined toward the end of the study period. The greatest locomotion scores were recorded on d 3 to 5 (60 to 120 h) where 12 of 42 (29%) locomotion scores were 3 and 13 of 42 (32%) were score 2. Positive reactions to hoof-testing were observed from 30 h after oligofructose overload and reached a maximum on d 7 and 9 where 12 of 28 (43%) reactions were marked positive. Distension of the tarso-crural joints was observed from 24 h after oligofructose overload, with maximum distension being observed on d 2, in which 44 of 56 (79%) of observed joints were either moderately or severely distended. The heifers developed classic signs of acute ruminal and systemic acidosis after the oligofructose overload (ruminal pH 4.3 +/- 0.07, standard base excess -10.8 +/- 2.3 at 18 h). With few exceptions, clinical and laboratory variables returned to normal within 9 d of oligofructose overload. But, good body condition and previous feeding with grass apparently predisposed the heifers to more severe systemic affection. Oligofructose overload in dairy heifers induced ruminal and systemic acidosis, diarrhea, dehydration, and, subsequently, lameness, claw pain, and joint effusion, collectively interpreted as signs of acute laminitis. Oligofructose overload at 17 g/kg of body weight represented a relatively mild laminitis model in cattle, as demonstrated by a reasonably quick

  20. Inheritance of proportionate dwarfism in Angus cattle.

    Latter, M R; Latter, B D H; Wilkins, J F; Windsor, P A

    2006-04-01

    To determine the mode of inheritance of congenital proportionate dwarfism in Angus and Angus crossbred cattle, initially detected in two commercial beef herds in northern New South Wales. Matings of normal carrier sires to unrelated cows of diverse breeds, and of one carrier sire to his unaffected daughters. An unrelated Piedmontese bull was also mated to unaffected daughters of the carrier sires. Two carrier Angus bulls and nine unaffected daughters, all of whom were completely indistinguishable from normal animals, were purchased for controlled breeding studies under known nutritional and disease conditions. Affected and carrier individuals were examined for the presence of obvious chromosomal abnormalities. Angus dwarfism has been successfully reproduced under controlled experimental conditions over successive years using unrelated dams and is undoubtedly heritable. The high frequency of occurrence of affected individuals (23/61 = 0.38 +/- .06) among the progeny of matings of the Angus sires to unrelated females of diverse breeding is not compatible with recessive inheritance, because of the negligible frequency of proportionate dwarfism in the breeds of the dams. Both paternal and maternal transmission of the defect was demonstrated, so that imprinting in the strict sense of a gene that is only expressed when received from the male parent appears not to be involved. Tested individuals showed no evidence of gross chromosomal abnormality. Dominant autosomal inheritance with incomplete penetrance was indicated by the lack of expression of the defective gene in the two Angus sires and in three unaffected daughters who produced dwarf calves from matings to the Piedmontese bull. The mode of inheritance is that of a single autosomal dominant gene with a penetrance coefficient of 0.75 +/- 0.12, estimated from the observed incidence of 23/61 affected offspring of the two carrier Angus bulls mated to unrelated dams. Simple genetic models involving either (i) an unstable

  1. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Leptin gene polymorphism in Indian Sahiwal cattle by single strand ...

    These leptin gene variants can be sequenced and screened in the entire population to develop single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association studies with different productive and reproductive performances and marker assisted selection. Keywords: Leptin gene, PCR-SSCP, genetic variability, dairy cattle

  3. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  4. Cysticercosis in cattle and its public health implications in Mekelle ...

    animals highlights the public health significance of this infection. Key words: Cysticercosis, Cysticercus bovis, occurrence, taeniasis, Taenia saginata,. Introduction. Bovine cysticercosis is the infection of the cattle caused by Cysticercus bovis and consumption of the raw or undercooked meat results in human taeniasis. Also ...

  5. Leukocyte profile of different breeds of the Nigerian cattle in ...

    The total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential counts of WBC were determined using Neubauer Chamber and Thin blood smear techniques. Data generated were analysed using Genstat statistical software, with sex, breed and haemparasite species detected as factors. Results showed that 22% of the cattle were ...

  6. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    felixgg

    breed. Body measurements included facial, horn, ear and rump lengths; facial, cranial, shoulder, pelvic and ... matrices showed that pairs involving Kuri cattle had the higher differentiation of these populations. .... width between facial tuberosities), cranial width (minimum width of the frontal bone), muzzle circumference,.

  7. Trajectory and rate of desert vegetation response following cattle removal

    Robert L. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    Cattle have grazed continuously over the past three centuries in the Sky Island region and most work has focused on how these grazers have affected riparian and grassland habitats. I examined the effects of grazing on a fuller spectrum of desert habitats that occur in the close proximity to the San Bernardino Valley of Mexico and the United States. Plots in each of...

  8. Survey Of Ketosis And Hypoproteinaemia In Slaughtered Cattle In ...

    Serum ketone and total protein concentrations of 966 cattle slaughtered at the metropolitan abattoir, Maiduguri, Nigera, were estimated durng the dry and rainy months of the year. None of the sera had a titrable ketone concentration. Serum total protein (STP) concentration of <60.0 g/L,considered as hypoproteinaemia, was ...

  9. Cattle and elk responses to intensive timber harvest.

    Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Martin Vavra; Jennifer M. Boyd; Priscilla K. Coe; John G. Kie; Alan A. Ager; Norman J. Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Forested habitats for cattle and elk (Cervus elaphus) in the western United States have changed substantially in response to intensive timber management during the latter half of the 20th century. Consequently, the subject of how elk and other ungulates respond to timber management is a high-profile, long-standing issue that continues to be studied...

  10. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  11. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  12. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France

    Umhang, Gérald; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Mantion, Georges; Delabrousse, Eric; Millon, Laurence; Boué, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated. PMID:25417697

  13. 21 CFR 189.5 - Prohibited cattle materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... passed, it was found to be not adulterated. (3) Mechanically Separated (MS)(Beef) means a meat food... were created. (3) Records must be retained at the manufacturing or processing establishment or at a... deemed adulterated under section 402(a)(3) of the act. (3) Food additive status. Prohibited cattle...

  14. Day and night grazing by cattle in the Sahel

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  16. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  17. Genetic relationship between lactation curve traits of dairy cattle in ...

    Wasike Chrislukovian

    2014-08-23

    Aug 23, 2014 ... Lactation milk yield is an important trait in selection of dairy cattle all ... affect functional traits such as fertility, somatic cell count and mastitis, ... explain physiological issues reported in Kenyan herds and guide future selection decisions. The correlation between milk yield and lactation curve traits has not ...

  18. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  19. A suspected case of Addison's disease in cattle.

    Lambacher, Bianca; Wittek, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A 4.75-year old Simmental cow was presented with symptoms of colic and ileus. The clinical signs and blood analysis resulted in the diagnosis of suspected primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease). Although Addison's disease has been frequently described in other domestic mammals, to our knowledge, this disease has not previously been reported in cattle.

  20. Experimental infection of cattle with ovine Dichelobacter nodosus isolates

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Jørgensen, Hannah Joan; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative agent of ovine footrot, and there are strong indications that the bacterium can be transferred to cattle grazing on the same pasture as sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate if benign and virulent D. nodosus strains isolated from sheep can be ...

  1. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    Mario Beffa

    Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle. 3. Selection applied and response in calf growth traits. L.M. Beffa. 1,2,3. , J.B. van Wyk. 1# and G.J. Erasmus. 1. 1 University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. 2 Matopos Research Station, P. Bag K5137, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe ...

  2. Farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels under transaction cost ...

    The theoretical predictions of transaction cost economics were tested based on primary data collected from 230 cattle farm households in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality. The results of a multinomial logit regression revealed some unique insights. They showed that the probability of selling at auction ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  4. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six

  5. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    mgrobler

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... The estimated calving percentage of beef cattle is 62% in the commercial sector of South ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next ..... reproductive tract scoring in beef heifers in South Africa.

  6. Economic and reproductive consequences of retained placenta in dairy cattle.

    Joosten, I.; Stelwagen, J.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The financial losses due to retained placenta in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated by using two different methods of calculation. A data-set containing the birth records of 160,188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows provided data on the reproductive performance of cows with and without retained placenta. The

  7. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  8. Prevalence of major skin diseases of cattle and associated risk ...

    Dermatophilosis was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals 2-5 years of age, cross breed and semi-intensively managed cattle. Generally, the prevalence of tick was high, that of lice and mange mite was moderate prevalence whereas the prevalence of dermatophillosis, skin wart, LSD and photosensitization was low.

  9. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  10. Hematological and male hormonal profile of two cattle breeds ...

    Baseline data on the hematology of White Fulani and Muturu breeds of Cattle have been reported. However, very few documented studies have been carried out with regards to the reproductive hormonal profile of these breeds. Satisfactory reproductive performance is important to effective management and production as a ...

  11. Prevalence of trematode infection in cattle and common flukecides ...

    Furthermore, the study has shown that Albendazole, combination of Levamisole and Oxyclozanide (Nilzan plus®) and Nitroxynil (Trodax®) were the main anthelmintics used for treatment and control of trematode infections in cattle in the District. The present study has clearly shown that trematode infections were present in ...

  12. Scaling up development, production of CBPP vaccine for cattle in ...

    This project will allow researchers from Canada and Kenya to field trial a vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. This endemic livestock disease affects the livelihoods of more than 24 million cattle producers and results in annual losses estimated at US$1 billion across sub-Saharan Africa. About the vaccine Using ...

  13. Nutritive value of tea (Camellia sinensis, Linn) waste for cattle

    Ananthasubramaniam, C R; Menachery, M

    1977-01-01

    Tea waste, the residue of instant tea manufacturing, was subjected to feeding trails in cattle in order to find out its nutritive value. The material possesses a digestable crude protein of 9.7% and a total digestible N of 43.0%. The total tanins represented only 1.9%. Results indicated that tea waste is a potential feed source for livestock.

  14. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  15. Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Ogun state, Nigeria | Akinkuotu ...

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle faeces in Ogun state, Nigeria was determined by a commercially produced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Out of a total of 200 samples, 37.5% were positive for Cryptosporidium coproantigens. The highest rate of infection (78.1%) was observed in calves up to 3 ...

  16. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    While Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis are globally widespread, their ecology is not fully understood. Surveys of the species were undertaken in November 2012, and April 2013, in Lake Manyara National Park, Manyara Ranch, and outside the two protected areas. We investigated the effects of host identity, habitat type and host ...

  17. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  18. Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at ...

    No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the organs inspected including the lungs (0.15%) the liver (0.06%) and the spleen (0.05%). It was concluded that the prevalence of the disease is low in cattle and camel slaughtered at the abattoir. Strategic deworming of the ruminants and dogs with antihelmintics ...

  19. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  20. In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures | Ganguli | Vulture News

    In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures. Ishani Ganguli. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 50-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...