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Sample records for holstein red holstein

  1. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  2. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  3. Interacting Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtain...

  4. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pmilk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Holstein light quantum polarons

    OpenAIRE

    Barisic, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The polaron formation is investigated in the intermediate regime of the Holstein model by using an exact diagonalization technique for the one-dimensional infinite lattice. The numerical results for the electron and phonon propagators are compared with the nonadiabatic weak- and strong-coupling perturbation theories, as well as with the harmonic adiabatic approximation. A qualitative explanation of the crossover regime between the self-trapped and free-particle-like behaviors, not well-unders...

  6. The Holstein Polaron

    OpenAIRE

    Bonca, J.; Trugman, S. A.; Batistic, I.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a variational method to solve the Holstein model for an electron coupled to dynamical, quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The variational space can be systematically expanded to achieve high accuracy with modest computational resources (12-digit accuracy for the 1d polaron energy at intermediate coupling). We compute ground and low-lying excited state properties of the model at continuous values of the wavevector $k$ in essentially all parameter regimes. Our results for the p...

  7. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  8. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Interacting-Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2014-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of the Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) models on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtained clear-cut bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the F2H model. Composite bipolarons are formed above a critical electron-phonon coupling strength, which can survive the finite Hubbard U effect. We have constructed the phase diagram of F2H polarons and bipolarons, and discussed the phase separation in terms of the formation of composite bipolarons.

  10. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

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    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  11. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

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    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  12. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  13. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  14. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1

  15. Effects of breed and casein genetic variants on protein profile in milk from Swedish Red, Danish Holstein, and Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Frida; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Johansson, M

    2014-01-01

    , and technological properties of milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between casein (CN) genetic variants and detailed protein composition in Swedish and Danish dairy milk. Milk and DNA samples were collected from approximately 400 individual cows each of 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds......In selecting cows for higher milk yields and milk quality, it is important to understand how these traits are affected by the bovine genome. The major milk proteins exhibit genetic polymorphism and these genetic variants can serve as markers for milk composition, milk production traits......: Swedish Red (SR), Danish Holstein (DH), and Danish Jersey (DJ). The protein profile with relative concentrations of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, κ-, and β-CN was determined for each milk sample using capillary zone electrophoresis. The genetic variants of the αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2...

  16. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    parturition until week 30 of lactation. Cows were ad libitum fed one of the three MR based on maize and grass/clover silage, barley, soybean meal, and dried sugar beet pulp. In the saturated ration (SFA), C16 rich fat substituted barley on dry matter (DM) basis; in the unsaturated ration (UFA), ground rape......The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...... were performed within breed and random regression was used to test for differences between treatment responses throughout lactations. For all breeds, SFA increased milk fat concentration of C16 whereas UFA increased milk fat concentration of unsaturated as well as saturated C18 fatty acids (FA...

  17. Genetic Parameters for Dry Matter Intake at Different Lactation Stages among Primiparous Holstein, Jersey and Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Løvendahl, Peter; Fikse, W F

    This study evaluated the genetic variation in Dry Matter Intake (DMI) at 6 lactation stages over the first 24 lactation weeks in a population including Holstein, Jersey and Red cows. In total, 830 primiparous cows from Sweden and Denmark were included. Genetic parameters were estimated based...... on a linear mixed model. Heritability for DMI ranged between 0.16 and 0.35 across lactation stages. The lowest repeatability and heritability were found during the first 4 weeks of lactation, indicating large residual variance and low response to selection for DMI from early lactation. Genetic correlations...... between DMI across lactation stages ranged from 0.46 to 0.99. The weakest genetic correlation occurred between early and mid lactation, indicating a different genetic basis for DMI along lactation. A potential difference in genetic variation was found between Jersey and the other two breeds, requiring...

  18. Changes in animal performance and profitability of Holstein dairy operations after introduction of crossbreeding with Montbéliarde, Normande, and Scandinavian Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezetter, C; Bareille, N; Billon, D; Côrtes, C; Lechartier, C; Seegers, H

    2017-10-01

    An individual-based mechanistic, stochastic, and dynamic simulation model was developed to assess economic effects resulting from changes in performance for milk yield and solid contents, reproduction, health, and replacement, induced by the introduction of crossbreeding in Holstein dairy operations. Three crossbreeding schemes, Holstein × Montbéliarde, Holstein × Montbéliarde × Normande, and Holstein × Montbéliarde × Scandinavian Red, were implemented in Holstein dairy operations and compared with Holstein pure breeding. Sires were selected based on their estimated breeding value for milk. Two initial operations were simulated according to the prevalence (average or high) of reproductive and health disorders in the lactating herd. Evolution of operations was simulated during 15 yr under 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold). After 15 yr, breed percentages reached equilibrium for the 2-breed but not for the 3-breed schemes. After 5 yr of simulation, all 3 crossbreeding schemes reduced average milk yield per cow-year compared with the pure Holstein scheme. Changes in other animal performance (milk solid contents, reproduction, udder health, and longevity) were always in favor of crossbreeding schemes. Under an objective of constant number of cows, margin over variable costs in average discounted value over the 15 yr of simulation was slightly increased by crossbreeding schemes, with an average prevalence of disorders up to €32/cow-year. In operations with a high prevalence of disorders, crossbreeding schemes increased the margin over variable costs up to €91/cow-year. Under an objective of constant volume of milk sold, crossbreeding schemes improved margin over variable costs up to €10/1,000L (corresponding to around €96/cow-year) for average prevalence of disorders, and up to €13/1,000L (corresponding to around €117/cow-year) for high prevalence of disorders. Under an objective of constant

  19. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  20. Hofnachfolge in Schleswig-Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Tietje, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Die große Mehrheit der Unternehmen im landwirtschaftlichen Sektor sind Familienbetriebe, bei denen Eigentum und Management innerhalb der Familie von einer Generation an die nächste weitergegeben werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit widmet sich der Analyse der Hofnachfolgeentscheidung in landwirtschaftlichen Familienbetrieben auf regionaler und einzelbetrieblicher Ebene. Datengrundlage der einzelbetrieblichen Analyse ist eine Befragung zur Hofnachfolge von Landwirten in Schleswig-Holstein, die um Bu...

  1. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  2. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  3. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson-Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron-phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  4. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  5. [Hyperextension of fetlock joints in German Holstein and German Holstein-Limousin crossbred calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2005-01-01

    In two different dairy farms six calves exhibiting bilateral flexion of the fetlock joints in front or rear legs were born in 2000 to 2002. Four of the affected calves from the same farm were crossbred between German Holstein cows with red and white coat colour and a bull of the breed Limousin. The other two affected calves born on another farm were purebred German Holsteins with a black and white coat colour. The tests for BVD virus antigen and antibodies were negative in all affected calves. Three of the calves showed a lower selen and a higher glutamate dehydrogenase concentration in the analyses of blood metabolites. Two crossbred calves showed a degeneration of the liver with a progressive periportal fibrosis in a histological examination. In one calf an edema of astrocytes of the central nervous system was seen. The analysis of the pedigrees revealed for the four crossbred calves the Limousin bull as common ancestor and the mothers of the calves as relatives. For the affected purebred German Holstein calves also a sire was identified as a common ancestor. The pedigrees support inheritance through a monogenic autosomal recessive locus or more recessive gene loci with variable expressivity. However, the analysis could not clarify whether different gene loci are responsible for the congenital anomalies observed in the calves from the two farms and thus, the observed anomalies may be different genetic entities. Obvious environmental reasons were not found.

  6. A simple PCR-RFLP test for direct identification of Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R alleles causing red coat colour in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Valentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct test to determine the presence of the recessive alleles causing red colour in Holstein cattle at DNA level is proposed.Digestions with two restriction enzymes were used to detect individuals carrying recessive alleles of MelanocortinReceptor 1 (MC1R gene, responsible for coat coloration. Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the identifiedgenotypes. Compared to previously described methods this is an effective, relatively economic and quick method. Thistest could be employed not only to facilitate the detection of polymorphisms in populations but also to exclude animalscarrying alleles resulting in an undesired coat colour from breeding schemes.

  7. Offshore wind power systems in Schleswig-Holstein; Offshore in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W. [Ministerium fuer Finanzen und Energie des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At a Rotarian meeting on Helgoland, Secretary of State Wilfried Voigt of the Schleswig-Holstein Energy Ministry held a much-discussed plea in favour of offshore wind power. [German] Anlaesslich einer Veranstaltung der Rotarier auf der Insel Helgoland hat Staatssekretaer Wilfried Voigt, Energieministerium Schleswig-Holstein, ein vielbeachtetes Plaedoyer fuer den Offshore Einsatz der Windenergie gehalten. (orig.)

  8. 150 years of petroleum production in Schleswig-Holstein; 150 Jahre Oelfoerderung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangerin, G. [OeKM-Wangerin, Weddingstedt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The contribution describes the geological history of Schleswig-Holstein, the oil fields north of the Elbe river, land reclamation measures after termination of petroleulm production, and future perspectives of petroleum production in Germany. Es wird berichtet ueber: geologische Entwicklung Schleswig-Holsteins; die Oelfelder noerdlich der Elbe; Rueckbaumassnahmen nach Einstellung der Oelfoerderung; Zukunftsperspektiven der Oelfoerderung in Deutschland.

  9. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we reported a previously-undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker region...

  10. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. (a) Description. Holstein, Green Canyon 645 ...

  11. The Holstein polaron: beyond the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The paradigm for describing the polaron is the Holstein model, where only local interactions between the electron and optical phonon modes are considered. We present several variants of this model and discuss the impact on various observables, such as the effective mass. Possible variations include further than nearest neighbour hopping, longer range interactions, and even models that go beyond the Holstein/Frohlich coupling, i.e. the BLF/SSH (Barisic-Labbe-Friedel/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger) model. Recent progress on these models will be described.

  12. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macridin, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Jarrell, M

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion U and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the

  13. Congenital desmoid fibromatosis in a Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Sweet, Wade; Desrochers, André

    2008-01-01

    An 11-month-old, Holstein heifer was presented for a progressive swelling on the left side of the face that had been present since birth. A diagnosis of fibromatosis was made, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the abnormal infiltrative tissue. Because of the poor prognosis the animal was euthanized. PMID:19043487

  14. Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Green paper. More power, more economy. - Schleswig-Holstein; Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Gruenbuch. Mehr Energie. Mehr Wirtschaft - Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G.W. (comp.)

    2007-06-15

    The paper shows that Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's northermost state, will by 2020 be capable of covering more than 100 percent of its power demand on the basis of wind power and biomass. Wind power is an important technological, economic, labour-political and exports factor. (orig.)

  15. The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland and Jersey cows on complete diets during summer in a temperate climate. C.J.C. Muller* and J.A. Botha. Department of Agriculture: Western Cape, Private Bag X1, Elsenburg,. 7607 Republic of South Africa. Received 7 April 1997; accepted 20 May 1998.

  16. Identification of brachyspina syndrome carriers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  17. Comparison of genomic predictions using medium-density (~54,000) and high-density (~777) single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels in Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated genomic prediction using medium density (54k) and high density marker panels (777k), based on data from Nordic Holstein and Red dairy cattle (RDC). The Holstein data comprised 4,539 progeny-tested bulls, and the RDC data 4,403 progeny-tested bulls. The data were divided...... into reference data and test data using 2001-10-01 as a cut-off date (birth date of the bulls). This resulted in about 25% genotyped bulls in the Holstein test data, and 20% in the RDC test data. For each breed, three datasets of markers were used to predict breeding values: 1) 54k dataset with missing genotypes......, 2) 54k dataset where missing genotypes were imputed, and 3) imputed high density (HD) marker dataset which was created by imputing the 54k data to HD data based on 557 bulls genotyped using a 777k SNP chip in Holstein, and 706 bulls in RDC. Based on the three marker datasets, direct genomic breeding...

  18. Phonon spectral function of the Holstein polaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Alvermann, A [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany); Fehske, H [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-08-09

    The phonon spectral function of the one-dimensional Holstein model is obtained within weak-coupling and strong-coupling approximations based on analytical self-energy calculations. The characteristic excitations found in the limit of small charge-carrier density are related to the known (electronic) spectral properties of Holstein polarons such as the polaron band dispersion. Particular emphasis is laid on the different physics occurring in the adiabatic and anti-adiabatic regimes, respectively. Comparison is made with a cluster approach exploiting exact numerical results on small systems to yield an approximation for the thermodynamic limit. This method, similar to cluster perturbation theory, confirms the analytical findings, and also yields accurate results in the intermediate-coupling regime.

  19. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  20. Energy policy for Schleswig-Holstein. Priority to industry; Energiepolitik fuer Schleswig-Holstein. Mehr Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Markus; Fehlau, Karin (comps.)

    2010-03-15

    This is a publication of the Schleswig-Holstein state government, stating its goals in energy policy and the resulting political priorities, positions and important milestones and projects in Schleswig-Holstein. The energy policy focuses on the following aspects: Enhancement of renewable energy sources; Energy conservation and higher energy efficiency; Establishing a balanced energy mix; Support to the expansion of the existing power grids; Support to competition in the energy markets; Reliable supervision to ensure uninterrupted energy supply, and innovations in the energy sector.

  1. Quality attributes and composition of meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Daniel; Bartoň, Luděk; Kotrba, Radim; Hakl, Josef

    2015-08-30

    The consumption of venison from deer species has increased in recent years owing to presumably positive health effects. Therefore a comparison was made of the physical characteristics, chemical composition and sensory attributes of meat obtained from red deer, fallow deer and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle raised under conditions typical for commercial farming practice and slaughtered at similar ages. Venison had one-quarter the crude fat content, lower total collagen and a higher proportion of heat-soluble collagen. It was darker and less yellow than beef. Deer species provided meat with higher polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and lower atherogenic index. In addition, the venison of red deer contained five times as much n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as the beef. Steaks prepared from venison were scored higher than beef for flavour and aroma intensity; they were also tenderer and more easily chewable. Compared with beef, venison from two widely farmed deer species was superior in nutrient composition, thus offering potential benefits for human consumption, and it received higher scores for most of the sensory attributes examined. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Long-term soil monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein; Boden-Dauerbeobachtung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A. [Landesamt fuer Natur und Umwelt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Since 1989 in Schleswig-Holstein are 37 Soil-Monitoringsites are established, where soil chemistry, soil physic and (soil)biology are investigated. The investigation-sites are chosen with the intention to longterm changing of soils regarding to earth-science criteria, deposition- and landuse-situation as well as integrated into the integrational environmental monitoring. (orig.)

  3. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  4. Integrated energy concept and climate concept for Schleswig-Holstein; Integriertes Energie- und Klimakonzept fuer Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    For the first time, the state government of Schleswig-Holstein (Federal Republic of Germany) presents an integrated energy and climate concept. In this paper, first of all the challenges, goals and strategies of the integrated energy policy and climate policy are presented. Subsequently, the selected action areas of the integrated policy on climate change and energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein are described.

  5. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    OpenAIRE

    Macridin, Alexandru; Sawatzky, George A.; Jarrell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion, U, and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the transition of light polaron to heavy polaron, the system suffers a sharp transition from a state formed by two weakly bound light polarons to a heavy, strongly bound on-site bipolaron. Aside from ...

  6. Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

    2013-12-01

    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

  7. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  8. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  9. Spectral functions of the spinless Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Fehske, H [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    An analytical approach to the one-dimensional spinless Holstein model is proposed, which is valid at finite charge-carrier concentrations. Spectral functions of charge carriers are computed on the basis of self-energy calculations. A generalization of the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation method is shown to provide an interpolation scheme between the extreme weak-coupling and strong-coupling cases. The transformation depends on a variationally determined parameter that characterizes the charge distribution across the polaron volume. The relation between the spectral functions of the polaron and electron, the latter corresponding to the photoemission spectrum, is derived. Particular attention is paid to the distinction between the coherent and incoherent parts of the spectra, and their evolution as a function of band filling and model parameters. Results are discussed and compared with recent numerical calculations for the many-polaron problem.

  10. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density......This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... in Chinese Holstein were assessed. The allele correct rate increased around 2.7 and 1.7% in imputation from the 54K to the HD marker data for Chinese Holstein bulls and cows, respectively, when the Nordic HD-genotyped bulls were included in the reference data for imputation. However, the prediction accuracy...

  11. Large-radius Holstein polaron and the problem of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, V. D.

    2014-07-01

    A translation-invariant solution is found for a large-radius Holstein polaron whose energy in the strong coupling limit is lower than that obtained by Holstein [T. Holstein, Annals Phys., 8, 325 (1959)]. The wave function corresponding to this solution is delocalized. A conclusion is drawn about the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum system discussed.

  12. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  13. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  14. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauber, T [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Peres, N M R [Center of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Minho, P-4710-057, Braga (Portugal)

    2008-02-06

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub 0} {approx} 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid.

  15. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  16. Kappa-casein gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caseins amount to nearly 80% of the protein output in cow milk. Caseins are biologically important proteins and they are also a raw material for the cheese making industry. The aim of this study was to identify kappa-casein genotype in Holstein and Iranian native cattle. DNA was extracted from 457 blood samples of 247 ...

  17. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  18. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  19. Incidence of UMP synthase deficiency in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) is an inherited recessive metabolic defect identified in Holstein cattle. Since heterorygous carriers transmit the defective gene 50% of the time, one fourth of the offspring from matings between two carriers are expected to be homozygous for DUMPS. This is a lethal ...

  20. Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Malatestinic, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma.

  1. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  2. Study of citrullinaemia disorder in Khuzestan Holstein cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the occurrence of autosomal recessive genetic disease, citrullinaemia, in Khuzestan native cows and Iranian Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of the cows (n = 330). The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was ...

  3. Evidence of Heterogeneity of Variance in Milk Yield among Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three thousand, nine hundred and seventy five lactation records of Holstein- Friesian cows between 1968 and 1984 were used to investigate the existence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield in Kenya. Coefficient of variation and standard deviations across herds were used to test heterogeneity of variance. Average ...

  4. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju, E-mail: narasimharaju.phy@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  5. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  6. Nagaoka's Theorem in the Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2017-09-01

    Nagaoka's theorem on ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model is extended to the Holstein-Hubbard model. This shows that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable even if the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. We also prove that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable under the influence of the quantized radiation field.

  7. Violence and Aggression in Schools in Schleswig-Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebel, Gabriele; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the extent and distribution of several forms of aggression and violence in schools in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Includes responses from 2,382 persons in a representative sample. Finds a slight increase in violence during the past three years but a high frequency of verbal aggression. (CFR)

  8. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  9. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  10. Verifying Holstein heifer heart girth to body weight prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimation of Holstein heifer body weight (BW) from heart girth (HG) measurements is needed as many farms do not have animal scales to make the management decisions that require BW. The correlation between HG and BW is known to vary with differing animal conformation. The previous equation to co...

  11. Metabolic acclimation to heat stress in farm housed Holstein cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body condition score to metabolic acclimation in heat stressed Holstein cows. Body condition of cows had no effect on any of the tested parameters during the thermal neutral period, except for the percentage of protein in milk. Heat stress has been demonstrated to have ...

  12. Economic weights for Holstein Friesian traits in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-07-16

    Jul 16, 1998 ... in this study economic weights for production and functional traits of the Holstein. Friesians in South Africa ... traits were milk, butterfat, protein and lactose yield and the functional traits included ... A major advance in selection theory occurred when Smith (1937) and Hazel (1943) constructed the selection ...

  13. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  14. Growth parameters of Holstein-Friesland heifers reared on complete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    –6, 6–10, 10–13, 13–18 months and 18 .... Table 1 Composition and nutrient content of complete diets containing different roughages fed to Holstein-Friesland heifers ... They were left in a dry lot from 10:30-14:00 for exercise and group.

  15. Nagaoka's theorem in the Holstein-Hubbard model

    OpenAIRE

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nagaoka's theorem on ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model is extended to the Holstein-Hubbard model. This shows that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable even if the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. We also prove that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable under the influence of the quantized radiation field.

  16. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  17. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  18. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...

  19. Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M. A.; Kennes, D. M.; Jakobs, S. G.; Meden, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson-Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson-Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode.

  20. Mycoplasma bovis associated with decubital abscesses in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, H; Daft, B M; Walker, R L; Charlton, B R; Petty, R

    1993-04-01

    Between April of 1990 and March of 1992, calves on a Holstein calf ranch experienced subcutaneous decubital abscesses involving the brisket region, dorsal aspect of the carpus, and lateral aspect of the stifle joints. Fifty out of 2,500 (2%) Holstein calves between the ages of 3 and 12 weeks were affected. Needle aspirates of brisket abscesses from 8 calves and 6 live or dead calves with 1 or more decubital abscesses were submitted for examination. Two of the 6 calves in addition had bronchopneumonia. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from all abscesses and 1 lung. Formalin fixed tissues taken from the affected areas also revealed M. bovis by immunoperoxidase staining. No evidence of joint involvement was apparent, and no mycoplasma was isolated from the joints adjacent to affected areas. Attempts to isolate mycoplasma from milk and environmental samples were unsuccessful.

  1. Archäoprognose in Schleswig-Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Mennenga, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    This is the slightly amended version of the authors Diplom-thesis in prehistoric archaeology. In the region of Eastern Holstein in Northern Germany a large amount of neolithic surface finds leading to potential settlements or burials. By using the data of the archäologische Landesaufnahme it was possible to date the sites and classify them. This data was used to do a predictive modelling by using a logistic regression analysis.

  2. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    OpenAIRE

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Ian J Lean

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM.

  3. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

  4. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... Number of sire Number of dam Number of inbreed animal Number of base animal Number of non-base animal. 3587. 92360. 27731. 30902. 143360. Table 2. Number of herds and animals ..... 0.29±0.01, respectively for California Holstein cows and to be 0.33±0.01, 0.35±0.01 and 0.3±0.01, respectively for.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvillani Adriana Gloria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver index. The observed genotypic frequencies were analyzed by Hedrick's genetic identity and the genetic distance of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were similar to those of other Holstein populations. The genotypic frequencies of the alphas1-casein and beta-casein loci were in equilibrium, whereas in some populations the k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci were not. According to the Shannon-Weaver index the total genetic diversity within each herd was greater than 96%. The high values of identity agreed with the low genetic distances among populations. We conclude that there is extensive genetic homogeneity in Holstein cattle in Córdoba Province and that it would be feasible to select for B alleles at the k-casein and b-lactoglobulin loci in order to improve the quality of milk available for cheese manufacturing.

  6. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  7. Localization of large polarons in the disordered Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

    2014-04-01

    We solve the disordered Holstein model via the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the combined roles of electron-phonon coupling and disorder on the localization of a single charge or exciton. The parameter regimes chosen, namely the adiabatic regime, ℏω /4t0=ω'<1, and the large polaron regime, λ <1, are applicable to most conjugated polymers. We show that as a consequence of the polaron effective mass diverging in the adiabatic limit (defined as ω'→0 subject to fixed λ) self-localized, symmetry-breaking solutions are predicted by the quantum Holstein model for infinitesimal disorder, in complete agreement with the predictions of the Born-Oppenheimer Holstein model. For other parts of the (ω', λ) parameter space, however, self-localized Born-Oppenheimer solutions are not expected. If ω' is not small enough and λ is not large enough, then the polaron is predominately localized by Anderson disorder, albeit more than for a free particle, because of the enhanced effective mass. Alternatively, for very small electron-phonon coupling (λ ≪1) the disorder-induced localization length is always smaller than the classical polaron size, 2/λ, so that disorder always dominates. We comment on the implication of our results on the electronic properties of conjugated polymers.

  8. Genome-wide detection of selective signature in Chinese Holstein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunfei Pan

    Full Text Available Selective signatures in whole genome can help us understand the mechanisms of selection and target causal variants for breeding program. In present study, we performed Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH tests to identify significant core regions harboring such signals in Chinese Holstein, and then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on commonly-used bioinformatics analyses. Results showed a total of 125 significant regions in entire genome containing some of important functional genes such as LEP, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN3 and TNF based on the Gene Ontology database. Some of these annotated genes involved in the core regions overlapped with those identified in our previous GWAS as well as those involved in a recently constructed candidate gene database for cattle, further indicating these genes under positive selection maybe underlie milk production traits and other important traits in Chinese Holstein. Furthermore, in the enrichment analyses for the second level GO terms and pathways, we observed some significant terms over represented in these identified regions as compared to the entire bovine genome. This indicates that some functional genes associated with milk production traits, as reflected by GO terms, could be clustered in core regions, which provided promising evidence for the exploitability of the core regions identified by EHH tests. Findings in our study could help detect functional candidate genes under positive selection for further genetic and breeding research in Chinese Holstein.

  9. Numerical renormalization group study of probability distributions for local fluctuations in the Anderson-Holstein and Holstein-Hubbard models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, Alex C [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bauer, Johannes [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We show that information on the probability density of local fluctuations can be obtained from a numerical renormalization group calculation of a reduced density matrix. We apply this approach to the Anderson-Holstein impurity model to calculate the ground state probability density rho(x) for the displacement x of the local oscillator. From this density we can deduce an effective local potential for the oscillator and compare its form with that obtained from a semiclassical approximation as a function of the coupling strength. The method is extended to the infinite dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model using dynamical mean field theory. We use this approach to compare the probability densities for the displacement of the local oscillator in the normal, antiferromagnetic and charge ordered phases.

  10. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  11. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen use efficiency in crossbred F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N compounds use efficiency in F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows. Eighteen crossbred cows (six Holstein × Gir, six Holstein × Guzerat, and six Holstein × Nellore were used in the experiment, constituting three experimental treatments in simple random samples, under the same feeding conditions. At the estimation of individual intake at grazing, titanium dioxide was used for estimating fecal excretion and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, in order to determine pasture intake. There was effect of the lactation period on nutrient intake, except for the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and total digestible nutrients (TDN in % of body weight (BW, as well as those of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, in kg. The digestibility coefficients of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap and the contents of TDN varied in function of the lactation period, whereas the coefficients of digestibility of DM, ether extract (EE and OM did not present such effect. The total milk production projected at 305 days of lactation for Holstein × Gir cows was superior in relation to Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows. The excretion of urea into urine and of urea N into the milk and the plasma presented quadratic behavior in function of the lactation period. The utilization of the genetic group from Holstein × Zebu grazing cows does not cause alterations in intake, nutrient digestibility or nitrogen use efficiency; however, there is variation in function of the lactation period. Holstein × Gir cows presented greater accumulated production during lactation and persistence, followed by Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows.

  12. The Behaviour of a Holstein-based dairy farming system in Brazil between 1980 and 1992.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Holstein breed is being used successfully for milk production in many countries, including Brazil, as long as good management lands practices are applied. This study gives an overview of the development of the Holstein-based dairy system in Brazil. An analysis of the behaviour of this system

  13. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  14. Differences in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle with high and low genetic merit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of genetic diversity in Holstein cattle based on pedigree data, indicate a decrease in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle, because of a lower effective population size and a higher relatedness compared to other cattle breeds. However, pedigree based diversity reflects only the overall

  15. Effect of economic crisis on sustainability of Holstein dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.; Koops, W.

    2002-01-01

    This analysis presents the development of the Holstein dairy system in Brazil, evaluating system sustainability during a time of crisis, based on changes in system productivity, stability, resilience and equity. Sustainability indicators are used to describe these changes. Records of Holstein cows

  16. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause significant losses to the cattle industry. Previous research has suggested that Holstein cattle clear toxic Delphinium alkaloids from their serum at a greater rate than beef cattle. The toxicokinetics of lupine alkaloids in Holsteins are not known...

  17. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E ...

  18. Renewable energies and grid expansion. Chances and demands for Schleswig-Holstein; Erneuerbare Energien und Netzausbau. Chancen und Herausforderung fuer Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, Matthias [Schleswig-Holstein Netz AG, Quickborn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For several years, Schleswig-Holstein is leading in the power generation from renewable energy sources. The boom in wind turbines, photovoltaic panels and biogas plants is unbroken. With the designation of additional areas suitable for wind power plants, the politics works on performance boost in the use of wind energy. Thus the opportunities growth. But also challenges for everyone are involved because the expansion of renewable energies in Schleswig-Holstein requires a comprehensive renovation and expansion of the energy infrastructure.

  19. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  20. Holstein: la nodriza de los antioqueños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes one of the most important events in the development of the dairy industry in the department of Antioquia: the Holstein Exhibition of La Ceja (1949-1959. We argue that exhibitions became the means through which the genetic improvements of local farms and the managerial techniques needed for their reproduction of said improvements were disseminated. Also, exhibitions affectively articulated the genetic level reached by the farms with those of the market, i.e. the needs of individual landowners, rural producers, suppliers and union entities.

  1. Local electronic structure in the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianxin; Rasmussen, K Oe; Balatsky, A V; Bishop, A R [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-04-04

    There is increasing evidence for polaronic effects on charge localization and dynamics in DNA. The Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model has been previously suggested as an appropriate model for the description of such effects. Here we report a self-consistent study of local electronic structure within this model for both homopolymer and realistic viral P5 promoter segments. Our results indicate that both the inter-base-pair stacking interaction and the electron filling can qualitatively influence the polaronic properties in a specific DNA sequence, including features of two distinct length scales and competition with sequence-disorder induced localization.

  2. Mobility of Holstein Polaron at Finite Temperature: An Unbiased Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.; De Filippis, G.; de Candia, A.; Cataudella, V.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first unbiased results for the mobility μ of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron obtained by numerical analytic continuation combined with diagrammatic and worldline Monte Carlo methods in the thermodynamic limit. We have identified for the first time several distinct regimes in the λ -T plane including a band conduction region, incoherent metallic region, an activated hopping region, and a high-temperature saturation region. We observe that although mobilities and mean free paths at different values of λ differ by many orders of magnitude at small temperatures, their values at T larger than the bandwidth become very close to each other.

  3. INBREEDING AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN SLOVENIAN HOLSTEIN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, K.; M. Štepec; Krsnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of inbreeding and inbreeding depression was done on the data of routine breeding value estimation for milk production data on Holstein population in Slovenia. A pedigree file of 106 433 animals born from 1952 to 2005 was investigated for the occurrence of inbreeding. The maximum inbreeding was 37.5. However average inbreeding coefficients of inbred cows (1.3 %) and of all cows with test day records (0.989 %) were low. Daily milk, protein, and fat yield of first five lactation for 86 ...

  4. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  5. Holstein polarons and triplet bipolarons with NNN hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Taraphder, A.; Berciu, Mona

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground state of 1D Holstein single polaron with next nearest neighbour electron hopping (NNN), employing a variational approximation based on exact diagonalization. Our investigation reveals that, depending upon the sign and magnitude of the NNN hopping integral with respect to nearest neighbour hopping, the polaron band minima may occur at non-zero kGS. We compare the present scenario with the SSH polarons, where a similar feature is also observed, albeit, due to very different mechanism. Our initial investigation of triplet bipolarons, in presence of an attractive extended Hubbard interactions, further substantiates the differences between the present model and the SSH model.

  6. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balancin Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of Holtein-Frisian x Gir crossbred cows. The traits evaluated were: milk production up to 305 days (P305, total milk production (PTL, production per day of calving interval (PIP, age at first calving (IPP, calving interval (IDP, service period (PS and gestation length (PG, which were analyzed using mixed linear models. The Incomplete gamma function was used to estimate the parameters of lactation curves for each genetic group. The animals of genetic groups (GG 3/4H, 7/8H and pure by crosses (PC achieved higher performances for productive traits, and animals from the GG 1/2H achieved better performance for reproductive traits. The Holstein-Frisian PC animals presented the lactation curves with higher production levels and higher productions at the peak of the lactation but with less persistence. The 1/2H animals had slightly lower persistence in comparison to genetic groups 3/4H and 7/8H. Milk production in function of gestation length varied according to each group and Holstein-Frisian (PC presented greater decrease in milk yield after conception.

  7. Short communication: Heritability of twinning rate in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Beth M; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2018-02-14

    Multiple births or twinning in cattle is a naturally occurring reproductive phenomenon. For dairy cattle, twinning is considered a detrimental trait as it can be harmful to cow and calf as well as costly to the producer. The objective of this study was to examine recent US calving records for the Holstein breed to determine a current estimate of heritability for twinning rate along with effects of season and parity. Two models were used in this study: a linear sire model and a binary threshold-logit sire model. Both were mixed models considering fixed effects and random effects. Analyses were conducted using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Heritability estimates were 0.0192 ± 0.0009 and 0.1420 ± 0.0069 for the linear and threshold models, respectively. Repeatabilities from the linear and threshold-logit models were 0.0443 ± 0.0012 and 0.2310 ± 0.0072, respectively. The nonzero estimates of heritability indicate the potential to select against this trait for genetic improvement of Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative isotope effect in Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da

    In phonon mediated conventional s-wave superconductors, higher-frequency phonon (or smaller atomic mass) leads to a higher superconducting transition temperature, known as the isotope effect. However, in correlated systems, various competing electronic order (such as spin-density-wave, charge-density-wave, and unconventional superconductivity) arises and the effect of electron-phonon coupling on these orders is a long-standing problem. Using the functional renormalization group, here we investigated the interplay between the electron correlation and electron-phonon coupling in the Hubbard-Holstein model on a square lattice. At half-filling, we found spin-density-wave and charge-density-wave phases and the transition between them, while no superconducting phase arises. Upon finite doping, d-wave/s-wave superconductivity emerges in proximity to the spin-density-wave/charge-density-wave phase. Surprisingly, lower-frequency Holstein phonons are either less destructive or even beneficial to the various phases, resulting in a negative isotope effect. For the superconducting phases, such an effect is apparently beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.

  9. Super Bloch oscillations in the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Gómez, C. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Díaz, E., E-mail: elenadg@fis.ucm.es [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Adame, F. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-09

    Recently, polarons in the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model under DC electric fields were established to perform Bloch oscillations, provided the charge–lattice coupling is not large. In this work, we study this model when the charge is subjected to an applied field with both DC and AC components. Similarly to what happens in the rigid lattice, we find that the carrier undergoes a directed motion or coherent oscillations when the AC field is resonant or detuned with respect to the Bloch frequency, respectively. The electric density current and its Fourier spectrum are also studied to reveal the frequencies involved in the polaron dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model under superimposed DC and AC fields. ► The detuning between the driven and the Bloch frequency sets the polaron dynamics. ► The carrier displays super Bloch oscillations for the non-resonant cases. ► The Morse potential sets the lattice motion which is decoupled of the carrier one. ► The nonlinear coupling leads to a distortion of the wave packet at long times.

  10. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  11. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Anette B; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-12-10

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on DNA isolated from 28 affected and 28 non-affected Holstein cows to identify loci in the bovine genome involved in the development of PNSTs. PNSTs were significantly more common in the Danish Holstein breed than in other breeds with 0.49% of Danish Holsteins slaughtered during an eight-year-period having PNSTs. PNSTs also occurred significantly more frequently in the offspring of some specific Holstein sires. Examination of three generation pedigrees showed that these sires were genetically related through a widely used US Holstein sire. The PNSTs included in GWAS were histologically classified as neurofibroma-schwannoma (43%), schwannoma (36%) and neurofibroma (21%) and derived from Holstein cows with multiple PNSTs. A single SNP on chromosome 27 reached genome-wide significance. Gross and histological characteristics of bovine PNSTs are comparable to PNSTs in humans (schwannomatosis). Danish Holsteins are genetically disposed to develop PNSTs but the examined materials are insufficient to allow determination of the mode of inheritance.

  12. The remote monitoring system for the nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein; Kernreaktorfernueberwachung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geick, G.H.G. [Datenzentrale Schleswig-Holstein, Altenholz (Germany); Koch, D. [Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Abt. Reaktorsicherheit; Weiss, H. [EnergieSystemeNord GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The remote monitoring system for the nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein is equipped with a new state-of-the-art measuring network for the ambient dose rate. This was realized within the unusual short span of nine months from submission until completion. The data transfer of 80 measuring devices takes place via radio transmission to three receivers, which submit the results to the main system. Another part of the network are 60 devices of the federal bureau for radiological protection, which are shared based on a cooperation. The article also gives a short overview about the existing monitoring system and first operational experiences on the new network. (orig.) [German] Das Kernreaktorfernueberwachungssystem Schleswig-Holstein wurde mit einem neuen, dem Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik entsprechenden Ortsdosisleistungs-Messnetz ausgeruestet. Dies erfolgte in der ungewoehnlich kurzen Zeitspanne von neun Monaten von der Ausschreibung bis zur Fertigstellung. Die Datenuebermittlung erfolgt von 80 Messstationen ueber Funk an drei Empfangsstationen, die die Resultate an das KFUeweiterleiten. Ein weiterer Bestandteil dieses Netzes sind 60 Messgeraete des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz, die im Rahmen einer Kooperation mit genutzt werden. Der Artikel gibt auch einen kurzen Ueberblick ueber das vorhandene KFUeund erste Betriebserfahrungen des neuen Netzes. (orig.)

  13. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G

    2009-01-01

    microsatellite markers. Single trait breeding values were used for 12 traits relating to female fertility and female reproductive disorders. Data were analyzed by least squares regression analysis within and across families. Twenty-six QTL were detected on 17 different chromosomes. The best evidence was found......Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416...

  14. Milk urea concentration in Holstein and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Bendelja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator of the nutritional protein status of the organism as well as of the ratio between the energy and the protein in ruminant rations, with increasing practical usage. In addition to nutrition, milk urea concentration is influenced by a whole range of factors, for example: breed, stage and number of lactations, body weight, daily production and chemical composition of milk, somatic cell count, season and milking. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the cow breed (Holstein and Simmental, the number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, milking time (morning-evening and season (spring-summer and autumn-winter on milk urea concentration. The following was determined for each breed: daily milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999. The cow breed had a significant influence on daily milk yield and log somatic cell count (P<0.001, lactose content in milk (P<0.01, milk fat content and milk urea concentration (P<0.05. The number of lactations significantly influenced daily milk yield (P<0.001, protein content (P<0.001 and P<0.01 and milk urea concentration, but only for Holstein breed (P<0.05. Milking time significantly influenced the fat and protein content (P<0.001 in the milk of Holstein cows, that is, lactose content (P<0.05 and urea concentration (P<0.05 in the milk of Simmental cows. The season significantly influenced the fat and protein content of milk (P<0.001, that is, urea concentration and log somatic cell count (P<0.01. Determining of urea concentration in cow milk should also be systematically conducted in the Republic of Croatia, in order to determine standard physiological values characteristical for a particular cow breed, aiming to determine the balance of energy and protein in rations.

  15. Band to Mott transition in the infinite dimensional Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, J P

    2001-01-01

    down at intermediate couplings in the limit of low phonon frequency where it is supposed to be most applicable. By examining the effective hopping and renormalized phonon frequency, I suggest an intuitive explanation for the breakdown of Migdal-Eliashberg theory. For completeness, a description of the breakdown of Migdal's theorem in the limit of high phonon frequency is considered via the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation. The Holstein model can be seen as providing an interpolation scheme between Hubbard-like and Falicov-Kimball like behaviour and it may therefore help elucidate the nature of the transition between band and Mott states. I describe a number of approximations to the self-energy. By comparing these with results from the exact solution in various limits, I find that a second order iterated perturbation scheme may be capable of describing the intermediate behaviour. Application of this method reveals a strongly renormalized hybrid behaviour between band and miniature-Mott states, with unusual...

  16. Prethermalization from a low-density Holstein-Primakoff expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, M.; Marino, J.; Gambassi, A.; Silva, A.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the nonequilibrium dynamics arising after a quench of the transverse magnetic field of a quantum Ising chain, together with the sudden switch-on of a long-range interaction term. The dynamics after the quantum quench is mapped onto a fully connected model of hard-core bosons, after a suitable combination of a Holstein-Primakoff transformation and of a low-density expansion in the quasiparticles injected by the quench. This mapping holds for a broad class of initial states and for quenches which do not cross the critical point of the transverse field Ising model. We then study the algebraic relaxation in time of a number of observables towards a metastable, prethermal state, which becomes the asymptotic steady state in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Optimal boson energy for superconductivity in the Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-06-01

    We examine the superconducting solution in the Holstein model, where the conduction electrons couple to the dispersionless boson fields, using the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and dynamical mean field theory. Although different in numerical values, both methods imply the existence of an optimal boson energy for superconductivity at a given electron-boson coupling. This nonmonotonous behavior can be understood as an interplay between the polaron and superconducting physics, as the electron-boson coupling is the origin of the superconductor, but at the same time traps the conduction electrons making the system more insulating. Our calculation provides a simple explanation of the recent experiment on sulfur hydride, where an optimal pressure for the superconductivity was observed. The validities of both methods are discussed.

  18. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  19. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...... QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...

  1. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The C max following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pelvic Parameters in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Heifers in Relation to Their Calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski* and Władysław Mordas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare calving ease, pelvic structure and pelvic angle in 74 Holstein-Friesian and 45 Jersey heifers. The frequency of difficult calving was 15.2% in Holstein-Friesians and only 2.2% in Jersey heifers. Compared with Jersey cows, Holstein-Friesians were characterized by a higher calf weight to cow weight ratio, and higher ratios of pelvic area to cow weight and pelvic area to calf weight. The results of the study show that higher frequency of difficult calving recorded in Holstein-Friesians, in comparison with Jersey heifers, could be a consequence of relatively high calf weight and less preferable pelvic structure. Large variation in the internal dimensions of the pelvis in HF heifers encouraged reducing the occurrence of dystocia through selection of the dimensions of the pelvis.

  3. Taani - külade maa / Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu, Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuhi-Teesalu, Silvi

    2005-01-01

    Taanit ja taanlasi eestlase pilguga tutvustab Taani-Eesti Kultuuriinstituudi juhataja Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu. Eestlastest taanlase pilguga räägib Taani-Eesti Seltsi esimees krahv Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

  4. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  5. EFFECT OF PUERPERAL METRITIS ON HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCTIVE, REPRODUCTIVE VARIABLES AND CULLING RATES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dawod; Min, Byeng R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of puerperal metritis prevalence in high yielding Holstein cows on productive (305 days, actual milk yields), reproductive (days to first estrus, days open and services per conception) variables and culling rates. Throughout the study, 2885 dairy records were collected from high yielding private Holstein dairy farm (average milk yield was up to 9000 kg) for 3 successive lactation seasons. Dairy cows were classified according to their uter...

  6. Wind energy in Schleswig-Holstein - a story of success; Windenergie in Schleswig-Holstein - eine Erfolgsgeschichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W.

    2006-07-01

    The development of wind energy in Germany's ''land between the seas'' was an exemplary story of success. There was and still is strong resistance which has to be overcome. It is seen, however, how a consequently acting politics and real engagement of the protagonists can help to use the big chances offered by renewable energies. Thus Schleswig-Holstein makes an important contribution to set up a sustainably structured energy supply. But how was it possible to develop a ''niche technology'' to a flourishing economical branch? The drive and the dynamics of this development are explained here, with reference to the global changes in energy.

  7. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  8. Execution and evaluation of safety reviews in Schleswig-Holstein; Durchfuehrung und Bewertung von Sicherheitsueberpruefungen in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, H.; Scharlaug, F.H. [Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Abt. VIII 6 - Reaktorsicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2008-05-15

    The obligations contained in the operating permits of the Brokdorf (KBR) and Kruemmel (KKK) nuclear power stations, and Sec.19a of the Atomic Energy Act as amended on April 22, 2002, require safety reviews of the complete plants of KBR, KKK, and KKB Brunsbuettel to be conducted in time before a period of ten years has elapsed. The respective state of the art, operating experience, and advanced development of safety technology must be taken into account in this effort. Experience in conducting safety reviews has been available in Schleswig-Holstein since early 1989. In the interest of uniform evaluation of the safety reviews of the KRB, KKK, and KKB plants, the competent technical unit of the Schleswig-Holstein supervisory and licensing authority elaborated the main criteria for the scope of the analysis, the representation and evaluation of results in the light of the 'Guideline of Probabilistic Safety Analyses' adopted by the Safety Analyses of Nuclear Power Plants Working Party, and compiled it in an internal evaluation guideline. This serves to conduct a regular, transparent procedure limited in time and based on uniform, clear evaluation criteria. For level 1 and 2 PSA, for instance, the objective defined states that the core damage frequency must be on the order of 1E-05/a or lower, and the frequency of large early releases must be one order of magnitude (1E-06/a) less probable. The MSGF, with the assistance of expert consultants, seeks to perform the safety review and its final evaluation within two years after filing. If required, appropriate improvements must be proposed on the basis of this evaluation. In demonstrating that the goals of protection were complied with, the findings of the evaluation of plant operation as well as of deterministic and probabilistic analyses must be taken into account. The findings resulting from the review will be summarized by the MSGF in a report open to the public. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of Next-Nearest Neighbour Hopping in the One, Two, and Three Dimensional Holstein Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Prosko, Christian; Marsiglio, F.

    2016-09-01

    Allowing a single electron to hop to next-nearest neighbours (NNN) in addition to the closest atomic sites in the Holstein model, a modified Trugman method is applied to exactly calculate the effect on the polaronic effective mass in one, two, and three dimensions, building on the previous study of the one-dimensional NNN Holstein model. We also present perturbative calculations and a heuristic scaling factor for the coupling strength and ion frequency to nearly map the NNN Holstein model back onto the original Holstein model. When account is taken of the modified electronic bandwidth near the electron energy, we find that including NNN hopping effectively increases the polaron effective mass.

  10. Sequencing and annotated analysis of the Holstein cow genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõks, Sulev; Lilleoja, Rutt; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to create a high-quality Holstein cow genome reference sequence and describe the different types of variations in this genome compared to the reference Hereford breed. We generated one fragment and three mate-paired libraries from genomic DNA. Raw files were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assemblies bosTau6/UMD_3.1. BioScope (v1.3) software was used for mapping and variant analysis. Initial sequencing resulted in 2,842,744,008 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 78.4 % and altogether 2,168,425,497 reads and 98,022,357,422 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 36.7X coverage. Tertiary analysis found 5,923,230 SNPs in the bovine genome, of which 3,833,249 were heterozygous and 2,089,981 were homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,241,000 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database and 1,682,230 SNPs were considered as novel. Large indel variations accounted for 48,537,190 bp of the entire genome and there were 138,504 of them. The largest deletion was 18,594 bp and the largest insertion was 13,498 bp. Another group of variants, small indels (n = 458,061), accounted for the total variation of 1,839,872 nucleotides in the genome. Only 92,115 small indels were listed in the dbSNP and therefore 365,946 small indels were novel. Finally, we identified 1,876 inversions in the bovine genome. In conclusion, this is another description of the Holstein cow genome and, similar to previous studies, we found a large amount of novel variations. Better knowledge of these variations could explain significant phenotypic differences (e.g., health, production, reproduction) between different breeds.

  11. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  12. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of Holstein polarons and the effects of disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A N [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Sil, S [Department of Physics, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2008-08-27

    The ground state and finite-temperature properties of polarons are studied considering a two-site and a four-site Holstein model by exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The kinetic energy, Drude weight, correlation functions involving charge and lattice deformations, and the specific heat have been evaluated as a function of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling strength and temperature. The effects of site diagonal disorder on the above properties have been investigated. The disorder is found to suppress the kinetic energy and the Drude weight, and reduces the spatial extension of the polaron. Increasing temperature also reduces the kinetic energy, Drude weight and the polaron size when the e-ph interaction is weak or intermediate. For strong coupling the effect of temperature is small but opposite. For sufficiently strong coupling the kinetic energy arises mainly from the incoherent hopping processes owing to the motion of electrons within the polaron and is almost independent of the disorder strength. The specific heat shows a peak in the intermediate range of coupling, and the peak is suppressed in the presence of disorder. From the coherent and incoherent contributions to the kinetic energy, the temperature above which the incoherent part dominates is determined as a function of e-ph coupling strength.

  14. Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Hélène; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between type traits and longevity was studied in the French Holstein breed using a survival analysis model. In this model, the phenotypic value adjusted for systematic fixed effects, the estimated breeding value, or the residual value (defined as the difference between the adjusted phenotypic value and the estimated breeding value) of the cow for each type trait was included as a risk factor. This was done separately for two subpopulations (registered and nonregistered herds) and with or without adjustment for production traits, i.e., considering true or functional longevity. For both types of herds, udder traits (and above all, udder depth) clearly influenced the length of productive life. There seemed to be a more pronounced voluntary culling on type traits in registered herds. The correction for the within herd-year class of production traits, as a way to approximate functional longevity, increased the importance of udder traits and decreased the weight of capacity traits. The same results were obtained when the phenotypic value of the cow for type was replaced by her estimated breeding value, whereas residuals had little impact. The relationship between longevity and type traits was most often nonlinear, in particular for udder traits, but in this study, no trait with a clear intermediate optimum was found. PMID:11268313

  15. Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrocq Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between type traits and longevity was studied in the French Holstein breed using a survival analysis model. In this model, the phenotypic value adjusted for systematic fixed effects, the estimated breeding value, or the residual value (defined as the difference between the adjusted phenotypic value and the estimated breeding value of the cow for each type trait was included as a risk factor. This was done separately for two subpopulations (registered and nonregistered herds and with or without adjustment for production traits, i.e., considering true or functional longevity. For both types of herds, udder traits (and above all, udder depth clearly influenced the length of productive life. There seemed to be a more pronounced voluntary culling on type traits in registered herds. The correction for the within herd-year class of production traits, as a way to approximate functional longevity, increased the importance of udder traits and decreased the weight of capacity traits. The same results were obtained when the phenotypic value of the cow for type was replaced by her estimated breeding value, whereas residuals had little impact. The relationship between longevity and type traits was most often nonlinear, in particular for udder traits, but in this study, no trait with a clear intermediate optimum was found.

  16. Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Barbara M; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Read, Deryck H; Kinde, Hailu; Uzal, Francisco A; Manzer, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a fulminant infection of the human central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that thrives in artificially or naturally heated water. The infection usually is acquired while bathing or swimming in such waters. The portal of entry is the olfactory neuroepithelium. This report describes fatal meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in Holstein cattle that consumed untreated surface water in an area of California where summer temperatures at times exceed 42 degrees C. In the summers of 1998 and 1999, severe multifocal necrosuppurative hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis was observed in brain samples from nine 10-20-month-old heifers with clinical histories of acute central nervous system disease. Olfactory lobes and cerebella were most severely affected. Lesions were also evident in periventricular and submeningeal neuropil as well as olfactory nerves. Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain and olfactory nerve lesions and was isolated from one brain. Even though cultures of drinking water did not yield N. fowleri, drinking water was the likely source of the amoeba. The disease in cattle closely resembles primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures.

  17. [Ecbolic and hormonal action of synthetic prostaglandin F2a in fetal mummification in two Holstein cows (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P; Lamothe, P

    1979-02-01

    Ecbolic and Hormonal Action of Synthetic Prostaglandin F(2)a in Fetal Mummification in Two Holstein CowsThe effects of treatment with synthetic prostaglandin F(2)a (500mug i.m.) to correct cases of fetal mummification in two Holstein cows are described.

  18. Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbéliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallee, A.A.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic

  19. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  20. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... on milk production, weight and days carried calf to predict carbon dioxide production and multiplied by the ratio between methane and carbon dioxide. Bivariate linear models were used in the analysis to estimate the correlations between methane and each one of the traits analyzed. Heritabilities estimates...

  1. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol in Holstein whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Magliaro, A L; Kensinger, R S

    2007-07-01

    Some individuals have expressed concern about estrogens in food because of their potential to promote growth of estrogen-sensitive human cancer cells. Researchers have reported concentrations of estrogen in milk but few whole milk samples have been analyzed. Because estrogen associates with the fat phase of milk, the analysis of whole milk is an important consideration. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to quantify 17beta-estradiol (E2) in whole milk from dairy cows and to determine whether E2 concentrations in milk from cows in the second half of pregnancy were greater than that in milk from cows in the first half of pregnancy or in nonpregnant cows. Milk samples and weights were collected during a single morning milking from 206 Holstein cows. Triplicate samples were collected and 2 samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell counts (SCC); 1 sample was homogenized and analyzed for E2. The homogenized whole milk (3 mL) was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and once with methanol. The extract was reconstituted in benzene:methanol (9:1, vol/vol) and run over a Sephadex LH-20 column to separate E2 from cholesterol and estrone before quantification using radioimmunoassay. Cows were classified as not pregnant (NP, n = 138), early pregnant (EP, 1 to 140 d pregnant, n = 47), or midpregnant (MP, 141 to 210 d pregnant, n = 21) at the time of milk sampling based on herd health records. Mean E2 concentration in whole milk was 1.4 +/- 0.2 pg/mL and ranged from nondetectable to 22.9 pg/mL. Milk E2 concentrations averaged 1.3, 0.9, and 3.0 pg/mL for NP, EP, and MP cows, respectively. Milk E2 concentrations for MP cows were greater and differed from those of NP and EP cows. Milk composition was normal for a Holstein herd in that log SCC values and percentages of fat, protein, and lactose averaged 4.9, 3.5, 3.1, and 4.8, respectively. Estradiol concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.20) with percentage fat in milk. Mean milk yield was

  2. Economic returns to Holstein and Jersey herds under multiple component pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K W; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2005-06-01

    This study analyzed component data from herds participating in the Mideast Federal Milk Marketing Order from 2000 through 2002, and its implications for herd profitability. A monthly simulation model was developed to evaluate the economic returns for a representative Holstein and Jersey herd in Pennsylvania under multiple component pricing. Component levels were highly seasonal and variable from farm to farm. A third of the herds during the course of a year realized a 1- to 3-mo temporary reduction in milk fat or protein greater than one standard deviation. Consistently producing milk fat and protein one standard deviation below the mean reduced the Class III value by $0.82/cwt (100 pounds), or 7.09%. The simulation model indicated that a herd of 100 Holstein cows generated $31,221 more income over feed costs (IOFC) a year than a herd of 100 Jersey cows. Although Jersey milk had greater gross value than Holstein milk due to higher component levels, total volume of milk and components produced by Holsteins offset this difference. Simulation results confirm that increasing milk fat and protein percentages by one standard deviation increased IOFC 7.7% for Holsteins and 9.2% for Jerseys relative to the baseline IOFC, with similar losses for component reductions. Increasing milk yield by one standard deviation increased IOFC by 19.6% for Holsteins and 23.9% for Jerseys relative to the baseline IOFC, again with similar losses for reductions in milk production. In all of the scenarios analyzed, the most important factor affecting IOFC was total amount of milk fat and protein produced, not the component percentage levels.

  3. Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Nils H.

    2017-06-01

    Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels) and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs) directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API) is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d), to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1) the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2) strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise) derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation measures to floods

  4. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  5. Hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ml. Sánchez; Alejandro Saborío-Montero

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein). Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina) (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS) y fueron suplem...

  6. TASA DE RECUPERACIÓN DE OVOCITOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN EN DESCARTE

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Malca, Armando Enrique; Departamento Producción Animal, Facultad de Zootecnia, UNALM (Perú).; Gamarra, Guiselle; Estudiante Especialista del CIETE (Perú).; Gallegos, Amalia; Departamento Producción Animal Facultad de Zootecnia UNALM (Perú).; Samillán, V.; Estudiante EPG UNALM - Práctica privada

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la viabilidad de la técnica de recuperación de ovocitos vía vaginal por aspiración folicular, en vacas Holstein de descarte, así como determinar la viabilidad y calidad de ovocitos recuperados en estos animales que ya han finalizado su vida reproductiva. Se utilizaron cuatro vacas Holstein de descarte de 9 años de edad y buena condición corporal. Se realizaron 24 sesiones de aspiración folicular vía transvaginal, durante doce semanas, en dos sesi...

  7. Stability of the AFM phase in the three-band Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edwin; Johnston, Steve; Kung, Yvonne; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Tom

    2015-03-01

    The interplay between electron-electron interactions and electron-phonon coupling in cuprates can be explored via the Hubbard-Holstein model. Here, we use determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study the three-band version of the model with electron coupling to c-axis optical oxygen vibrations. The model exhibits competition between an antiferromagnetic phase and a charge density wave phase. The corresponding phase diagram is compared against that from existing single-band Hubbard-Holstein results. Finally we investigate the evolution of the phase diagram due to changes in doping and temperature.

  8. BOLA-DRB3 gene polymorphisms influence bovine leukaemia virus infection levels in Holstein and Holstein × Jersey crossbreed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, H A; Beribe, M J; Caffaro, M E; Amadio, A; Nani, J P; Gutierrez, G; Alvarez, I; Trono, K; Miretti, M M; Poli, M A

    2017-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, causing persistent lymphocytosis and lethal lymphosarcoma in cattle, have reached high endemicity on dairy farms. We observed extensive inter-individual variation in the level of infection (LI) by assessing differences in proviral load in peripheral blood. This phenotypic variation appears to be determined by host genetics variants, especially those located in the BoLA-DRB3 MHCII molecule. We performed an association study using sequencing-based typed BOLA-DRB3 alleles from over 800 Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows considering LI in vivo and accounting for filial relationships. The DBR3*0902 allele was associated with a low level of infection (LLI) (cows. Moreover, we identified two BOLA-DRB3 alleles associated with a HLI, which is compatible with a highly contagious profile. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. P and N in soils of Schleswig-Holstein reflecting increasing air temperatures; Im Spiegel des Klimawandels. Phosphor und Stickstoff in Boeden Schleswig-Holsteins bei steigenden Lufttemperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinker, Andreas; Deunert, Frauke [DigSyLand - Inst. fuer Digitale Systemanalyse und Landschaftsdiagnose, Husby (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie, Hochschule Vechta (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The ecological effects of the global climate change differ regionally. Due to the ecological significance of soils in terrestrial ecosystems the aim of this study on behalf of the State Agency for Nature and Environment of Schleswig-Holstein was to calculate the output of nitrogen and phosphate from soils in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) given the current and predicted air temperatures. Ecosystem research and environmental epidemiology should be coordinated much closer. This research must be attended by a professional documentation of research and monitoring results by use of metadata-based and GIS-based networking of local databases. The approach of the investigation presented should be applied to representative ecoregions of Germany. To reach this, modelling areas will be selected in terms of an ecological land classification and extensive data sets from meteorological and phenological monitoring networks. Additionally, the approach will be extended by the predictive mapping of vector-associated diseases. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of crosses of Holstein, Jersey or Brown Swiss sires x Holstein-Friesian/Gir dams. 3. Lifetime performance and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, R L; Madalena, F E

    2005-03-31

    Lifetime dairy production, reproduction and growth traits of 75 females sired by Holstein, Jersey or Brown Swiss bulls and Holstein-Friesian x Gir dams of 1/2 to 3/4 Holstein-Friesian fractions were compared. The animals were in a single herd under the same management. Milk, fat and protein yields, concentrates fed, reproduction, and weights were recorded throughout the lifetime of the cows. The data were analyzed by least squares techniques under models including the fixed effects of breed of sire, Bos taurus fraction and year of birth. Herd lifes for Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss crosses were 6.006 +/- 0.812, 8.129 +/- 0.863 and 7.247 +/- 0.777 years. Milk yields per day of herd life were 7.150 +/- 0.266, 6.757 +/- 0.282 and 6.249 +/- 0.254 kg. Weights of cull cows sold were 458 +/- 15, 415 +/- 15 and 457 +/- 13 kg. Based on these and on previously reported results of the same experiment, intakes of roughage and pasture were estimated from energy requirements. Lifetime expenditures on concentrates, roughages, pastures, milking, reproduction, and heifer rearing were calculated based on mean performance of each breed of sire, as well as on receipts from animals and milk sold (the latter with four sets of prices of protein, fat and carrier). The conclusion was that in systems of artificial female calf rearing and male calf wastage, the Jersey crosses appear to offer important economic benefits to farmers, which would be even greater if payment on milk protein and fat becomes effective.

  11. Low incidence of an altered endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile in repeat breeder Holstein heifers and differential effect of parity on the EGF profile between fertile Holstein (dairy) and Japanese Black (beef) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Seiji; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-17

    A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2-4 and 13-14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows.

  12. Consequences and economics of metritis in Iranian Holstein dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Cabrera, V E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the risk factors, incidence, and productive and reproductive consequences of metritis in dairy cows, and (2) to estimate the financial losses associated with metritis using data gathered from 4 Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran. Calving records from March 2008 to December 2013, comprising 43,488 calvings, were included in the data set. The effects of metritis on productive and reproductive performance were analyzed using a mixed linear model for primiparous and multiparous cows separately and in an overall data set (all cows combined), whereas risk factors on metritis incidence were examined using a multivariable logistical regression model for the overall data set. The incidence of metritis per cow per year was 13.2% on average and ranged from 9.0 to 15.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that calving year, parity number, calving season, twinning, dystocia, and retained placenta were significantly associated with the occurrence of metritis, whereas previous metritis incidence did not show an association. Greatest odds of metritis occurred in first-parity cows that calved in winter and had retained placenta, twinning, and dystocia in recent years. A case of metritis significantly reduced the 305-d milk yield in primiparous and multiparous cows and overall, but had no significant effects on 305-d fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis reduced 305-d milk yield by 129.8±41.5kg/cow per lactation. The negative reproductive effects due to metritis were smaller and nonsignificant for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis increased days open and number of insemination per conception by 16.4±1.2 and 0.1±0.0 per cow per lactation, respectively. Among the individual farms, metritis costs ranged from $146.4 to $175.7 with a mean of $162.3/case. The model to calculate metritis costs proposed here could

  13. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  14. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, L.C.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Tempelman, R.J.; Weigel, K.A.; Armentano, L.E.; Wiggans, G.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Haas, de Y.; Coffey, M.P.; Connor, E.E.; Hanigan, M.D.; Staples, C.R.; Wang, Z.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Spurlock, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition,

  15. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Eslamizad, M

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal...

  16. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  17. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk product...

  18. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system: comparison between Holstein and Jersey cattle in Italian circumstances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

  20. Economic values for production and functional traits in Holstein cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Groen, A.F.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Economic values for production traits (carrier, fat, protein, and dressing percentage) and functional traits (conception rate, survival rate, body weight, and rumen capacity) were calculated for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica. Economic values were derived using a bio-economic model that combined

  1. Genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in tropical Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate estimates of genetic parameters are essential for genetic improvement of milk yield in dairy cattle and for setting up breeding programmes. Estimates of genetic parameters from test-day models, particularly for Holstein Friesian cattle maintained in tropical environments, are scant in the literature. The objective of ...

  2. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  3. The productivity of holstein-friesian dairy cattle in different farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on performance of various breeds within different farming systems of Kenya would be useful in determining a breeding programme that would enable selection of appropriate animals for improved production. This study investigated the performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in small-scale farms (SSF), medium ...

  4. Whole-Genome association analysis of susceptibility to paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, B W; Shi, X; Shook, G E; Collins, M T

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers and genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Holstein cattle. Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by genotyping 521 MAP-infected Holstein cows and comparing SNP allele frequencies of these infected cows with allele frequencies estimated from specific reference populations. Reference population allele frequency estimates used Holstein sire genotype data and were weighted estimates based on sire usage within the population in question. The 521 infected cows were 233 and 288 cows from two resource populations of approximately 5000 cows each, collected independently. Population 1 was comprised primarily of daughters of twelve Holstein artificial insemination sires used heavily within the US dairy cattle population. Samples were obtained from 300 co-operating commercial dairy herds throughout the US and were tested by both MAP faecal culture and blood-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Population 2 consisted of dairy cattle from six co-operating dairy herds in Wisconsin, with all animals in the herds tested by blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MAP infection. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Bead Chip, providing genotypes for 35,772 informative SNPs. Data from the two resource populations were analysed both in separate and combined analyses. The most significant autosomal markers from the individual and combined analyses (n=197, nominal PHolstein cattle susceptibility to MAP infection. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  6. Lactation curves of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily milk yield for 478 Holstein-Friesian cows from two herds, recorded between 1984-1985, and for 218 Jersey cows from two herds, recorded between 1984-1985, were used to estimate lactation curve parameters for Wood's gamma function: Yn = A nbe-cn. Yn is the predicted average daily milk yield in the nth ...

  7. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  9. Intentionally induced intestinal barrier dysfunction causes inflammation, affects metabolism, and reduces productivity in lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 days in milk) were enrolled in two experimental perio...

  10. A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Edgar F; Singh, Kuldeep

    2012-12-01

    A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon.

  11. Genetic parameters for natural antibody isotype titers in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Ploegaert, T.C.W.; Tijhaar, E.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for natural antibody isotypes immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG1 and IgM titers binding the bacterial antigens lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and the model antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 1695).

  12. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  13. Charge ordering and magnetism in quarter-filled Hubbard-Holstein model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; van den Brink, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model with phonons treated in the adiabatic limit. A Hartree-Fock decomposition is employed for the Hubbard term. A range of electronic densities are discussed with special emphasis on the quarter filling (n=0.5). We argue that the quarter-filled system is

  14. Expression and imprinting of DIO3 and DIO3OS genes in Holstein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WENZHI YANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... opposite orientation to DIO3, multiple noncoding and alternatively splicing isoforms from maternal allele. In this study, the five splice variants of DIO3OS were identified in Holstein cattle and had complex, tissue-specific expression patterns observed in eight tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, ...

  15. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  16. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  17. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Preliminary genomic predictions of feed saved for 1.4 million Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic predictions of transmitting ability (GPTAs) for residual feed intake (RFI) were computed using data from 4,621 42-day and 202 28-day feed intake trials of 3,947 U.S. Holsteins born 1999-2013 in 9 research herds. The 28-day records had 8.5% larger error variance than 42-day records and receiv...

  19. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 2-year-old Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Barkema, Herman W.; McClure, J. T.; Rogers, Laura A.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year-old, purebred Holstein heifer with exercise intolerance and cardiovascular compromise was diagnosed at postmortem with tetralogy of Fallot, which typically results in death within a few months of life. Survival past the age of 2 was unexpected. The concurrent endocarditis of the pulmonic valve is discussed. PMID:12715983

  20. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  1. The Holstein-Hubbard model with Gaussian anharmonicity in one-dimension at half filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, Ch. Uma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-05-01

    The Holstein-Hubbard model(HHM) with Gaussian anharmonicityis studied at half filling in one-dimension using a variational method based on a series of canonical transformations. It is shown that the anharmonicityincreases the width of the intermediate metallic phase at the SDW-CDW crossover region.

  2. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African. National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  3. Heritability of live weight and condition score in a Holstein herd and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and environmental parameters for live weight and condition score have been determined for Holstein cows. Genetic correlations with milk traits were also derived. Monthly records were modelled by cubic splines, while the direct, additive effects of animal and the temporary environment (defined as cow ...

  4. Genetic trends from single-step GBLUP and traditional BLUP for production traits in US Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare genetic trends from a single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) and the traditional BLUP (tradBLUP) models for milk production traits in US Holstein. We used 764,029 genotyped animals in this study. Phenotypes were 305-day milk, fat, and protein yield from 21,527,...

  5. CLOSTAT® reduces the negative impacts of a Salmonella challenge in weaned Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effects of a patented Bacillus subtillus probiotic (CLOSTAT®), weaned Holstein steers, (n=200; ~90kg) were supplemented (CLO) or not (CON) with CLOSTAT® (13 g/hd/d; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) in a starter ration at a calf ranch for 35 d (n=50 head per pen; 2 pens/trt.). A sub...

  6. Holstein-Primakoff realization of Higgs algebra and its q-extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, Holstein-Primakoff realization of Higgs algebra is obtained by using the linear (or quadratic) deformation of Heisenberg algebra and q-deformed Higgs algebra is proposed. Some applications such as Kepler problem in a two-dimensional curved space and SUSY quantum mechanics are also discussed.

  7. Spin-lattice coupling effects in the Holstein double-exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisse, Alexander [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Fehske, Holger [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Ihle, Dieter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10-11, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: dieter.ihle@itp.uni-leipzig.de

    2005-04-30

    Based on the Holstein double-exchange model and a highly efficient single cluster Monte Carlo approach we study the interplay of double-exchange and polaron effects in doped colossal magneto-resistance (CMR) manganites. The CMR transition is shown to be appreciably influenced by lattice polaron formation.

  8. Dissection of genomic correlation matrices of US Holsteins using multivariate factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim of the study was to compare correlation matrices between direct genomic predictions for 31 production, fitness and conformation traits both at genomic and chromosomal level in US Holstein bulls. Multivariate factor analysis was used to quantify basic features of correlation matrices. Factor extr...

  9. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different populations of Iranian native cattles (86 Sarabi, 66 Taleshi, 94 Sistani, 76 Golpayegani, 104 Brown Swiss and 161 Holstein cattle) using PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of the frequencies of the various alleles in each breed indicated that allele C in ...

  10. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle. (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in. Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different.

  11. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  12. Symmetry conserving 1/N expansion and extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping for anharmonic O(N+1) oscillator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhioev, Alan [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: dzhioev@thsun1.jinr.ru; Wambach, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wambach@physik.tu-darmstadt.de; Vdovin, A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vdovin@thsun1.jinr.ru; Aouissat, Z. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-02-21

    Symmetry conserving 1/N expansion method combined with the Holstein-Primakoff mapping for bosonic systems is applied to the quantum anharmonic O(N+1) oscillator model which imitates essential features of the quantum-field linear sigma model. The Holstein-Primakoff mapping earlier extended to incorporate both single- and double-boson images is used. In the leading and next-to-leading order the existence of N-Goldstone modes and the validity of the Ward identity are proved. For matrix elements of the pion-pion interaction we show the equivalence of the results obtained via a diagrammatic technique and the extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping.

  13. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Allan S; Maerz, Noah L; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Akins, Matthew S; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  14. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  15. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  16. Genetic parameters of test day milk yields of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Machado

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Data were obtained from 17,968 records from 2,130 first lactations of Holstein cows calving between 1988 and 1991. The subjects were daughters of 136 sires monitored by Brazilian Breeders Association, Animal Science Institute, Department of Agriculture, a branch of the State of São Paulo. Data were divided into 10 subsets based on the number of days in milk yield. Test day milk yields (M1 to M10 and 305-day milk yield (M305 were the traits studied. These traits were adjusted for several environmental effects: class of cow age at calving, interval from calving to first test day, and herd-year-season. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of (covariance components were obtained from one and two-traits analysis under a sire model. Estimates of heritabilities for M ranged from 0.04 to 0.32. The highest values were found in the second half of lactation (M5 to M7. Heritability estimate for M305 was 0.32. Genetic correlations between individual test days and M305 ranged from 0.78 to 1.00. Results suggested that test day milk yields, mainly in mid-lactation, can be used instead of 305-day milk yield in genetic evaluations, because estimates of these two-trait heritabilities are nearly alike. Moreover, early selection can reduce generation intervals.No presente estudo foram utilizados 17.968 registros de produção de leite, referentes a 2130 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa, paridas nos anos de 1988 a 1991, filhas de 136 touros e controladas pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores (ABC. Os dados foram distribuídos em dez sub-arquivos de acordo com o número do controle (M1 a M10. As características estudadas foram: produção de leite no dia do controle (M e produção aos 305 dias de lactação (M305, as quais foram ajustadas para os seguintes fatores de variação: idade da vaca ao parto em classes, intervalo parto-primeiro controle e subclasses de rebanho-ano-estação de parto. Os componentes de (covariância foram obtidos a

  17. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  18. Microsatellite panels suggested for parentage testing in cattle: informativeness revealed in Finnish Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian populations (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. BREDBACKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Informativeness of eleven microsatellite markers suggested for parentage control in cattle by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG was studied in Finnish Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian populations. Calculations were based on a sample of 100 non-sib artificial insemination bulls. Assuming one known parent the nine loci suggested for routine testing exhibited exclusion probabilities of 99.84% in the Ayrshires and 99.91% in the Holstein-Friesians. The addition of markers INRA23 and TGLA53, recommended for further investigations, increased the attained values to 99.94% in Ayrshires and to 99.98% in Holstein-Friesians. The recommended core set of six microsatellites provided a combined exclusion probability of 98.25% in Ayrshires and 99.32% in Holstein-Friesians. Although the combined values were high in general, a relatively low level of polymorphism was detected in some instances.;

  19. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolahad Shadparvar; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy...

  20. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  1. Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Schade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI. As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d, to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1 the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2 strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation

  2. A simple harvest of energy. An energetice use of biomass in Schleswig-Holstein; Energie einfach ernten. Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse in Schleswig-Holstein - Zukuenftige Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Agriculture of Schleswig-Holstein (Kiel, Federal Republic of Germany) draws the balance sheet according to the initiative 'biomass and energy Schleswig-Holstein'. Furthermore the Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Agriculture reports on actual data and developments according to basic conditions in environment regulations and development instruments. The advantages of the energetic use of biomass are put opposite to the potential internal-ecological conflicts. The central demand is the environmentally beneficial development of the energetic use of biomass. Apart from the use of residual substances from agriculture and forestry, selectively cultivated energy-rich plants such as fast growing foods, maize or grain are used increasingly. On the one hand, this promotes the climate protection. On the other hand this also may result into environmental impacts. Therefore, the Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Agriculture reports on conditions according to the cultivation of energy-rich plants. Furthermore, the contribution under consideration informs about actual targets of the climate protection policy and energy policy and estimates the potential of biomass in agriculture, forestry, and recycling industry. The construction and operation of biomass plants require permissions and are regulated by different legal areas. According to this, the different demands and basic conditions are presented. Beside this, suitable promotion instruments play a decisive role in the development of the energetic use of biomass. Therefore, the main points of the initiative 'Biomass and Energy' of the central government and the innovation foundation Schleswig-Holstein as well as the development instruments at the Federal level are presented in this contribution.

  3. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p taurus (Holstein) heifers (p taurus (Holstein) heifers (p taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. KAJI BANDING KUALITAS SPERMATOZOA SAPI SIMMENTAL, LIMOUSIN, DAN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN TERHADAP PROSES PEMBEKUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komariah (Komariah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari dan membandingkan kualitas spermatozoa beku sapi Simmental, Limousin, dan Friesian Holstein (FH di Balai Inseminasi Buatan Lembang (BIB, Bandung, Jawa Barat. Jumlah sapi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah 24 ekor sapi jantan yang terdiri atas 8 Simmental, 8 Limousin, dan 8 FH berumur 4 tahun dengan kisaran bobot badan 800-900 kg. Penelitian menggunakan data sekunder dan primer BIB Lembang bulan November sampai Desember 2010. Data sekunder yang diambil adalah data motilitas spermatozoa segar meliputi, before freezing (BF, post thawing motility (PTM, longivitas dan data primer yaitu nilai recovery rate. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian adalah motilitas spermatozoa segar dan before freezing sapi Simmental lebih tinggi (P<0,05 dibandingkan sapi Limousin dan FH, sedangkan hasil PTM, longivitas, dan recovery rate tidak berbeda nyata pada ketiga bangsa tersebut. (Kata kunci: Freezability, Spermatozoa, Simmental, Limousin, Friesian Holstein

  5. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  6. Recovery with a regular dose of antibiotics from bacillary hemoglobinuria in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kohyama, Moeko; Ono, Tetsushi; Adachi, Satoshi; Shirao, Daiji; Tamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-12-01

    One Holstein cow housed with 21 other cows exhibited clinical signs of pyrexia, anorexia and diarrhea along with severe hemoglobinuria. Hematological and biochemical analyses conducted before and after antibiotic therapy indicated severe hemolytic anemia and disruption of hepatic function. A general improvement in conditions was observed after an 11-day program of treatment comprising a regular dose of antibiotics and prescribed supportive therapies. A tentative diagnosis of bacillary hemoglobinuria was made based on the clinical and clinico-pathologic features on day 7. A molecular diagnosis was made by a PCR amplification of the flagellin gene of Clostridium haemolyticum using DNA extracted from the whole blood. The cow was diagnosed with the first recorded occurrence of bacillary hemoglobinuria of Holstein cattle in Japan.

  7. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  8. Metallicity in a Holstein-Hubbard Chain at Half Filling with Gaussian Anharmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, Ch Uma; Sankar, I V; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2017-06-19

    The Holstein-Hubbard model with Gaussian phonon anharmonicity is studied in one-dimension at half filling using a variational method based on a series of canonical transformations. A fairly accurate phonon state is chosen to average the transformed Holstein-Hubbard Hamiltonian to obtain an effective Hubbard model which is then solved using the exact Bethe - ansatz following Lieb and Wu to obtain the ground state energy, the average lattice displacement and the renormalized parameters. The Mott-Hubbard criterion, local spin moment and the von Neumann entropy (which is a measure of quantum entanglement) are calculated to determine the ground state phase diagram which shows that the width of the metallic phase flanked by the SDW and CDW phases increases with increasing anharmonicity at low and moderate values of anharmonicity but eventually saturates when the anharmonicity becomes substantially large.

  9. Single-polaron properties in the one-dimensional Holstein and SSH models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingmei, E-mail: nosilentlamb@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, 100872 Beijing (China)

    2012-03-05

    We study the single-polaron properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and SSH model. The dynamical coherent potential approximation (under the Hartree approximation) is applied to compute the polaron dispersion, the quasi-particle residue, and the polaron's Green's functions. We compare our calculated results in comparison with those by the self-consistent Born approximation plus higher-order diagrams. -- Highlights: ► We study the single-polaron properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and SSH model. ► The dynamical coherent potential approximation of Hartree type is used. ► The self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA) plus higher-order diagrams is compared. ► The SCBA method is only limited to the weak electron–phonon case for the both models.

  10. High-temperature superconductivity and normal state in the Holstein-t-J model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, E.E., E-mail: zubov@fti.dn.ua

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •The conditions for the existence of the superconducting state has been presented. •Holstein polarons play an important role in the narrowing of the electron band. •The concentration dependence of the critical temperature in cuprates was calculated. -- Abstract: A possible origin of the high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates has been suggested. It is supposed that electron–phonon interaction determines the strong correlation narrowing of the electron band. It provides the conditions for the formation of a singlet electron pair coupled by exchange interaction. For the pure t-J model it has been proved that these electron pairs are destroyed by a strong effective kinematic field. The detailed analysis of an influence of the Holstein polaron excitations upon normal and superconducting properties of the strongly correlated electrons was made. A calculated critical temperature of the superconductivity and gap function are in good agreement with experimental data for cuprates.

  11. Orbital effects of strong magnetic field on a two-dimensional Holstein polaron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhasree; Chakraborty, Monodeep; Taraphder, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the orbital effects of a strong external magnetic field on the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional (2D) Holstein polaron, employing variational approaches based on exact diagonalization. From the ground-state energy and the wave function, we calculate the electron-phonon correlation function, the average phonon number, and the Drude weight and investigate the evolution of a 2D Holstein polaron as a function of the magnetic flux. Although the external magnetic field affects the polaron throughout the parameter regime, we show that the magnetic field has a stronger effect on a loosely bound (spatially extended) polaron. We also find that the magnetic field can be used as a tuning parameter, particularly for a weakly coupled polaron, to reduce the spatial extent of a large polaron.

  12. Doping dependence of ordered phases in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendl, Christian; Nowadnick, Elizabeth; Kung, Yvonne; Moritz, Brian; Johnston, Steven; Devereaux, Thomas

    Complex phase diagrams of strongly correlated materials are often accessed by the addition or removal of carriers, for example the emergence of high-temperature superconductivity from a charge transfer insulating state in the cuprates, and the metal-insulator transition in the nickelates. In many cases, these doping-dependent transitions are closely linked to the competition between multiple phases of similar energy scales, e.g., charge-stripe and superconducting states in the cuprates. The Hubbard-Holstein model, which includes electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, provides a framework to study competing phases. In this talk I will present determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations of the Hubbard-Holstein model and use spin and charge susceptibilities and single-particle spectral functions to elucidate the doping evolution of the competition between spin and charge order.

  13. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J

    2009-01-01

    be explained by differences in economic values, trait definitions, national genetic evaluation procedures, and genotype x environment interactions. The objective of this study was to test whether uniform definitions of the female fertility traits would increase the exchange of genes across populations......, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. A second objective was to test whether a more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations would increase the exchange of genes across populations, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. This was done in a stochastic simulation study...... of the Nordic and US Holstein populations. Uniform definitions of the female fertility traits did not increase total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The standardization did not seem to affect selection across populations either. However, the results were sensitive to the assumptions made...

  14. Genetic Parameters of Residual Energy Intake and Its Correlations with Other Traits in Holstein Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMANI, Pouya; MIRAEI-ASHTIANI, Seied Reza; Mohammadi, Hosein

    2008-01-01

    Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual energy intake, is predicted on the basis of requirements for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change of an animal. Genetic variation of REI and its relationships with dry matter intake, milk yield, fat corrected milk yield and milk fat, and protein yields was investigated using 3503 monthly records collected from 906 Holstein lactating cows. Variance components were estimated usin...

  15. Improving the accuracy of genomic prediction in Chinese Holstein cattle by using one-step blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiujin; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Ju; Li, Leyi; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiangdong

    2014-10-14

    The one-step blending approach has been suggested for genomic prediction in dairy cattle. The core of this approach is to incorporate pedigree and phenotypic information of non-genotyped animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the improvement of the accuracy of genomic prediction using the one-step blending method in Chinese Holstein cattle. Three methods, GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction), original one-step blending with a genomic relationship matrix, and adjusted one-step blending with an adjusted genomic relationship matrix, were compared with respect to the accuracy of genomic prediction for five milk production traits in Chinese Holstein. For the two one-step blending methods, de-regressed proofs of 17 509 non-genotyped cows, including 424 dams and 17 085 half-sisters of the validation cows, were incorporated in the prediction model. The results showed that, averaged over the five milk production traits, the one-step blending increased the accuracy of genomic prediction by about 0.12 compared to GBLUP. No further improvement in accuracies was obtained from the adjusted one-step blending over the original one-step blending in our situation. Improvements in accuracies obtained with both one-step blending methods were almost completely contributed by the non-genotyped dams. Compared with GBLUP, the one-step blending approach can significantly improve the accuracy of genomic prediction for milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Thus, the one-step blending is a promising approach for practical genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle, where the reference population mainly consists of cows.

  16. Contribution of Holstein cows to sustainability of dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Waltrick, de B.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: sustainability,Holsteincows,

  17. Evaluation of heat stress on Tarentaise and Holstein cow performance in the Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagi, Rahma; Martin, Bruno; Chassaing, Chantal; Najar, Taha; Pomiès, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to first quantify the effect of heat stress on milk yield and components of Tarentaise in comparison to Holstein cows. A dataset of 16,143 monthly individual records of production traits was collected for 435 Tarentaise and 543 Holstein cows from 21 farms in Tunisia (2009 to 2014). This dataset was merged with meteorological data from 5 public stations relative to the 21 farms. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated as a combination of ambient temperature and relative humidity, was used to characterize heat stress. When the THI increased from an average value of 53.7 in winter to 75.4 in summer, the Holstein and Tarentaise cows decreased their milk production by 0.93 and 0.15 kg/day, respectively. Milk fat, protein, and urea content decreased similarly in both breeds (-2.20 g/kg, -1.40 g/kg, and -14 mg/L, respectively), and the milk somatic cell count increased for Holstein cows (+352,000/mL) while decreased for Tarentaise cows (-160,000/mL). The second aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the variations of the milk yields between the summer and the winter (Δ milk yields) and some barn characteristics during the hot season. A survey carried out on 19 of the 21 previous farms permitted to conclude that the closed buildings led to a higher decrease in milk yield between the summer and winter than the open buildings (-1.13 vs. -0.27 kg/day). A metallic roof had a more negative impact on Δ milk yields than the other roof types (-1.04 vs. -0.15 kg/day).

  18. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bayram; GÜLER, O.; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut

    2006-01-01

    Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE) and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficien...

  19. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  20. Transient dynamics and steady state behavior of the Anderson-Holstein model with a superconducting lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, K. F.; Soller, H.; Mühlbacher, L.; Komnik, A.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the nonequilibrium dynamics and steady-state behavior of the two-terminal Anderson-Holstein model with a superconducting and a normal conducting lead. In the deep Kondo limit we develop an analytical description if no phonons are included and a rate equation approach when phonons are present. Both cases are compared with the numerically exact diagrammatic Monte Carlo method obtaining a good agreement. For small voltages we find a pronounced enhancement of phonon sidebands due to the SC DOS.

  1. Properties of a localized magnetic impurity in a superconducting host: The Anderson-Holstein-BCS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Raju, Ch.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A symmetric Anderson-Holstein model with a BCS interaction term is considered to investigate the effect of local electron-phonon interaction on a magnetic impurity in a superconductor. The Kikuchi-Morita Cluster variation (CV) method is used to calculate the local impurity magnetic moment and the binding energy between the impurity and the conduction electrons in the superconductor. The effect of electron-phonon interaction and the order parameter on the bound state is discussed.

  2. Optical properties of the Holstein-t-J model from dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelluti, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); SMC Research Center and ISC, INFM-CNR, v. dei Taurini 19, 00185 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: emmcapp@roma1.infn.it; Ciuchi, S. [INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita dell' Aquila, via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); Fratini, S. [Institut Neel - CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-01

    We employ dynamical mean-field theory to study the optical conductivity {sigma}({omega}) of one hole in the Holstein-t-J model. We provide an exact solution for {sigma}({omega}) in the limit of infinite connectivity. We apply our analysis to Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. We show that our model can explain many features of the optical conductivity in this compounds in terms of magnetic/lattice polaron formation.

  3. The role of local repulsion in superconductivity in the Hubbard–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chungwei, E-mail: clin@merl.com; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • There exists an optimal Boson energy for superconductivity in Hubbard–Holstein model. • The electron-Boson coupling is essential for superconductivity, but the same coupling can lead to polaron insulator, which is against superconductivity. • The local Coulomb repulsion can sometimes enhance superconductivity. - Abstract: We examine the superconducting solution in the Hubbard–Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field Theory. The Holstein term introduces the site-independent Boson fields coupling to local electron density, and has two competing influences on superconductivity: The Boson field mediates the effective electron-electron attraction, which is essential for the S-wave electron pairing; the same coupling to the Boson fields also induces the polaron effect, which makes the system less metallic and thus suppresses superconductivity. The Hubbard term introduces an energy penalty U when two electrons occupy the same site, which is expected to suppress superconductivity. By solving the Hubbard–Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field theory, we find that the Hubbard U can be beneficial to superconductivity under some circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate that when the Boson energy Ω is small, a weak local repulsion actually stabilizes the S-wave superconducting state. This behavior can be understood as an interplay between superconductivity, the polaron effect, and the on-site repulsion: As the polaron effect is strong and suppresses superconductivity in the small Ω regime, the weak on-site repulsion reduces the polaron effect and effectively enhances superconductivity. Our calculation elucidates the role of local repulsion in the conventional S-wave superconductors.

  4. Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.

  5. The variational approach to the superconductivity in the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybowski, P.; Micnas, R. [Institute of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, PL-61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2003-03-01

    We examine the variational squeezed-state and the correlated squeezed-state approach to the ground state of the Holstein-Hubbard model in the case of strong electron-phonon interaction, paying special attention to the electron-hole symmetry of the model Hamiltonian. We have found differences with respect to the results previously reported for the normal and superconducting phases, and present an improved analysis. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Jens eTetens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yi...

  7. Extended Holstein small polaron model for charge transfer in dry DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Fu, Liang; Wang, Ke-Lin

    2006-01-20

    In this paper, the charge transfer problem in dry DNA was investigated by employing an extended Holstein small polaron model with external potential traps being involved in consideration. The ground state energy and the probability amplitude of polaron in various DNA chains with different external trap potentials were obtained by variational method with the trial function being taken in coherent state form. The stability of transfered charges in various circumstances was discussed accordingly.

  8. Analysis of the influence factors on dystocia, stillbirth and calf birth weight in Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Maschurek, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Within the past ten years many studies that deal with causes of increased dystocia and calf losses have been published. Despite the knowledge high numbers of dystocia and perinatal mortality are common in dairy herds. The calf birth weight is an important factor for pathologic parturitions, particulary in Holstein heifers. It was the objective of this study to identify risk factors of dystocia and calf death at or during birth on a large dairy farm in Germany (2132 cows, 11520 kg milk yiel...

  9. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation in Holstein cows using a random regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Araujo Cobuci

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A model for analyzing test day records including both fixed and random coefficients was applied to the genetic evaluation of first lactation data for Holstein cows. Data comprising 87045 test-day milk yield records from calving between 1997 and 2001 from Holstein herds in 10 regions of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Six persistency of lactation measures were evaluated using breeding values obtained by random regression analyses. The Wilmink function was used to model the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation. Ranking for animals did not change among criteria for persistency measurements, but ranking changes were observed when the estimated breeding value (EBV for persistency of lactation was contrasted with those estimated for 305-day milk yield (305MY. The rank correlation estimates for persistency of lactation and 305MY were practically the same for sire and cows, and ranged from -0.45 to 0.69. The EBVs for milk yield during lactation for sires producing daughters with superior 305MY indicate genetic differences between sires regarding their ability to transmit desirable persistency of lactation traits. This suggests that selection for total lactation milk yield does not identify sires or cows that are genetically superior in regard to persistency of lactation. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation is important for improving the efficiency of the milk production capacity of Holstein cows.

  10. Finite-size effects in Luther-Emery phases of Holstein and Hubbard models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemann, J.; Hesselmann, S.; Wessel, S.; Assaad, F. F.; Hohenadler, M.

    2015-12-01

    The one-dimensional Holstein model and its generalizations have been studied extensively to understand the effects of electron-phonon interaction. The half-filled case is of particular interest, as it describes a transition from a metallic phase with a spin gap due to attractive backscattering to a Peierls insulator with charge-density-wave order. Our quantum Monte Carlo results support the existence of a metallic phase with dominant power-law charge correlations, as described by the Luther-Emery fixed point. We demonstrate that for Holstein and also for purely fermionic models the spin gap significantly complicates finite-size numerical studies, and explains inconsistent previous results for Luttinger parameters and phase boundaries. On the other hand, no such complications arise in spinless models. The correct low-energy theory of the spinful Holstein model is argued to be that of singlet bipolarons with a repulsive, mutual interaction. This picture naturally explains the existence of a metallic phase, but also implies that gapless Luttinger liquid theory is not applicable.

  11. The role of local repulsion in superconductivity in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2017-01-01

    We examine the superconducting solution in the Hubbard-Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field Theory. The Holstein term introduces the site-independent Boson fields coupling to local electron density, and has two competing influences on superconductivity: The Boson field mediates the effective electron-electron attraction, which is essential for the S-wave electron pairing; the same coupling to the Boson fields also induces the polaron effect, which makes the system less metallic and thus suppresses superconductivity. The Hubbard term introduces an energy penalty U when two electrons occupy the same site, which is expected to suppress superconductivity. By solving the Hubbard-Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field theory, we find that the Hubbard U can be beneficial to superconductivity under some circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate that when the Boson energy Ω is small, a weak local repulsion actually stabilizesthe S-wave superconducting state. This behavior can be understood as an interplay between superconductivity, the polaron effect, and the on-site repulsion: As the polaron effect is strong and suppresses superconductivity in the small Ω regime, the weak on-site repulsion reduces the polaron effect and effectively enhances superconductivity. Our calculation elucidates the role of local repulsion in the conventional S-wave superconductors.

  12. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  13. Lipid fraction quality of milk produced by Minhota (Portuguese autochthonous breed) compared to Holstein Friesian cow's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Heryka M M; Campos, Sílvia D; Casal, Susana; Alves, Rui; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-12-01

    Minhota and Holstein Friesian cows (15 from each breed) were selected from several farms located in the north of Portugal, all under similar feeding regime. Milk samples from individual cows were collected once a month, during one year, to take into account different lactation stages and feeding seasonal changes. Holstein milk was found to have higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, and trans fatty acids, while Minhota milk had significantly higher monounsaturated fatty acids content. No statistical differences were observed for omega-3 and saturated fatty acids contents, mostly due to the high dispersion observed in Minhota milk samples. The average amount of conjugated linoleic acid was higher in Minhota breed, but the high dispersion of values reduced the statistical significance. Cholesterol content, expressed as mg kg(-1) of fat, was higher in Holstein than in Minhota milk. The results indicate that Minhota milk has important nutritional qualities that deserve attention, but the wide individual variation found within animals from this breed suggests a high genetic variability. Following this, the selection of some of these animals for intensive milk production could improve milk quality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The Effect of Udder Measurements on Somatic Cell Count and Daily Milk Production in Holstein Cattle

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    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of udder measurements group on somatic cell count (SCC and daily milk production. Milk samples and udder measurements were collected monthly from 79 lactating Holstein cows on commercial dairy in the province of Niğde. In the study, front teat length (FTL, rear teat length (RTL, front teat diameter (FTD, rear teat diameter (RTD, distance between front teats (DBFT, distance between rear teats (DBRT, front udder height, (FTH, rear udder height (RUH, distance between front and rear teats (DBST were obtained in before afternoon milking. Udder measurements were divided into 5 groups according to the measurements. The effect of DBFT, DBRT, FTH, RTD, FTD and DBRT groups on daily milk production were statistically significant, while FTH, RUH and DBRT were found non-significant. The effect of udder measurements groups on SCC was found not significant, except rear teat diameter (RTD. Average daily milk production and SCC were estimated as 28.25 kg/day and 274.90 cell/ml, respectively. In conclusion, it can be said that the distance between teats, teat’s diameter and front udder height of Holstein cattle is important factor for milk yield of Holstein dairy cattle. Also, SCC is effected by rear teat diameter.

  15. Leucograma en novillas y becerros (Holstein infectados con una cepa venezolana de Trypanosoma vivax Leucogram in heifers and calves (Holstein infected with a venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIR ESPINOZA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo la evaluación del leucograma en novillas y becerros Holstein infectados experimentalmente con una cepa venezolana de Trypanosoma vivax. Los datos fueron analizados a través de la prueba no paramétrica de U de Mann-Whitney. La comparación de las medias de los numeros totales de los leucocitos (NTL en las novillas, fue estadísticamente significativo (P This work had as objective the evaluation of the leucogram in Holstein heifers and calves experimentally infected with a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma vivax. The dates were analysed by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The total means comparation of leucocytes in heifers was statistically significative (P < 0.05. The calves produced a neutrophilia when compared the total means for the infected and control groups (P < 0.05. The totals means of linphocytes and monocytes were statistically significative (P < 0.05.

  16. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  17. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  18. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Uranium concentration in drinking water from small-scale water supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Urankonzentration im Trinkwasser aus Hausbrunnen in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste, Kiel (Germany). Dezernat Umweltbezogener Gesundheitsschutz

    2015-07-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 μg/lL, the 95th percentile was 2.5 μg/L. The maximum level was 14 μg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  20. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  1. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75, was significantly different (P< 0.01 from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75. There was significant correlation (P < 0.05 among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05 with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures, as high as 0.36 kgDM/cow for each unit of air temperature decrease and for each unit of increase of relative humidity and wind velocity at 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., simultaneously.

  3. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the Spanish Holstein population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresa Rodríguez-Ramilo

    Full Text Available Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding. The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes.

  4. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the Spanish Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes.

  5. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  6. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  7. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  8. Renaissance des Dorfladens oder Versorgungswüsten?. Erfahrungen und Lernpotenziale am Beispiel Schleswig-Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    It has become more and more complicated for the customers to make their food shopping in local environments because smaller shops close down and the distances to supermarkets and discount stores have increased, especially in rural areas. The paper will discuss which alternatives of food retailing exist outside the supermarket world and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of shop formats on the micro level. The statements are based on a conscious selection of different shop formats and expert interviews in rural areas of the province of Schleswig-Holstein.

  9. Primary vaginal fibroleiomyosarcoma in a 4-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Hamdi; SERİN, Güneş; AYDOĞAN, Ahmet; BİRİNCİOĞLU, Serap

    2014-01-01

    A case of fibroleiomyosarcoma of the vagina in a 4-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow is described. The tumour was 6.5 × 5 × 4.2 cm in size, weighed 87.73 g, and had a solid appearance. Histologically, the tumour was composed of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue components with spindle-shaped cells with eosinophilic fibrillary cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells reacted with antibodies to a-SMA, desmin, and vimentin but not with antibodies to CD34, CD68, and S-100 protein. Both hist...

  10. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    OpenAIRE

    Muya, Mukengela Claude; Erasmus, Lourens Johannes; Miller, Kevin; Aperce, Celine; Nherera, Florence Veronica; Moshidi, Portia Mamothaladi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0) and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14). Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward...

  11. Heavy fermion state in the periodic Anderson-Holstein model away from half filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, K. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)]. E-mail: mitsumoto@phys.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Ono, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We investigate the electronic state of the periodic Anderson-Holstein model, which includes both the electron-electron Coulomb interaction and the electron-phonon coupling, away from half filling. The model is solved by using the dynamical mean-field theory combined with the exact diagonalization method. The heavy fermion state with large effective mass due to the electron-phonon coupling is realized in the wide range of the f-electron number n{sub f}, while that due to the Coulomb interaction is realized in the narrow range of n{sub f}{approx}1.

  12. Heavy fermions and rattling motions in the periodic Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, K. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)]. E-mail: mitsumoto@phys.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Ono, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2006-05-01

    We investigate a heavy fermion behaviour and a deformation of an effective potential of the ions due to electron-phonon interaction for the periodic Anderson-Holstein model by using the dynamical mean-field theory combined with the exact diagonalization method. For the strong electron-phonon coupling, the system shows an anomalous heavy fermion behaviour with a large lattice fluctuation and an extreme phonon softening, and then an effective potential for the ions changes from a simple harmonic potential for the non-interacting case to a double-well potential for the strong electron-phonon coupling.

  13. Phase diagram and dynamic response functions of the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, W. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Meyer, D. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.meyer@ic.ac.uk; Hewson, A.C. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O-bar no, Y. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    We present the phase diagram and dynamical correlation functions for the Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling and at zero temperature. The calculations are based on the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The effective impurity model is solved using exact diagonalization (ED) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG). Excluding long-range order, we find three different paramagnetic phases, metallic, bipolaronic and Mott insulating, depending on the Hubbard interaction U and the electron-phonon coupling g. We present the behaviour of the one-electron spectral functions and phonon spectra close to the metal-insulator transitions.

  14. Scaling of temperature dependence of charge mobility in molecular Holstein chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, D. A.; Fialko, N. S.; Sobolev, E. V.; Lakhno, V. D.

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on a Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for four types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all four types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e., those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  15. The superconducting state of Holstein model using dynamical mean field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon

    To enhance the superconducting temperature within the conventional superconductors, we solve the Holstein model, where conduction electrons are coupled to some boson field, using dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) with the configuration interaction impurity solver. Thanks to the non-perturbative nature of DMFT, we determine the zero-temperature order parameter for a wide range of boson energies to find the optimal range for superconductivity. This is beyond the Migdal-Eliashberg theory where the boson energy is assumed to be small compared to the Fermi energy. The effect of Hubbard on-site repulsion will be also discussed.

  16. Luttinger liquid versus charge density wave behaviour in the one-dimensional spinless fermion Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehske, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Greifswald, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)]. E-mail: fehske@physik.uni-greifswald.de; Wellein, G. [Regionales Rechenzentrum Erlangen, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Hager, G. [Regionales Rechenzentrum Erlangen, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Weisse, A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Becker, K.W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bishop, A.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-04-30

    We discuss the nature of the different ground states of the half-filled Holstein model of spinless fermions in 1D. In the metallic regime we determine the renormalised effective coupling constant and the velocity of the charge excitations by a density-matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) finite-size scaling approach. At low (high) phonon frequencies the Luttinger liquid is characterised by an attractive (repulsive) effective interaction. In the charge-density wave Peierls-distorted state the charge structure factor scales to a finite value indicating long-range order.

  17. Phonon-enhanced relaxation and excitation in the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Philipp; Eckstein, Martin

    2013-10-01

    We study quenches of the interaction and electron-phonon coupling parameter in the Hubbard-Holstein model, using nonequilibrium dynamical mean field theory. The calculations are based on a generalized Lang-Firsov scheme for time-dependent interactions or externally driven phonons, and an approximate strong-coupling impurity solver. The interaction quench calculations reveal the phonon-assisted decay of excess doublons, while the quenches of the electron-phonon coupling lead to persistent oscillations of the phonons and to a phonon-enhanced doublon production.

  18. Synergistic Polaron Formation in the Hubbard-Holstein Model at Small Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Moritz, Brian [University of Waterloo, Canada; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of dynamical Holstein phonons on the physics of the Hubbard model at small doping using the dynamical cluster approximation. Non-local antiferromagnetic correlations are found to significantly enhance the electron-phonon coupling, resulting in polaron formation for moderate coupling strengths. At finite doping, the electron-phonon coupling is found to strongly enhance the non-local spin correlations, indicating a synergistic interplay between the electron- phonon coupling and antiferromagnetic correlations. Although it enhances the pairing interaction, the electron-phonon coupling is found to decrease the superconducting transition temperature, due to the reduction in the quasiparticle fraction.

  19. Polaron crossover and bipolaronic metal-insulator transition in the half-filled Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capone, M. [Enrico Fermi Center, Rome (Italy); Ciuchi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Universita dell' Aquila, via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); Sangiovanni, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Edificio G. Marconi, Universita degli studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.zzle Aldo. Moro, 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: giorgio.sangiovanni@roma1.infn.it

    2005-04-30

    The formation of a finite density multipolaronic state in the Holstein model is analyzed by means of the Dynamical mean-field theory at zero and finite temperature. The spinless and spinful fermion cases are compared to disentangle the polaron crossover from the bipolaron formation. We show that polaron formation is not associated to a metal-insulator transition, which is instead due to bipolaron formation. In the spinful case a region of bound pairs without significant lattice distortion appears between the weak-coupling regime and the strong-coupling bipolaronic phase. This region shrinks with increasing temperature and with decreasing phonon frequency.

  20. Modulational instability of charge transport in the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabi, Conrad Bertrand; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin, E-mail: contab408@hotmail.co, E-mail: mohdoufr@yahoo.f, E-mail: tckofane@yahoo.co [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2009-08-19

    We report on modulational instability (MI) on a DNA charge transfer model known as the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein (PBH) model. In the continuum approximation, the system reduces to a modified Klein-Gordon-Schroedinger (mKGS) system through which linear stability analysis is performed. This model shows some possibilities for the MI region and the study is carried out for some values of the nearest-neighbor transfer integral. Numerical simulations are then performed, which confirm analytical predictions and give rise to localized structure formation. We show how the spreading of charge deeply depends on the value of the charge-lattice-vibrational coupling.

  1. Ground-state properties of the two-site Hubbard-Holstein model: an exact solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuyu; Wang Xiaoguang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 321004 (China); Liu Tao; Wang Kelin [Department of Physics, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Chen Qinghu, E-mail: qhchen@zju.edu.c [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2009-10-14

    We study the two-site Hubbard-Holstein model by using an extended phonon coherent state. For the nontrivial singlet bipolarons, the double occupancy probability, the fidelity and the entanglement entropy are calculated to characterize the ground-state properties in both two-site and single-site bipolaron-dominated regimes. We use the localized minimum of the fidelity to define a crossover and plot the bipolaron phase diagram, which separates the large and small entanglement region. Furthermore, the relation between the bipolaron entanglement and the correlation functions demonstrates that the large entanglement corresponds to the large magnitude of lattice deformations induced by electrons.

  2. Quasi-exact solvability of the one-dimensional Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Feng [Department of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Dai Lianrong [Department of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Draayer, J P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2006-03-31

    The one-dimensional Holstein model of spinless fermions interacting with dispersionless phonons is solved by using a Bethe ansatz in analogue to that for the one-dimensional spinless Fermi-Hubbard model. Excitation energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the model are determined by a set of partial differential equations. It is shown that the model is, at least, quasi-exactly solvable for the two-site case, when the phonon frequency, the electron-phonon coupling strength and the hopping integral satisfy certain relations. As examples, some quasi-exact solutions of the model for the two-site case are derived. (letter to the editor)

  3. Study of the one-dimensional Holstein model using the augmented space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Atisdipankar [R.K.M.V.C. College, Rahara, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal (India); Chakraborty, Monodeep [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Mookerjee, A. [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)]. E-mail: abhijit@bose.res.in

    2007-01-15

    A new formalism using the ideas of the augmented space recursion (introduced by one of us) has been proposed to study the ground state properties of ordered and disordered one-dimensional Holstein model. For ordered case our method works equally well in all parametric regime and matches with the existing exact diagonalization and DMRG results. On the other hand, the quenched substitutionally disordered model works in low and intermediate regime of electron phonon coupling. Effect of phononic and substitutional disorder is treated on equal footing.

  4. High-temperature superconductivity and normal state in the Holstein-t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    A possible origin of the high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates has been suggested. It is supposed that electron-phonon interaction determines the strong correlation narrowing of the electron band. It provides the conditions for the formation of a singlet electron pair coupled by exchange interaction. For the pure t-J model it has been proved that these electron pairs are destroyed by a strong effective kinematic field. The detailed analysis of an influence of the Holstein polaron excitations upon normal and superconducting properties of the strongly correlated electrons was made. A calculated critical temperature of the superconductivity and gap function are in good agreement with experimental data for cuprates.

  5. Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling: A static auxiliary field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Saurabh; Pai, G. Venketeswara

    2015-10-01

    We study the Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling to explore the ordered phases such as the charge density wave and antiferromagnet. The Coulomb interaction is rewritten in terms of auxiliary fields. By treating the auxiliary fields and phonons as classical, we obtain real-space features of the system and transition between the phases from weak to strong coupling. When both interactions are weak, mutual competition between them leads to a metallic phase in an otherwise insulator-dominated phase diagram. Spatial correlations induced by thermal fluctuations lead to pseudogap features at intermediate range of coupling.

  6. Genetic analysis for quality of frozen embryos produced by Holstein cattle donors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Schenkel, F S; Malchiodi, F; Sargolzaei, M; Price, C A; Baes, C; Miglior, F

    2017-09-01

    The number of embryos produced by Holstein donors has been shown to be heritable, so it could be possible to genetically select for this trait to improve the efficiency of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) in dairy cattle. Another important parameter to consider for achieving good results from ART is embryo quality because embryos of good quality have more chance of producing live offspring. The possibility of using genetic selection for increasing the quality of embryo produced from ART has yet to be assessed. The objective of this study was, therefore, to perform a genetic analysis of embryo quality of Holstein donors in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada. The data set used was missing quality score data for embryos transferred fresh into a recipient, so the analyses were only performed for frozen embryos. With most traits in the Canadian dairy industry being evaluated with linear models, embryo quality was also evaluated with this class of models. However, considering the categorical nature of embryo quality, a threshold model was also evaluated. Embryo quality data were analyzed with either a univariate linear animal model or a univariate binomial threshold animal model. Genetic parameters estimated from the different models were comparable. A low heritability was found for the donor (0.04 ± <0.01) and the service sire (0.02 ± <0.01), but the repeatability estimate for the donor was higher (0.17), indicating that it was worthwhile to use a repeated records model. Overall, considering the low genetic parameters estimated, slow genetic progress is expected for the quality of frozen embryos produced by Canadian Holstein donors. Rank correlations were calculated between breeding values estimated from different models. High correlations were found between all models, indicating that no substantial re-ranking of the animals is expected from the different models. So, even though a threshold model is better suited for the analysis of categorical

  7. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  8. VIDA PRODUCTIVA Y PRINCIPALES CAUSAS DE DESCARTE DE VACAS HOLSTEIN EN LA CUENCA DE LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego A., Jorge; Práctica privada; Delgado C., Alfredo; Clínica de Animales Mayores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Echevarría C., Luisa; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Obstetricia Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Records of 3,100 culled Holstein cows from 10 dairy herds in the Lima valley during the period of 1990 till 1996 were analyzed to determine the age at first calving, number of lactations and length of the productive life as well as the main reasons for culling. In the analysis was considered herd size (>500 cows, 100-500 and <100 cows) and type of farm (private and cooperative). Culling reasons were grouped in problems relating to fertility, udder, feet, calving, emergency, and others. ...

  9. Verzeichnis der Spinnen (Araneae des nordwestdeutschen Tieflandes und Schleswig-Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fründ, Hans-Christian

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The checklist contains records of spiders from the federal contries Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen and the northern plain of Lower Saxony which are compiled from published data, unpublished papers and personal communications. Among the total of 601 species Gnaphosa leporina, Marpissa nivoyi, Dictyna major, Baryphyma maritium, Pelecopsis nemoraloides, Ozyptila westringi, Silometopus ambiguus and Micaria romana are species which occur in Germany mostly in the north-western region. The species records in the checklist can be related to their informational sources and they can be localised in the TK25-grid, which represents sheets of the 1:25.000 topographical map.

  10. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    OpenAIRE

    Changhee Do; Nidarshani Wasana; Kwanghyun Cho; Yunho Choi; Taejeong Choi; Byungho Park; Donghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 ...

  11. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1

  12. Purging of inbreeding depression within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Parland Sinéad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate whether inbreeding depression in milk production or fertility performance has been partially purged due to selection within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population. Classical, ancestral (i.e., the inbreeding of an individual's ancestors according to two different formulae and new inbreeding coefficients (i.e., part of the classical inbreeding coefficient that is not accounted for by ancestral inbreeding were computed for all animals. The effect of each coefficient on 305-day milk, fat and protein yield as well as calving interval, age at first calving and survival to second lactation was investigated. Ancestral inbreeding accounting for all common ancestors in the pedigree had a positive effect on 305-day milk and protein yield, increasing yields by 4.85 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. However, ancestral inbreeding accounting only for those common ancestors, which contribute to the classical inbreeding coefficient had a negative effect on all milk production traits decreasing 305-day milk, fat and protein yields by -8.85 kg, -0.53 kg and -0.33 kg, respectively. Classical, ancestral and new inbreeding generally had a detrimental effect on fertility and survival traits. From this study, it appears that Irish Holstein-Friesians have purged some of their genetic load for milk production through many years of selection based on production alone, while fertility, which has been less intensely selected for in the population demonstrates no evidence of purging.

  13. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  14. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  15. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p cow (p cow (p cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  16. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fiber per kg of dry matter as either hard texture corn ensiled at the half milk line stage of maturity, soft texture corn ensiled at the black layer stage, or sugarcane. There were no detectable differences between corn hybrids with regard to milk yield (34.2 vs 34.6 kg d-1 and composition, dry matter intake (23.0 vs 23.2 kg d-1 and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Sugarcane decreased feed intake (21.5 kg d-1 and milk yield (31.9 kg d-1. Organic matter digestibility, chewing activity and rumen pH did not differ among treatments. Sugarcane seems to be a viable option to feed groups of Holstein cows during lactation stages in which nutrient demand is not at a maximum. The performance of dairy cows fed dent corn ensiled at the black layer stage of maturity was similar to the performance of cows fed flint corn ensiled at the half milk line stage.

  17. Genetic associations between reproductive and linear-type traits of Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prestes Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate heritability, genetic, and residual correlations between reproductive traits such as age at first calving, calving interval, dry period, and first service period and linear type traits measured in Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008 in Brazil. The (covariance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, using the MTDFREML software. The heritability for reproductive traits and linear-type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 and from 0.07 to 0.40, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between reproductive and linear-type traits ranged from -0.23 (top line to 0.28 (angularity to age at first calving, from -0.54 (final score to 0.34 (foot angle to calving interval, from -0.23 (angularity to 0.56 (stature to dry period, and from -0.52 (final score to 0.36 (height udder to first service period. Direct selection for any of the reproductive traits implies low genetic gains by virtue of their low heritabilities. Among the linear-type traits, the final score, chest width, top line, angularity, teat length, udder attachment, rear teat placement were highlighted as good auxiliary traits to improve reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows in Brazil. The simultaneous selection for reproductive and linear-type traits can lead a higher genetic progress in the reproductive traits.

  18. Ear fibroblasts derived from Taiwan yellow cattle are more heat resistant than those from Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Peng, Shao-Yu; Li, Hung; Lee, Jai-Wei; Kesorn, Piyawit; Wu, Hsi-Hsun; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerances of ear fibroblasts derived from Holstein (H) and Taiwan yellow cattle (Y) and their apoptosis-related protein expressions with (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h) or without heat shock treatment. The results showed that the vaginal temperatures of Y (38.4-38.5°C) were (Pderived from Y (6h: 1.1%; 12h: 1.6%; 24h: 2.6%) were lower (Pderived from H (6h: 1.8%; 12h: 4.0%; 24h: 6.9%), respectively, after heat shock (42°C). The expression level of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 6h and 12h, respectively. The level of cytochrome c of ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 1-12h, respectively. The abundances of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 of ear fibroblasts derived from H were higher (Pderived from Y after 12h and 24h of heat shock, respectively; the Bcl-2/Bax ratios of ear fibroblasts derived from H were lower (Pderived fibroblasts after heated for 1-24h. The expression level of HSP-70 of Y-derived ear fibroblasts was also higher (Pderived from Taiwan yellow cattle was better than that of cells derived from Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  20. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  2. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  3. Mass of a lattice polaron from an extended Holstein model using the Yukawa potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavidov, B.Ya., E-mail: yavidov@inp.u [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214 Ulughbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djumanov, Sh.S.; Dzhumanov, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214 Ulughbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2010-06-14

    Renormalization of the mass of an electron is studied within the framework of the Extended Holstein model at strong coupling regime and nonadiabatic limit. In order to take into account an effect of screening of an electron-phonon interaction on a polaron it is assumed that the electron-phonon interaction potential has the Yukawa form and screening of the electron-phonon interaction is due to the presence of other electrons in a lattice. The forces are derived from the Yukawa type electron-phonon interaction potential. It is emphasized that the early considered screened force of (Kornilovitch (1998), Spencer et al. (2005), Hague et al. (2006), Hague and Kornilovitch (2009)) Refs. is a particular case of the force deduced from the Yukawa potential and is approximately valid at large screening radiuses compared to the distances under consideration. The Extended Holstein polaron with the Yukawa type potential is found to be a more mobile than polaron studied in early works at the same screening regime.

  4. Phonon spectral function of the one-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Manuel; Assaad, Fakher F.; Hohenadler, Martin

    2015-06-01

    We use the continuous-time interaction expansion (CT-INT) quantum Monte Carlo method to calculate the phonon spectral function of the one-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling. Our results are consistent with a soft-mode Peierls transition in the adiabatic regime, and the existence of a central peak related to long-range order in the Peierls phase. We explain a previously observed feature at small momenta in terms of a hybridization of charge and phonon excitations. Tuning the system from a Peierls to a metallic phase with a nonzero Hubbard interaction suppresses the central peak, but a significant renormalization of the phonon dispersion remains. In contrast, the dispersion is only weakly modified in the Mott phase. We discuss finite-size effects, the relation to the dynamic charge structure factor, as well as additional sum rules and their implications. Finally, we reveal the existence of a discrete symmetry in a continuum field theory of the Holstein model, which is spontaneously broken in the Peierls phase.

  5. Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdestany, Jamshid Moradi; Satpathy, S.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the current interest in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half-filling, observed in many perovskite oxides, we study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model using the Hartree-Fock mean field theory. The Hubbard-Holstein model is the simplest model containing both the Coulomb and the electron-lattice interactions, which are important ingredients in the physics of the perovskite oxides. In contrast to the half-filled Hubbard model, which always results in a single phase (either metallic or insulating), our results show that away from half-filling, a mixed phase of metallic and insulating regions occurs. As the dopant concentration is increased, the metallic part progressively grows in volume, until it exceeds the percolation threshold, leading to percolative conduction. This happens above a critical dopant concentration δc, which, depending on the strength of the electron-lattice interaction, can be a significant fraction of unity. This means that the material could be insulating even for a substantial amount of doping, in contrast to the expectation that doped holes would destroy the insulating behavior of the half-filled Hubbard model. While effects of fluctuation beyond the mean field remain an open question, our results provide a starting point for the understanding of the density-driven metal-insulator transition observed in many complex oxides.

  6. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of dry period (DP length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC, body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13 and DP-20 (n = 12 dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05. Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS, body weight (BW, complete blood count (CBC and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters of fertility traits in Chinese Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Guo, Xiangyu; Wang, Yachun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits in Chinese Holstein heifers and cows. Data of 20169 animals with 42106 records over a period of 10 yr (2001–2010) were collected from Sanyuan Lvhe Dairy Cattle Center in Beijing, China. Traits included age at first...... service (AFS), number of services (NS), days from calving to first service (CTFS), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). Genetic parameters were estimated with multiple-trait animal model using the DMU software. Heritability estimates for AFS, NS, CTFS, DO and CI were 0.100±0.012, 0.040±0.017, 0.......49–0.99), and DO showed strong correlation with NS and CTFS (0.49 and 0.58, respectively). The genetic correlation between CTFS and NS was negative moderate (−0.25). Results were in range with previous literature estimates and can be used in Chinese Holstein genetic evaluation for fertility traits...

  8. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  9. FABP4 is a leading candidate gene associated with residual feed intake in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Asher, Aviv; Lipkin, Ehud; Feingersch, Roi; Agmon, Rotem; Karasik, David; Brosh, Arieh; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Ecological and economic concerns drive the need to improve feed utilization by domestic animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is one of the most acceptable measures for feed efficiency (FE). However, phenotyping RFI-related traits is complex and expensive and requires special equipment. Advances in marker technology allow the development of various DNA-based selection tools. To assimilate these technologies for the benefit of RFI-based selection, reliable phenotypic measures are prerequisite. In the current study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI phenotypic consistency across different ages and diets (named RFI 1-3), using DNA samples of high or low RFI ranked Holstein calves. Using targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions associated with FE- and RFI-related traits, we identified 48 top SNPs significantly associated with at least one of three defined RFIs. Eleven of these SNPs were harbored by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). While 10 significant SNPs found in FABP4 were common for RFI 1 and RFI 3, one SNP (FABP4_5; AHolstein breed, following a larger-scale validation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Building typology Schleswig-Holstein. Compendium for economic and energy efficient retrofitting of different classes of year of construction; Gebaeudetypologie Schleswig-Holstein. Leitfaden fuer wirtschaftliche und energieeffiziente Sanierungen verschiedener Baualtersklassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walberg, Dietmar (ed.)

    2012-06-15

    This brochure provides a realistic picture of the residential building stock in Schleswig-Holstein (Federal Republic of Germany) as well as an overview about the energy performance of a building. The planners receive proven information and examples. Commercially reasonable measures for the energy rehabilitation are presented. Simultaneously, the brochure supplies benchmarks in order to verify the statements of a concrete building.

  11. Comparison of Genetic Parameters Estimation of Fatty Acids from Gas Chromatography and FT-IR in Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eskildsen, C E A; Skov, Thomas

    or on fatty acids data measured from gas chromatography in 371 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed similar heritability estimates and strong genomic correlations for most of the fatty acids. However, for some fatty acids, the choice of data affected the genetic parameter estimation, which may be due...

  12. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly...

  13. Genetic correlation patterns between somatic cell score and protein yield in the Italian Holstein-Friesian Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samore, A.; Groen, A.F.; Boettcher, P.; Jamrozik, J.; Canavesi, F.; Bagnato, A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for somatic cell score (SCS) in the Italian Holstein-Friesian population were estimated addressing the pattern of genetic correlation with protein yield in different parities (first, second, and third) and on different days in milk within each parity. Three approaches for

  14. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  15. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megasphaera elsdenii (Me) is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 25 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in three studies in which strains of Me wer...

  16. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  17. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  18. Genetic background of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured with infrared sensors in automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Tol, van der P.P.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2018-01-01

    International environmental agreements have led to the need to reduce methane emission by dairy cows. Reduction could be achieved through selective breeding. The aim of this study was to quantify the genetic variation of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured using infrared

  19. Factors affecting pregnancy rates after ovum pick up-derived embryo transfer in lactating Holstein recipients under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    High milk production, heat, physiological status and management impair reproduction in Holstein cows. The use of in vivo-produced embryos has been reported as an alternative to enhance pregnancy outcome in the tropics; however there are several limitations for its production, especially from variati...

  20. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  1. PCR screening and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein and Gir cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is a disease known to affect the Holstein cattle breed throughout the world. Eighty-eight Holstein dairy cows and 88 Gir dairy bulls were genotyped by PCR for the CD18 BLAD alelle. The frequency of the BLAD mutant allele and the BLAD-carrier prevalence in Brazilian Holstein cows were 2.8 and 5.7%, respectively. No mutant allele was found in any of the 88 Gir animals. We conclude that the CD18 gene mutation is prevalent in Brazilian Holstein cattle and absent or present at a very low frequency in Gir cattle.Oitenta e oito vacas da raça Holandesa e 88 touros da raça Gir foram genotipados através da PCR para o gene CD18 da deficiência de adesão de leucócitos em bovinos (BLAD. As freqüências do alelo mutante BLAD e de vacas heterozigotas da raça Holandesa foram 2,8 e 5,7%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, todos animais Gir foram identificados como homozigotos normais, ou seja, nenhum alelo mutante BLAD foi encontrado. Estes resultados sugerem que a mutação no gene CD18 é prevalente em bovinos brasileiros da raça Holandesa e ausente ou presente numa freqüência muito baixa em animais Gir.

  2. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  3. Numerical diagonalization study on a phonon-assisted hole pairing mechanism of an extended t-J-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5148 and CREST, JST (Japan)], E-mail: sakai@spring8.or.jp

    2008-03-15

    The phonon effect of the in-plane oxygen breathing vibration in the high-Tc cuprates is investigated by the numerical diagonalization of an extended t-J-Holstein model, including the modulation of t. As a result, it is found that if the modulation of t due to the phonon is sufficiently large, the breathing mode possibly stabilizes the superconductivity.

  4. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  5. Genome-wide association and biological pathway analysis for milk-fat composition in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Janss, Luc L G; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    The milk fat profile of the Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) show clear differences. Identification of the genomic regions, genes and biological pathways underlying the milk fat biosynthesis will improve the understanding of the biology underlying bovine milk fat production and may...

  6. Effective electron-phonon coupling in the Hubbard-Holstein model in presence of strong correlations and density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di ricerca di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it; Cojocaru, S.; Marinaro, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di ricerca di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-09-01

    We study the Hubbard-Holstein model in the strong coupling regime and discuss the role of electron-electron correlations, doping and phonon frequency (isotope substitution) on the effective electron-phonon coupling. A comparison with recent dynamical mean field (DMF) studies and connection with recent experimental findings in cuprate superconductors is also discussed.

  7. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism in COQ9 affects mitochondrial and ovarian function and fertility in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single missense mutation at position 159 of COQ9 (GàA) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondr...

  9. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were assi...

  10. Converting to organic dairy farming: Consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of first parity Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows. Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of

  11. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  12. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors in Gyr and F1 Holstein x Gyr postpartum cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zebu and Holstein x Zebu crossbred have low incidence of uterine infection when compared to Holstein cows. Resistance to uterine infections may be associated with the ability to recognize invading microorganisms. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors has been investigated in the postpartum period of Holstein cows, but it is completely unknown in Zebu or Holstein x Zebu cows. In this study, 9 Gyr and 12 F1 Holstein x Gyr cows were submitted to endometrial biopsies at the first and seventh days postpartum, with the objective to measure transcription levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs 1/6, 2, 4, 5, and 9; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors 1 and 2; and coreceptors cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2. There was a significant (P<0.05 decrease in transcription of TLR5 in Gyr, and an increase in transcription of TLR9 in F1 cows, between the first and seventh day postpartum. Both groups had low incidences of uterine infections up to 42 days postpartum. Uterine involution completed at 27.7 ± 10.1 and 25.1 ± 4.7 days postpartum for Gyr and F1 cows, respectively. In Gyr cows, higher transcription levels of TLR1/6 and NOD1 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In F1 cows, lower levels of TLR1/6, TLR2 and NOD2 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In conclusion, some pathogen recognition receptors associated significantly with the time required for uterine involution in Gyr and F1 cows.

  13. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Bilgen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR. In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB, East Anatolian Red (EAR, South Anatolian Red (SAR, Turkish Grey (TG, and Holstein (HOL cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.

  14. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  15. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  16. Genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in United States Holstein and Jersey populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T

    2013-09-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus that affects only cattle. It is associated with decreased milk production and increased cull rates due to development of lymphosarcoma. The virus also affects the immune system. Infected cows display a weak response to some vaccinations. It is important to determine if the heritability of BL susceptibility is greater than zero, or if the environment is the only factor that can be used to reduce the transmission and incidence of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for BL incidence and the genetic merit of sires for leukosis resistance in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Continuous scores and binary milk ELISA results for 13,217 Holstein cows from 114 dairy herds across 16 states and 642 Jersey cows from 8 dairy herds were considered. Data were obtained from commercial testing records at Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). Out of the 13,859 animals tested, 38% were found to be infected with the disease. Linear and threshold animal models were used to analyze the continuous and binary data, respectively. Results from both models were similar in terms of estimated breeding values and variance components in their respective scales. Estimates of heritability obtained with the 2 approaches were approximately 8% for both breeds, indicating a considerable genetic component underlying BL disease incidence. The correlation between the estimated breeding values from the 2 models was larger than 0.90, and the lists of top 10% bulls selected from each model had about 80% overlap for both breeds. In summary, results indicate that a simple linear model using the continuous ELISA scores as the response variable was a reasonable approach for the genetic analysis of BL incidence in cattle. In addition, the levels of heritability found indicate that genetic selection could also be used to decrease susceptibility to bovine leukosis virus infection in Holstein and Jersey

  17. Analysis of copy loss and gain variations in Holstein cattle autosomes using BeadChip SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller Joel I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variation (CNV has been recently identified in human and other mammalian genomes, and there is a growing awareness of CNV's potential as a major source for heritable variation in complex traits. Genomic selection is a newly developed tool based on the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of genome-wide genotyping of SNPs. Over 30,000 Holstein bulls have been genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, which includes 54,001 SNPs (~SNP/50,000 bp, some of which fall within CNV regions. Results We used the BeadChip data obtained for 912 Israeli bulls to investigate the effects of CNV on SNP calls. For each of the SNPs, we estimated the frequencies of occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH and of gain, based either on deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE or on signal intensity (SI using the PennCNV "detect" option. Correlations between LOH/CNV frequencies predicted by the two methods were low (up to r = 0.08. Nevertheless, 418 locations displayed significantly high frequencies by both methods. Efficiency of designating large genomic clusters of olfactory receptors as CNVs was 29%. Frequency values for copy loss were distinguishable in non-autosomal regions, indicating misplacement of a region in the current BTA7 map. Analysis of BTA18 placed major quantitative trait loci affecting net merit in the US Holstein population in regions rich in segmental duplications and CNVs. Enrichment of transporters in CNV loci suggested their potential effect on milk-production traits. Conclusions Expansion of HWE and PennCNV analyses allowed estimating LOH/CNV frequencies, and combining the two methods yielded more sensitive detection of inherited CNVs and better estimation of their possible effects on cattle genetics. Although this approach was more effective than methodologies previously applied in cattle, it has severe limitations. Thus the number of CNVs reported here

  18. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  19. Emission trading north - benefits for the economy and the environment. A pilot project of the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzantny, Katja [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Hahn, Michael [ERM Lahmeyer Int. GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Kruska, Martin [EUtech Energie plus Umwelt, Technik plus Management, Aachen (Germany); Klein, Michael [500 PPM Gesellschaft fuer Emissionshandel und Beratung mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein is carrying out the pilot project Emission Trading North. Its primary target is the regional application of the flexible mechanisms (ET, JI, CDM) together with the industry of Schleswig-Holstein. In detail, it focuses on capacity building on behalf of the different parties involved, a smooth transition to real ET and the positioning of the Energy Foundation in a future ET system. The project cycle consists of 3 phases (Phase 0: preparatory work; Phase 1: development of emission inventories, identification and evaluation of emission reduction measures; Phase 2: simulation of ET). Participating companies located in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, representing the power sector, cement production, paper and pulp production, non-ferrous metals as well as the renewable energy sector, dealt with the central question of allocation of emission allowances. During in-depth energy analyses emission reduction measures were identified and evaluated with respect to their volume of emission reductions and related costs. Participating companies developed mid and long-term trading strategies taking into account investment cycles, project risks and market prices. The strategy was tested during a multi-period trading simulation. With respect to the national allocation plan, a central element of the future European emission trading system, the pilot project proposes consistent solutions relating to CHP, capacity limits, process emissions, fuel substitutes, new entrants and shut-down of installations.

  20. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2009-01-01

    production traits conditional on the QTL regions for the subtraits and retained placenta was conducted. Second, we selected 24 genomic regions harboring QTL for fertility traits from a previous study. A QTL scan for milk production traits conditional on the selected regions was conducted. We found that 16......, it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...... placed in the placenta, and abortions. In addition, retained placenta was selected for analysis because it is related to uterine infections. A genome scan was performed using 416 microsatellite markers for the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta, and an additional genome scan for milk...

  1. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  2. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P  0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Variation of Blood Plasma Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Total Protein Concentrations in Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Găvan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of blood plasma Gamma-glutamiltranferase (GGT and total protein concentrations during the growth of Holstein calves. Blood samples were collected from 20 calves divided in two groups (group 1 from 1 to 3 month of age and group 2 from over 3 months to 5 months of age. Mean value of GGT in group 1 was 32.2 IU/L and 27.2 IU/L in group 2. Mean value of total protein was 7.14 g/dl in group 1 and 6.92 g/dl in group 2. The slight changes in concentrations of GGT and total protein may be related to maturity of organs initiation of specific enzymatic activities or simply physiological adaptation of calves to the new environment.

  4. Heritability estimates for methane emission in Holstein cows using breath measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Jørgen; Løvendahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Enteric methane emission from ruminants contributes substantially to the greenhouse effect. Few studies have focused on the genetic variation in enteric methane emission from dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability for enteric methane emission from Danish Holstein...... cows. On a total of 683 dairy cows a Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measuring unit was used to make large scale individual methane emission records. The cows were measured in 7 herds during their visits to automatic milking systems (AMS). The FTIR unit air inlet was mounted in the front part...... of an AMS close to the cows head for 7 days, recording continuously every 5 seconds. The phenotype analysed was the mean methane to carbon dioxide ratio across visits during the measuring period, as this ratio reflects the proportion of the metabolisable energy exhaled as methane. The statistical linear...

  5. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  6. Doping dependence of ordered phases and emergent quasiparticles in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendl, C. B.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Huang, E. W.; Johnston, S.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2017-11-01

    We present determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the hole-doped single-band Hubbard-Holstein model on a square lattice, to investigate how quasiparticles emerge when doping a Mott insulator (MI) or a Peierls insulator (PI). The MI regime at large Hubbard interaction U and small relative e-ph coupling strength λ is quickly suppressed upon doping, by drawing spectral weight from the upper Hubbard band and shifting the lower Hubbard band towards the Fermi level, leading to a metallic state with emergent quasiparticles at the Fermi level. On the other hand, the PI regime at large λ and small U persists out to relatively high doping levels. We study the evolution of the d -wave superconducting susceptibility with doping, and find that it increases with lowering temperature in a regime of intermediate values of U and λ .

  7. Evaluation of catfish oil as a feedstuff for lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, A K; Jenkins, T C; Staples, C R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate catfish oil (CFO) as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (6 fitted with a rumen cannula and 6 noncannulated cows), arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design replicated 4 times, were used to evaluate CFO as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Each period lasted 27 d with the last 13 d used for data collection. Dietary treatments were 0, 1.5, and 3% CFO (dry matter basis). Orally dosing with chromium oxide powder was used as an external inert marker for calculation of apparent dry matter and nutrient digestion coefficients. Ruminal fluid was collected hourly for 8 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acids. Intake of dry matter increased as intake of CFO increased (23.0, 24.4, and 25.4 kg/d). Production of milk was unchanged by the feeding of CFO (29.0, 29.0, and 29.4 kg/d). Concentrations of milk fat (3.57, 3.60, and 3.48%) and protein (3.21, 3.18, and 3.23%) were unchanged by feeding CFO. Concentrations of plasma glucose (57.8, 55.1, and 56.0 mg/100 mL), urea nitrogen (11.6, 11.0, and 12.0 mg/100 mL), and insulin (0.55, 0.53, and 0.57 ng/mL) were not affected by dietary treatments. Average ruminal fluid pH decreased (6.40, 6.20, and 6.15), as did the molar proportions of acetate (64.5, 64.2, and 63.4%), as dietary concentration of CFO increased. The molar proportions of propionate increased (19.4, 20.0, and 20.4%) as did that of butyrate (12.0, 12.4, and 12.5%) as intake of CFO increased. Ruminal protozoa numbers were unchanged by treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were increased by addition of CFO. In situ lag, rate, and extent of corn silage dry matter digestion were not affected by the inclusion of CFO. However, in situ digestion rate of neutral detergent fiber was increased (0.023, 0.024, and 0.029 h(-1)) with increasing intake of CFO. In a second study

  8. Localization-delocalization transition in a two-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, I.V. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, DVR College of Engineering and Technology, Kashipur, Sangareddy Mandal, Hyderabad 502 285 (India); Chatterjee, Ashok, E-mail: acsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The nature of self-trapping transition is investigated within the framework of an extended Holstein-Hubbard model in two dimensions using a variational method. We perform a series of canonical transformations including phonon coherence effect that partly depends on the electron density and is partly independent and also the effect of on-site and nearest-neighbor phonon correlations to obtain an effective extended Hubbard model which is finally studied using the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation. The mean-field solution of the effective extended Hubbard model suggests that the transition from the large polaron state to a small polaron state in the anti-adiabatic regime is continuous, while in the adiabatic limit it predicts a discontinuous transition.

  9. Diagenetic and thermal evolution of Rotliegend sandstones from onshore Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoener, R.; Gaupp, R. [Universitaet Jena, (Germany). Institut fuer Geowissenschaften

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of diagenetic processes in deeply buried Rotliegend sandstones, which are a major target of hydrocarbon exploration, is an important tool to understand fluid evolution and migration during basin subsidence. In the area of Schleswig-Holstein at the northern margin of the Central European Basin (CEB), relatively few deep wells have been drilled in past, compared to the intensely explored southern part of the basin. e.g. in the region north of Hannover. Concordantly, little is known about Rotliegend diagenesis in the subsurface of northernmost Germany. To examine the diagenetic evolution of Rotliegend sandstones in this area, core material from three deep exploration wells, which have been released within the DFG research program (SPP) 1135, were investigated in detail with petrographic and geochemical methods. The burial and thermal history was calculated using PetroMod 1D (IES Juelich, version 8). (orig.)

  10. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, G. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Di Castro, C. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Grilli, M. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J. [INFM-CNR SMC Center, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2006-06-12

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed.

  11. Circuit-QED-based superconducting quantum simulator for the Holstein-polaron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

    2014-03-01

    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit-QED system in the dispersive regime. The many-body Hamiltonian of this model includes both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can readily access both the adiabatic and anti-adiabatic regimes of this model, and reach the strong e-ph coupling limit required for small-polaron formation. We show that small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme. The project was supported by NSF-0956064, NSF-0916303, SNSF, NCCR QSIT, and NSF-0939514.

  12. Study of the one-dimensional Holstein model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Das, A N [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chakrabarti, Atisdipankar [RKMVC College, Rahara, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal (India)

    2011-01-19

    We present the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping on Holstein polarons. The energy and wavefunction of the ground state and first excited state are obtained by using a conjugate-gradient technique on the variational Hilbert space of the electron-phonon (e-ph) system. We increase the size of the variational space systematically to obtain high accuracy. With the converged wavefunction at our disposal we obtain various physical quantities and correlation functions to get a holistic insight into the physics of e-ph interaction. Our study reveals that the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping is most prominent at the physically interesting crossover regime of the e-ph coupling and in the adiabatic regime. We have also performed analytical strong coupling second order perturbation with a Lang-Firsov (LF) phonon basis to account for some features in the strong coupling regime.

  13. Crossover behavior in the metallic state of the one-dimensional Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Steffen; Huebsch, Arnd; Becker, Klaus W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The Holstein model is perhaps the simplest realization of a coupled electron-phonon system with a local interaction between dispersionless phonons of frequency {omega}{sub 0} and electrons with hopping matrix element t. By applying the projective renormalization method (PRM), the physical properties of the one-dimensional model in the metallic state are investigated for the adiabatic case ({omega}{sub 0}/t<<1), for the antiadiabatic case ({omega}{sub 0}/t>>1), as well as for the intermediate case ({omega}{sub 0}/t{approx}1). As a result we find that in the adiabatic case a phonon softening is observed at the Brillouin zone boundary whereas for the opposite case a hardening is found.

  14. Phonon-Mediated Electron-Phonon Interaction in Hubbard-Holstein Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S.; Ghosh, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the influence of inter-site electron-phonon (EP) interaction λ on some ground state and finite temperature properties of Hubbard-Holstein model using exact diagonalization technique. Both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic limits have been considered. Results show that the EP correlation function χ increases gradually for the adiabatic case with λ while a sharp transition is observed at λ = λ c(U/t) for the non-adiabatic case. On-site (S0) and inter-site (S1) bipolarons are formed which tend to bind at λ ≥ λ _c(U/t). Schematic phase diagram has been shown. Entropy calculations show that the system goes to a more ordered state when λ ≥ λ _c(U/t) due to the formation of EP pairs. Broad peaks are observed in the specific heat curves which move to higher temperature region with λ suggesting an effective increase in exchange energy.

  15. Phase coexistence and Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Satpathy, Sashi

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half filling [?], often observed in the oxide materials, we study the role of the electron-lattice interaction vis-à-vis the electron correlations by studying the one-band Hubbard-Holstein model using the Gutzwiller variational method. Our theory predicts phase separation for sufficiently strong electron-lattice interaction, which however is frustrated in the solid due to the long-range Coulomb interaction of the dopant atoms, resulting in puddles of metallic phases embedded in the insulating matrix. Metallic state occurs when the volume fraction of the metallic phase exceeds the percolation threshold, as the dopant concentration is increased. Connection is made with the experimentally observed metal-insulator transition in the complex oxides.

  16. DQMC study on Holstein model with momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Wei-Ting; Scalettar, Richard

    We use the determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) method to study the Holstein model with a momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling λ (q) . The correlation functions and their Fourier transformed structure factors are calculated. In addition, the single particle Green's function and spectral functions are obtained. These quantities are used to infer the nature of long-range charge order as well as the renormalization of the electron and phonon propagators. Study of this model is motivated by the suggestion that electron-phonon interaction with large ''forward scattering'' is relevant to the understanding of the physics of the thin layers of single-unit-cell iron selenide (FeSe) grown on a strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrate, possibly giving rise to the enhanced superconducting transition temperature and replica bands seen in ARPES experiments. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under DE-SC0014671.

  17. Existence of a metallic phase in a 1D Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Phani Murali [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Chatterjee, Ashok [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ashok@fen.bilkent.edu.tr

    2007-06-15

    The one-dimensional half-filled Holstein-Hubbard model is studied using a series of canonical transformations including phonon coherence effect that partly depends on the electron density and is partly independent and also incorporating the on-site and the nearest-neighbour phonon correlations and the exact Bethe-ansatz solution of Lieb and Wu. It is shown that choosing a better variational phonon state makes the polarons more mobile and widens the intermediate metallic region at the charge-density-wave-spin-density-wave crossover recently predicted by Takada and Chatterjee. The presence of this metallic phase is indeed a favourable situation from the point of view of high temperature superconductivity.

  18. Percolative Metal-Insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model with the Gutzwiller Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Satpathy, Sashi

    Motivated by the recent progress in understanding of Mott insulators away from half filling, observed in many perovskite oxides, we study the metal-insulator transition in the Hubbard-Holstein model, which contains both the Coulomb and the electron-lattice (Jahn Teller) interactions by using the Gutzwiller variational method. We find that strong electron-lattice Interaction leads to phase separation, which however can be frustrated due to the long-range Coulomb interaction, resulting in a mixed phase consisting of puddles of metallic phases embedded in an insulating matrix. When the dopant concentration exceeds a threshold value xc , the metallic part forms a percolating network leading to metallic conduction. Depending on the strength of the electron-lattice interaction, xc can be of the order of 0.05 - 0.20 or so, which is the typical value observed in the perovskites.

  19. Cecal Torsion in a Six Month Old Holstein-Friesian Steer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical examination of a six month old Holstein-Friesian steer with a history of bloat and anorexia revealed a distended viscus in the right flank. At surgery, the distended viscus was found to be the cecum which was about 1.37 m (4.5 feet) long and more than 30 cm (one foot) in diameter. A counter-clockwise torsion of about 360° (viewing from the right flank) involving the proximal portion of spiral colon was detected. A cecatomy was performed and a large quantity of rapeseed was removed. The torsion was reduced and the animal appeared to make an uneventful recovery but died suddenly six weeks later. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422161

  20. On the calculation of thermodynamic quantities in the Holstein model for homogeneous polynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, N. S.; Sobolev, E. V.; Lakhno, V. D.

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a system for different types of polarons, i.e., in polythymine nucleotides (large-radius polaron), in polyadenine fragments (small-radius polaron), and in polyguanine DNA (intermediate case) at different thermostat temperatures are calculated using the semi-classical Holstein model. The temperature dependences of the thermodynamic equilibrium values of the total energy, the energy of an excess charge, and the electronic heat capacity have been obtained. For all polaron types, the peak of the electronic heat capacity dependence on temperature separates two modes (polaron and delocalized state). The electronic part of the energy is estimated in the high-temperature limit. In all cases, the electron heat capacity at high temperatures decreases in inverse proportion to the square of the temperature.

  1. Extended versus standard Holstein model: Results in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, F.

    2014-09-01

    We present numerically exact solutions to the problem of a single electron interacting through an extended interaction with optical phonons in two and three dimensions. Comparisons are made with results for the standard Holstein model and with perturbative approaches from both the weak coupling and strong coupling sides. We find, in agreement with earlier work, that the polaron effective mass increases (decreases) in the weak (strong) coupling regime, respectively. However, in two dimensions, the decrease in effective mass still results in too large an effective mass to be relevant in realistic models of normal metals. In three dimensions the decrease can be more relevant but exists only over a very limited range of coupling strengths.

  2. A DMRG study of correlation functions in the Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Masaki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: tezuka@cms.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Arita, Ryotaro [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, Hideo [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    To explore superconductivity when both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions coexist with the electron energy{approx}phonon energy, we have numerically studied the Holstein-Hubbard model, where electrons interacting with an on-site repulsion are coupled to Einstein phonons. We have adopted the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), and applied the pseudo-site method of Jeckelmann et al. We have implemented this with an improved algorithm to retain important states in the finite-system DMRG to obtain various correlation functions including the pairing correlation. We have compared the result with phase diagrams proposed in existing literature in the region where electron energy {approx}phonon energy.

  3. Quantum phase transition between antiferromagnetic and charge order in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Johannes [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr.1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hewson, Alex C. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    We explore the quantum phase transitions between two ordered states in the infinite dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model at half filling. Our study is based on the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) combined with the numerical renormalization group (NRG), which allows us to handle both strong electron-electron and strong electron-phonon interactions. The transition line is characterized by an effective electron-electron interaction. Depending on this effective interaction and the phonon frequency {omega}{sub 0} one finds either a continuous transition or discontinuous transition. Here, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the system when the electron-electron repulsion U and the phonon-mediated attraction {lambda} are equal. We first discuss the adiabatic and antiadiabatic limiting cases. For finite {omega}{sub 0} we study the differences between the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and charge order, and find that when present the AFM state has a lower energy on the line. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Anderson-Holstein model in two flavors of the noncrossing approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Ta; Cohen, Guy; Millis, Andrew J.; Reichman, David R.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical interplay between electron-electron interactions and electron-phonon coupling is investigated within the Anderson-Holstein model, a minimal model for open quantum systems that embody these effects. The influence of phonons on spectral and transport properties is explored in equilibrium, for nonequilibrium steady state and for transient dynamics after a quench. Both the particle-hole symmetric and the more generic particle-hole asymmetric cases are studied. The treatment is based on two complementary noncrossing approximations, the first of which is constructed around the weak-coupling limit and the second around the polaron limit. In general, the two methods disagree in nontrivial ways, indicating that more reliable approaches to the problem are needed. The frameworks used here can form the starting point for numerically exact methods based on bold-line continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithms capable of treating open systems simultaneously coupled to multiple fermionic and bosonic baths.

  5. Nature of the self-trapping transition in a one-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murali Krishna, R.P.; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2004-06-21

    The nature of the self-trapping transition in a many-polaron system is investigated within the framework of an extended Holstein-Hubbard model in one dimension using a variational method. The phonon degrees of freedom are first eliminated employing a modified Lang-Firsov transformation and an onsite squeezing transformation and then using a correlated squeezed phonon state to yield an effective Hubbard model which is finally studied using the exact solution of Lieb and Wu and the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation. It is shown that the exact solution of the effective Hubbard model predicts a smooth crossover from the large polaron to a small polaron state while the mean field treatment leads to a discontinuous transition in the adiabatic regime.

  6. Metabolic effects of feeding ethanol or propanol to postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    Eight lactating Holstein cows implanted with a ruminal cannula and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate metabolism of propanol and ethanol in the postpartum transition period. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized...... design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was 2.6 g of calcium carbonate/kg of dry matter (DM) versus 1.5 g of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester/kg of DM. Factor 2 was supplementation with 14 g of propanol/kg of DM (propanol treatment; PT) versus 14 g...... of ethanol/kg of DM (ethanol treatment; ET). Only factor 2 data are presented in the present paper. Treatments were administered in silage-based total mixed rations and cows were fed the experimental total mixed ration from the day of parturition. Daily rations were fed in 3 equally sized portions at 8-h...

  7. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    , hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein samples were collected at day 14 of each period. Milk fat yield decreased for P and PPA compared with C, however, dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Portal uptake of propanol accounted for 48 to 61% of ingested propanol and differed among......Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration...... all 3 treatments C ≪ PPA treatments including decreased proportion of ruminal acetate to total VFA; increased proportions of ruminal propionate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate; increased arterial glucose concentration; decreased arterial...

  8. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health was...... as separate traits in genetic evaluations that also include the useful indicator traits to compensate for low heritability of the health traits.......The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health......,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0...

  9. Joint genetic evaluation of mastitis susceptibility and recovery ability in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; Janss, Luc; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    Mastitis in dairy cows is an unavoidable problem and variation in recovery from mastitis is therefore of interest, in addition to resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters for mastitis resistance and recovery were estimated for Danish Holstein-Friesian cows using data from Automatic Milking...... were -0.853 (PSD=0.108), -0.909 (PSD=0.076), -0.292 (PSD=0.105) and 0.052 (PSD=0.157) for the random effects of genetic, permanent environment, cow-parity interaction, and herd-test-week, respectively. Heritabilities were 0.080 (PSD=0.026) for HD and 0.075 (PSD=0.030) for DH. Recovery could...

  10. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...... for all 18 index traits. Reliability of GEBV was assessed by squared correlation between GEBV and conventional EBV (r2GEBV, EBV), and expected reliability was obtained from prediction error variance using a 5-fold cross validation. Squared correlations between GEBV and published EBV (without any...

  11. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND ELECTROLYTE COMPONENTS OF MILK IN SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to investigate whether the chemical and electrolyte components of milk can be used as an indicator to detect subclinical mastitis in Holstein X Haryana cows. The bacterial cultural examination revealed 32 cows comprising 34 quarters are SCM positive. SCM positive and negative samples were estimated for electrical conductivity (EC and pH with respective meters, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ with Flame photometer and chloride (Cl- by titremetric method. The result demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in EC, Na+ and Cl- and decrease in K+. After studying the correlation coefficient among the milk components and comparing them with a Gold standard (Log10 SCC separately in normal and infected milk it was found that Na+, Cl- and K+ are the indicators of SCM in the present study.

  12. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  13. The Warship Schleswig-Holstein: History, Cultural Value and Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Roio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper looks into the issues connected with underwater cultural heritage in Estonia and deals with its legal and physical protection. The report discusses the topic of what we actually mean by underwater heritage, what are the threats in terms of preservation and what are the possibilities to protect underwater heritage in Estonia. The paper analyses objects that are not defined by the UNESCO convention from 2001 as underwater cultural heritage, but which form a considerable part of underwater objects in Estonia that are protected by the state. A wide range of challenges – protection, ownership, value – is illustrated by the study of the history and present state of the battleship Schleswig-Holstein.

  14. The Warship Schleswig-Holstein: History, Cultural Value and Legal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Roio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper looks into the issues connected with underwater cultural heritage in Estonia and deals with its legal and physical protection. The report discusses the topic of what we actually mean by underwater heritage, what are the threats in terms of preservation and what are the possibilities to protect underwater heritage in Estonia. The paper analyses objects that are not defined by the UNESCO convention from 2001 as underwater cultural heritage, but which form a considerable part of underwater objects in Estonia that are protected by the state. A wide range of challenges – protection, ownership, value – is illustrated by the study of the history and present state of the battleship Schleswig-Holstein.

  15. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL...... contributing these effects to calving characteristics, we performed a genome-wide association study using a mixed-model analysis in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,062 progeny-tested bulls, and 36,387 single nucleotide polymorphism markers on 29 bovine autosomes were analyzed...... for association with 14 calving traits. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect calving traits was observed on chromosomes 4, 6, 12, 18, 20, and 25. The QTL intervals were generally smaller than those described in earlier linkage studies. The identification of calving trait-associated single...

  16. Novel harmful recessive haplotypes identified for fertility traits in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    . A total of 7,937 Nordic Holstein animals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 BeadChip and haplotypes including 25 consecutive markers were constructed and tested for absence of homozygotes states. We have identified 17 homozygote deficient haplotypes which could be loosely clustered into eight genomic regions...... harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid...... carrier-by-carrier mattings in practical animal breeding. Further, identification of causative genes/polymorphisms responsible for lethal effects will lead to accurate testing of the individuals carrying a lethal allele...

  17. Genome-wide association mapping for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2010-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was conducted using a mixed model analysis for QTL for fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,531 progeny tested bulls, and a total of 36 387 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Eleven fertility traits were...... analyzed for SNP association. Furthermore, mixed model analysis was used for association analyses where a polygenic effect was fitted as a random effect, and genotypes at single SNPs were successively included as a fixed effect in the model. The Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied...... to adjust the significance threshold. Seventy-four SNP-trait combinations showed chromosome-wide significance, and five of these were significant genome-wide. Twenty-four QTL regions on 14 chromosomes were detected. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect fertility traits were observed...

  18. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  19. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  20. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  1. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells.

  2. Genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins using Luxembourg and Tunisian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Rekik, B; Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Stoll, J; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Test-day (TD) milk yield records of first-lactation Holstein cows in Luxembourg and Tunisia were analyzed using within-and between-country random regression TD models. Edited data used for within-country analysis included 661,453 and 281,913 TD records in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. The joint data included 730,810 TD records of 87,734 cows and 231 common sires. Both data sets covered calving years 1995 to 2006. Fourth-order Legendre polynomials for random effects and a Gibbs sampling method were used to estimate variance components of lactation curve parameters in separate and joint analyses. Genetic variances of the first 3 coefficients from Luxembourg data were 46 to 69% larger than corresponding estimates from the Tunisian data. Inversely, the Tunisian permanent environment variances for the same coefficients were 52 to 65% larger than the Luxembourg ones. Posterior mean heritabilities of 305-d milk yield and persistency, defined as estimated breeding values (EBV) at 280 days in milk-EBV at 80 days in milk, from between-country analysis were 0.42 and 0.12 and 0.19 and 0.08 in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. Heritability estimates for the same traits from within-country analyses, mainly from the Tunisian data, were lower than those from the joint analysis. Genetic correlations for 305-d milk yield and persistency between countries were 0.60 and 0.36. Product moment and rank correlations between EBV of common sires for 305-d milk yield and persistency from within-country analyses were 0.38 and 0.41 and 0.27 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between genetic variances found in both countries reflect different milk production levels. Moreover, low genetic and rank correlations suggest different ranking of sires in the 2 environments, which implies the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins.

  3. Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B

    2010-04-01

    A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable.

  4. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  5. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  6. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-01-01

    ...) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium...

  7. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-01-01

    .... The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii...

  8. Comportamiento lechero de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Dairy performance of Holstein x Zebu genotypes under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial bioproductivo y económico de rebaños de diferentes genotipos raciales de doble propósito (Holstein x Cebú en asociaciones de leguminosas arbóreas con gramíneas, se seleccionaron tres unidades lecheras con 80 vacas cada una, formadas por los genotipos Mambí (¾ H x ¼ C, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 C y F1 (½H x ½ C, respectivamente. Se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos y el consumo de alimentos complementarios, así como los indicadores productivos del rebaño y los ingresos económicos. No se encontraron marcadas diferencias entre los rebaños en cuanto a la disponibilidad de MS y el aporte del pasto a la dieta. Se obtuvieron valores de producción de leche entera de 7,2; 6,8 y 6,7 y corregida de 9,1; 9,3 y 9,8 kg/vaca/día para los raciales Mambí, Siboney y F1, respectivamente. Los precios de venta de la leche fueron superiores a los 90 centavos en los tres rebaños, con utilidades mayores a los 10 000 pesos. Se concluye que no hubo diferencias apreciables, en términos de producción de leche, entre los genotipos; las diferencias económicas a favor del genotipo F1 están dadas por su rusticidad y adaptación al medio ambiente de pastoreo. Por otra parte, se demostró la sostenibilidad productiva de la tecnología del silvopastoreo racional durante 10 años de explotación.With the objective of evaluating the bioproductive and economic potential of herds from different double purpose racial genotypes (Holstein x Zebu in associations of legume trees with grasses, three dairy units were selected with 80 cows each, including the genotypes Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z and F1 (1/2 H x ½ Z, respectively. Dry matter availability of the pastures and intake of complementary feedstuffs were determined, as well as the productive indicators of the herds and the incomes. No remarkable differences were found among herds regarding DM availability and contribution of pasture

  9. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  10. Identification of citrullinaemia carrier and detection of a new silent mutation at 240bp position in ASS1 gene of normal Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal recessive genetic disorders are regularly investigated especially in Indian Holstein and Holstein Crossbred bulls before they entered in semen collection so that a defective gene should not be transmitted to future generations. Bovine citrullinaemia first reported in Australia is a metabolic disorder as one of the enzymes, Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS involved in urea cycle is impaired in function. The mutation responsible for citrullinemia has been characterized as a single-base substitution at 256bp (C>T in coding exon 3 of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 gene, which converts the CGA (arginine at 86 codon to TGA (stop codon. A Holstein bull during routine molecular screening was found to be carrier for Citrullinaemia that was confirmed by sequencing. This is a fresh case of Citrullinaemia carrier in addition to three cases reported earlier in India. Partial sequencing of coding exon 3 of a normal Holstein revealed a new silent polymorphism at 240bp position that does not change amino acid (Sarine AGC>AGT at 80 codon within exon 3 of ASS1 gene. The sequence of exon 3 of ASS1 gene in a normal Holstein exhibiting a new polymorphism was submitted to NCBI with accession No. KF933365. The presence of citrullinaemia carriers in Indian Holstein, though in very low frequency, emphasizing to continue the investigation of mutant gene in cattle population.

  11. Mass communication for energy efficiency. Experiences from energy efficiency campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2000. Final report; Massenkommunikation fuer Energieffizienz. Erfahrungen aus landesweiten Energieeffizienz-Kampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2002. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, K.; Moehring-Hueser, W.

    2002-10-01

    The report sums up the experience gained with energy efficiency pilot campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein (Schoeth et al., to appear, and Wortman et al., 2000, 2001). The information is to help other actors in this field to develop and optimize their own campaigns. [German] Dieser Bericht resuemiert die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen mit wirkungsvoller Umweltwerbung auf Basis der ausfuehrlichen Werbewirkungskontrollen zu den Energieeffizienz-Pilotkampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein (vgl. ausfuehrlicher Schoetz et al., im Druck sowie Wortmann et al., 2000, 2001). Die abschliessenden Abschnitte 'Empfehlungen' und 'Ausblick' kennzeichnen den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und sollen anderen Akteuren mit gleicher oder aehnlicher Zielsetzung Hilfestellung und Anregung fuer die optimierte eigene Planung von Kampagnen geben. (orig.)

  12. Unraveling proteome changes of Holstein beef M. semitendinosus and its relationship to meat discoloration during post-mortem storage analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Wu, Wei; Tian, Xiaojing; Hou, Man; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2017-02-10

    Label-free proteomics was applied to characterize the effect of post-mortem storage time (0, 4, and 9days at 4°C±1°C) on the proteome changes of M. semitendinosus (SM) in Holstein cattle, and correlations between differentially abundant proteins and meat color traits were investigated. The redness (a*) value decreased significantly (Pchanges (fold change>1.5, Pmeat. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that most of these proteins were involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism, electron-transfer processes, and the antioxidation function, which implied an underlying connection between meat discoloration and these biological processes. It is always a challenge for scientists to improve the stability of meat color during post-mortem storage and retail display. However, the mechanism involved in meat discoloration has not been unraveled completely, and the application of label-free proteomics in studying meat discoloration has not been reported. Our work discovers some key proteins in SM muscle of Holstein cattle that were correlated with a* value of meat via label-free proteomics. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that some of these differentially abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism, electron-transfer processes, and the antioxidation function, which implied an underlying connection between meat discoloration and these biological processes. These results provide the theoretic basis on understanding of complicated biochemical changes and underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for meat discoloration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of long-range hopping on Tc in a two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model of the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, E.; Macridin, A.; Jarrell, M.

    2008-08-01

    We study the effect of long-range hoppings on Tc for the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model with and without Holstein phonons using parameters evaluated from band-structure calculations for cuprates. Employing the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) with a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) cluster solver for a 4-site cluster, we observe that without phonons, the long-range hoppings, t' and t″ , generally suppress Tc . We argue that this trend remains valid for larger clusters. In the presence of the Holstein phonons, a finite t' enhances Tc in the under-doped region for the hole-doped system, consistent with local-density approximation (LDA) calculations and experiment. This is interpreted through the suppression of antiferromagnetic (AF) correlations and the interplay between polaronic effects and the antiferromagnetism.

  14. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of the nonsense mutation of OPA3 gene in Holstein Friesian cattle with dilated cardiomyopathy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; KUMAGAI, Daishiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing congestive heart failure and subsequent death. Recently, a nonsense mutation c.343C>T in the bovine optic atrophy 3 (OPA3) gene had been reported to cause the DCM in Holstein cattle in Switzerland. However, the mutation has not been confirmed in bovine DCM outside Switzerland. Nine Holstein Friesian cows that were macroscopically and histologically diagnosed with or suspected of DCM and 12 control cows kept in Japan were tested for the mutation. The mutation surrounding OPA3 DNA fragment was amplified by PCR and subjected to direct sequences. The homogeneous c.343C>T mutation was proved to occur in all the affected cows and not in the control cows. The present study is the first report of the mutation in the DCM affected cows outside Switzerland. PMID:25947227

  16. Self-trapping phase diagram for the strongly correlated extended Holstein-Hubbard model in two-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    The two-dimensional extended Holstein-Hubbard model is investigated in the strong correlation regime to study the nature of self-trapping transition and the polaron phase diagram in the absence of superconductivity. Using a series of canonical transformations followed by zero-phonon averaging the extended Holstein-Hubbard model is converted into an effective extended Hubbard model which is subsequently transformed into an effective t- J model in the strong correlation limit. This effective t- J model is finally solved using the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation to show that the self-trapping transition is continuous in the anti-adiabatic limit while it is discontinuous in the adiabatic limit. The phase diagrams for the localization-delocalization transition, namely the phase line and the phase surface separating the small polaron and large polaron states are also shown.

  17. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Record...

  18. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pan

    Full Text Available The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT, H2H2 (GCGC, H3H3 (ATAT, and H4H4 (ACAC, were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as

  19. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  20. Identification of alleles and genotypes of beta-casein with DNA sequencing analysis in Chinese Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ronghua; Fang, Yu; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Xu, Ke; Yang, Lingyu; He, Chuan; Ding, Fangmei; Meng, He

    2016-08-01

    The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.

  1. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  2. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio G.T. Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six, and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100% corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott. The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  3. Improvement of Semen Quality in Holstein Bulls during Heat Stress by Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family are importantfor sperm membrane integrity, sperm motility and viability. There are evidences to suggest thatdietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids affects reproduction in men and males ofdifferent animal species. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate changes in thequality parameters of Holstein bull semen during heat stress and the effect of feeding a source ofomega-3 fatty acids during this period.Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 19 Holstein bulls during the expected time ofheat stress in Iran (June to September 2009. Control group (n=10 were fed a standard concentratefeed while the treatment group (n=9 had this feed top dressed with 100 g of an omega-3 enrichednutriceutical. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm production were evaluated onejaculates collected after 1, 5, 9 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, computer-assistedassessment of sperm motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSTwere conducted.Results: Heat stress affected sperm quality parameters by weeks five and nine of the study (p<0.05.Supplementation significantly increased total motility, progressive motility, HOST-positivespermatozoa and average path velocity in the fresh semen of bulls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Dietary omega-3 supplementation improved in vitro quality and motility parametersof fresh semen in Holstein bulls. However, this effect was not evident in frozen-thawed semen.

  4. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  5. Hemato-biochemical and Cortisol Profile of Holstein Growing-calves Supplemented with Vitamin C during Summer Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyeong Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of vitamin C (VC on biochemical, hematological and cortisol profile of growing Holstein calves during summer was investigated. Eighteen calves between 14 and 16 weeks of age were divided equally into two groups. One group received a diet supplemented with VC (20 g/d for 60 days, while other non-supplemented diet fed group served as a control (CON. The temperature humidity index (THI was recorded and computed during the experiment. From days 0 to 60, the THI exceeded 70. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each calf at days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Serum albumin and total protein decreased (p<0.05 in CON and VC calves with age. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase concentrations were not affected by treatments. Serum creatinine, albumin and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase concentrations were higher in calves in the VC group than the CON group. While red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (p<0.05 in VC calves, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume were higher (p<0.05 in these VC supplemented calves. Leukocyte parameters including white blood cells and full term for lymphocytes were not affected by the treatments. Also, serum cortisol was not affected by treatments. At day 15, 30 and 45, the total VC in plasma was higher (p<0.05 in calves fed with VC. In conclusion, serum cortisols were not affected by plasma VC concentration, while some blood parameters were positively influenced in calves fed with VC.

  6. Analysis of pregnancy length in multiple births in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bezdíček

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work we have evaluated multiple births (calving between the years 1992 and 2003 in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle. We have compared the length of pregnancy in case of twins and triplets with the length of pregnancy of the same cow during the previous lactation when only one calf was born. Total number of observed multiple births of both strains was 686 cases – including 508 births of twins and 178 births of triplets. Mathematical statistical procedures have been made by standard mathematical methods using a SPSS 15.0 for Windows, Release 15.0.0 (6 Sep 2006 program. The results we have reached showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01 decrease in pregnancy length in multiple births. These results have appeared in both observed strains. Czech Fleckvieh cattle showed the length of pregnancy 281.57 days in case of twins (previous pregnacy with one calf was 287.41 days long and in case of triplets it was 277.09 days (previous pregnancy was 287.17 days long. Decrase in pregnancy length was therefore by 5.84 days in case of twins and by 10.08 days in case of triplets. A similar tendency was found also in Holstein cattle, where the length of pregnancy in case of twins was 274.98 days (previous pregnancy with one calf was 279.66 days long and in case of triplets was 271.12 (280.27 with one calf. Also in this case the shortening of the pregnancy with twins (by 4.68 days and with triplets (by 9.15 days was significant (P ≤ 0.01. Both observed strains showed the highest number of multiple births in the second to fifth pregnancy. These pregnancies showed the 75.07 % of all the multiple births – twins were 52.77 % and triplets were 22.3 %. On the other hand the lowest ratio of multiple births was in case of the first calving (total 2.33 %.

  7. Hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

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    Jorge Ml. Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein. Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS y fueron suplementadas con 4 kg.animal -1 .d -1 de alimento concentrado bajo en Ca (0,22 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS y 1 kg de heno (0,4 Ca; 0,35 Mg y 1,85% K de la MS.d -1 . Después del parto, las vacas fueron suplementadas con 1 kg de alimento concentrado (0,9 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS/2,5 a 3,0 kg de leche. Muestras de sangre fueron tomadas de los vasos coccígeos durante el periparto (parto±1d y analizadas para Ca y Mg. Los umbrales sanguíneos para definir la hipocalcemia como clínica o subclínica fueron: menos de 5,5 y 5,5 a 8,0 mg.dl -1 de Ca, respectivamente. Un valor de 1,8 mg.dl -1 de Mg, o menor, se estableció para clasificar a las vacas como hipomagnesémicas. Aunque el contenido de Ca sanguíneo durante el periparto no difirió entre razas (p≤0,05, las vacas Jersey tienden a tener valores menores de este mineral, especialmente al aumentar el número de partos. La prevalencia de hipomagnesemia difirió (p<0,05 entre las razas Jersey y Guernsey. La baja prevalencia de este desbalance sugiere que los casos de hipocalcemia clínica y subclínica observados se deben a aspectos biológicos propios de la homeostasis del Ca y no a mecanismos en la fisiología de este elemento en que interviene el Mg.

  8. Hipocalcemia e Hipomagnesemia en un hato de vacas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey en pastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ml. Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de hipocalcemia e hipomagnesemia al parto en un hato constituido por vacas de las razas Holstein, Jersey y Guernsey, bajo las mismas condiciones de alimentación, ambiente y manejo. Se realizó en una finca localizada en Cartago, Costa Rica, y comprendió 152 vacas (62 Jersey, 41 Guernsey y 49 Holstein. Durante el período preparto las vacas pastorearon kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina (0,35 Ca; 0,31 Mg y 3,50% K de la MS y fueron suplementadas con 4 kg.animal-1.d-1 de alimento concentrado bajo en Ca (0,22 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS y 1 kg de heno (0,4 Ca; 0,35 Mg y 1,85% K de la MS.d-1. Después del parto, las vacas fueron suplementadas con 1 kg de alimento concentrado (0,9 Ca; 0,42 Mg y 1,38% K de la MS/2,5 a 3,0 kg de leche. Muestras de sangre fueron tomadas de los vasos coccígeos durante el periparto (parto±1d y analizadas para Ca y Mg. Los umbrales sanguíneos para definir la hipocalcemia como clínica o subclínica fueron: menos de 5,5 y 5,5 a 8,0 mg.dl-1 de Ca, respectivamente. Un valor de 1,8 mg.dl-1 de Mg, o menor, se estableció para clasificar a las vacas como hipomagnesémicas. Aunque el contenido de Ca sanguíneo durante el periparto no difirió entre razas (p≤0,05, las vacas Jersey tienden a tener valores menores de este mineral, especialmente al aumentar el número de partos. La prevalencia de hipomagnesemia difirió (p<0,05 entre las razas Jersey y Guernsey. La baja prevalencia de este desbalance sugiere que los casos de hipocalcemia clínica y subclínica observados se deben a aspectos biológicos propios de la homeostasis del Ca y no a mecanismos en la fisiología de este elemento en que interviene el Mg.

  9. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of reliability and prediction bias on the prediction method, the contribution of including animals (bulls or cows), and the genetic relatedness, when including genotyped cows in the progeny-tested bull reference population. We performed genomic evaluation using a Japanese Holstein population, and assessed the accuracy of genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) for three production traits and 13 linear conformation traits. A total of 4564 animals for production traits and 4172 animals for conformation traits were genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50 array. Single- and multi-step methods were compared for predicting GEBV in genotyped bull-only and genotyped bull-cow reference populations. No large differences in realized reliability and regression coefficient were found between the two reference populations; however, a slight difference was found between the two methods for production traits. The accuracy of GEBV determined by single-step method increased slightly when genotyped cows were included in the bull reference population, but decreased slightly by multi-step method. A validation study was used to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV when 800 additional genotyped bulls (POPbull) or cows (POPcow) were included in the base reference population composed of 2000 genotyped bulls. The realized reliabilities of POPbull were higher than those of POPcow for all traits. For the gain of realized reliability over the base reference population, the average ratios of POPbull gain to POPcow gain for production traits and conformation traits were 2.6 and 7.2, respectively, and the ratios depended on heritabilities of the traits. For regression coefficient, no large differences were found between the results for POPbull and POPcow. Another validation study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic relatedness between cows and bulls in the reference and test populations. The effect of genetic relationship among bulls in the reference

  10. Association of transferrin genotypes and production traits of Holstein-Friesian cows in Vojvodina

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    Dragomir Lukač

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify genotypes of transferrin, evaluate their frequency in popula¬tion of Holstein-Friesian cows, and to study association of transferrin genotypes with productivity of cows. Blood samples were collected from 249 healthy adult Holstein cows, daughters of 18 sires, reared at farm in Vojvodina. The nine transferrin (Tf genotypes were identified: three (transferrin AA, D1D1 and D2D2 of these were homozygous and the remaining six (transferrin AD1, AD2, AE, D1D2, D1E and D2E heterozygous. The frequencies of genotypes AD2, D1D2, D2D2 and AD1 were 0.29, 0.20, 0.17, and 0.11, respectively, while the other genotypes had frequencies below 0.11. The frequency of alleles A, D1, D2 and E, which was derived from the frequency of genotypes, was 0.30 for allele A, 0.19 for allele D1, 0.45 for allele D2 and 0.06 for allele E. In the analyzed population, cows Tf genotype D2E, AD2, D2D2, and D1D2 had the highest average of milk and milk fat yield in the first three standard lactation, while cows genotype AA, AD1 and D1E had the least amount. Analysis of variance showed that Tf genotype had a non-significant effect in the case of milk fat. However, cows which showed the highest performance for milk fat yield in three standard lactations were phenovarients Tf D2E, AD2, D2D2 and D1D2 in the analyzed population. Based on these results, the general conclusion can be made that the cows with Tf genotype AD2 recorded best results in all observed traits, and that cows which were heterozygous for Tf gene had higher milk yield and milk fat than the cows homozygous for Tf gene.

  11. Estimates of genetic parameters and eigenvector indices for milk production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savegnago, R P; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Herrera, L G G; Carneiro, R L R; Sesana, R C; El Faro, L; Munari, D P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test-day milk yield (TDMY) of the first lactation of Brazilian Holstein cows using random regression (RR), and to compare the genetic gains for milk production and persistency, derived from RR models, using eigenvector indices and selection indices that did not consider eigenvectors. The data set contained monthly TDMY of 3,543 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows calving between 1994 and 2011. The RR model included the fixed effect of the contemporary group (herd-month-year of test days), the covariate calving age (linear and quadratic effects), and a fourth-order regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomials of days in milk (DIM) to model the population-based mean curve. Additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects were fit as RR with 4 classes of residual variance random effect. Eigenvector indices based on the additive genetic RR covariance matrix were used to evaluate the genetic gains of milk yield and persistency compared with the traditional selection index (selection index based on breeding values of milk yield until 305 DIM). The heritability estimates for monthly TDMY ranged from 0.12 ± 0.04 to 0.31 ± 0.04. The estimates of additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects correlation were close to 1 at adjacent monthly TDMY, with a tendency to diminish as the time between DIM classes increased. The first eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic response of the milk yield and the second eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic gains of the persistency but it contributed to decrease the genetic gains for total milk yield. Therefore, using this eigenvector to improve persistency will not contribute to change the shape of genetic curve pattern. If the breeding goal is to improve milk production and persistency, complete sequential eigenvector indices (selection indices composite with all eigenvectors) could be used with higher economic

  12. EDAD AL PRIMER PARTO EN VACAS HOLSTEIN DE LECHERÍA ESPECIALIZADA EN COSTA RICA

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    Mauren Salazar-Carranza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la edad al primer parto (EPP en vacas Holstein pu- ras en lecherías especializadas de Costa Rica. Se realizó un es- tudio longitudinal prospectivo histórico con 46 029 animales de raza Holstein pura de lechería especializada de Costa Rica, durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Se incluyeron los datos de vacas que contaban con registros completos para todas las variables del estudio, registrados en el programa VAMPP Bovino 3.0. Se calculó la EPP por las variables de zona ecológica, la época de nacimiento, el año de parto, el índice de endogamia, el número de lactancias de la madre y el tipo de parto que dio origen al animal en estudio. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descrip- tiva (porcentajes, promedios, desviación estándar [DE] y el cálculo de intervalos de confianza (IC95%. La EPP prome- dio fue 30,7 meses (D.E: 6,8; IC 95%: 30,6 – 30,8. Durante el periodo, el promedio de la EPP varió entre los 30 y 31 meses; sin embargo, en los años 2006 y 2007 mostró una tendencia a disminuir. La EPP presentó diferencias significativas entre estratos según la época de nacimiento, el número de lactancia de la madre, la zona ecológica, el año de nacimiento, el tipo de parto de la madre y el coeficiente de endogamia de la vaca. Al igual que las tendencias mundiales, mostró tendencia a decrecer en Costa Rica; y las variables de animal, tiempo y ambiente mostraron un efecto sobre la EPP. Excepto el coefi- ciente de endogamia (a mediano y largo plazo, esos factores no son modificables en condiciones de pastoreo, que son los imperantes en la gran mayoría de fincas estudiadas.

  13. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

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    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  14. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

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    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  15. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

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    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  16. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  17. Identification of genomic regions associated with inbreeding depression in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Jennie E; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-11-18

    Inbreeding reduces the fitness of individuals by increasing the frequency of homozygous deleterious recessive alleles. Some insight into the genetic architecture of fitness, and other complex traits, can be gained by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to identify regions of the genome which lead to reduction in performance when identical by descent (IBD). Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide and location-specific homozygosity on fertility and milk production traits in dairy cattle. Genotype data from more than 43 000 SNPs were available for 8853 Holstein and 4138 Jersey dairy cows that were part of a much larger dataset that had pedigree records (338 696 Holstein and 64 049 Jersey animals). Measures of inbreeding were based on: (1) pedigree data; (2) genotypes to determine the realised proportion of the genome that is IBD; (3) the proportion of the total genome that is homozygous and (4) runs of homozygosity (ROH) which are stretches of the genome that are homozygous. A 1% increase in inbreeding based either on pedigree or genomic data was associated with a decrease in milk, fat and protein yields of around 0.4 to 0.6% of the phenotypic mean, and an increase in calving interval (i.e. a deterioration in fertility) of 0.02 to 0.05% of the phenotypic mean. A genome-wide association study using ROH of more than 50 SNPs revealed genomic regions that resulted in depression of up to 12.5 d and 260 L for calving interval and milk yield, respectively, when completely homozygous. Genomic measures can be used instead of pedigree-based inbreeding to estimate inbreeding depression. Both the diagonal elements of the genomic relationship matrix and the proportion of homozygous SNPs can be used to measure inbreeding. Longer ROH (>3 Mb) were found to be associated with a reduction in milk yield and captured recent inbreeding independently and in addition to overall homozygosity. Inbreeding depression can be reduced by minimizing overall inbreeding but maybe

  18. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  19. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  20. EFECTO DE LA ENDOGAMIA SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

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    Judyana Aguirre-Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo en 208 148 registros de vacas Holstein y Jersey de 545 hatos lecheros especializados presentes en la Base Nacional de Datos VAMPP Bovino, del Centro Regional de Informática para la Producción Animal Sostenible (CRIPAS, de la Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional (EMV-UNA, período 1995-2010. Se analizó el efecto de la endogamia sobre la producción corregida a 305 días (PC305d y la vida productiva -calculada según la fórmula USDA--, con regresión lineal múltiple, mediante un modelo mixto. Se usó como punto de corte, un valor de coeficiente de endogamia (F de ≥6,25% para valores altos. Además, se estimó la posibilidad de que una vaca con F≥6,25% presente parámetros productivos bajos, mediante regresión logística no condicional. El análisis de supervivencia, mediante la distribución de Weibull, determinó el efecto de endogamia sobre la vida productiva. Se encontró un 17,9% de animales con endogamia, siendo la raza Holstein la de más animales consanguíneos, aunque la Jersey fue la que tuvo, en promedio, los niveles más elevados. Las vacas con baja endogamia produjeron +140,4 kg PC305d en relación con las que tienen niveles elevados (p<0,01. Las vacas con alta endogamia tuvieron más riesgo de PC305d <5000 kg (Jersey y <6500 kg (Holstein que las de baja endogamia (OR=1,3; IC95%: 1,2-1,4. Se observó, para las razas Holstein y Jersey, +10,3 meses y +19,3 meses de vida productiva (USDA para los animales con F bajo. Se concluye que existe un efecto negativo de la consanguinidad elevada sobre la vida productiva (USDA y sobre la PC305d de las vacas Holstein y Jersey en fincas lecheras de Costa Rica.

  1. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  2. EFECTOS DE LA ENDOGAMIA SOBRE PARÁMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

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    Judyana Aguirre-Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de los niveles de consanguinidad (F en vacas Holstein y Jersey nacidas entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 2010 en hatos lecheros especializados de Costa Rica. Los datos de la edad a primer parto (EPP, días abiertos (DA y servicios por concepción (SPC se procesaron en el año 2011 mediante estadística descriptiva, regresión lineal múltiple (modelo mixto y re- gresión logística. Se empleó la base de datos (n=263 804 del programa VAMPP Bovino de la Escuela de MedicinaVeterinaria de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. Se utilizó como punto de corte un valor F ≥ 6,25% (alto/ riesgo. Resultó un 17,9% de animales con endogamia con F promedio de 0,42% (0,49% y 0,55% para Holstein y Jersey. Hubo 22,6% de Holstein consanguíneos y 20,3% de Jersey; sin embargo, en Jersey hubo animales con F más elevados. Las vacas con endogamia tuvieron un promedio de F de 2,16% para Holstein y 2,98% para Jersey. Las vacas con F bajos tuvieron 18 días menos de EPP (p<0,01, en relación a las que tienen F alto. En DA hubo 0,53 días más para ani- males con F bajo (p=0,71, mientras que en SPC hubo 0,08 más servicios en vacas con F bajo (P<0,01. No hubo riesgo de presentar DA o SPC mayores en animales F ≥ 6,25%, lo que sí ocurrió para la EPP (OR=1,23; IC95% 1,10-1,38. La endogamia no afectó los DA, pero sí levemente los SPC y la EPP, en vacas Holstein y Jersey.

  3. /sup 203/Hg excretion and tissue distribution in Holstein calves following single tracer intravenous doses of methyl mercury chloride or mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Holstein calves were given a single tracer intravenous dose of /sup 203/Hg as mercuric chloride or methyl mercury chloride 7 days before sacrifice. Total 7-day fecal and urinary Hg excretions were much higher from mercuric chloride dosing than from methyl mercury chloride. Retention of Hg from mercuric chloride was greater in kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testicle, rib shaft, tibia joint, tibia shaft, abomasum, small intestine, cecum, large intestine and pancreas and less in brain cerebellum and cerebrum, supraspinatus muscle and heart, and substantially lower in psoas and semitendinosus muscles. Fifteen minutes after dosing, whole blood Hg was lower from mercuric chloride followed by a similar rapid clearance for both Hg forms. Throughout the 7-day period, plasma Hg was greater from mercuric chloride. In red blood cells, Hg from methyl mercury chloride was higher during the first 2 hr after dosing, with no significant differences thereafter. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Developing of Tris Soy Milk Diluent for Frisian Holstein Bull Frozen Semen

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    RADEN IIS ARIFIANTINI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial artificial insemination (AI companies in the beginning of year 2000, introduced new generation of cryoprotectans with lecithin based diluents such as Biociphos (IMV, L’Aigle, France and Andromed® (Minitub, Germany. Since the commercial diluents were imported, they were often not readily available. This research aimed to develop Tris-soy modified diluent, and investigated its effects on the quality and fertility of Frisian Holstein (FH bulls frozen semen. This research consists of two experiments. At first, we compared the FH Bull frozen semen quality in modified tris soy milk (TSM, Andromed® and Tris-eggyolk (TEY diluents, the second was the fertility trials of the frozen semen. Results of the experiment demostrated that post thawed sperm motility in the semen preserved with TEY (49.10% or Andromed® (50.21% was significantly higher (P = 0.037 than that preserved with TSM (41.53%. In contrast, the conception rates in cows inseminated with semen preserved with TSM, TEY, and Andromed® were 53.84% (7/13, 38.88% (5/13, and 38.46% (7/19, respectively. We are optimistic that TSM diluents will have similar qualities as TEY and Andromed® on preserving frozen semen by doing future intensive studies.

  5. The effect of dha omega-3 feeding in the high yielding holstein herd

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    Juraj Karcol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of supplementary feeding of DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid rich algae product (Algae STM Alltech Inc. on production of milk, fat and protein as well as on reproduction of high yielding Holstein dairy herd. Field trial was set up on Top 10 dairy farm in western part of Slovakia, under commercial conditions. The data of high yielding dairy cows, separated in two groups of 30 (control and 29 (trial animals, were recorded for period of 3 subsequent months from October to December 2015. Animals were fed once a day Total Mixed Ration based diet with different feed mixture composition in trial group (+100 g Algae STM Alltech Inc. per cow and day. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording system of Breeding Services of Slovak Republic s. e. and milk samples were collected once per month according to the A4 standard methodology. The control group showed higher level of milk production compared to trial. Our study indicated that the feeding of algae caused milk fat depression and generally lower protein content in milk. Significant impact of algae feeding was found also for the level of urea in milk. In addition, the supplementary feeding of DHA may represent effective strategy to increase the percentage of pregnancies per inseminations in lactating dairy cows.

  6. Genome wide analysis of fertility and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle.

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    Giulietta Minozzi

    Full Text Available A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits.

  7. Short communication: Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Labouriau, R; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Callesen, H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk production and body condition score as confounders. Metritis was defined as a score of at least 5 (indicating purulent vaginal discharge with abnormal smell) on the Danish uterine score scale (from 0 to 9, used to evaluate vaginal discharge in the first 19 d postpartum on all fresh cows in herds participating in a national herd health program). Cows with metritis in early lactation presented a significant delay in first insemination (hazard ratio of 0.80) and a significantly reduced probability of success at first insemination. The effect of metritis was also present after adjusting for possible effects of body condition score, milk production in the first month of lactation, parity, herd, and year-season. Only a small part of the observed effect of metritis could be explained by variation in body condition score at calving and milk production in the first month after calving. The results from this large-scale study underscore the deleterious effects of metritis on the fertility variables CFI and NR56. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Water salinity effects on performance and rumen parameters of lactating grazing Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.; Sbodio, Oscar A.; Revelli, Germán R.; Arakaki, Cristina; Leva, Perla E.; Gaggiotti, Mónica; Tercero, Esteban J.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous lactating grazing Holstein cows, 9 ruminally cannulated, average 136.1 ± 14.6 days in milk, were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of water containing different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; mg/l): Treatment 1 = 1,000; Treatment 2 = 5,000 and Treatment 3 = 10,000, at the Experimental Dairy Unit at Rafaela Experimental Station (31°11'S latitude) during summer 2005. Animals were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three 28-day experimental periods, with 3 weeks for water adaptation and 1 week for measurements. Feed and water intake, milk production and composition, body weight and condition score and rumen parameters were evaluated. No treatment effects were observed in any of the variables evaluated, with the exception of water intake, which was higher for animals receiving 10,000 mg/l TDS in the drinking water (189 l/day vs. 106 and 122 l/day for cows receiving water with 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l TDS, respectively). Water intake was significantly higher for animals in treatment 10,000 ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the rumen presents a surprising buffer capacity and that consideration of TDS alone is insufficient to characterize drinking water quality.

  9. [Isolation and identification of cellulolytic anaerobic fungi and their associated methanogens from holstein cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meizhou; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Mao, Shengyong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2014-05-04

    We studied the microbial interaction between anaerobic fungi and methanogens in the rumen of Holstein Cow. Co-cultures of anaerobic fungi with indigenously associated methanogen were isolated by Hungate roll-tube technique. The anaerobic fungi were identified by morphology and 4', 6 diamidino-2-phylindole nucleus staining and the methanogens were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 28 co-cultures of anaerobic fungus with indigenously associated methanogen were obtained. The anaerobic fungi in the co-cultures were identified as monocentric genera Piromyces, Neocallimastix and Caeomyces. The indigenously associated methanogens were Methanobrevibacter olleyae like and Methanobrevibacter thaueri like strains. Four different phylotypes of fungus-methanogen co-cultures were obtained, which were Piromyces/Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains, Neocallimastix/ Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains, Neocallimastix/Methanobrevibacter thaueri like strains and Caecomyces/ Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains. Our study isolated and identified 28 co-cultures of anaerobic fungus and associated methanogens, which provided new materials for further study the mechanism of methane emission in the rumen.

  10. Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood–milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations.

  11. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Standard electrocardiographic values in Holstein calves Valores eletrocardiográficos normais para bezerros holandeses

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    L.C.N. Mendes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents electrocardiographic values in 25 Holstein calves using the standard bipolar limbs leads (I, II and III, augmented unipolar limb leads (avL, avR and avF and a bipolar chest lead (V10. Two groups with different ages were compared (newborn - 18 to 72 hours and calves - 27 to 33 days old. It was concluded that no differences between age groups in P, Q, R, S and T waves, in the PR, QRS, QT and ST intervals and in axis orientation were observed.Este artigo apresenta valores eletrocardiográficos de 25 bezerros da raça Holandesesa, utilizando-se as derivações bipolares de membro (I, II, III, unipolares aumentadas de membro (avL, avR e avF e uma derivação bipolar de torax (V10. Dois grupos com animais de diferentes idades foram comparados (18 a 72 horas e 27 a 33 dias de idade. Conclui-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nas ondas P, Q, R, S e T, nos intervalos PR, QRS, QT e ST e no eixo cardíaco.

  13. Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Shirai, Tatsuo; Osawa, Takefumi; Terawaki, Yoshinori; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of heat stress (HS) on production traits, somatic cell score (SCS) and conception rate at first insemination (CR) in Holsteins in Japan. We used a total of 228 242 records of milk, fat and protein yields, and SCS for the first three lactations, as well as of CR in heifers and in first- and second-lactation cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2012. Records from 47 prefectural weather stations throughout Japan were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI); areas were categorized into three regional groups: no HS (THI < 72), mild HS (72 ≤ THI < 79), and moderate HS (THI ≥ 79). Trait records from the three HS-region groups were treated as three different traits and trivariate animal models were used. The genetic correlations between milk yields from different HS groups were very high (0.91 to 0.99). Summer calving caused the greatest increase in SCS, and in the first and second lactations this increase became greater as THI increased. In cows, CR was affected by the interaction between HS group and insemination month: with summer and early autumn insemination, there was a reduction in CR, and it was much larger in the mild- and moderate-HS groups than in the no-HS group. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate of Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A

    2016-07-01

    The data set consisted of 1,016,856 inseminations of 191,012 first, second, and third parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from year 2001 through 2007 and included meteorological data from 35 weather stations. Nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56) was considered. A logit model was used to estimate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) on reproduction across parities. Then, least squares means were used to detect the THI breakpoints using a 2-phase linear regression procedure. Finally, a multiple-trait threshold model was used to estimate variance components for NR56 in first and second parity cows. A dummy regression variable (t) was used to estimate NR56 decline due to heat stress. The NR56, both for first and second parity cows, was significantly (unfavorable) affected by THI from 4 d before 5 d after the insemination date. Additive genetic variances for NR56 increased from first to second parity both for general and heat stress effect. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were -0.31 for first parity and -0.45 for second parity cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibody dynamics in Holstein Friesian heifers vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, using seven serological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, N P; Vanzini, V R; Torioni de Echaide, S; Valentini, B S; De Lucca, G; Aufranc, C; Canal, A; Vigliocco, A; Nielsen, K

    2002-01-01

    The serological response induced by Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated in 52 Holstein females from a brucellosis-free herd using seven serological tests. Each calf was vaccinated at an age of 4 and 8 months old with 3 x 10(10) CFU B. abortus S19 and the antibody response was determined as the proportion of positive results to each test. The antibody dynamics, measured with the buffered plate antigen (BPA) test and the rapid automated presumptive (RAP) test, were similar. The proportion of positive reactions in these tests reached 100% one week after vaccination and remained at this level for seven weeks, after which the proportion of positive samples slowly declined to 8% (BPA) and 2% (RAP) at week 50. The response in the indirect enzyme immunoassay (i-ELISA) was similar, but shorter than that observed with the BPA/RAP. The antibody dynamic, measured using the seroagglutination test (SAT) in parallel with the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me) test and the complement fixation test (CFT) were similar to the RAP/BPA, but of slightly shorter duration. The competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) was positive in all animals for 3 weeks, followed by a rapid decline. The fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) reached a maximum of 68.5% positive animals at week 4 and then declined. Based on these data, the c-ELISA and FPA discriminated residual antibody activity due to vaccination more efficiently than the other tests.

  16. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

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    Georges Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

  17. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

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    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  18. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

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    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  19. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

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    Elisandra Lurdes Kern

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38, the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79 and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001, indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production.

  20. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.

  1. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

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    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  2. Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with subclinical mastitis in Brazilian holsteins

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    Adriano Queiroz de Mesquita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of dairy cows with greater or lower potential to develop mastits has been pursued for many years among different segments of the milk industry, including governmental organizations. Genomic studies have suggested that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs within the pattern recognition receptors (PRR could lead to different responses to pathogens, and consequently result in mastitis resistance or susceptibility. To investigate whether toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 gene is associated with subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows from a property in the state of Goiás, Brazil, TaqMan allelic discrimination and somatic cell count were performed. One hundred and fifty milk samples were analyzed for SCC and centesimal composition. Twenty percent of those samples with SCC above 200,000 (n=13 were screened for real-time PCR identification of microorganisms and blood samples were genotyped for TLR4 SNPs. There was a higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria in the analyzed samples (88.9% and animals that had the combined genotypes AACCCC, GGTCGG and GACCGC presented the lowest somatic cell scores, and consequently those genotypes have the potential to be applied as molecular markers for assisted animal selection to improve milk quality.

  3. Detection of faecal Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in diarrheic Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, K; Pourjafar, M; Ghane, M

    2011-08-01

    Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups.

  4. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

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    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  5. Competing phases and orbital-selective behaviors in the two-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaozhi; Khatami, Ehsan; Johnston, Steven

    2017-03-01

    We study the interplay between the electron-electron (e-e) and the electron-phonon (e-ph) interactions in the two-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model at half-filling using the dynamical mean-field theory. We find that the e-ph interaction, even at weak couplings, strongly modifies the phase diagram of this model and introduces an orbital-selective Peierls insulating phase (OSPI) that is analogous to the widely studied orbital-selective Mott phase (OSMP). At small e-e and e-ph couplings, we find a competition between the OSMP and the OSPI, while at large couplings, a competition occurs between Mott and charge-density-wave (CDW) insulating phases. We further demonstrate that the Hund's coupling influences the OSPI transition by lowering the energy associated with the CDW. Our results explicitly show that one must be cautious when neglecting the e-ph interaction in multiorbital systems, where multiple electronic interactions create states that are readily influenced by perturbing interactions.

  6. Nonequilibrium transport in the Anderson-Holstein model with interfacial screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Enrico; Stefanucci, Gianluca

    Image charge effects in nanoscale junctions with strong electron-phonon coupling open the way to unexplored physical scenarios. Here we present a comprehensive study of the transport properties of the Anderson-Holstein model in the presence of dot-lead repulsion. We propose an accurate many-body approach to deal with the simultaneous occurrence of the Franck-Condon blockade and the screening-induced enhancement of the polaron mobility. Remarkably, we find that a novel mechanism of negative differential conductance origins from the competition between the charge blocking due to the electron-phonon interaction and the charge deblocking due to the image charges. An experimental setup to observe this phenomenon is discussed. References [1]E. Perfetto, G. Stefanucci and M. Cini, Phys. Rev. B 85, 165437 (2012). [2] E. Perfetto and G. Stefanucci, Phys. Rev. B 88, 245437 (2013). [3] E. Perfetto and G. Stefanucci, Journal of Computational Electronics 14, 352 (2015). E.P. and G.S. acknowledge funding by MIUR FIRB Grant No. RBFR12SW0J.

  7. Quasiparticle properties of the nonlinear Holstein model at finite doping and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaozhi; Nowadnick, Beth; Johnston, Steven

    Models with linear electron-phonon (e-ph) interactions often predict the formation of small polarons with large lattice displacements. This directly violates the approximations made in deriving the linear model, which implies that one should consider higher order terms in the interaction. Previously we have shown that even small positive nonlinear e-ph interactions dramatically suppress charge-density-wave formation and s-wave superconductivity relative to the linear model [EPL. 109, 27007 (2015)]. In this talk, we present a determinant quantum Monte Carlo study of thesingle-particle properties of quasiparticles and phonons in a two-dimensional Holstein model that includes an additional nonlinear e-ph interaction. We show that a small positive nonlinear e-ph interaction reduces the effective coupling between electrons and phonons and hardens the effective phonon frequency. Conversely, a small negative nonlinear interaction can enhance e-ph coupling resulting in heavier quasiparticles. In addition, we find that an effective linear model fails to simultaneously capture the quantitative effects of the nonlinearity of both the electronic and phononic degrees of freedom, even though it can qualitatively reproduce properties.

  8. Properties of the moving Holstein large polaron in one-dimensional molecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosika, Zoran; Przulj, Zeljko; Ivic, Zoran [' Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics-020, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Hadzievski, Ljupco [' Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Atomic Physics-040, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: zivic@vin.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: zivic@vinca.rs

    2009-07-08

    The features of the moving large polaron are investigated within Holstein's molecular crystal model. The necessity to account for the phonon dispersion is emphasized and its impact on polaron properties is examined in detail. It was found that the large polaron dynamics is described by the nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The character of its solutions is determined by the degree of nonlocality, which is specified by the polaron velocity and group velocity of the lattice modes. An analytic solution for the polaron wavefunction is obtained in the weakly nonlocal limit. It was found that the polaron velocity and phonon dispersion have a significant impact on the parameters and dynamics of large polarons. The polaron amplitude and effective mass increase while its spatial extent decreases with a rise in the degree of nonlocality. The criterion for the stability of large polaron is formulated in terms of the values of the degree of nonlocality, the magnitude of the basic energy parameters of the system and the polaron velocity. It turns out that the large polaron velocity cannot exceed a relatively small limiting value. A similar limitation on large polaron velocity has not been found in previous studies. The consequences of these results on polaron dynamics in realistic conditions are discussed.

  9. Superconductivity, charge-density waves, antiferromagnetism, and phase separation in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuzu, Seher; Tocchio, Luca F.; Sorella, Sandro; Becca, Federico

    2017-11-01

    By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we investigate the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model. Here, the ground-state phase diagram is triggered by several energy scales, i.e., the electron hopping t , the on-site electron-electron interaction U , the phonon energy ω0, and the electron-phonon coupling g . At half filling, the ground state is an antiferromagnetic insulator for U ≳2 g2/ω0 , while it is a charge-density-wave (or bipolaronic) insulator for U ≲2 g2/ω0 . In addition to these phases, we find a superconducting phase that intrudes between them. For ω0/t =1 , superconductivity emerges when both U /t and 2 g2/t ω0 are small; then, by increasing the value of the phonon energy ω0, it extends along the transition line between antiferromagnetic and charge-density-wave insulators. Away from half filling, phase separation occurs when doping the charge-density-wave insulator, while a uniform (superconducting) ground state is found when doping the superconducting phase. In the analysis of finite-size effects, it is extremely important to average over twisted boundary conditions, especially in the weak-coupling limit and in the doped case.

  10. Interaction quench in the Holstein model: Thermalization crossover from electron- to phonon-dominated relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuta; Werner, Philipp; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We study the relaxation of the Holstein model after a sudden switch-on of the interaction by means of the nonequilibrium dynamical mean field theory, with the self-consistent Migdal approximation as an impurity solver. We show that there exists a qualitative change in the thermalization dynamics as the interaction is varied in the weak-coupling regime. On the weaker interaction side of this crossover, the phonon oscillations are damped more rapidly than the electron thermalization time scale, as determined from the relaxation of the electron momentum distribution function. On the stronger interaction side, the relaxation of the electrons becomes faster than the phonon damping. In this regime, despite long-lived phonon oscillations, a thermalized momentum distribution is realized temporarily. The origin of the "thermalization crossover" found here is traced back to different behaviors of the electron and phonon self-energies as a function of the electron-phonon coupling. In addition, the importance of the phonon dynamics is demonstrated by comparing the self-consistent Migdal results with those obtained with a simpler Hartree-Fock impurity solver that neglects the phonon self-energy. The latter scheme does not properly describe the evolution and thermalization of isolated electron-phonon systems.

  11. Checkerboard-supersolidity in a two-dimensional Bose-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Satyaki; Yarlagadda, Sudhakar

    2016-12-01

    Exploring supersolidity in naturally occurring and artificially designed systems has been and will continue to be an area of immense interest. Here we study the cooperation/competition of the superfluid and charge-density-wave (CDW) orders in a two-dimensional Bose-Holstein (BH) model where hard-core-bosons (HCBs) are coupled locally to optical phonons. In the parameter regimes of strong HCB-phonon coupling and nonadiabaticity, we find a novel mechanism for lattice-supersolidity (namely, sizeable same-sublattice tunneling in presence of large nearest-neighbor repulsion) in the system. The ground state phase diagram is obtained using Quantum Monte Carlo simulation involving stochastic-series-expansion technique. At densities not far from half filling and in the parameter regime where the double-hopping terms are non-negligible (negligible) compared to the nearest-neighbor hopping, we get checkerboard-supersolidity (phase separation) with CDW being characterized by ordering wavevector Q → =(π , π) .

  12. Renormalization of spectra by phase competition in the half-filled Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowadnick, E. A.; Johnston, S.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    We present electron and phonon spectral functions calculated from determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the half-filled two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model on a square lattice. By tuning the relative electron-electron (e -e ) and electron-phonon (e -p h ) interaction strengths, we show the electron spectral function evolving between antiferromagnetic insulating, metallic, and charge-density-wave (CDW) insulating phases. The phonon spectra concurrently gain a strong momentum dependence and soften in energy upon approaching the CDW phase. In particular, we study how the e -e and e -p h interactions renormalize the spectra and find that the presence of both interactions suppresses the amount of renormalization at low energy, thus allowing the emergence of a metallic phase at intermediate coupling strengths. In addition, we find a modest enhancement of the d -wave pairing susceptibility in the metallic regime, although spin and charge correlations are still dominant at the temperatures considered in our study. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the influence of multiple interactions in spectroscopically determining any one interaction strength in strongly correlated materials.

  13. Dominant superconducting fluctuations in the one-dimensional extended Holstein-extended Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka-Ming; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Campbell, David K.

    2014-01-01

    The search for realistic one-dimensional (1D) models that exhibit dominant superconducting (SC) fluctuations effects has a long history. In these 1D systems, the effects of commensurate band fillings—strongest at half-filling—and electronic repulsions typically lead to a finite charge gap and the favoring of insulating density wave ordering over superconductivity. Accordingly, recent proposals suggesting a gapless metallic state in the Holstein-Hubbard (HH) model, possibly superconducting, have generated considerable interest and controversy, with the most recent work demonstrating that the putative dominant superconducting state likely does not exist. In this paper we study a model with nonlocal electron-phonon interactions, in addition to electron-electron interactions. This model unambiguously possesses dominant superconducting fluctuations at half filling in a large region of parameter space. Using both the numerical multi-scale functional renormalization group (MFRG) for the full model and an analytic conventional renormalization group for a bosonized version of the model, we demonstrate the existence of these dominant SC fluctuations and show that they arise because the spin-charge coupling at high energies is weakened by the nonlocal electron-phonon interaction and the charge gap is destroyed by the resultant suppression of the Umklapp process. The existence of the dominant SC pairing instability in this half-filled 1D system suggests that nonlocal boson-mediated interactions may be important in the superconductivity observed in the organic superconductors.

  14. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

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    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  15. The effects of supplemental protease enzymes on production variables in lactating Holstein cows

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    Ekin Sucu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the effects of supplemental dietary protease enzymes on production variables in dairy cattle. Ninety-six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (624±62 kg body weight and 154±104 days in milk were blocked according to parity, days in milk, and previous milk production and randomly assigned to a control total mix ration (TMR or a TMR containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (PE; 4 g/cow/d in a crossover design with two 21-day experimental periods. Daily pen milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI were recorded and milk composition from all cows was determined on d 15, 17, 19 and 21 of each period. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (37.6 kg/d, but supplemental PE-fed cows consumed less DMI (P<0.05 compared to controls and therefore tended to have improved feed efficiency (P=0.06. Feeding supplemental PE decreased blood urea nitrogen (P<0.05 compared to the control cows. However, feeding PE had no effect on milk fat and protein content but tended (P=0.08 to increase milk lactose concentration and tended (P=0.10 to decrease milk urea nitrogen levels and somatic cell score. Results indicate that supplemental PE may enhance production efficiency and improve parameters of nitrogen status.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

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    Miguel Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N. Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed, gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic. Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6 of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p83 units had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001. Evidence for a greater (p<0.001 stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%. Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  17. The Holstein cow in embryo transfer today as compared to 20 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, J F

    2006-01-07

    Embryo transfer practice and results were examined over a 20-year period in Holstein cows and heifers within four commercial embryo transfer programs located in different areas of North America. Mean embryo production per collection decreased (P cows entering embryo transfer programs, the number of times they were superstimulated and changes in the brands of gonadotropins used for superstimulation all complicated the analysis of embryo production over time. Data reveal higher pregnancy rates (P cows. It is not clear whether pregnancy rates have decreased over time as a result of the change from surgical to non-surgical embryo transfer. In the two programs in which pregnancy rates were analyzed, there was a decrease (P < 0.001) when non-surgical transfers were adopted in one program, while no change occurred in the other. One of the biggest changes in all programs was that more than 50% of embryos recovered from donors are now frozen after collection, whereas the majority were transferred fresh 20 years ago.

  18. Estimation of genomic inbreeding coefficients based on high-density SNP markers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-cheng; Huang, He-tian; Yan, Qing-xia; Wang, Ya-chun; Yu, Ying; Chen, Shao-hu; Sun, Dong-xiao; Zhang, Sheng-li; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-20

    In livestock, inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree information is usually used to evaluate the level of inbreeding. Recently, with cost reduction of high-density SNP genotyping, it's possible to analyze real genomic inbreeding degree using genomic information. In this study, utilizing high-density SNP chip data, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 2107 Chinese Holstein cattle in Beijing area, and calculated 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients, i.e., 1) the proportion of ROH length in the total length of autosomal genome (Froh), and 2) the percentage of homozygous SNPs (Fhom). Then we analyzed the correlation between 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients and the correlation between genomic and pedigree inbreeding coefficients. We totally detected 44 676 ROHs that mainly ranged from 1 to 10 Mb. Various lengths of ROHs existed in the genome. There were more short ROHs than long ROHs. ROHs aren't evenly distributed in chromosomes. The area with most ROHs is in the middle part of chromosome 10. Strong correlation (r > 0.90) existed between 2 kinds of genomic inbreeding coefficients, but the correlation between pedigree and genomic inbreeding coefficients were much lower (r inbreeding. Genomic inbreeding measures may reflect individuals' real inbreeding, which could be a useful tool to evaluate population inbreeding.

  19. The use of runs of homozygosity for estimation of recent inbreeding in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Topolski, P; Jasielczuk, I; Żukowski, K; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-11-01

    Controlling inbreeding in livestock populations is of great importance because excess relatedness among animals leads to a rapid loss of genetic variation and to adverse phenotypical effects associated with an inbreeding depression. Recent advances in genotyping technology have made it possible to study inbreeding at a molecular level by the analysis of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism panels. In this study, we used BovineSNP50 assay (Illumina) to estimate genomic inbreeding coefficient in 298 Holstein cattle by the analysis of the genome portion in runs of homozygosity (FROH) or using genomic relationship matrix (FGRM), and compared this data with conventional pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED). Weak or moderate Spearman's rank correlations were observed between FROH and FPED which depended on the ROH length categories used for calculations and inclusion of animals with different number of complete generations registered in pedigrees. The highest correlations were observed when using ROH with lengths over 8 Mb (0.334). The correlations tended to increase as pedigree depth increased, and were the highest for animals with seven complete generations of pedigree data. FGRM correlated poorly with pedigree-based estimates, which suggests that ROH-based inbreeding coefficients better reflect recent relatedness among animals.

  20. Application of imputation methods to genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle

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    Weng Ziqing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Missing genotypes are a common feature of high density SNP datasets obtained using SNP chip technology and this is likely to decrease the accuracy of genomic selection. This problem can be circumvented by imputing the missing genotypes with estimated genotypes. When implementing imputation, the criteria used for SNP data quality control and whether to perform imputation before or after data quality control need to consider. In this paper, we compared six strategies of imputation and quality control using different imputation methods, different quality control criteria and by changing the order of imputation and quality control, against a real dataset of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results demonstrated that, no matter what imputation method and quality control criteria were used, strategies with imputation before quality control performed better than strategies with imputation after quality control in terms of accuracy of genomic selection. The different imputation methods and quality control criteria did not significantly influence the accuracy of genomic selection. We concluded that performing imputation before quality control could increase the accuracy of genomic selection, especially when the rate of missing genotypes is high and the reference population is small.

  1. IMPACTO DEL PASTOREO CON GANADO HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY SOBRE LA DENSIDAD APARENTE DE UN ANDISOL

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    Rodolfo WingChing-Jones

    2009-01-01

    momento del pastoreo (antes y después y potrero, fueron significativas para la cuantificación del cambio en la densidad aparente. Los valores de ¿a antes de que entrara el ganado a los apartos variaron entre 0,47 y 0,58 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,52 Mg/m3, mientras que después del paso del ganado variaron entre 0,52 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,64 Mg/m3. Cuando el pastoreo se realizó con ganado Jersey, la ¿a aumentó a valores entre 0,52 y 0,72 Mg/m3, con un promedio de 0,62 Mg/m3y con pastoreo de ganado Holstein entre 0,62 y 0,77 Mg/m3, con un valor promedio de 0,69 Mg/m3. El cambio en la densidad aparente producto del pisoteo en un suelo con cobertura permanente de pasto kikuyo, con las condiciones que prevalecieron durante este trabajo varió entre 14 y 31%.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of transdermal flunixin meglumine in adult Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Gorden, P J; Smith, J S; Schleining, J A; Kleinhenz, K E; Wulf, L L; Sidhu, P K; Rea, D; Coetzee, J F

    2018-02-20

    A transdermal formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flunixin meglumine, has been approved in the United States and Canada for single-dose administration. Transdermal flunixin meglumine was administered to 10 adult Holstein cows in their second or third lactation at the label dose of 3.33 mg/kg every 24 hr for three total treatments. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed on each individual animal with noncompartmental methods using computer software. The time to maximum drug concentration (Tmax) was 2.81 hr, and the maximum drug concentration was 1.08 μg/ml. The mean terminal half-life (T½) was determined to be 5.20 hr. Clearance per fraction absorbed (Cl/F) was calculated to be 0.294 L/hr kg -1 , and volume of distribution of fraction (Vz/F) absorbed was 2.20 L/kg. The mean accumulation factor was 1.10 after three doses. This indicates changes in dosing may not be required when giving multiple doses of flunixin transdermal. Further work is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of transdermal flunixin after multiple daily doses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Conception Rates of Holstein-Friesian Cows Inseminated Artificially with Reducing Frozen Semen Doses

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    Anneke Anggraeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conception rates of Holstein Friesian (HF acceptors were evaluated in artificial insemination (AI mating using three frozen semen doses of the straws per volume of 0.25 cc.  Frozen semen consisted of a standard dose by 25 x 106 sperms (L.1 and two reduced doses by 20 x 106 sperms (L.2 and 15x106 sperms (L.3.  This field study was conducted in dairy cattle area of Lembang NBMCU, from August 2011 to March 2012.  Frozen semens were obtained from two HF national progeny tested young bulls. Conception was detected by rectal palpation, around 60-90 days after AI mating. Conception rates (CR % were calculated as a ratio between pregnant acceptors to the total AI mated cows.  Some general linear model analyzes were conducted by considering fixed variables of semen dose (3, bull (2, inseminator (6 and parity (5.  The results showed that three frozen semen doses did not significantly affect (P>0.05 on CR (%.  By decreasing semen dose to L.3 gave CR (% similar to L2 even to L1.  It was concluded that frozen semen doses of HF bulls at the levels of 20 million to 15 million sperms per straw per volume of 0.25 cc resulted CR (% similar to the standard one.

  4. Perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A

    2013-01-01

    The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.

  5. Comparison of colostrum feeding by nipple bottle versus oroesophageal tubing in Holstein dairy bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Coons, David M; Hagey, Jill V

    2012-07-01

    To compare the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and failure of passive transfer of immunity rates between calves fed colostrum by nipple bottle (NB) and oroesophageal tubing (OET). Randomized controlled study. 26 Holstein bull calves (age, 4 to 8 hours). Calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum by either NB or OET. Pooled colostrum was used for feeding each group of calves. Calves received either a maximum of 4 L of colostrum fed through an NB over a period of 20 minutes or an equivalent volume of colostrum fed by OET. Subsequently, a pair of similarly aged calves received similar volumes of colostrum with similar immunoglobulin concentrations. Colostrum was fed only once. Thereafter, calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer every 12 hours. All calves survived to at least 48 hours of age. Serum samples were collected prior to feeding colostrum and at 48 hours of age for determination of serum immunoglobulin concentrations. There were no differences in failure of passive transfer of immunity rates and apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG between calves fed by NB or OET. Volume of colostrum fed was the only significant variable in determining failure of passive transfer of immunity in calves at 48 hours. Reported advantages and disadvantages of either feeding method are likely to be of minimal practical relevance in achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity in calves when calves are fed a similar volume of colostrum with comparable immunoglobulin concentrations.

  6. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

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    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  7. Effects of isolation of calves on growth, behavior, and first lactation milk yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arave, C W; Albright, J L; Armstrong, D V; Foster, W W; Larson, L L

    1992-12-01

    Holstein (n = 323) calves in the herds of four experiment stations were reared individually (control) or in isolation to 70 d of age to determine whether isolation affected growth, behavior, and first lactation yield. Treatment differences were not observed for average daily gain for BW at d 28, 56 or 70. Postweaning approach distance was measured in two herds (n = 122; n = 28). Detailed pre and post-weaning behaviors were reported in one herd (n = 26). Isolation did not affect subsequent milk yield or culling percentages. In a second experiment, seven pairs of monozygous twins and a set of identical triplet calves were obtained by transferring split embryos into recipients, one member of each pair was reared in a group, and the twin was reared in isolation. Early rearing previously had been found to affect growth, feed intake, dominance rank, and learning ability of calves, and, in our study, the subsequent milk yield of calves reared in isolation tended to average more than for calves in groups. Intraclass correlations between monozygous twin pairs for milk, fat, relative value milk, and relative value fat were lower than anticipated. These data indicate that preweaning isolation did not affect first lactation milk yield traits.

  8. Effect of wheat processing on rumen characteristics and rumen parameters in Holstein-Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaffari, S S; Karkoodi, K; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Maheri-Sis, N

    2013-10-01

    In this experiment, effect of wheat processing on rumen conditions and development were investigated. Fifty-six neonatal Holstein-Friesian calves (22 male and 34 female) were fed calf starters and post-weaning diets containing 35 (pre-weaning) and 21.90% (post-weaning) popped wheat (PW), steam-flaked wheat (SFW), dry-rolled wheat (DRW) or ground wheat (GW) till 12 weeks of age. Calves were weaned at the end of 9th week, and a post-weaning-specific starter diets were fed for 1 month. Rumen liquor was analysed in days 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to determine volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Twelve male calves (three calves/treatment) were slaughtered, and digestive tract was emptied. Forestomach empty weight and rumen parameters were assessed. Results indicated that calves received PW had the highest total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, ammonia nitrogen, rumen wall thickness, papilla width and density. Calves fed DRW experienced the lowest rumen pH throughout the experiment probably because high proportion of fine particles in GW. Calves consuming PW apparently had more functional rumen in comparison with other groups. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Genotyping of the Holstein-Friesian crossbred cattle for CD18 gene using PCR-RFLP

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    A. S. Khade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cattle with the objective to find out genotype of HF crossbred cattle for Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD by using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: 50 blood samples were collected from HF crossbred cattle and subjected to PCR. The amplified PCR products were digested using Taq I restriction enzyme at 65 oC overnight. After restriction digestion, the final PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5 % agarose gel. Results: All the 50 animals under present investigation were found to be normal as the amplified PCR product upon digestion with Taq I restriction enzyme, revealed two bands of 313 bp and 54 bp for normal animals. Conclusions: In the present investigation D128G carrier frequency was found to be 0 %. However, recent reports suggest that the mutant gene has already been observed in the HF crossbred cattle population of India, which makes it necessary to screen the animals to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population.

  10. Verlgleich zwischen gemessener und berechneter Widerristhöhe bei einem Deutschen Schwarzbunten (Holstein Milchrind

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    Manfred Teichert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo comienza con una descripción de los métodos comunes sobre el cálculo de la altura a partir de la longitud máxima de cada uno de los huesos de las extremidades. Después se establece una comparación entre la altura de la cruz medida y calculada en una raza de vacuno lechero de color pío de Holstein. De las longitudes máximas de cada hueso se dan desviaciones máximas de 6,1 cm. entre las alturas en la cruz medidas y calculadas. Por ello se recomienda que el rango de variación de las alturas en la cruz de la población de vacuno calculado a partir de cada hueso sea elevado 5 cm en el valor mínimo y sea reducido 5cm en el valor máximo. En el caso del vacuno examinado el promedio de la altura en la cruz calculada a partir de los huesos largos de las extremidades difiere solamente 2,11cm de la altura medida.

  11. A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F(1) hybrid on milk fatty acid composition under grazing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, R A; Buckley, F; Prendiville, R; Murphy, J J; Callan, J; Kenny, D A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 breeds, Holstein and Jersey, and their F(1) hybrid (Jersey x Holstein) on milk fatty acid (FA) concentrations under grazing conditions, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids because of their importance to human health. Eighty-one cows (27 per breed grouping) were allocated a predominantly perennial ryegrass pasture. Samples were collected over 2 periods (June and July). Breed affected dry matter intake and milk production and composition. Holstein cows had the highest dry matter intake (18.4+/-0.40kg of DM/d) and milk production (21.1+/-0.53kg of DM/d). Holstein and Jersey x Holstein cows had similar 4% fat corrected milk, fat yield, and protein yield; with the exception of fat yield, these were all higher than for Jersey cows. Milk fat concentration was highest for Jersey cows and lowest for Holstein cows, with the hybrid cows intermediate. Total FA and linolenic acid intake (1.09+/-0.023 and 0.58+/-0.012 kg/d, respectively) were highest for Holstein cows. In terms of milk FA, Holstein cows had higher contents of C14:1, cis-9 C18:1 and linoleic acid. In turn, Jersey and Jersey x Holstein cows had higher content of C16:0. Milk concentrations of neither the cis-9,trans-11 isomer of CLA nor its precursor, vaccenic acid, were affected by breed. Nevertheless, large variation between individual animals within breed grouping was observed for CLA and estimated Delta(9)-desaturase activity. There was some evidence for a negative heterotic effect on milk concentration of CLA, with the F(1) hybrid cows having lower concentrations compared with the mid parent average. Plasma FA profile did not accurately reflect differences in milk FA composition. In conclusion, there was little evidence for either breed or beneficial heterotic effects on milk FA content with human health-promoting potential, though significant within-breed, interanimal variation was observed. Copyright 2010

  12. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P taurus calves. Therefore, AMH is a promising tool for selecting oocyte donor calves to maximize results during in vitro embryo production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drinking water quality in Schleswig-Holstein. Investigations on the uranium content in the drinking water of domestic wells; Trinkwasserqualitaet in Schleswig-Holstein. Untersuchungen zum Urangehalt im Trinkwasser von Hausbrunnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste Schleswig-Holstein has examined the drinking water of 212 domestic wells with a predominantly shallow depth (less than 40 meters). As a result, one domestic well exceeded the valid limit value of 10 μg/l for uranium. Statistically, the values of the domestic wells were somewhat higher than in the central waterworks. In the eastern area, which was influenced by the last ice age, the concentrations were somewhat higher than in the western part of the country. We have also observed the same in the investigation of central waterworks in the years 2006/7. This suggests that geological influences also determine the uranium content of small plants. On the other hand, water with increased nitrate levels often also contains a little more uranium. We can not exclude an additional effect from human influences. Overall, the concentrations of uranium in drinking water, with just a few exceptions, are low and harmless to health. Approximately one percent of the examined domestic wells have reached the uranium limit (a plant with 10 μg/l) or exceeded (a plant with 14 μg/l). At around 9,000 small-scale plants in the state of Schleswig-Holstein, this means that statistically around 45 to 90 domestic wells with a total of 180 to 370 supplied persons could be affected. [German] Das Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste Schleswig-Holstein hat das Trinkwasser von 212 Hausbrunnen mit ueberwiegend geringer Tiefe (weniger als 40 Meter) auf seinen Urangehalt untersucht. Im Ergebnis ueberschritt ein Hausbrunnen den gueltigen Grenzwert von 10 μg/l fuer Uran. Statistisch waren die Werte bei den Hausbrunnen etwas hoeher als bei den zentralen Wasserwerken.Tendenziell waren im oestlichen, von der letzten Eiszeit beeinflussten Gebiet, die Konzentrationen etwas hoeher als im westlichen Landesteil. Gleiches haben wir auch schon bei der Untersuchung zentraler Wasserwerke in den Jahren 2006/7 beobachtet. Das spricht dafuer, dass auch bei den Kleinanlagen geologische

  14. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...... similar to one another. To conclude, the GARUNS model was able to fit and simulate the extended lactation of Holstein cows. The simulated outputs indicate that managing the primiparous cows with a 16-mo extended lactation, followed by 10-mo lactations, allows their lifetime efficiency to increase...

  15. Identification of a doublet missense substitution in the bovine LRP4 gene as a candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Gautier, M; Chadi, S; Grohs, C; Floriot, S; Gallard, Y; Caste, G; Ducos, A; Eggen, A

    2006-11-01

    Syndactyly in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive abnormality characterized by the fusion of the functional digits. This disorder has been previously mapped to the telomeric part of bovine chromosome 15. Here, we describe the fine-mapping of syndactyly in Holstein cattle to a 3.5-Mb critical interval using a comparative mapping approach and an extended pedigree generated by embryo transfer. We report genetic evidence for the exclusion of two genes previously suggested as candidates (EXT2 and ALX4) and describe the identification of a doublet mutation in complete linkage disequilibrium with syndactyly in one gene of the critical interval: LRP4. Finally, based on recent discoveries concerning the mouse mutants dan and mdig and a mouse knockout for Lrp4, we present solid evidence that the subsequent substitution in LRP4 exon 33 is a strong candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

  16. Influence of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk fat percentage and fatty acid profiles in Romanian holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tăbăran, A; Balteanu, V A; Gal, E; Pusta, D; Mihaiu, R; Dan, S D; Tăbăran, A F; Mihaiu, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are considered the main sources of saturated fatty acids, which are a valuable source of nutrients in the human diet. Fat composition can be adjusted through guided nutrition of dairy animals but also through selective breeding. Recently, a dinucleotide substitution located in the exon 8 of the gene coding for acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), that alters the amino acid sequence from a lysine to an alanine (p.Lys232Ala) in the mature protein, was shown to have a strong effect on milk fat content in some cattle breeds. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of the DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism in Romanian Holstein cattle and Romanian Buffalo breeds and to further investigate its possible influence on fat percentage and fatty acid profiles. The results obtained in this study show that in Romanian Holstein cattle the K allele is associated with increased fat percentage and higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) was also higher in KK homozygous individuals, whereas the fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 decreased. The DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism revealed a high genetic variance for fat percentage, unsaturated C18, C16:0, and SFA/UFA. Although the effect of this polymorphism was not so evident for short chain fatty acids such as C4:0-C8:0, it was significant for C14:0 fatty acids. We concluded that selective breeding of carriers of the A allele in Romanian Holsteins can contribute to improvement in unsaturated fatty acids content of milk. However, in buffalo, the lack of the A allele makes selection inapplicable because only the K allele, associated with higher saturated fatty acids contents in milk, was identified.

  17. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  18. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( dietary NE ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  19. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. Montaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment  interaction (G×E between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1 and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93. Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  20. Effects of oral calcium supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Daetz, R; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of oral Ca supplementation on milk yield, body condition, pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and days to pregnancy in Holstein cows considered to be of low (LRM; no calving assistance, live singleton without retained placenta) or high (HRM; at least one of the following: dystocia, twins, stillbirth, retained placenta, or vulvo-vaginal laceration) risk of developing metritis. The hypotheses were that oral Ca supplementation during the early postpartum period would reduce the loss of body condition and improve lactation performance and reproduction. Four hundred fifty Holstein cows were blocked by parity as primiparous cows (n=174) or multiparous cows (n=276). Within parity, a cow considered at HRM was matched with a cow of LRM and the pair was randomly assigned to control (no Ca supplementation), 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum (CaS1), or 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum followed by 43g/d on d 2 to 4 postpartum (CaS4). Body condition was scored at calving and 32 d postpartum and estrous cyclicity was evaluated at 38 and 52 d postpartum. Milk yield was recorded daily. Multiparous cows were classified as above or below the mean 305-d mature equivalent milk yield based on production in the previous lactation. Reproductive performance was evaluated for the first 210 d postpartum. Body condition did not differ among treatments, and cows lost on average 0.44 units of body condition in the first month of lactation. Calcium supplementation did not affect milk yield in the first 5 mo postpartum. For multiparous cows, Ca supplementation was beneficial to milk yield in the first 30 DIM in cows of greater production potential, but detrimental to multiparous cows with below average production potential. Calcium supplementation to primiparous cows reduced P/AI at first (control=55.8, CaS1=31.5, CaS4=37.0%) and all artificial inseminations (control=48.5, CaS1=34.6, CaS4=38.5%); however, Ca

  1. Effects of subcutaneous calcium administration at calving on mineral status, health, and production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Akbari, A P; Farsuni, N E; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) infusions of Ca at calving day on serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and health in fresh cows receiving a dietary cation-anion difference diet during the dry period. Three hundred seventy-five fresh Holstein cows were blocked based on parity (143 cows in first parity, 108 cows in second parity, and 124 cows in third or greater parity) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments immediately after calving. Treatments were control group without infusion (control; n=190); 1 s.c. infusion of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC250; n=72) at calving; 1 s.c. infusion of 500mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC500; n=63) at calving; 2 s.c. infusions of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate, one immediately after calving and the second 12 to 18h after first infusion (2SC250; n=50). Blood samples were collected immediately after parturition and at 1, 2, 4, and 7d in milk (DIM) for Ca, P, and Mg determination. Milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded monthly up to 90 DIM. The evaluation of BCS was performed at calving and at 38 DIM. A subset of 9 cows per treatment group was randomly chosen to measure serum concentration of glucose and BHB at 2, 4, and 7 DIM. Total serum Ca in 1SC250 (8.95mg/dL), 1SC500 (9.27mg/dL), and 2SC250 (9.07mg/dL) was greater during the first week postpartum compared with control (8.45mg/dL). Serum concentrations of P, Mg, BHB, glucose, and milk yield were not affected by treatments. The dry matter intake during the first 24h after calving was higher for treatments 1SC250 (13.5kg), 1SC500 (15.0kg), and 2SC250 (15.6kg) relative to control (12.5kg). Milk somatic cell counts were lower for 1SC500 (90.5 cells/mL) and 2SC250 (82.2 cells/mL) than control (132.8 cells/mL). Risk ratio was >1 for development of metritis, and clinical and subclinical endometritis in control cows

  2. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Campos, M M; Machado, F S; Filho, S C Valadares; Castro, M M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were slaughtered at 4 d of life to estimate the animals' initial body composition (reference group). The remaining 34 calves were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of life, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces (for 72 h) and urine (for 24 h). At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered, their gastro-intestinal tract was washed to determine the empty body weight (EBW; kg), and their body tissues were sampled for subsequent analyses. The net energy requirement for maintenance was estimated using an exponential regression between metabolizable energy intake and heat production (both in Mcal/EBW0.75 per d) and was 74.3 ± 5.7 kcal/EBW0.75 per d, and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was determined at the point of zero energy retention in the body and was 105.2 ± 5.8 kcal/EBW0.75 per d. The net energy for gain was estimated using the EBW and the empty body gain (EBG; kg/d) as 0.0882 ± 0.0028 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.9050±0.0706. The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) of the milk was 57.4 ± 3.45%, and the kg of the starter feed was 39.3 ± 2.09%. The metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance was 3.52 ± 0.34 g/BW0.75 per d. The net protein required for each kilogram gained was estimated as 119.1 ± 32.9 × EBW0.0663±0.059. The metabolizable protein efficiency for gain was 77 ± 8.5% and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet

  3. Results of the evaluation of environmental medical documentation and progress sheets in Schleswig-Holstein from 1995 to 1999. A report on behalf of the Environmental Committee of the Schleswig-Holstein Association of Health Service Physicians; Ergebnisse der Auswertung umweltmedizinischer Dokumentations- und Verlaufsboegen in Schleswig-Holstein von 1995 - 1999. Ein Bericht im Auftrage des Umweltausschusses der Kassenaerztlichen Vereinigung Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, O.; Bauer, A.; Alsen-Hinrichs, C.

    2001-07-01

    A documentation of environmental medical case histories in Schleswig Holstein from 1995 to 1999 was prepared. The present documentation contains standardised reports on environmental medical case histories and their course of development. 916 documentation sheets and 508 environmental medical progress sheets were included in the evaluation. In 36% of cases a causal connection between patients' symptoms and their exposure to a noxious substance was found to be ''probable'' on the strength of the available exposure data and/or information on patients' course of development. 27% of patients' case histories were found to amount to a ''clear suspicion'' of their health complaints being attributable to environmental influences. In 13% of documented cases the existence of a causal connection was found to be ''uncertain''. In 15% of documented cases there was an allergy or hypersensitivity to agents relevant to environmental medicine. In 10% of cases the medical examination either led to a diagnosis attributing the complaints in question to other than environmental causes or gave no indication of a relevant exposure to noxious substances. In each case the patient's age, sex, symptoms as well as presumed or proven exposure factors and the course of development following remediation measures or the end of exposure were documented and evaluated both generally and specifically to the type of exposure in question. The most frequently documented exposure factors of relevance to environmental medicine were biocides (32%), fungus (27%), amalgam (22%), solvents (21%), formaldehyde (16%). In 52% of the total of the 508 patients whose course of development was documented the diagnostic assumption of an environmental cause was confirmed completely in the further course of development while in 23% of cases it was only partially confirmed. In 273 (54%) of the 508 patients whose course of development was

  4. Prediction of excretion of manure and nitrogen by Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, V A; Mertens, D R; Casper, D P

    1997-12-01

    A compilation of N balance data (n = 1801) was partitioned into four groups to define the mean excretion of manure and N and to develop empirical equations to estimate these excretions from Holstein herds. Mean excretion of manure for cows that averaged 29 kg/d of milk production was 3 kg/d per 1000 kg of body weight (BW) more than the value for dairy cows reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers; N excretion was 0.09 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW higher than the value reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Mean excretion of manure and N for cows that averaged 14 kg/d of milk production and that for nonlactating cows were substantially lower than the values reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Growing and replacement cattle excreted 10 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more manure and 0.11 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more N than was reported by the American Society for Agricultural Engineers for beef cattle. Estimation of manure and N excretion was more accurate than mean values when using regression equations that included variables for milk production, concentration of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in the diet, BW, days in milk, and days of pregnancy. Equations that contained intake variables did not significantly affect predictions of manure and N excretion, and the use of such equations is discouraged unless dry matter intake is measured and not estimated. Accurate estimates of excreta output could improve the planning of storage and handling systems for manure and the calculation of nutrient balances on dairy farms.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raadsma Herman W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91. The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13 are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44 are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37% of its initial value are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle.

  6. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Thawing Temperature on Sperm Quality of Friesian Holstein Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Utami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of sperm motility and morphology are important criteria in evaluating the quality of sperm before it is used for artificial insemination (AI. This study was conducted to observe post thawing motility and abnormal morphology of spermatozoa Friesian Holstein (FH. The materials were used 10 straws of FH bulls in the form of 0.25 ml. A total of 10 straws then divided into two treatment groups of  thawing  in water at 37°C and water 8°C, respectively. An examination of the motility and morphology of spermatozoa abnormalities performed every two hours for two times. Calculating the percentage of sperm motility was done by calculating the percentage of spermatozoa moving forward in the field of view under a microscope with a magnification of 10x. the percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was  assessed by William's stain. Spermatozoa morphology was observed by using a microscope magnification of 100x. Abnormalities of spermatozoa were calculated from a total of 200 spermatozoa, either normal or abnormal. At the same thawing time, the motility of FH cattle sperms post thawing in water temperature 37°C had a higher preference than that of post thawing in water temperature 8°C, although it was not significantly different (P > 0.05.  Based on morphological aspects, frozen semen used in this study is within the tolerance limit for the total percentage of abnormal sperm morphology between 12% to 23% and normal morphology between 70% to 88%.

  8. Kurthia ruminicola sp. nov., isolated from the rumen contents of a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Kim, Eun Tae; Kim, Sang Bum; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2018-01-01

    Gram-staining-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacteria, designated as H31022 T and H31024 was isolated from rumen contents of a Holstein cow. Optimum growth occurred at 25°C and pH 7.0 on R2A agar medium. Oxidase and catalase activities are positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1,452 bp) of the new isolates revealed they belong to the genus Kurthia of the phylum Firmicutes. Highest gene sequence similarities were assessed to be with Kurthia massiliensis JC30 T (98.4%), Kurthia senegalensis JC8E T (97.5%), and Kurthia populi 10y-14 T (97.4%). Kurthia sibirica DSM 4747 T (97.3%), Kurthia zopfii NBRC 101529 T (97.0%), and Kurthia gibsonii NCIMB 9758 T (96.7%). DNA G + C content of strains H31022 T and H31024 were 34.4% and 39.7%. Strains H31022 T and H31024 has the following chemotaxonomic characteristics; the major fatty acids are iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 14:0 and anteiso-C 15 ; polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), unknown aminophospholipids (APL), unknown glycolipids (GL), unknown phospholipids (PL), and unknown polar lipids (L); the major quinone is MK-7. Based on polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strains H31022 T (= KCTC 33923 T = JCM 19640 T ) and H31024 (= KCTC 33924 T = JCM 19641 T ) identified a novel species in the genus Kurthia for which the name Kurthia ruminicola sp. nov. is proposed.

  9. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  10. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  11. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

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    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  13. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

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    Carolina Pinzón S.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  14. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  15. Milk fatty acid composition as an indicator of energy status in Holstein dairy cows

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    L. Vranković

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition dairy cows often enter a stage of negative energy balance during which the utilization of energy reserves is reflected in the milk fatty acid (FA composition. In this study, metabolic status was evaluated by measuring milk FA, ruminal short-chain FA (RSCFA, and serum biochemical parameters in Holstein cows. Samples (milk, rumen contents, and blood were collected around days 30 (early and 150 (middle of lactation, and rumen contents and blood samples were collected 30 days before calving (dry. Fatty acids were extracted and FA composition was determined. Glucose, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were determined in serum samples. Lower percentages of saturated FA in milk and higher percentages of monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and C18:1n-9 were observed in early lactation compared to mid-lactation. In rumen higher concentrations of propionic acid were determined at mid-lactation compared to early lactation. Acetic and butyric acid concentrations showed no significant differences between sampling intervals. In serum higher glucose concentrations were observed during the dry period and mid-lactation than during early lactation. Lower BHB and higher NEFA concentrations were noted during early lactation compared to mid-lactation and the dry period. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triacylglycerols showed no significant differences between sampling intervals. The results of the present study suggest that determination of milk FA is a potential indicator of energy status in dairy cows.

  16. Evaluación de Algunas Características del Eyaculado en Toros Holstein

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    Rivera Rey Magda

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación de inseminación artificial y procesamiento del semen "San Pablo" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Medellín, se evaluó la información correspondiente a las características del material seminal por eyaculado, procedente de 365 recolecciones realizadas a siete toros Holstein entre 1986 y 1988. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la alimentación, la edad, el toro y el orden del salto sobre características del eyaculado fresco, tales como.' volumen, concentración espermática, movilidad individual, espermas totales y móviles por eyaculado. Con excepción de la movilidad individual, los valores promedios obtenidos para las características del semen fueron inferiores y más variables a los reportados en la literatura. La alimentación y la edad de los toros no afectaron significativamente las características del eyaculado. El efecto del toro fue altamente significativo para el volumen y significativo para el número de espermas totales y espermas móviles por eyaculado, pero no para la concentración espermática ni para la movilidad individual. Con excepción del volumen, el efecto del orden del salto fue altamente significativo para la concentración, movilidad individual, espermas totales y espermas móviles por eyaculado, siendo de mejor calidad los primeros eyaculados que los segundos, con excepción para la movilidad individual.

  17. Viscosity effects and anthropogenic impact on thermohaline flow in the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, F.; Bayer, U. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    Coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport (i.e. thermohaline flow) simulations have been carried out in order to study the interactions between shallow and deep brine flow in an aquifer system which includes a salt dome close to the surface. Particular attention has been given to the role of young processes (i.e., faults, Quaternary channels, and shallow salt structures) in affecting groundwater flow at basin scale. The results show that beside topography-driven flow, different convective regimes play a role for extensive solute exchange between shallow and deep aquifers. Particularly, heavy brines sink from the shallow salt dome crest into deeper aquifers. Furthermore, the young basin features strongly control discharge and recharge processes. At this state, the issues to be solved are the role of a transition zone along the salt flank, the effects of variable fluid viscosity in affecting the system dynamics and the impact of anthropogenic activities such as pumping stations on brine migration and heat transport. So far, viscosity effects are well described for rising hot plumes, while their influence on sinking brines are not studied yet. With regard to anthropogenic impact, pumping groundwater in saline environment can provide severe problems. For instance, brines up-coning can disturb wells and pollute the freshwater resources. Although the presented studies focus on the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany), the results are of great interest for many sedimentary basins in which the described features are commonly encountered. Investigations concerning the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of deep and shallow groundwater processes will provide additional knowledge concerning key factors controlling the formation and evolution of saline waters within basins. At the same time, this research has an important practical use for water resource management. (orig.)

  18. Genetic parameters of fatty acids in Italian Brown Swiss and Holstein cows

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    Emanuela Tullo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and to predict experimental breeding values (EBVs for saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, the ratio of fatty acids, and the productive traits in Italian Brown Swiss (BSW and Holstein Friesian (HOL cattle. Test-day yields from 235,658 HOL and 21,723 BSW cows were extracted from the Italian HOL and BSW Associations databases from November 2009 to October 2012 out of 3310 herds. The milk samples collected within the routine milk recording scheme were processed with the MilkoscanTM FT 6500 Plus (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark for the identification of SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition in milk. Genetic parameters for fatty acids and productive traits were estimated on 1,765,552 records in HOL and 255,592 records in BSW. Heritability values estimated for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 for the BSW breed and from 0.10 to 0.29 for HOL. The genetic trends for the fatty acids were consistent between traits and breeds. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations among EBVs for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA and official EBVs for fat percentage were in the range 0.32 to 0.54 for BSW and 0.44 to 0.64 for HOL. The prediction of specific EBVs for milk fatty acids and for the ratio among them may be useful to identify the best bulls to be selected with the aim to improve milk quality in terms of fat content and fatty acid ratios, achieving healthier dairy productions for consumers.

  19. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

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    Lea G. Zielke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield. A highly significant effect (corrected p-value =3.362 x10-4 was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the estimated breeding value for milk fat yield in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72% and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analysed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF-region affecting the milk fat yield. The fat yield increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF-region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  20. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in german holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Tetens, Jens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield (FY). A highly significant effect (corrected p-value = 3.362 × 10(-4)) was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the EBV for milk FY in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72 and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analyzed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF region affecting the milk FY. The FY increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  1. Prepartal Energy Intake Alters Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transcriptome During the Peripartal Period in Holstein Cows

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    A Agrawal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NE L  = 1.34 Mcal/kg or overfed a moderate-energy diet (OVE; NE L  = 1.62 Mcal/kg during the dry period. Blood for PMNL isolation and metabolite analysis was collected at −14 and +7 days relative to parturition. At an analysis of variance false discovery rate <0.05, energy intake (OVE vs CON influenced 1806 genes. Dynamic Impact Approach bioinformatics analysis classified treatment effects on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including activated oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and inhibited RNA polymerase, proteasome, and toll-like receptor signaling pathway. This analysis indicates that processes critical for energy metabolism and cellular and immune function were affected with mixed results. However, overall interpretation of the transcriptome data agreed in part with literature documenting a potentially detrimental, chronic activation of PMNL in response to overfeeding. The widespread, transcriptome-level changes captured here confirm the importance of dietary energy adjustments around calving on the immune system.

  2. Effect of Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss breeds on quality of milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, M; Bittante, G; Dal Zotto, R; Dalvit, C; Cassandro, M

    2008-10-01

    In Italy, more than 75% of milk is used for cheese making. For this reason, milk composition and coagulation traits and cheese quality represent the most important tools for the economic development of the dairy sector. In particular, cheese quality varies in relation to cheese-making technology and breed of cow. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 types of milk, originating from Holstein-Friesian (HF), Brown Swiss (BS), and mixed of both breeds, on vat milk characteristics, cheese yield, and quality in 3 different typical Italian cheese-making conditions (Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino). One hundred forty-four cows (66 HF and 78 BS) were involved, and a total of 24 vats of milk were evaluated. At maturity, 30, 21, and 16 wheels of Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino cheese were analyzed. Brown Swiss cows yielded 9% less milk per day than HF cows, but milk showed greater contents of protein, casein, titratable acidity, and better rennet coagulation time and curd firmness than HF milk. The chemical composition and cholesterol content of the 3 types of cheese were similar between breeds, whereas the cheese made with BS milk showed greater contents of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cheese made with BS milk had greater b* (yellow component) than HF. Cheese yield, recorded at different ripening times, demonstrated that BS milk yielded more cheese than HF. Mixed milk showed values, on average, intermediate to HF and BS milk characteristics, and this trend was confirmed in cheese yield at different ripening times.

  3. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  4. Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

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    Randy J Hempel

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s, chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

  5. Effects of dietary nitrogen manipulation on ammonia volatilization from manure from Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T; Meyer, D; Esparza, E; Depeters, E J; Perez-Monti, H

    1999-11-01

    Decomposition of livestock manure produces gaseous ammonia. Dietary manipulation is one means to reduce N in manure and ammonia volatilization. The effects of dietary crude protein concentration on N intake, N and urinary urea-N excretion, and ammonia volatilization were measured. Eight Holstein heifers (body weight = 260 to 488 kg) were fed a total mixed ration containing either 9.6 or 11.0% crude protein in a crossover design. Oatlage and concentrate were fed at 77:23 (dry matter basis), and soybean meal was used to alter total dietary crude protein. Seven-day adjustment periods preceded 5-d collection periods. Indwelling urinary catheters were inserted 2 d prior to the collection periods. Daily feces and acidified urine were collected, stirred, and subsampled for total Kjeldahl N, urinary urea N, dry matter, P, K, and ash. Urine collection tubes were split during period 2 to allow for collection of unacidified samples for urea N and total N determinations. Unacidified urine and fecal samples were combined (1:1.3) for collection of volatilized ammonia. Remaining slurries were extracted for total and urea N. Increased dietary crude protein concentration increased N intake, N excretion, urea-N excretion, and N excreted in the urine by the heifers. Dietary manipulation of N intake by reduction of 14.0% (dry matter basis) resulted in a 28.1% decrease in ammonia emission and decreases in the urea N, total N, and percentage N excreted in the urine of 29.6, 19.8, and 7.4%, respectively. Ammonia volatilization was dependent on N quantity and form in the urine.

  6. Genome-wide association for milk production and female fertility traits in Canadian dairy Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Shadi; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Abo-Ismail, Mohammed K; May, Natalie; Miller, Stephen P; Schenkel, Flavio; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul

    2016-06-10

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for detecting genomic regions explaining variation in phenotype. The objectives of the present study were to identify or refine the positions of genomic regions affecting milk production, milk components and fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and to use these positions to identify genes and pathways that may influence these traits. Several QTL regions were detected for milk production (MILK), fat production (FAT), protein production (PROT) and fat and protein deviation (FATD, PROTD respectively). The identified QTL regions for production traits (including milk production) support previous findings and some overlap with genes with known relevant biological functions identified in earlier studies such as DGAT1 and CPSF1. A significant region on chromosome 21 overlapping with the gene FAM181A and not previous linked to fertility in dairy cattle was identified for the calving to first service interval and days open. A functional enrichment analysis of the GWAS results yielded GO terms consistent with the specific phenotypes tested, for example GO terms GO:0007595 (lactation) and GO:0043627 (response to estrogen) for milk production (MILK), GO:0051057 (positive regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction) for fat production (FAT), GO:0040019 (positive regulation of embryonic development) for first service to calving interval (CTFS) and GO:0043268 (positive regulation of potassium ion transport) for days open (DO). In other cases the connection between the enriched GO terms and the traits were less clear, for example GO:0003279 (cardiac septum development) for FAT and GO:0030903 (notochord development) for DO trait. The chromosomal regions and enriched pathways identified in this study confirm several previous findings and highlight new regions and pathways that may contribute to variation in production or fertility traits in dairy cattle.

  7. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

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    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  8. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin G and preweaning health in Holstein calves fed a commercial colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, H; Godden, S; Bey, R; Wells, S; Fetrow, J; Chester-Jones, H

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe passive transfer of IgG and preweaning health in newborn calves fed a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum replacement (CR) product or maternal colostrum (MC). Twelve commercial Holstein dairy farms enrolled singleton newborn heifer calves to be fed fresh MC (n = 239 calves) or one dose of CR containing 125 g of Ig (n = 218 calves) as the first colostrum feeding. For 7 of these farms that routinely provided a second feeding of 1.9 L of MC to their calves 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding, calves assigned to the CR treatment group were offered a second feeding consisting of 1.9 L of commercial milk replacer supplemented with one dose of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum supplement, containing 45 g of Ig per dose, 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding. A blood sample was collected from all calves between 1 to 8 d of age for serum IgG and total protein (TP) determination, and records of all treatment and mortality events were collected until weaning. Serum IgG and TP concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed MC (IgG = 14.8 +/- 7.0 mg/mL; TP = 5.5 +/- 0.7 g/dL) compared with calves fed CR (IgG = 5.8 +/- 3.2 mg/mL; TP = 4.6 +/- 0.5 g/dL). The proportion of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG protein concentration predictive of successful passive transfer (serum IgG = 10 mg/mL) was 5.0 g/dL in calves fed MC or CR. Long-term follow-up of these calves (to maturity) is ongoing to describe the effects of feeding CR on longevity, productivity, risk for Johne's disease, and economics.

  9. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukengela Claude Muya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0 and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14. Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward, starter and water were offered ad libitum. Intakes were measured daily and body weights (BW weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analysis. Performance was measured for an additional 14 d post-weaning. Pre-weaning milk intake was lower (p = 0.010 and starter DMI (dry matter intake greater (p = 0.001 for Meg14 than Meg0 calves. Total DMI, metabolisable energy (ME intake and average daily gain (ADG were similar (p > 0.05 for both groups, but Meg14 calves had greater weaning BW (p = 0.012 and feed efficiency (p < 0.029. The average BHBA between d 21 and 56 was greater for Meg14 (p = 0.03 compared to Meg0 calves. After weaning, Meg14 calves had greater DMI (p = 0.027, ME intake (p = 0.023 and ADG (p = 0.002 and tended to have better feed efficiencies (p = 0.07 than Meg0 calves. Administering M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter intake and feed efficiency, which was associated with high blood BHBA.

  10. Prediction of whole-genome risk for selection and management of hyperketonemia in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K A; Pralle, R S; Adams, H; Cho, K; Do, C; White, H M

    2017-06-01

    Hyperketonemia (HYK), a common early postpartum health disorder characterized by elevated blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), affects millions of dairy cows worldwide and leads to significant economic losses and animal welfare concerns. In this study, blood concentrations of BHB were assessed for 1,453 Holstein cows using electronic handheld meters at four time points between 5 and 18 days postpartum. Incidence rates of subclinical (1.2 ≤ maximum BHB ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and clinical ketosis (maximum BHB ≥ 3.0 mmol/L) were 24.0 and 2.4%, respectively. Variance components, estimated breeding values, and predicted HYK phenotypes were computed on the original, square-root, and binary scales. Heritability estimates for HYK ranged from 0.058 to 0.072 in pedigree-based analyses, as compared to estimates that ranged from 0.071 to 0.093 when pedigrees were augmented with 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes of 959 cows and 801 male ancestors. On average, predicted HYK phenotypes from the genome-enhanced analysis ranged from 0.55 mmol/L for first-parity cows in the best contemporary group to 1.40 mmol/L for fourth-parity cows in the worst contemporary group. Genome-enhanced predictions of HYK phenotypes were more closely associated with actual phenotypes than pedigree-based predictions in five-fold cross-validation, and transforming phenotypes to reduce skewness and kurtosis also improved predictive ability. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using repeated cowside measurement of blood BHB concentration in early lactation to construct a reference population that can be used to estimate HYK breeding values for genomic selection programmes and predict HYK phenotypes for genome-guided management decisions. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study...... whether NI and FLI are measures of the same trait. Records containing information on approximately 200 000 cows were analysed using tri-variate animal models. The genetic correlations between the udder health traits and the fertility traits were favourable and in the range from 0.17 to 0.42, whereas...

  13. Competition among Superconducting, Antiferromagnetic, and Charge Orders with Intervention by Phase Separation in the 2D Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2017-11-01

    Using a variational Monte Carlo method, we study the competition of strong electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the ground state of the Holstein-Hubbard model on a square lattice. At half filling, an extended intermediate metallic or weakly superconducting (SC) phase emerges, sandwiched between antiferromagnetic and charge order (CO) insulating phases. By carrier doping into the CO insulator, the SC order dramatically increases for strong electron-phonon couplings, but is largely hampered by wide phase separation (PS) regions. Superconductivity is optimized at the border to the PS.

  14. Binding energy between the magnetic impurity electron and the conduction electrons in the Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Raju, Ch.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2013-12-01

    A single-level Anderson-Holstein model is investigated using the Lang-Firsov transformation followed by a zero-phonon averaging and the Kikuchi-Morita Cluster variation method as adopted by Bose and Tanaka in the case of Anderson model. The ground state energy of the system at zero temperature and the binding energy between the magnetic impurity and the conduction electrons are calculated for the symmetric case ɛ d = -( U/2). Subsequently, the effect of the electron-phonon interaction on the ground state energy and the binding energy is investigated.

  15. Effect of external magnetic field on the bound state between the localized and conduction electrons in Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2014-09-01

    A single-level Anderson-Holstein model is investigated in the presence of a magnetic field. Employing a Lang-Firsov transformation followed by a zero-phonon averaging, an effective Anderson model is obtained, which is then solved by using the Kikuchi-Morita Cluster variation (CV) method as adopted by Bose and Tanaka in the case of Anderson model. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the binding energy between a magnetic impurity electron and the conduction electrons and on the local magnetic moment are investigated at zero temperature in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  16. DMRG analysis of the SDW-CDW crossover region in the 1D half-filled Hubbard-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejima, S; Fehske, H [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    In order to clarify the physics of the crossover from a spin-density-wave (SDW) Mott insulator to a charge-density-wave (CDW) Peierls insulator in one-dimensional (1D) systems, we investigate the Hubbard-Holstein Hamiltonian at half filling within a density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) approach. Determining the spin and charge correlation exponents, the momentum distribution function, and various excitation gaps, we confirm that an intervening metallic phase expands the SDW-CDW transition in the weak-coupling regime.

  17. Effect of external magnetic field on the bound state between the localized and conduction electrons in Anderson–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju, E-mail: narasimharaju.phy@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2014-09-01

    A single-level Anderson–Holstein model is investigated in the presence of a magnetic field. Employing a Lang–Firsov transformation followed by a zero-phonon averaging, an effective Anderson model is obtained, which is then solved by using the Kikuchi–Morita Cluster variation (CV) method as adopted by Bose and Tanaka in the case of Anderson model. The effect of electron–phonon interaction on the binding energy between a magnetic impurity electron and the conduction electrons and on the local magnetic moment are investigated at zero temperature in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  18. Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zambrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI, days open (DO, number of services per conception (NSC and conception rate (CR in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia. Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors were: 0.088(0.037, 0.082(0.037, 0.040(0.025 and 0.030(0.026 in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098, 0.090(0.104, 0.093(0.097 and 0.147(0.117 in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (<8% in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.

  19. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ghassemi Nejad; Hosseindoust, A.; Shoae, A.; Ghorbani, B.; Lee, B. H.; Oskoueian, E.; Hajilari, D.; A. Amouzmehr; Lohakare, J. D.; Sung, K. I.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calv...

  20. Relación entre características de tipo y producción de leche en vacas Holstein de Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Corrales A.; Mario Cerón-Muñoz; Jhon Cañas A.; Cristina Herrera R.; Samir Calvo C.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la relación entre las características de tipo agrupadas por factores con la producción de leche en ganado Holstein de Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron datos de 24 características lineales y producción de leche de 3102 vacas de la raza Holstein del departamento de Antioquia en control lechero oficial. Se realizó un análisis por factores (AF) con el método de componentes principales y se retuvieron los factores que mostraron valores propios mayores que ...