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Sample records for holstein crossbreds compared

  1. Reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows.

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    Knob, Deise Aline; Alessio, Dileta Regina Moro; Thaler Neto, Andre; Mozzaquatro, Fabrício Desconsi

    2016-10-01

    Crossbreed dairy breeds, such as Holstein × dairy type of Simmental, have been generally used to improve fertility, udder health, and longevity of dairy herds. The aim was to compare the reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows. Data from two farms were used as follows: one located in Bom Retiro, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. and another in Carambeí, Paraná state. Information concerning birth, inseminations, and parity date were obtained from the management software of the farms, generating information regarding the calving interval, days between calving to first service, conception rate, and age at first calving. At one of the farms, calving was monitoring to quantify dystocia. Live weight as well as body condition score (BCS) of cows and information of culling were obtained to determine the survival rate. Data were analyzed by variance analysis and by logistic regression. Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had better reproductive performance than the Holstein cows, characterized by lower calving interval (381 vs. 445 days), higher conception rate (37.3 vs. 33.6 %), and shorter calving to first service interval (65 vs. 89 days). These results were related to a higher BCS in crossbred cows (3.63 vs. 2.94 points). Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had higher survival rate than Holstein cows on the second parity (83 vs. 92 %). No differences between genetic groups were observed (P > 0.05) for body weight and dystocia. In conclusion, Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows have better reproductive performance and higher survival rate than Holstein cows.

  2. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

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    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  3. Production, fertility, survival, and body measurements of Montbéliarde-sired crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins during their first 5 lactations.

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    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Seykora, A J; Hansen, L B

    2014-01-01

    Two-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Holstein (MO × HO) as well as 3-breed crossbreds of Montbéliarde and Jersey/Holstein (MO × JH) were compared with pure Holstein (HO) cows for production, somatic cell score (SCS), fertility, survival to subsequent calving, mortality, and body measurements during their first 5 lactations. Cows calved for the first time between 2005 and 2010 and were housed in either a confinement herd or a herd that had access to pasture for 165d of the year in the north central region of the United States. Body, hoof, and udder measurements of cows were also objectively measured. The MO × HO crossbred cows were not different from pure HO cows for fat-plus-protein production during any lactation. However, the MO × JH crossbred cows had 5% lower fat-plus-protein production compared with pure HO cows in the confinement herd. On the other hand, the MO × JH crossbred cows were not different for fat-plus-protein production in the third to fifth lactation compared with pure HO cows in the seasonal pasture herd. Across the 2 herds, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows had 21% higher first-service conception rate, 41 fewer days open, and 12% higher pregnancy rate compared with the pure HO cows. Furthermore, the MO × HO (5%) and MO × JH (12%) crossbred cows had lower mortality rates than the pure HO cows (18%). Because of superior fertility and lower mortality rates, the MO × HO and MO × JH crossbred cows, combined, had greater survival to second (+13%), third (+24%), fourth (+25%), and fifth (+17%) lactation compared with pure HO cows. For body measurements, MO × HO were similar to pure HO cows for hip height and heart girth, but MO × HO cows had more body condition and greater body weight (+39kg) across the first 5 lactations. The MO × JH cows had more body condition but 5cm shorter hip height and 28kg less body weight than pure HO cows across the first 5 lactations. Foot angle was steeper and hoof length was shorter for MO × HO

  4. Crossbreds of Jersey x Holstein compared with pure Holsteins for production, fertility, and body and udder measurements during first lactation.

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    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G; Romano, J E; Hazel, A R

    2008-03-01

    Jersey x Holstein crossbreds (JxH; n = 76) were compared with pure Holsteins (n = 73) for 305-d milk, fat, and protein production; conception rate; days open; proportion of cows pregnant within fixed intervals postpartum; and body and udder measurements during first lactation. Cows were housed at 2 research locations of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to May 2005. The JxH were mated to Montbeliarde sires, and Holstein cows were mated to Holstein sires. Best Prediction was used to determine actual production (milk, fat, and protein) for 305-d lactations with adjustment for age at calving, and records less than 305 d were projected to 305 d. The JxH (274 kg) and pure Holsteins (277 kg) were not significantly different for fat production, but JxH had significantly less milk (7,147 vs. 7,705 kg) and protein (223 vs. 238 kg) production than pure Holsteins. The JxH had significantly fewer days open than pure Holsteins (127 vs. 150 d). Also, a significantly greater proportion of JxH were pregnant at 150 and 180 d postpartum than pure Holsteins (75 vs. 59% and 77 vs. 61%, respectively). The JxH had significantly less body weight (60 kg) at calving, but significantly greater body condition (2.80 vs. 2.71). Furthermore, JxH had significantly less udder clearance from the ground to the bottom of the udder than pure Holsteins (47.7 vs. 54.6 cm), and greater distance between front teats (15.8 vs. 14.0 cm) than pure Holsteins during first lactation.

  5. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  6. Development of breeding strategy based on body coloration and phenotype in Holstein Friesian crossbreds for sustainable milk production

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    Md. Shahjahan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Holstein Friesian crossbreds were categorized based on white coloring in different body parts, hump status, and known generations derived from controlled breeding and recording. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of morphological features on milk production; grading of Holstein Friesian crossbreds and implement a sustainable breeding strategy based on phenotypic grading. Data of peak milk production and morphological characteristics were collected on 51 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows after primary sorting from three districts (Sirajganj, Chittagong and Mymensingh of Bangladesh. The data analyses were conducted following one-way ANOVA with descriptive statistics. The animals were graded according to the white coloring pattern (absent or present in horn, eyelid and eyelash, muzzle, hoof, tail switch, and the presence of a hump. It was observed that the presence of white color (18.86±1.01 to 22.00±1.57 liters in different body parts of Holstein Friesian crossbreds were significantly (p [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 498-504

  7. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  8. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

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    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d -45, -14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d -7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d -15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and

  9. Epitheliogenesis imperfecta in a crossbred Holstein calf, southwestern Iran

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    Shahrzad Azizi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Epitheliogenesis imperfect (EI is a rare autosomal recessive skin defect that is clinically identified with absence of cutaneous epithelium of the limbs, muzzle and nostrils as well as oral mucous membranes. This congenital newborn desease is reported mainly in domestic animals. The present study described EI in a 13 day-old, female crossbred Holstein calf. Gross examination showed epithelium agenesis of two front and hind limbs skin around the carpal and tarsal joints, and also extensive areas of the metacarpal and metatarsal regions. The calf died 5 days after antibiotic therapy and use of topical cream.

  10. Short communication: Jersey × Holstein crossbreds compared with pure Holsteins for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during the first three lactations.

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    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Hazel, A R; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G

    2012-07-01

    Crossbred cows (n=80) resulting from the use of Jersey (JE) semen on their pure Holstein (HO) dams were compared with pure HO cows (n=77) for body weight, body condition score, fertility, and survival during their first 3 lactations. Cows were in 2 research herds of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to June 2008. The JE × HO crossbred cows had significantly less body weight during the first (-56 kg), second (-67 kg), and third (-82 kg) lactations than pure HO cows. However, JE × HO cows had significantly greater body condition score during the first (2.94 vs. 2.84), second (2.97 vs. 2.84), and third (2.99 vs. 2.87) lactations than pure HO cows. For fertility, JE × HO cows had fewer days to first breeding during the first (-10.6d), second (-8.4d), and third (-12.3d) lactations than pure HO cows. Crossbred cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for number of services during first lactation; however, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer services (2.2) than pure HO cows (2.7) during the second lactation. Also, JE × HO cows had significantly fewer days open than pure HO cows in the first (-24 d), second (-42 d), and third (-42 d) lactations. For survival, JE × HO cows were not significantly different from pure HO cows for percentage of cows calving a second time; however, a tendency existed for a higher percentage of JE × HO cows (63.8%) than pure HO cows (49.4%) to calve a third time, and a higher percentage of JE × HO cows calved a third time within 28, 34, and 40 mo of first calving than pure HO cows. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

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    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  12. Genotyping of the Holstein-Friesian crossbred cattle for CD18 gene using PCR-RFLP

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    A. S. Khade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cattle with the objective to find out genotype of HF crossbred cattle for Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD by using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: 50 blood samples were collected from HF crossbred cattle and subjected to PCR. The amplified PCR products were digested using Taq I restriction enzyme at 65 oC overnight. After restriction digestion, the final PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5 % agarose gel. Results: All the 50 animals under present investigation were found to be normal as the amplified PCR product upon digestion with Taq I restriction enzyme, revealed two bands of 313 bp and 54 bp for normal animals. Conclusions: In the present investigation D128G carrier frequency was found to be 0 %. However, recent reports suggest that the mutant gene has already been observed in the HF crossbred cattle population of India, which makes it necessary to screen the animals to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population.

  13. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  15. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

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    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  16. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

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    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of innate immune responses and somatotropic axis components of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows during the transition period.

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    Mendonça, L G D; Litherland, N B; Lucy, M C; Keisler, D H; Ballou, M A; Hansen, L B; Chebel, R C

    2013-06-01

    Objectives were to compare parameters related to innate immune responses and somatotropic axis of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde (MO)-sired crossbred cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. Cows (40 HO and 47 MO-sired crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45d before expected calving date (study d 0=calving). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) isolated from blood samples collected weekly from study d -7 to 21 and on study d 42 were used for determination of percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis (PA+) and oxidative burst (OB+), intensity of PA and OB, percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 (CD18+) and L-selectin (LS+), and intensity of CD18 and LS expression. Blood was sampled weekly from study d -7 to 14 and on study d 28, 42, and 56 for determination of insulin, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 concentrations. Blood sampled weekly from study d -14 to 21 and on study d 42 was used to determine cortisol concentration. Liver biopsies were performed on study d -14, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of mRNA expression for insulin receptor B (IRB), total GH receptor (GHRtot), GHR variant 1A (GHR1A), and IGF-1. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures or by ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intensity of CD18 expression was greater in PMNL from crossbred cows compared with PMNL from HO cows [1,482.1 ± 82.3 vs. 1,286.6 ± 69.8 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)]. Furthermore, among HO cows, the percentage of PA+ PMNL on study d -7 (64.4 ± 5.2%) tended to be greater than on study d 0 (57.1 ± 5.1%), but no differences in percentage of PA+ PMNL between study d -7 and 0 were observed in crossbred cows. Similarly, intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from HO cows decreased from study d -7 to 0 (4,750.6 ± 1,217.0 vs. 1,964.7 ± 1,227.9 GMFI), but no changes in intensity of PA in PA+ PMNL from crossbred cows were observed. On study d 0, intensity of PA tended to be

  18. Genomic prediction by single-step genomic BLUP using cow reference population in Holstein crossbred cattle in India

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    Nayee, Nilesh Kumar; Su, Guosheng; Gajjar, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection in a Holst......Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection...... in a Holstein Friesian crossbred population with cows kept under small holder conditions using test day records and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). Milk yield records from 10,797 daughters sired by 258 bulls were used Of these 2194 daughters and 109 sires were genotyped with customized genotyping chip...

  19. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

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    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  20. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

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    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

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    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  2. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

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    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  3. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

  4. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  5. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

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    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  6. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

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    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  7. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly (P stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly (P stressful condition. Triglyceride was significantly higher in cows with genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly (P stressful conditions. The mean concentration of cortisol and protein increased linearly from comfort to the stressful condition, while mean serum triglyceride, glucose, progesterone (P 4 ), and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by moving from comfort to stressful conditions. Results also indicated that higher cortisol level in higher grade crossbred cows was adversely associated with LH concentration and milk yield under thermal stress conditions. Greater triglyceride in high-grade crossbred (87.5%) cows indicates higher fat mobilization reflecting a negative energy balance. We concluded that heat stress increased blood cortisol and protein, and reduced milk yield in dairy cows irresptive of the genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  8. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  9. Chemical Quality of Male Etawah Crossbred and Castrated Boer Crossbred Goat Meat

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    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the chemical quality (moisture, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus of male Etawah crossbred and castrated Boer crossbred goat meat. The result expected can be used as further information about the chemical quality of male Etawah crossbred and castrated Boer crossbred goat meat and as future researches. The material of the research were loin meat, front and back thigh of male Etawah crossbred and castrated Boer crossbred goat, these meat parts were the fineground and 10 gram were taken for sample preparation. The result show that the different species of goat statistically was no significant effect (P>0.05 on moisture, protein, fat, calcium and  phosphorus. The chemical quality of male Etawah crossbred and castrated Boer crossbred goat (moisture obtained from vacuum oven, fat from soxhlet, protein from semimicro kejldahl, calcium and phosphorus from Spectrophotometer is (71.080%, 69.886%; 17.120%, 17.907%; 8.358%, 8.981%; 13.846 mg/100g, 18.811mg/100g; 134.817mg/100g, 151.032mg/100g. The conclusion was moisture content from male Etawah crossbred was higher than castrated Boer crossbred, but fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus content castrated Boer crossbred were higher than castrated Boer crossbred.   Keywords: male Etawah crossbred, castrated Boer crossbred, moisture

  10. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly ( P cows during stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly ( P cows during stressful condition. Triglyceride was significantly higher in cows with genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly ( P cows during both moderate and stressful conditions. The mean concentration of cortisol and protein increased linearly from comfort to the stressful condition, while mean serum triglyceride, glucose, progesterone (P4), and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by moving from comfort to stressful conditions. Results also indicated that higher cortisol level in higher grade crossbred cows was adversely associated with LH concentration and milk yield under thermal stress conditions. Greater triglyceride in high-grade crossbred (87.5%) cows indicates higher fat mobilization reflecting a negative energy balance. We concluded that heat stress increased blood cortisol and protein, and reduced milk yield in dairy cows irresptive of the genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  11. Concentrações de imunoglobulinas G em colostro de vacas mestiças holandês-zebu Colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations in crossbred holstein-zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins Soares Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e oito vacas leiteiras mestiças holandês-zebu (HZ foram distribuídas de acordo com a percentagem de grau de sangue holandês em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 = animais com menos de 70% de grau de sangue holandês (19 vacas; Grupo 2 = animais com 75% de grau de sangue holandês, que equivale a ¾ HZ (46 vacas; Grupo 3 = mestiços entre 80 e 90% de grau de sangue holandês, que corresponderam a 13/16 HZ e 7/8 HZ (11 vacas; Grupo 4 = vacas com mais de 90% de grau de sangue holandês (12 vacas. Após o parto, amostras de colostro da primeira ordenha foram colhidas e, posteriormente, submetidas à imunodifusão radial simples para determinações dos níveis de imunoglobulinas G (IgG. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que as concentrações de IgG não são influenciadas pelos graus de sangue estudados e seus valores médios (145,94mg/m são muito superiores aos relatados para animais de raças taurinas puras. Por esse motivo, não se justifica o emprego de métodos artificiais de fornecimento do colostro em se tratando de mestiços HZ. Ademais, o nível elevado de IgG observado no colostro sugere que a adoção da prática da mamada natural assistida seja adequada para assegurar que, na maioria das vezes, os neonatos não venham a apresentar falhas de transferência de imunidade passiva.Eighty-eight healthy crossbred holstein-zebu (HZ dairy cows were distributed in four groups as follow: Group 1 = less than 70% HZ (19 cows; Group 2 = 75% HZ animals, corresponding to ¾ HZ (46 cows; Group 3 = crossbred animals between 80 to 90% HZ, corresponding to 13/16 HZ and 7/8 HZ (11 cows; Group 4 = cows more than 90% HZ (12 animals. After birth, colostrum samples were obtained from each cow and than were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG concentration by single radial immunodifusion assay. IgG colostral concentrations were not influenced by group of crossbred HZ and its mean concentration (145.97mg/m were higher than that related for purebreds Bos

  12. Características produtivas e reprodutivas de vacas Holandesas e mestiças Holandês × Gir no Planalto Central Production and reproduction traits in Holstein and Gyr crossbred cows in the Central Plateau, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar o desempenho leiteiro e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa e mestiças Holandês × Gir na região do Planalto Central foram utilizados dados de 1.456 vacas de cinco composições raciais, originadas das raças Holandesa (H e Gir (G: puras H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G; e ¼H ¾G. Analisaram-se as características produção média diária de leite (PMD, número de dias em lactação (DL e produção total da lactação corrigida para 305 dias (P305, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, período de gestação (PG e intervalo de partos (IEP. Os maiores valores de PMD e P305 foram obtidos para os animais ¾H ¼G e ½H ½G e os menores, para os animais com maior proporção da raça Gir (¼H ¾G. Os valores das características reprodutivas IPP e IEP, no entanto, foram menores para os animais ¾H ¼G.Esses resultados evidenciam a adaptação das vacas mestiças ao ambiente a que foram submetidas ou que os animais puros da raça Holandesa, em razão do estresse nutricional e/ou térmico, não expressaram todo o seu potencial genético para produção leiteira.Além disso, os dados comprovaram a importância da utilização de sistemas de cruzamento na manutenção da produção dos animais e na sua adaptação ao ambiente.Data from 1456 purebred and crossbred cows of five different crossbred groups involving the Holstein (H and Gyr (G breeds (H; ¾H ¼G; ½H ½G; ³/8H 5/8G e ¼H ¾G were used to compare their milk production and reproductive traits in the Brazilian central plateau region. The performance traits studied were: average daily milk production (DMP; lactation length (LL; total production in 305 days (P305 and age at first calving (AFC, gestation length (GL and calving interval (CI. Higher averages of DMP and P305 were observed for animals ¾H ¼G and ½H ½G and the smallest ones for crossbred animals with larger proportion of the Gyr breed (¼H ¾G. The lowest values of AFC and CI were observed for ¾H

  13. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: II. Bíparas Evaluation of double purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: II. Biparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de vacas bíparas de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú, se utilizaron 75 vacas en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Cebú, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, las cuales integraron un rebaño común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación, en una vaquería de producción de la granja Supervaca de la Empresa Pecuaria Genética de Matanzas. La carga fue de 1,6 UGM/ha y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se apreció la condición corporal al inicio y al final de cada estación, la producción de leche por vaca se midió quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores de reproducción. La mejor condición corporal (3,97 favoreció al Siboney mestizo (PIn order to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of biparous double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows, 75 cows were used in a completely randomized design, 25 per group, from genotypes Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Zebu, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, which integrated a common herd with access to the same management and feeding, in a production dairy unit of the Supervaca farm, Genetic Livestock Production Firm of Matanzas. The stocking rate was 1,6 animals/ha and they rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were monthly measured. The body condition was estimated at the beginning and end of each season, milk production per cow was fortnightly measured, and the duration and production per lactation and the reproduction indicators were determined. The best body condition (3,97 favored crossbred Siboney (P<0,01; while no significant differences were found in the duration and production of milk per lactation. Likewise

  14. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  15. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  16. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  17. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors in Gyr and F1 Holstein x Gyr postpartum cows

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    T.M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zebu and Holstein x Zebu crossbred have low incidence of uterine infection when compared to Holstein cows. Resistance to uterine infections may be associated with the ability to recognize invading microorganisms. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors has been investigated in the postpartum period of Holstein cows, but it is completely unknown in Zebu or Holstein x Zebu cows. In this study, 9 Gyr and 12 F1 Holstein x Gyr cows were submitted to endometrial biopsies at the first and seventh days postpartum, with the objective to measure transcription levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs 1/6, 2, 4, 5, and 9; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors 1 and 2; and coreceptors cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2. There was a significant (P<0.05 decrease in transcription of TLR5 in Gyr, and an increase in transcription of TLR9 in F1 cows, between the first and seventh day postpartum. Both groups had low incidences of uterine infections up to 42 days postpartum. Uterine involution completed at 27.7 ± 10.1 and 25.1 ± 4.7 days postpartum for Gyr and F1 cows, respectively. In Gyr cows, higher transcription levels of TLR1/6 and NOD1 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In F1 cows, lower levels of TLR1/6, TLR2 and NOD2 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In conclusion, some pathogen recognition receptors associated significantly with the time required for uterine involution in Gyr and F1 cows.

  18. A comparative study on growth performance of crossbred and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossbreds had higher body weight than purebred Mecheri sheep at all age groups. However, it was not significant up to nine months of age. In general, period of lambing and sex of the lambs had significant effects on body weight of both genetic groups at different ages. The estimates of heritability for body weight ranged ...

  19. Genomic selection for crossbred performance accounting for breed-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos S; Bovenhuis, Henk; Hidalgo, André M; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2017-06-26

    Breed-specific effects are observed when the same allele of a given genetic marker has a different effect depending on its breed origin, which results in different allele substitution effects across breeds. In such a case, single-breed breeding values may not be the most accurate predictors of crossbred performance. Our aim was to estimate the contribution of alleles from each parental breed to the genetic variance of traits that are measured in crossbred offspring, and to compare the prediction accuracies of estimated direct genomic values (DGV) from a traditional genomic selection model (GS) that are trained on purebred or crossbred data, with accuracies of DGV from a model that accounts for breed-specific effects (BS), trained on purebred or crossbred data. The final dataset was composed of 924 Large White, 924 Landrace and 924 two-way cross (F1) genotyped and phenotyped animals. The traits evaluated were litter size (LS) and gestation length (GL) in pigs. The genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance was higher than 0.88 for both LS and GL. For both traits, the additive genetic variance was larger for alleles inherited from the Large White breed compared to alleles inherited from the Landrace breed (0.74 and 0.56 for LS, and 0.42 and 0.40 for GL, respectively). The highest prediction accuracies of crossbred performance were obtained when training was done on crossbred data. For LS, prediction accuracies were the same for GS and BS DGV (0.23), while for GL, prediction accuracy for BS DGV was similar to the accuracy of GS DGV (0.53 and 0.52, respectively). In this study, training on crossbred data resulted in higher prediction accuracy than training on purebred data and evidence of breed-specific effects for LS and GL was demonstrated. However, when training was done on crossbred data, both GS and BS models resulted in similar prediction accuracies. In future studies, traits with a lower genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred

  20. Nota técnica: Comportamiento productivo de machos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Technical note: Productive performance of Holstein x Zebu males under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento productivo de machos de doble propósito Holstein x Cebú se realizó un experimento durante 288 días, en el cual se seleccionaron 32 añojos de 12 meses de edad, que fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de ocho animales cada uno, pertenecientes a los genotipos: F1 (H x C, Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí, los cuales pastorearon en un silvopastoreo constituido por Leucaena leucocephala y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni dividido en 10 cuartones. Se empleó una carga de tres animales/ha, los cuales se pesaron mensualmente para determinar los cambios de peso vivo, las ganancias y la invasión de garrapatas. Se determinó la disponibilidad de MS y la composición química del pastizal para el período lluvioso y el poco lluvioso. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la ganancia de peso; los valores fueron de 0,691ª: 0,472b: 0,363b y 0,370b para F1, Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí, respectivamente. Similar respuesta se obtuvo en el conteo de garrapatas, donde F1 resultó significativamente inferior al resto (3,83ª; 7,63b; 8,18b y 8,63b para cada genotipo. De acuerdo con los resultados las mejores ganancias se obtuvieron en el F1, seguido de Siboney mestizo, Siboney y Mambí. Además la menor cantidad de garrapatas se encontró en el F1, vinculado al menor porcentaje de sangre Holstein y al mayor grosor de la piel, lo cual puede ser una característica adecuada para valorar la resistencia de los bovinos a la invasión de las garrapatas.With the objective of characterizing the productive performance of double purpose Holstein x Zebu bulls, a trial was conducted for 288 days, in which 32 twelve-month-old yearlings were selected and randomly distributed in four groups of eight animals each, belonging to the genotypes: F1 (H x Z, crossbred Siboney, Siboney and Mambí, which grazed in a silvopastoral system constituted by Leucaena leucocephala and Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, divided

  1. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2017-05-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  2. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  3. Identification of citrullinaemia carrier and detection of a new silent mutation at 240bp position in ASS1 gene of normal Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal recessive genetic disorders are regularly investigated especially in Indian Holstein and Holstein Crossbred bulls before they entered in semen collection so that a defective gene should not be transmitted to future generations. Bovine citrullinaemia first reported in Australia is a metabolic disorder as one of the enzymes, Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS involved in urea cycle is impaired in function. The mutation responsible for citrullinemia has been characterized as a single-base substitution at 256bp (C>T in coding exon 3 of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 gene, which converts the CGA (arginine at 86 codon to TGA (stop codon. A Holstein bull during routine molecular screening was found to be carrier for Citrullinaemia that was confirmed by sequencing. This is a fresh case of Citrullinaemia carrier in addition to three cases reported earlier in India. Partial sequencing of coding exon 3 of a normal Holstein revealed a new silent polymorphism at 240bp position that does not change amino acid (Sarine AGC>AGT at 80 codon within exon 3 of ASS1 gene. The sequence of exon 3 of ASS1 gene in a normal Holstein exhibiting a new polymorphism was submitted to NCBI with accession No. KF933365. The presence of citrullinaemia carriers in Indian Holstein, though in very low frequency, emphasizing to continue the investigation of mutant gene in cattle population.

  4. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  5. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  6. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-01-01

    Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian) male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC) with sunflower meal (SFM), partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and...

  8. Cellular thermotolerance is independent of HSF 1 expression in zebu and crossbred non-lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, J. S.; Sunil Kumar, B. V.; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kashyap, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress is an important domain of research in livestock due to its negative impact on production and disease resistance. The augmentation of stress in the body stimulates the antioxidative activity comprising various enzymes (viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase), metabolites (reduced glutathione, etc.), vitamins, minerals, etc. to combat the situation. The major key players involved in regulation of heat shock response in eukaryotes are the transcription factors, called as heat shock factors (HSF). They activate the heat shock protein (HSP) genes by binding to their promoters. Lymphocytes are considered to be the best model to evaluate the immunity in any living body as it contains plethora of white blood cells (WBCs).In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from non-lactating Sahiwal vis-à-vis crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle with 75% or more exotic inheritance were subjected to heat shock at 39, 41, and 43 °C in three different incubators, in vitro. The cell count and viability test of pre and post heat stress of concerned PBMCs indicated that the crossbreeds are more prone to heat stress as compared to Sahiwal. The reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression data revealed an increment in HSF1 expression at 41 °C which subsequently declined (non-significantly) at 43 °C in both breeds post 1 h heat shock. However, the association between the HSF 1 expression and antioxidative activity through correlation analysis was found to be non-significant ( P < 0.05), though enzymatic activity appeared to behave in a similar fashion in both breeds at 5% level of significance ( P < 0.05). This rule out the role of HSF1 expression level on the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress in vitro in zebu and crossbred cattle.

  9. Imputation of genotypes in Danish two-way crossbred pigs using low density panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Tao; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Legarra, Andres

    Genotype imputation is commonly used as an initial step of genomic selection. Studies on humans, plants and ruminants suggested many factors would affect the performance of imputation. However, studies rarely investigated pigs, especially crossbred pigs. In this study, different scenarios...... of imputation from 5K SNPs to 7K SNPs on Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, and crossbred Landrace-Yorkshire were compared. In conclusion, genotype imputation on crossbreds performs equally well as in purebreds, when parental breeds are used as the reference panel. When the size of reference is considerably large...... SNPs. This dataset will be analyzed for genomic selection in a future study...

  10. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  11. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  12. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Comparative study of growth performance, meat quality and haematological parameters of Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red and their reciprocal crossbred chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Parveen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2001 unsexed day-old-chicks of each Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red (RIR, RIR × Fayoumi (RIFI and Fayoumi × RIR (FIRI were obtained from hatchery of Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. The birds were maintained on deep litter system for a period of 20 weeks. The results revealed that the average day old weight was highest in RIR and FIRI, intermediate in RIFI and lowest in Fayoumi chickens. The RIR breed consumed more feed and gained maximum (P0.05 difference among pure and crossbred chickens. There was non-significant (P>0.05 difference in haematological values among all chickens. The total erythrocyte number, haemoglobin and packed cell volume increased with the advancement of age. However, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values decreased gradually with the advancement of age. It may be concluded that crossbred chickens gained better body weight than Fayoumi and moderate than RIR chickens with lower mortality. The crossbred chickens of FIRI showed better performance in all traits than crossbred chickens of RIFI.

  14. Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...

  15. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  16. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  17. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  18. Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenongyai, Watcharawit; Pattarajinda, Virote; Stelzleni, Alexander M; Sethakul, Jutarat; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P ruminal NH 3 -N content than STMR. Total volatile fatty acids post-feeding was greatest for GTMR (P Ruminal proportions of acetic and butyric acids were greater for FTMR than GTMR (P ruminal pH. STMR and FTMRs can be used to maintain performance of growing crossbred Holstein steers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Study on reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kien, Cuong; Van Khanh, Nguyen; Hanzen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first service (CRFS) was 1.8 (±1.4), 55, and 58%, respectively. The overall mean for the waiting period (WP), DFLS, and days open (DO) of cows was 109 (±52), 133 (±114), and 242 (±129) days, respectively. The mean for NSC, CR, and CRFS was 4.3 (±2.7), 23, and 14%, respectively. A very significant decrease in AFS and AC according to the year of birth, and a significant increase in AFS according to body weight at first insemination (>320 kg) were observed. The CRFS of heifers inseminated in 2013 was significantly higher than in 2014. Monthly mean CR in heifers and cows was negatively correlated with THI. The WP, DFLS, DO, and NSC of cows significantly decreased according to the year of calving. Cows that calved in rainy season had a significantly longer WP than in dry season. The occurrence of postpartum (PP) diseases was accompanied by an increase in WP, DO, and NSC. A decrease in body condition score (BCS) between calving and 60th day (C60) and also between 60th and 120th day of lactation resulted in a significant increase in WP and DO. A decrease in BCS between C60 was also accompanied by a considerable reduction in CRFS of cows. Season and BCS at insemination had a significant effect on NSC and CR of cows. Reproductive performance was satisfactory for heifers, but poor for cows. Losses of BCS during the first months of lactation and at insemination were the major risk factors for this poor performance

  20. Reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossbred cows are the main type of cattle used for milk production on smallholder and medium farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro Municipality. A study was undertaken on four medium-scale and forty five smallholder farms to investigate the reproductive and productive performance of crossbred maintained ...

  1. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  2. Production, performance, slaughter characteristics, and meat quality of Ziwuling wild crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan

    2018-02-01

    Wild boars, because of their large size and ability to survive adverse conditions, are usually used to cross with domestic breeds to improve the quality of domesticated pigs. This study aimed to investigate the growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of Ziwuling crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs in four groups (n = 8 per group, 4 boars and 4 sows, all aged 100 days), F 1 [wild × B (Bamei)], F 1  × B, F 1  × Y (Yorkshire), and F 1  × F 1 , were selected at a commercial pig farm. Growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of these crossbred pigs were determined. Characteristics of fatty acids, amino acids, and longissimus muscle fiber in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were also investigated. Pigs in F 1 and F 1  × F 1 groups had lower average daily weight gain, water and storage loss rates, larger meat color score, higher muscle amino acid levels, larger muscle fiber diameter, and higher ratio of flavor amino acids to unsaturated fatty acids compared to other groups. Crossbred pigs with higher rate of wild boar's consanguinity could improve production performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality. Thus, crossbreeding wild pig with domestic breeds might be an effective method to improve meat quality and flavor.

  3. Performance of F1 Primiparous German Black-headed Mutton x Turcana Crossbred Ewes under Extensive Management Conditions

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    Dinu Gavojdian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that crossbreeding Romanian indigenous Turcana (TA eweswith German Black-faced Mutton (GBM rams have on the body weight and reproduction performances ofprimiparous F1 GBM x TA descendants under extensive management conditions, when put to ram as ewe lambs or asyearlings. The study was initiated in a commercial farm from Timis County, western Romania, and starting autumn2009. At the age of 8 months, F1 crossbred female lambs registered on average 37.6 kg, while averages og 32.2 kgwere achieved by the TA females from the control group (CG, differences between the two genotypes weresignificant (p<0.001. When put to ram as ewe-lambs at the age of 8 months, F1 crossbreds registered a averagefertility rate of 84.0%, compared with 29.4% the females from the CG, differences registered between the two groupswere significant (p<0.01. Data registered in the current study proven that the F1 crossbreds are significantly moreprecocious compared to purebred TA, reared under identical conditions. When put to ram at the age of 18 months,F1crossbred glimmers registered an average prolificacy of 140.0%, compared to 111.7% the females from the CG.GBM sired females grow faster, achieve higher body weights, are more precocious and more prolific compared withpurebred TA females of the same age.

  4. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

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    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  5. PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND THEIR INTERACTION IN CROSSBRED CATTLE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN DISTRICT BANNU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suhban Qureshi, Asmatullah Khan1, Khuda Bakhsh Mirbaharland M. Oris Samol

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in district Bannu located in the southern dry piedmont mountains of the NWF Province of Pakistan. Records of 300 crossbred cows, produced through use of Holstein Friesian semen in native, non-discript cows, were studies. Data on various productive and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The average age at puberty was 752 ±10.9 days, ranging from 420 to 1620 days and was positively correlated with mounting (r = 0. 14 and negatively with estrus duration, vaginal mucus and calving interval (r = -0.14, -0.13, -0.15, respectively; P<0.05. The average inter-estrus interval was 20.0 ± 9.07 days, ranging from 15 to 24 days. Estrus duration was 34.0 ± 0.85 hours, ranging from 17 to 72 hours and was positively correlated with vaginal mucus (r = 0.12 and services per conception (r = 0.14 and negative with bellowing (r = 0. 11, P< 0.05 number of services per conception in the crossbred cows averaged 1.6+0.1 ranging from 1 to 12 and was correlated positively, with daily milk yield and negatively with lactation length and vaginal mucus (r = 0.32. -0.31, -0.27 respectively, P< 0.01. calving interval was 612 ± 4.56 days, ranging from 360 to 900 days and was negatively correlated with age at puberty, daily milk yield and use of oxytocin (r = -0.15. -0.67, -0.62, respectively, P < 0.0. The average lactation length of the cows was 503 ± 6.36 days, ranging from 30 to 1441 days. The mean daily milk yield was 10.1 ± 0.14 Kg ranging from 1.0 to18.0 Kg. The standard deviation (SD for average daily milk yield was 2.36 Kg. Number of animals 1 SD above mean was 28.0% and those 2 SD above mean was 17.0%. Number of animals 1 SD below mean was 51.4% and those 2 SD below mean was 3.6%. The wide variation makes a good base for productivity enhancement through selective breeding. It may be concluded that productive and reproductive performance is satisfactory in crossbred cattle under field conditions showing their adaptability to the local

  6. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

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    T. Norrapoke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05; however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05 among dietary treatments (p>0.05; however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05 milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS.

  7. Performance of crossbred heifers in different step-down waste milk-feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana Mergh; Lima, Juliana Aparecida Mello; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Saturnino, Helton Mattana; Reis, Ronaldo Braga; Barbosa, Fabiano Alvim; de Azevedo, Rafael Alves; Sá Fortes, Robson Vilela; Coelho, Sandra Gesteira

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption, performance, feed efficiency, glucose concentration, and the cost per kilogram of weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n = 33) subjected to one of the three waste milk step-down strategies: 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T1), 6L-45d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T2), and 8L-30d/6L-60d/3L-90d (T3). Heifers were weaned at the age of 91 days. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. The average waste milk intake was higher in T3 than in T1 and T2 strategies until 30 days and between 60 and 90 days. The starter intake did not differ among the strategies until 45 days, but it was higher in strategy T1 than in strategy T3 between 60 and 90 days. The waste milk step-down strategy did not influence the total dry matter intake, average daily gain, body weight, and feed efficiency. Glucose concentrations in plasma varied within a range that could be considered normal and were similar among the treatments. The average cost per kilogram of weight gain was the lowest in strategy T1 (US$3.0) compared to that in the other strategies (T2, US$3.2, and T3, US$3.6). The 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d waste milk step-down strategy was the most effective, since it increased the starter intake, led to normal glucose concentrations in plasma, and caused similar weight gain compared with the other strategies; however, it had a lower cost per kilogram.

  8. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

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    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  9. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

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    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  10. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

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    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  11. Body composition and water metabolism in tropical ruminants using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Kalanidhi, A.P.; Gosh, T.K.; Singh, U.B.; Saxena, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 1. Studies were conducted on Muzaffarnagri, Muzaffarnagri x Dorset and Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk breeds of sheep to determine the water turnover rates and body composition. The native Muzaffarnagri and crossbred animals did not differ significantly in body composition. The water turnover rates were not significantly different between breeds within the same season, but a significant difference was observed between the two seasons (winter and summer). Experiment 2. Nine animals, three each of crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk), were used to determine the body composition by the indirect method in the two seasons. There was a reduction in the TOH space and total body water during the summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared with the winter season. Experiment 3. Four adult Barbari goats were used to study body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total body water, fat and protein. Experiment 4. Twelve animals, three each of buffalo, crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) and Barbari goats, were used to determine the water requirements during the two seasons (winter and summer) by the tritiated water (TOH) dilution technique. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the water requirement and water turnover between seasons and between species within a season. The lowest water turnover and water requirement were found in goats, followed by sheep, crossbred cattle and buffalo when expressed as ml/kgsup(0.82).d. The metabolic water production was 10% of the total water input in the case of buffalo and crossbred cattle, but it was more in sheep and goats in both seasons

  12. 1991 measurement report. Air pollution monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a report of the immission situation for 1991 in Schleswig-Holstein on the basis of the continuously processing measuring stations of the Air Hygienic Monitoring Schleswig-Holstein and the special measuring programs at selected sites. The measuring results of the Air Hygienic Monitoring determined for Schleswig-Holstein in 1991 can be summarized as follows: - The basic load of air by pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and airborne particles in relatively small in the entires region of the nation; Schleswig-Holstein is, therefore, continues to be ranked as one of the regions in the Federal Republic of Germany least burden to air contaminates. - A slight increase compared to the previous year could be determined for the components of sulphur dioxide and airborne particles. - The limit values defined by the European Community (EG) were adhered to at the time of the report; the admittance values for SO 2 and NO 2 were, however, exceeded. (orig./KW) [de

  13. Seasonal incidence of Haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India

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    S P Vahora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 3152 and 1129 blood smears respectively, received from various veterinary sub centres located in Anand and Kaira districts of Gujarat during period from April 2009 to March 2010. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo from June to September and June to August, respectively. In crossbred cattle, 1172 (37% out of 3152 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 191 (17% out of 1129 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection. In both the species, higher incidence of Theileriosis was recorded during monsoon season as compared to other protozoan diseases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 223-225

  14. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: I. Primíparas Evaluation of double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: I. Primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de diferentes genotipos raciales de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú se seleccionaron 75 novillas gestantes, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 C, Mambí (¾ H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, las cuales conformaron un grupo común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación. Las novillas se incorporaron a la reproducción cuando alcanzaron 300 kg de peso vivo y una edad promedio de 28,6 meses; estas fueron manejadas en una vaquería arborizada, con una carga de 1,6 UGM/ha, y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se controló la condición corporal y se midió el perímetro toráxico; la producción de leche por vaca se comprobó quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores reproductivos. El genotipo Mambí fue superior (PWith the objective of evaluating the productive and reproductive performance of different double purpose breed genotypes from the Holstein x Zebu crossings, 75 pregnant heifers were selected, 25 per group from genotypes Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, Mambí (¾ H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, in a completely randomized design, which made up a common group with access to the same management and feeding. The heifers were incorporated to reproduction after reaching 300 kg live weight and an average age of 28,6 months; they were managed in a dairy unit with trees, with a stocking rate of 1,6 animals/ha, and rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were measured monthly. Body condition was controlled and the thoracic perimeter was measured; milk production per cow was fortnightly checked, and the lactation duration and production and reproductive indicators were determined. The Mamb

  15. Determination of Heat Tolerance Coefficient in Crossbred and Baladi Pregnant Cows under Egyptian Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Masry, K.A.; Nessim, M.Z.; Gad, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out during August (hot climate) on twelve pregnant cows, six crossbred (50% native Baladi and 50% Brown Swiss) and six native Baladi pregnant cows in the same age and second parity during their mid-pregnancy as detected by rectal palpation. The experiment was repeated during December (mild climate) on similar twelve pregnant cows. Blood sample was obtained from each cow at the end of August (first group) and at the end of December (second group) to determine blood plasma levels of two thermogenic hormones (total T3 and cortisol) and biochemical parameters, total protein, creatinine, urea-N, triglycerides, ALT and AST. Comparison was made between hot group and mild group to estimate heat induced changes in both breeds and to identify which breed is more tolerant to heat stress. The results showed that heat- induced a significant decrease (p<0.01) in plasma level of total T3 in crossbred and Baladi by (-53.6 and -51.8%), respectively and triglycerides in crossbred and Baladi by (-35.6 and-32.2%), respectively. But hot weather caused a significant increase (p<0.01) in cortisol hormone level in crossbred and Baladi by (78.3 and 77.6%), respectively. Significant (p<0.01) difference between crossbred and Baladi cows in cortisol hormone level was remarked. Moreover, a significant increase (p<0.01) in total protein level in crossbred and Baladi by (11.4 and 13.4%), respectively was observed. An increase (p<0.05) was noticed in creatinine level by 25.0% and 20.1% in crossbred and Baladi, respectively, urea-N level in crossbred and Baladi by 16.6% and 21.7%, respectively and ALT in crossbred and Baladi by 42.4% and 45.7%, respectively. Also, a difference was recognized amounted in AST level in crossbred and Baladi by 22.3 %, (p<0.02) and 31.0 % (p<0.01), respectively.

  16. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  17. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC with sunflower meal (SFM, partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and ration C containing both CSC + SFM was fed to calves of group C. The feed intake of calves belonging to group C was the highest (5.7 ± 2.3 kg followed by group B (5.5 ± 1.3 kg and group A (5.2 ± 2.0 kg. Average daily body weight gain was 0.73 ± 0.1, 0.72 ± 0.2 and 0.71 ± 0.1 kg for groups A, B and C, respectively. Calves fed SFM gained numerically less than the calves fed CSC but higher than SFM+ CSC. Feed conversion ratio was 7.1 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6, for calves of groups A, B and C, respectively. Dressing percentage averaged 51.5 ± 1.3, 52.1 ± 1.2 and 52.3 ± 0.8 for the respective rations. However, the differences in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentages among calves of three groups were non significant. Considering the cost of feed and average growth, the cost of per kg body weight gain was 38, 30 and 37 rupees for the groups A, B and C, respectively. The lowest cost was observed in SFM based ration (B that was about 19% less than ration containing CSC. Results indicated that for fattening of crossbred calves the use of SFM is as efficient as CSC but more economical and can successfully replace CSC in fattening rations.

  18. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, N.

    1977-01-01

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  19. Ultrasonographic Imaging of Normal and Impacted Omasum in Indian Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Omasal impaction is a serious disease problem in cattle in India, but it is difficult to diagnose clinically. Ultrasonography has been proposed for the noninvasive evaluation of omasal disease. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro and in vivo ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum and to compare omasal appearance, limits, and size in clinically healthy cows with those in cows having confirmed omasal impaction. A 3.5 MHz curvilinear transducer was used to image and record the appearance of the omasum in vitro in a water bath, and its appearance, dorsal and ventral limits, and size in 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred cows. The results were compared with the ultrasonographic data collected from 5 cows with omasal impaction, as confirmed at necropsy. On moving the transducer dorsoventrally in each intercostal space and below the costal arch, the wall of omasum could be seen as an echogenic arc-like structure. The difference between mean dorsoventral extents of the normal and impacted omasums was statistically insignificant. These results suggest that ultrasonographic imaging may not be useful in the diagnosis of omasal impaction in Indian crossbred cows, however, additional studies may be warranted.

  20. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  1. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sinha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1 60:20:20, (T2 40:30:30, and (T3 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial. Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight, ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p0.05 among treatments and significantly (p<0.05 greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3, propionate:butyrate (C3:C4, and (acetate+butyrate:propionate ([C2+C4]:C3 ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05 among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05 higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05 higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1. Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

  2. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... was improved slightly when using the marker data imputed based on the combined HD reference data, compared with using the marker data imputed based on the Chinese HD reference data only. On the other hand, when using the combined reference population including 4398 Nordic Holstein bulls, the accuracy...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density...

  3. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe De Jesus Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Holstein industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN+USA Holstein germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv and the low income system (Lowi. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican Holstein cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US Holstein populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303 and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree Holstein (HO animals from the Conv, Lowi and CAN+USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE and Brown Swiss (BS genotypes (162 and 86, respectively were used to determine if Mexican Holsteins were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 SNP markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC, admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (r2 analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HOxJE and HOxBS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN+USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN+USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN+USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN+USA. Mexican Holstein cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN+USA but have different genetic signatures.

  4. Performance differences of Rhode Island Red, Bashang Long-tail Chicken, and their reciprocal crossbreds under natural cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Gao, Yahui; Jiao, Wenjie; Li, Xinghua; Li, Yajie; Ning, Zhonghua

    2017-10-01

    The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS), an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR), and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: i) to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and ii) to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments. A total of 916 chickens were reared in warm and natural cold environments (daily mean ambient temperature varied from 7.4°C to 26.5°C in the warm environment and from -17.5°C to 27.0°C in the cold environment). To investigate their adaptability to the cold environment, the egg production performance and body weight were monitored and compared between breeds and environments. The cloacal temperature and serum biochemical parameters were monitored to reveal the physiological characteristics underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in the cold environment. The warm environment experiment showed that RIR had the highest egg production performance, and that the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. While in the cold environment RIR had the lowest egg production performance, and the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. In the cold environment BS and reciprocal crossbreds had higher triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine levels than RIR. At 35 and 39 wk of age, when the ambient temperature was extremely low (varied from -20°C to 0°C), serum glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol of BS and crossbreds were higher than RIR. Bashang Long-tail chicken has a favorable cold tolerance ability. Crossbreeding with RIR and BS is an effective way to develop cold tolerant chickens with improved egg production performance.

  5. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  7. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  8. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  9. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  10. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  11. Comparison of diet selection by Raramuri criollo and Angus crossbreds in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raramuri Criollo (RC) is a cattle biotype that has undergone natural selection for the past 500 years in northern Mexico. No information exists on diet selection for this biotype. The objective of this study was to compare diet selection of RC and Angus x Hereford crossbreds (AH) typically found in ...

  12. Genetic effects on coat colour in cattle: dilution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments in an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiener Pamela

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment and phaeomelanin (red pigment. Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc is responsible for the white coat colour of this breed. Using an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population which includes animals with both pigment backgrounds, we present a linkage mapping study of the Charolais dilution locus. Results A Charolais × Holstein crossbred population was investigated for genetic effects on coat colour dilution. Three different traits representing the dilution of the phaeomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigment-specific dilution were defined. Highly significant genome-wide associations were detected on chromosome 5 for the three traits analysed in the marker interval [ETH10-DIK5248]. The SILV gene was examined as the strongest positional and functional candidate gene. A previously reported non-synonymous mutation in exon 1 of this gene, SILV c.64A>G, was associated with the coat colour dilution phenotype in this resource population. Although some discrepancies were identified between this mutation and the dilution phenotype, no convincing recombination events were found between the SILV c.64A>G mutation and the Dc locus. Further analysis identified a region on chromosome 28 influencing the variation in pigment intensity for a given coat colour category. Conclusion The present study has identified a region on bovine chromosome 5 that harbours the major locus responsible for the dilution of the eumelanin and phaeomelanin seen in Charolais crossbred cattle. In this study, no convincing evidence was found to exclude SILV c.64A>G as the causative mutation for the Charolais dilution phenotype, although other genetic effects may influence the coat

  13. Maximizing Crossbred Performance through Purebred Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Pieter

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebreds for crossbred performance (CP). As dominance is the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly including dominance in the GS model may be beneficial for selection of purebreds for CP, when estimating allelic effects from pure line data. Th...

  14. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C, imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB, and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB. The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF] compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing

  15. THE USE OF DIETARY FATS AND CONCENTRATES TO ALLEVIATE THE NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE IN CROSSBRED COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance (EB is defined as the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Fertility in the high-merit cow has been adversely associated with high milk production, low intake of energy and mobilisation of body reserves in early lactation, which combine in the term negative energy balance (NEB.  The timing of insemination usually coincides with peak milk yield, when dairy cows are often in NEB. Crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus in the tropics have comparatively lower nutrient requirements and different partition of nutrients than high merit dairy cows. Thus, it would be expected that both the magnitude and length of negative energy balance were different in a crossbred cow. Because of marked differences compared with high-merit cows, crossbred cows in the tropics would be expected to show greater response to additional energy in early lactation improving their energy status and hence reproductive performance. Knowing the influence of nutrition on reproduction, many methods have been proposed for manipulating the diet to avoid or to alleviate negative energy balance. The use of fats is one alternative, which has been extensively studied in dairy and beef cows but with inconclusive results. Another alternative is to use starch-based concentrates, taking into account level of inclusion and quality and availability of pasture, in order to avoid substitution effects and to get maximum profits. Two experiments were carried out in Yucatan Mexico, in order to evaluate the use of bypass fats (calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CAFA or a starch-based concentrate to alleviate the NEB in grazing crossbred cows in early lactation. The NEB in early lactation was successfully avoided by the use of the starch-based concentrate but not by the use of bypass fats, this due to a reduction in the grass DM intake. It was concluded that crossbred cows in the tropics may experience a period of NEB postpartum, which can be avoided if

  16. IV. Crossbred reproduction and constant slaughter mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher reproduction and lower replacement rates lead to a higher proportion of terminally crossbred offspring to sell. Substantial improvement in herd .... growth below the knee and hock is completed at birth. In cattle and sheep there is hope ... reported highly significant total heterosis for birth mass in the. Angus X Hereford ...

  17. GENETIC STUDIES ON REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN CROSSBRED JERSEY CATTLE IN WESTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Dhal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 412 crossbred (Jersey X Deshi cows sired by 24 bulls, maintained over the period from 2005 to 2014. The economic traits studied were age at first calving (AFC; months, calving interval (CI; days, dry period (DP; days and service period (SP; days. The averages for AFC, CI, DP and SP were 34.46±0.22 months, 505.95±3.24, 224.20±3.31 and 228.26±3.21 days, respectively. Effect of management system was significant for all the economic traits (AFC, CI and DP except SP. It may be inferred that rearing crossbred Jersey cows under intensive system of management may be advocated to utilize the maximum genetic potential of crossbred cattle for all the traits. Semi-intensive system may help moderate exploration of the traits. But exclusively pasture dependent management should be avoided for rearing crossbred Jersey cows. Heritability estimates for AFC, CI and DP were found to be 0.462 ±0.179; 0.062 ±0.088; 0.270 ±0.138, respectively. Genetic correlations of AFC with CI and SP were high and positive. For maximum genetic improvement and their correlated response, it is necessary to include all the economic traits with differential weightage for achieving accuracy in selection programs.

  18. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  19. Comparison of the insulin reaction of peripheral blood T cells between healthy Holstein dairy cows and JB during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Madoka; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Tanami, Erika; Masui, Machiko; Hayashi, Tomohito; Ando, Takaaki; Watanabe, Daisaku; Koiwa, Masateru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-11-01

    To compare the changes in the insulin reaction of Holstein dairy cows and Japanese Black cows (JB) during the periparturient period, the insulin resistance test in vivo and lymphocytes proliferation with insulin in vitro were performed. Ten healthy Holstein dairy cows (Holstein group) and 10 healthy JB cows (JB group) used in this study were observed on days 60, 40, and 20 before calving and days 7 and 20 after calving. In insulin resistance reaction in vivo and in vitro, a low insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and lymphocyte proliferation with insulin were observed in the Holstein group compared with the JB group during the experimental period. An analysis of the lymphocytes cultured with insulin showed that the percentage of CD4+CD45R- T cells in the Holstein group was significantly lower than that of the JB group before day 20. These findings indicate that T cells reaction to insulin in healthy periparturient Holstein cows is lower than that in Japanese Black.

  20. PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF TWO ITALIAN CROSSBRED PIGS FED HIGH ENERGY DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FORTINA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to compare the average daily gain (ADG, the carcass characteristics, and the meat and fat quality of 18 Italian crossbred pigs fed high energy diets formulated for improved genotypes (digestible energy: DE >14 MJ/kg DM. Nine “Fumati” crossbreds (Large White x Mora Romagnola; average initial live weight: 84 kg and nine “Borghigiana” (Large White x Nera di Parma; average initial live weight: 90 kg, reared under similar environmental and nutritional conditions, were slaughtered at the average final weight of 180 kg (285 days. Calculated dry matter intake (DMI and feed conversion index (FCI were similar; no significant differences were observed with respect to average daily gain (ADG: 679 vs. 658 g/d. At slaughtering, the dressing percentage of the Fumati was significantly lower than that of the Borghigiana (80.9 vs. 84.5. The Fumati seemed more prone to fattening than the Borghigiana, as confirmed by the statistically higher percentage of belly (14.9 vs.12.2, and fat (3.9 vs. 2.4 and marbling of M. longissimus dorsi (2.7 vs. 1.4. On colour analysis, the Fumati had statistically higher L* and hue values, and lower a* of M. longissimus dorsi. The fatty acid composition of meat was similar between crossbreds; backfat fatty acid composition of the Fumati showed a significantly higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, and lower amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA than in the Borghigiana. Results showed that performances and meat quality of local crossbreeds still bred in semi-intensive systems, like Fumati and Borghigiana, can be positively influenced when fed diets considered suitable for improved pig genotypes.

  1. Genetic evaluation of reproduction performance of Jersey × Red Sindhi crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinothraj

    2016-09-01

    Red Sindhi crossbreds were lower when compared to the earlier reports on Jersey crossbreds. Heritability and repeatability values were also low to moderate, indicating limited scope for improvement through selection.

  2. Heat-Induced Changes in Heat Shock Protein Genes Expression in Crossbred and Baladi Pregnant Cows and Their Offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, W.K.B.; Nessim, M.Z.; El- Masry, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out during August (hot climate) on twelve pregnant cows of six crossbred (50% native Baladi and 50% Brown Swiss) and six native Baladi pregnant cows in the same age and the second parity during their mid-pregnancy as detected by rectal palpation. The experiment was repeated during December (mild climate) on similar twelve pregnant cows. Blood sample was obtained from each cow at the end of August (first group) and at the end of December (second group) to obtain heat shock protein genes expression (HSP72, HSP70.01, HSP70, HSP47, k Dalton and Actin) in pregnant cows under mild and hot climate to find out, which breed is more tolerant to heat stress and to estimate offspring birth weight and their growth performances during suckling period. Comparison was made between hot climate cows group and mild climate cows group to estimate heat- induced changes in both breeds in expression level of the Hsp genes and to compare with their neonate birth weight and growth performances during suckling period. The results revealed that expression level of the Hsp genes (Hsp72, Hsp70.1, Hsp70 and Hsp 47) was higher (p<0.01) in hot season compared to that of mild season. Expression level of the Hsp genes (Hsp70.1, Hsp70 and Hsp 47) was higher (p<0.05) in crossbred cows than in Baldi cows under summer hot season. This indicates that crossbred cows are less heat tolerant than Baladi cows under heat stress climate. Heat induced decrease (p<0.01) in offspring birth weight in Baladi and crossbred by 18.1% and 25%, respectively, in weaning weight by 14.61% and 23.14%, respectively and in body weight gain by 14.61% and 21.18%, respectively

  3. Comparative analysis on genome-wide DNA methylation in longissimus dorsi muscle between Small Tailed Han and Dorper×Small Tailed Han crossbred sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to compare the DNA methylation profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle between Small Tailed Han and Dorper×Small Tailed Han crossbred sheep which were known to exhibit significant difference in meat-production. Methods Six samples (three in each group were subjected to the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq and subsequent bioinformatics analyses to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs between the two groups. Results 23.08 Gb clean data from six samples were generated and 808 DMRs were identified in gene body or their neighboring up/downstream regions. Compared with Small Tailed Han sheep, we observed a tendency toward a global loss of DNA methylation in these DMRs in the crossbred group. Gene ontology enrichment analysis found several gene sets which were hypo-methylated in gene-body region, including nucleoside binding, motor activity, phospholipid binding and cell junction. Numerous genes were found to be differentially methylated between the two groups with several genes significantly differentially methylated, including transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3, acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 1 (ACSL1, ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1, acyl-CoA oxidase 2 (ACOX2, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARG2, netrin 1 (NTN1, ras and rab interactor 2 (RIN2, microtubule associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 2 (ADAMTS2, myomesin 1 (MYOM1, zinc finger, DHHC type containing 13 (ZDHHC13, and SH3 and PX domains 2B (SH3PXD2B. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation showed that the 12 genes are differentially expressed between the two groups. Conclusion In the current study, a tendency to a global loss of DNA methylation in these DMRs in the crossbred group was found. Twelve genes, TGFB3, ACSL1, RYR1, ACOX2, PPARG2, NTN1, RIN2, MAPRE1, ADAMTS2, MYOM1, ZDHHC13, and SH3

  4. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... purebred Boran cattle, adapted to Ethiopian conditions for centuries and ... fertility than crossbreds, would exhibit a different pattern of ovarian ..... Influence of dietary supplementation and partial suckling on body weight and ...

  5. Meat Quality and Physicochemical Trait Assessments of Berkshire and Commercial 3-way Crossbred Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur; Kang, Da Rae; Belal, Shah Ahmed; Cho, Eun-So-Ri; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il; Shim, Kwan-Seob

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) ? Yorkshire (white color) ? Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip los...

  6. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  7. Body Measurements of Donkeys of Poitevin and Catalan Breeds and their Crossbreds in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Boujenane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerned the analysis of body measurements of 125 Poitevin (P, 107 Catalan (C and 77 reciprocal crossbred (PxC et CxP donkeys used in the national stud farms of Morocco. The donkeys were born between 1937 and 1973 in Morocco, France and Spain. The genetic type had a significant effect on all measurements studied except on the height at withers. Poitevin donkeys had a height at withers, heart girth, body weight, body length, substernal gap and front cannon bone circumference of 139.7 cm, 152.4 cm, 346.4 kg, 143.2 cm, 76.8 cm and 20.5 cm, respectively. Compared to Catalan donkeys the differences were – 0.5 cm, 2.7 cm, 15.7 kg, 3.7 cm, – 1.4 cm and 1.5 cm, and compared to crossbreds 1.4 cm, 2.3 cm, 14.2 kg, 5.1 cm, – 0.5 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. The heterosis effect was significant for the body length (– 2.30% and the front cannon bone circumference (– 2.78% only. It was concluded that body measurements of Poitevin and Catalan donkey breeds were slightly different.

  8. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anshuman; Mandal, Ajoy; Gupta, A. K.; Ratwan, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL) of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013). The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique c...

  9. Ingestive behavior of pastured crossbred dairy cows offered different supplement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline Medeiros de Paula; Silva, Dulciene Karla de Andrade; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Veras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; Ferreira, Geane Dias Gonçalves; Vigoderis, Ricardo Brauer; Arcanjo, Helton Gregory Santos; Silva, Jarbas Miguel; de Almeida, Josimar Santos; Fotius, Anna Christine Alencar; Farias, Glébio de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different supplements on the behavior variables of crossbred dairy cows that were in pasture that comprised two 4 × 4 Latin squares (four periods, four treatments, and four animals). Each experimental period lasted 15 days (10 days to adapt animals to treatments and 5 days for data collection). The animals were supplemented twice a day, with different forage (corn silage and cactus pear) and concentrate sources (soy mea + wheat meal + corn meal + cotton seed together and soy meal as a single constituent of the concentrate). A significant difference (p ingestive behavior of crossbred dairy cows.

  10. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  11. Evaluation of response to super-ovulation, estrous synchronization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... For embryo recipient about 113 females of pure Boran and Holstein Friesian x Boran crossbred cows and heifers ... All data were analyzed using frequency distribution and Chi-square test. Results ...

  12. Growth performance of crossbred kids (Boer x Indigenous Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegay Teklebrhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate growth performance of crossbred (Boer x Hararaghe Highland and Boer x Short Eared Somali kids at Haramaya University Goat Farm in Eastern Ethiopia. Breed (p

  13. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  14. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  15. Eating behavior of Ongole crossbred and Limousin crossbred steers fed fermented rice straw and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Purnomoadi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on eating behavior of Ongole Crossbred (OC and Limousin Crossbred (LC steers (aged 9 months fed fermented rice straw and concentrate has been carried out. Rice straw and concentrate were given in 60:40 ratio. Rice straw was fermented by commercial starter (BioP 2000 Z, while concentrate was composed of commercial concentrate and soybean pulp (by-product of soy-sauce industry. The diet was set to meet the dry matter (DM requirement at 3.0% of liveweight. Eating behaviour was measured from 3 days continuously observation. Chewing number was accounted by halter equipped with tape-switch in jaw side and was recorded every 1/10 second in connected PC. The results showed that DMI of both OC (3.21 kg and LC (4.18 kg was similar, being 2.8% LW. However, chewing number of OC (133808 chews/d was higher than that of LC (106353 chews/d. Chewing for eating and for rumination in OC (86995 and 46813 chews was higher than of LC (67628 and 38725 chews. Chewing efficiency for eating in OC (0.041 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.066 g DMI/chew. Similar tendency was observed in chewing efficiency for rumination that OC (0.080 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.109 g DMI/chew. The conclusion is LC has a better chewing efficiency than of OC and it was pointed to different jaw size between OC and LC.

  16. PRODUKSI DAN EVALUASI KUALITAS SUSU BUBUK ASAL KAMBING PERANAKAN ETTAWA (PE [Production and Quality Evaluation of Ettawa-Crossbred Goat Milk Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Suparta Budisatria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce milk powder from Ettawa-crossbred goat milk and subsequently evaluate the quality of the products. The raw material used was Ettawa-crossbred goat fresh milk with total solid, lactose, fat, and protein content of 15.93%, 4.2%, 4.8% and 4.7%, respectively. Milk with final total solid of 17.5% and 20% were prepared for spray drying by adding skim milk powder. Drying was carried out using a spray dryer type Lamp having nozzle size of 0.05 mm with an inlet temperature of 90°C and an outlet temperature of 45°C. Parameters observed were chemical, physical and microbiological qualities. The data showed that milk powder produced from Ettawa-crossbred goat milk had water content of 1.5-1.7%. Further analysis showed that the acidity, proteins, lactose, and fat content were 0.90%, 28.4%, 21.7%, and 22.5%, respectively. The physical analysis showed that milk powder produced from Ettawa-crossbred goat milk had a higher wettability score (143 seconds as compared to that of commercial products (29 seconds, a higher sieve test score (0.6 g vs 0.004 g, but similar index of insolubility (1.4 ml vs.1.6 ml. The microbiological analysis showed that the Total Plate Count (TPC, Enterobacteriaceae (EB and presumptive coliforms increased during storage either in refrigerator or room temperature. The increase in TPC, EB and coliforms was substantially higher when products were kept at room temperature than in refrigerator. In conclusion, Ettawa-crossbred goat milk powder had a good nutrition quality, but still need improvement for the physicochemical characteristic including wettability and nutritional enrichment for vitamins and minerals by means of fortification.

  17. Phase competition in a one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaozhi; Tang, Yanfei; Maier, Thomas A.; Johnston, Steven

    2018-05-01

    We study the interplay between the electron-phonon (e -ph) and on-site electron-electron (e-e) interactions in a three-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model on an extended one-dimensional lattice using determinant quantum Monte Carlo. For weak e-e and e -ph interactions, we observe a competition between an orbital-selective Mott phase (OSMP) and a (multicomponent) charge-density-wave (CDW) insulating phase, with an intermediate metallic phase located between them. For large e-e and e -ph couplings, the OSMP and CDW phases persist, while the metallic phase develops short-range orbital correlations and becomes insulating when both the e-e and e -ph interactions are large but comparable. Many of our conclusions are in line with those drawn from a prior dynamical mean-field theory study of the two-orbital Hubbard-Holstein model [Phys. Rev. B 95, 121112(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.121112] in infinite dimension, suggesting that the competition between the e -ph and e-e interactions in multiorbital Hubbard-Holstein models leads to rich physics, regardless of the dimension of the system.

  18. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  19. Non-linear modelling to describe lactation curve in Gir crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Bangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modelling of lactation curve provides guidelines in formulating farm managerial practices in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitable non-linear model which most accurately fitted to lactation curves of five lactations in 134 Gir crossbred cows reared in Research-Cum-Development Project (RCDP on Cattle farm, MPKV (Maharashtra. Four models viz. gamma-type function, quadratic model, mixed log function and Wilmink model were fitted to each lactation separately and then compared on the basis of goodness of fit measures viz. adjusted R2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike’s Informaion Criteria (AIC and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC. Results In general, highest milk yield was observed in fourth lactation whereas it was lowest in first lactation. Among the models investigated, mixed log function and gamma-type function provided best fit of the lactation curve of first and remaining lactations, respectively. Quadratic model gave least fit to lactation curve in almost all lactations. Peak yield was observed as highest and lowest in fourth and first lactation, respectively. Further, first lactation showed highest persistency but relatively higher time to achieve peak yield than other lactations. Conclusion Lactation curve modelling using gamma-type function may be helpful to setting the management strategies at farm level, however, modelling must be optimized regularly before implementing them to enhance productivity in Gir crossbred cows.

  20. Studies of management effects on fertility of purebred and crossbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently constraints are identified for improvement through efficient resources inputs, staff incentives and application of modem strategic management techniques re-commended for tropical environment. Further research into stocking Hamphsire crossbred pigs in the tropics is suggested, in view of its favourable ...

  1. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2018-01-02

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive F IS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, F ST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  2. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  3. Evaluation of dried bread waste as feedstuff for growing crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect of bread waste feeding on feed intake, utilization and growth performance of crossbred pigs and to evaluate the economics of bread waste feeding. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 3 months (December, 2012-March, 2013. Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi were included in the study. A total of 24 weaned crossbred growing pigs were randomly assigned to four different groups, with six animals in each group. The experimental animals were fed as per their body weight following Indian Council of Agricultural Research requirements. They were fed twice a day according to schedule at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm. The water was kept available to animals round the clock. The cost of the experimental diets was calculated based on the existing price of the ingredients during the experimental period. Samples of feed were collected for analysis of proximate principles as per Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Body weight of all animals was recorded fortnightly basis in the morning before feeding with the use of platform type electronic weighing balance. Feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein conversion ration was calculated by using a standard formula. Data were analyzed, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Means showing significant differences in the ANOVA table were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. Results: Crude protein content (% of the diets was 16.01±0.02, 16.13±0.02, 16.14±0.02, 16.04±0.02, 16.08±0.02 and 12.72±0.03, respectively for the G1, G2, G3 and G4, groups. Proximate compositions (% of diets used in the experiment were not significantly different. Digestibility coefficients of all the nutrients were significantly varied among the experimental groups. Daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05 varied among the groups. Average daily gain (kg/pig/day were significantly (p<0.01 higher in group G2 (0.377. FCR was significantly (p<0.01 higher in the

  4. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Chacón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.

  5. Comparison carcass traits of Azeri buffalo, native and crossbred (native * Holstein male calves in west Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iran has 500thousand heads buffalo that 80percent of them distributed in North and North West of Iran and they reared as multi purpose animals providing milk and meat. Farmer believe that buffalo milk had the best quality but because of huge and large head and skin buffaloes carcass isn’t suitable that governmental programmer pay a low facilities to buffalo fattener in comparison the cattle fattener thus the objective of this investigation was to the Comparison carcass traits of buffalo, native and Native cows* Holstein (NH male calves that mostly fattened in this region. Eighty head claves (six heads of each treat with average 160 kg body weight (BW were fattened till the 300 kg. Ration and other environmental factors were the same. Three heads of each group’s according Iranian Standards slaughtered at abattoir. The slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and the individual weights of the different slaughter by-products and organs were measured. The carcasses were chilled at 5o C for 24 h. One side of each carcass was cutting into wholesales cuts. Traits included Hot and cold carcass weight, bone, internal fat, meat, cut ability fat, dressing percent, wholesales cuts weight and percent. Wholesales cuts include neck, shoulder, loin, rib and flank and leg weight and percent. The results showed that there were not significant differences between hot and cold carcass weigh, meat, bone and cut ability fat percent. There were significant differences on internal fat, dressing percent and leg (P<0.05. The lowest and highest values for internal fat were observed buffalo and native carcass, respectively. In conclusion because of low internal fat deposition and high valuable wholesales cuts percent may buffalo carcass composition had a better quality in comparison cattle and fattening of buffalo is economically.

  6. Litter size of Danish crossbred sows increased without changes in sow body dimensions over a thirteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Kristensen, A. R.; Moustsen, V. Aa

    2018-01-01

    dimensions and litter size was also investigated. Depth, width, length and height were measured from 405 Danish crossbred sows in 10 different herds, classified in groups of parity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and ≥ 7. By Linear Mixed-Effects Models with depth, width, length and height in turn as response variable......The purpose of this study was to investigate if body dimensions of Danish crossbred sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) had increased compared to a previous Danish study from 2004. In addition, and as an expected potential benefit of increased body dimensions, a potential correlation between body...... and parity and herd as explanatory variables, estimated means, 5th and 95th percentiles, minimum and maximum observation were recorded. Furthermore, a weighted index for litter size (denoted as the “litter size potential”) was used as response variable with depth, width, length, height and parity...

  7. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  8. Genome-wide Association Studies for Female Fertility Traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aoxing; Wang, Yachun; Sahana, Goutam; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2017-08-16

    Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value Nordic Holsteins. Third, the summary statistics from single-trait association analyses were combined into meta-analyses to: (1) identify common QTL for multiple fertility traits within each Holstein population; (2) detect SNPs which were associated with a female fertility trait across two Holstein populations. A large numbers of QTL were discovered or confirmed for female fertility traits. The QTL segregating at 31.4~34.1 Mb on BTA13, 48.3~51.9 Mb on BTA23 and 34.0~37.6 Mb on BTA28 shared between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins were further ascertained using a validation approach and meta-analyses. Furthermore, multiple novel variants identified in Chinese Holsteins were validated with Nordic data as well as meta-analyses. The genes IL6R, SLC39A12, CACNB2, ZEB1, ZMIZ1 and FAM213A were concluded to be strong candidate genes for female fertility in Holsteins.

  9. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  10. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  11. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  12. The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C N; Baek, K S; Parkhurst, A

    2016-01-01

    Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

  13. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  14. Performans Induk Sapi Silangan Simmental – Peranakan Ongole dan Induk Sapi Peranakan Ongole dengan Pakan Hijauan dan Konsentrat (Performance of Simmental – Ongole Crossbred Cow and Ongole Crossbred Cow Fed with Forage and Concentrate Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Endrawati

    2012-02-01

    matter, organic matter, crude protein digestibility (70.83±3.26% vs 65.36±2.19%; 72.38±3.08% vs 67.10±2.15%; 79.48±2.29% vs 75.79±2.17%, and so were in the case of BCS, and estrus cycles in SIMPO and PO cow. It is concluded that based on the metabolic body weight and feed digestibility, between SIMPO and PO cows were similar. (Key words: Performance, Cow, Simmental – Ongole Crossbred cow, Ongole Crossbred cow, Forage, Concentrate

  15. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: I. Animal Performance and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Beldman, G.; Delen, van J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete

  16. Thyroid activity in heat adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, B.C.; Varshney, V.P.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F 1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine- 125 I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T 3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)

  17. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  18. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  19. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E...... interaction exists between populations. 2) Combining data from Chinese and Danish Holstein populations increases the power of GWAS and detects new QTL regions for milk fatty acid traits. 3) The novel multi-trait Bayesian model efficiently estimates region-specific genomic variances, covariances...

  20. Comparación productiva de vacas holstein y F1 blanco orejinero (BON x holstein 1. producción y calidad de la leche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano Bernal Jorge H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron los porcentajes de heterosis para la producción de leche, duración de la lactancia y calidad de la leche ( porcentaje de grasa y proteína, en vacas Holstein y F1 (BON x HOLSTEIN del Centro Paysandú, propiedad de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, situado en el corregimiento Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín, a 2600 m.s.n.m., con temperatura promedio de 12,5C, correspondiendo a la formación bosque muy húmedo montano bajo (bmh-MB. La producción de leche fue afectada significativamente (P 0,01 y proteína (2,8 y 2,9%; P >0,01 para Holstein y F1 BON x Holstein respectivamente. En el BON estos valores fueron 278 kg, 114 días de lactancia, 4,6% de grasa y 3,9% de proteína en la leche. Los porcentajes de heterosis con base en el promedio de razas fueron: 4,20%, 16,70%, -12,80% y -12.20% para producción de leche, duración de lactancia, porcentaje de grasa y porcentaje de proteína respectivamente, todos altamente significativos (P<0,01. Los porcentajes de heterosis tomando como referencia la raza Holstein fueron: -45,20%, -21,50%, 6,25% y 5,35% en el mismo orden de las características anteriormente citadas. En general, los porcentajes de heterosis fueron menores a los reportados en la literatura. Se concluye que el F1 ha desempeñado un papel preponderante en el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche en el Centro Paysandú, presentado porcentajes de heterosis medios para la calidad de la leche con referencia a la raza Holstein. Esto puede ser confirmado al analizar el porcentaje de grasa desde 1994, cuando parieron las primeras vacas F1, presentado coeficiente de regresión y correlación de 0,02 y 0,55 respectivamente. En la actualidad, el promedio para el porcentaje de grasa y proteína en el hato es de 3,45% y 3,03% respectivamente. Si sólo se tuviese la raza Holstein, estos porcentajes serían de 3,20% y 2,80%, significativamente menores.

  1. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  2. Individual Heterosis for Birth Weight of N'dama Crossbred Calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth weight records of 1137 calves of which 94 were straight bred and 1043 were crossbred (545 males and 592 females) from crosses with two indigenous breeds Muturu and Keteku and seven breeds, Brahman, Angus, Charolais, German Brown, Hereford, Jersey and Santa Getrudis collected from Fasola Stock Farm ...

  3. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  4. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  5. Genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Madsen, Per; Nielsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    relationship matrices for the two breeds; (2) marker-based partial relationship matrices are constructed; (3) marker-based partial relationship matrices are adjusted to be compatible to pedigree-based partial relationship matrices and (4) combined partial relationship matrices are constructed using information...... from both pedigree and marker genotypes. The extension of the Wei van der Werf model can be implemented using software that allows inverse covariance matrices in sparse format as input. A method for genomic evaluation of both purebred and crossbred performances was developed for a two...

  6. Effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuvir Ranjan

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in Pig Breeding Farm, Ranchi Veterinary College, Ranchi and different villages on crossbred and desi preweaned piglets. The piglets were divided into three treatment groups as T 1 (control, T2 (injected iron dextran @ 1 ml (50mg I/M twice at 3rd and 14th days of age and T3 (injected iron dextran @ 2 ml 2 3 (100mg I/M once at 3rd day of age. Results: The average body weight of crossbred piglets in farm condition of T1 , T2 and T3 groups at weaning (8 week were 7.162±0.365, 9.985±0.281 and 9.572±0.295 kg, respectively. The piglets of T2 group showed better performance over T3 and T1 groups in farm and village conditions on crossbred and desi piglets. Conclusion: On the basis of present findings it may be concluded that irondextran (50mg/ ml injection should be given to all piglets @ 1 ml I/M during preweaning period at 3rd and 14th day of age for better growth of piglets. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 599-602

  7. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, T.; Ask, B.; Nielsen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for the mortality causes stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred piglets produced by crossbred dams. Data were collected in a single Danish commercial herd from October 2006 to July 2008 and consisted of 34......,194 piglets (2,152 litters), which originated from 195 Danish Duroc sires and 955 crossbreds between Danish Landrace and Danish Yorkshire dams. Of the 34,194 piglets born, 11.5% were stillborn, 4.2% were crushed by the sow, 2.7% died due to starvation, 2.3% were weak at birth, and 2.2% died of miscellaneous...... traits based on the sire component ranged from -0.05 between stillborn and starvation to 0.35 between stillborn and weak at birth whereas genetic correlations based on the dam component ranged from -0.11 between weak at birth and starvation to 0.76 between crushing and starvation. There seemed...

  8. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  9. Amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed and its crossbreds with Australian merino and Ile de France from internal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slavov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of amino acid composition of lamb meat from the North East Bulgarian fine fleece breed (I gr. and its crossbreds from internal breeding with 25% heredity from the Australian merino (II gr. and Ile de France (III gr. breeds was conducted. Upon starting the experiment lambs were equal and during the experiment they were placed under similar conditions of feeding and rearing. To establish the amino acid composition of meat slaughter analyses were performed at 100 and 130 days of age. From the carcass of each slaughtered animal individual mean samples were taken. Studies were carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture at Trakia University. As a result of the studies the following conclusions were made: ¼ Ile de France crossbreds in a sophisticated crossing have the highest total amino acid content, including essential amino acids in the meat of 100- and 130-day-old lambs, 6.87% and 7.36%, respectively. The lysine/arginine ratio, relating to protein atherogenicity, varies within narrow ranges among groups and marks slight increase with age – from 1.31-1.37 at 100 days to 1.41-1.46 at 130 days. With the increase of age in crossbreds from internal breeding total protein amino acid content grows, that being most prominent in lambs from the III group – from 41.92 to 43.49%. The values of total protein indices increase compared to the reference protein (from 117.97% to 118.22% for II group and from 116.44% to 120.80% for III group and the whole egg protein (from 89.39% to 91.92% for II group and from 90.53% to 93.93 for III group. It has been found that internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Ile de France breed has positive effect concerning the total amino acid content of lamb meat at 100 and 130 days of age, essential amino acid content in it and the levels of total amino acid indices. Internal breeding of crossbreds with 25% heredity from the Australian merino breed

  10. A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Keltie A.; Britton, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species.

  11. Net protein and metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and growth of early-weaned Dorper crossbred male lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ma; Kaidong Deng; Yan Tu; Naifeng Zhang; Bingwen Si; Guishan Xu; Qiyu Diao

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dorper is an important breed for meat purpose and widely used in the livestock industry of the world.However,the protein requirement of Dorper crossbred has not been investigated.The current paper reports the net protein (NP) and metabolizable protein (MP) requirements of Dorper crossbred ram lambs from 20 to 35 kg BW.Methods:Thirty-five Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs weaned at approximately 50 d of age (20.3 ± 2.15 kg of BW) were used.Seven lambs of 25 kg BW were slaughtered as the baseline animals at the start of the trial.An intermediate group of seven randomly selected lambs fed ad libitum was slaughtered at 28.6 kg BW.The remaining 21 lambs were randomly divided into three levels of dry matter intake:ad libitum or 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake.Those lambs were slaughtered when the lambs fed ad libitum reached 35 kg BW.Total body N and N retention were measured.Results:The daily NP and MP requirements for maintenance were 1.89 and 4.52 g/kg metabolic shrunk BW (SBW0.75).The partial efficiency of MP utilization for maintenance was 0.42.The NP requirement for growth ranged from 12.1 to 43.5 g/d,for the lambs gaining 100 to 350 g/d,and the partial efficiency of MP utilization for growth was 0.86.Conclusions:The NP and MP requirements for the maintenance and growth of Dorper crossbred male lambs were lower than the recommendations of American and British nutritional systems.

  12. Discriminating the quality of local pork from crossbred pork from extensive production of ethnic minorities in mountainous northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Muth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing short food supply chains for products from local pig (Sus scrofa domesticus breeds may offer chances for smallholders in rural areas to participate in niche markets and obtain additional income. Because the authenticity and distinctness of products are crucial for establishing marketing, this study compared selected product characteristics of pork from the Vietnamese Ban breed with pork from crossbreds, each derived at their typical market weight and from their respective extensive and semi-extensive production environment; thus resembling the combination, the products are available for customers. Traditional Ban pork could be effectively discriminated from crossbred pork through cut dimensions, exemplified by the significantly reduced loin eye area (P<0.001, and by the significantly reduced backfat thickness (P<0.001. Also, marbling fat was significantly decreased in local pork (P<0.001, whereas differences in further meat quality parameters were rather weakly expressed. The significantly higher share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in loins of traditionally produced Ban pigs (P=0.003 could possibly result in a preferred nutritional value, but lower oxidative stability of the products. This study provides novel information to improve the marketing of specialty pork in Vietnam and comparable situations in the Southeast Asian Massif.

  13. A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Keltie A.; Britton, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species. PMID:24155464

  14. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte......A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect...

  15. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P goats as well as manifested ( P goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  17. The selected histological traits of the pectoral muscle and basic slaughter values in crossbred geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad WALASIK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine of basic values slaughter meat production and histological parameters of pectoral muscle in quadruple 24 weeks old crossbred geese. The hybrids produced using Graylag, White Kołuda and Slovakian geese. The geese were divided to 4 groups differing crosses scheme. The body weight before slaughter was in the range from 4,752 g to 4,921 g, weight of carcass with neck from 3,101 g to 3,175 g and weight of breast muscles from 649 g to 698 g. Histological analysis of pectoral muscle showed that diameters of white fibers (αW was in the range from 43 μm to 46 μm, red fibers (βR from 19.4 μm to 22.1 μm. The percentage share of αW muscle fibers was in the range from 25.3% to 28.9%, βR fibers from 71.1% to 74.7%. The number of muscle fibers per unit area was in the range from 256 to 316 and intramuscular fat content from 3.9% to 6.7%. The results of evaluation of microstructural traits of musculus pectoralis superficialis and meat production parameters suggest that the breast muscles of the crossbred geese are raw material of high quality. The quadruple crossbred geese with graylag geese it is an alternative for production of high-quality meat.

  18. Nutrition content of brisket point end of part Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in boiled various temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, J.; Sudibya; Cahyadi, M.; Aji, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the quality of nutritional contents of beef brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred meat in various boiling temperatures. Simental Ongole Crossbred had been fattened for 9 months. Furthermore, they were slaughtered at slaughterhouse and brisket point end part of meat had been prepared to analyse its nutritional contents using Food Scan. These samples were then boiled at 100°C for 0 (TR), 15 (R15), and 30 (R30) minutes, respectively. The data was analysed using Randomized Complete Design (CRD) and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) had been conducted to differentiate among three treatments. The results showed that boiling temperatures significantly affected moisture, and cholesterol contents of beef (P<0.05) while fat content was not significantly affected by boiling temperatures. The boiling temperature decreased beef water contents from 72.77 to 70.84%, on the other hand, the treatment increased beef protein and cholesterol contents from 20.77 to 25.14% and 47.55 to 50.45 mg/100g samples, respectively. The conclusion of this study was boiling of beef at 100°C for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreasing water content and increasing protein and cholesterol contents of brisket point end of Simental Ongole Crossbred beef.

  19. Growth at fattening and carcass characteristics of D'man, Sardi and meat-sire crossbred lambs slaughtered at two stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenane, Ismaïl

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth at fattening, carcass characteristics and carcass measurements of 19 Sardi, 19 D'man and 52 meat-sire crossbred lambs of both sexes slaughtered at 50 and 70 % of mature weight. Crossbred lambs were born from Sardi, D'man and F1 Sardi × D'man ewes mated to meat-breed rams (Ile de France and Mérinos Précoce). Lambs of each group (breed type by sex) were chosen at random and slaughtered either at 50 or 70 % of mature weight. Sardi and D'man purebred lambs had significantly lower growth at fattening, pre-slaughter live weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fatness, red offal, white offal, sub-products and non-carcass fat than meat-sire crossbred lambs. Differences were 42.2 g/day, 5.03 kg, 4.46 kg, 2.57 kg, 0.96, 0.59, 0.18 kg, 0.39 kg, 0.63 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. B and Wr measurements of meat-sire crossbred lambs were higher than those of Sardi and D'man purebred lambs, whereas the F measurement was in favour of purebreds. Likewise, CC, G/F and Wr/Th indices of meat-sire crossbreds were higher than those of purebreds; however, the opposite was observed for L/G and Th/G indices. Maternal heterosis was positive and not significant for most traits, negative and not significant for few traits (P > 0.05), but negative and significant for the proportion of sub-products (P carcass characteristics of local sheep can be significantly improved by terminal crossbreeding.

  20. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J

    2009-01-01

    in the simulation study, especially the genetic correlations between traits. A more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations did not change total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the US Holstein population led...

  1. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, T.; Peres, N. M. R.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of one percent. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo-formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach which does not include inter-band transition and can thus not treat optica...

  2. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1

  3. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult tic...

  4. Relation of chemical composition of milk with the level of production stage of lactation and parity order cows crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Fernandes Cabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical composition of the raw milk of crossbred cows in different production levels and influence of parity order and stage of lactation on milk chemical composition of high producing cows. The search was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde in southwestern Goiás, 784 samples were collected from raw milk of crossbred cows in experiment I and were divided into three levels of production. In the second experimental procedure, the samples resulted in 657 samples of raw milk, being divided into 4 stages of lactation stage of the cows and divided into eight parity order in which first-calf heifers corresponded to first order, and multiparous cows from the second until the eighth creates. For analysis of variance and mean comparison was used lineation all casualized and we used the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR. The different levels of production resulted in physico-chemical differences of the constituents of milk, thus the percentages found may be related not only the level but also at the stage of lactation and parity order of the animals.

  5. Short communication: Genomic selection in a crossbred cattle population using data from the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A; Ojango, J; Gibson, J; Coffey, M; Okeyo, M; Mrode, R

    2016-09-01

    Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is potential for implementing genomic selection for young bulls in crossbred small-holder cattle populations, and targeted genotyping and phenotyping should be pursued to facilitate this. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  7. Lactoferrin gene promoter variants and their association with clinical and subclinical mastitis in indigenous and crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (pmastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.

  8. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  9. Changes in animal performance and profitability of Holstein dairy operations after introduction of crossbreeding with Montbéliarde, Normande, and Scandinavian Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezetter, C; Bareille, N; Billon, D; Côrtes, C; Lechartier, C; Seegers, H

    2017-10-01

    An individual-based mechanistic, stochastic, and dynamic simulation model was developed to assess economic effects resulting from changes in performance for milk yield and solid contents, reproduction, health, and replacement, induced by the introduction of crossbreeding in Holstein dairy operations. Three crossbreeding schemes, Holstein × Montbéliarde, Holstein × Montbéliarde × Normande, and Holstein × Montbéliarde × Scandinavian Red, were implemented in Holstein dairy operations and compared with Holstein pure breeding. Sires were selected based on their estimated breeding value for milk. Two initial operations were simulated according to the prevalence (average or high) of reproductive and health disorders in the lactating herd. Evolution of operations was simulated during 15 yr under 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold). After 15 yr, breed percentages reached equilibrium for the 2-breed but not for the 3-breed schemes. After 5 yr of simulation, all 3 crossbreeding schemes reduced average milk yield per cow-year compared with the pure Holstein scheme. Changes in other animal performance (milk solid contents, reproduction, udder health, and longevity) were always in favor of crossbreeding schemes. Under an objective of constant number of cows, margin over variable costs in average discounted value over the 15 yr of simulation was slightly increased by crossbreeding schemes, with an average prevalence of disorders up to €32/cow-year. In operations with a high prevalence of disorders, crossbreeding schemes increased the margin over variable costs up to €91/cow-year. Under an objective of constant volume of milk sold, crossbreeding schemes improved margin over variable costs up to €10/1,000L (corresponding to around €96/cow-year) for average prevalence of disorders, and up to €13/1,000L (corresponding to around €117/cow-year) for high prevalence of disorders. Under an objective of constant

  10. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  11. Macromineral requirements for the maintenance and growth of Boer crossbred kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M H M R; Resende, K T; Tedeschi, L O; Teixeira, I A M A; Fernandes, J S

    2012-12-01

    Advances in mineral nutrition of goats have been made during the last decade, especially in our understanding of Ca and P requirements. However, few studies have focused on the mineral requirements of crossbred Boer goats in their growth phase. Our objective for this study was to determine the macromineral (Ca, P, Mg, K, and Na) requirements for the maintenance and growth of intact, male three-fourths Boer × one-fourth Saanen kids (n = 34; 20.5 ± 0.24 kg of initial BW). Two trials were conducted: 1 for maintenance and 1 for growth requirements. In the maintenance trial, 28 kids were used. The baseline (BL) group consisted of 7 randomly selected kids averaging 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW and 122 d old. The remaining kids (n = 21; age 168 ± 5 d) were randomly allocated into 7 slaughter groups (blocks) including 3 animals distributed among 3 amounts of DMI (treatments: ad libitum and restricted to 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the block reached 35 kg BW. The BL and ad libitum-fed groups in the maintenance trial were also part of the growth trial. Therefore, in the growth trial, 20 kids fed for ad libitum intake were used as follows: 7 kids slaughtered at 21.2 ± 0.36 kg BW (BL), 6 kids slaughtered at 28.2 ± 0.39 kg BW (intermediate slaughter), and 7 kids slaughtered at 35.6 ± 0.36 kg BW. Empty whole bodies of the kids (head + feet, hide, internal organs + blood, and carcass) were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. Daily maintenance requirements, calculated using the comparative slaughter technique (P kids from 20 to 35 kg BW. This study indicated that the net mineral requirements for Boer crossbred goat kids may be different from those of purebred or other genotypes, and more data are needed for goats in general.

  12. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauber, T; Peres, N M R

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of ℎω 0 ∼ 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid

  13. Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson–Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M A; Kennes, D M; Jakobs, S G; Meden, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson–Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron–phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson–Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode. (paper)

  14. Feed handling of lactating crossbred cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season: physiological parameters, ingestive behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Marcílio; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro; Urbano, Stela Antas; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; de Lima Silva, Janaina

    2017-01-01

    The effects of time of feed delivery (14.00 hours; 14.00 and 20.00 hours; 16.00 and 18.00 hours) on the physiological parameters, ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and production of lactating cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season were evaluated. Regardless of treatment, all animals received the first feeding supply at 06.00 hours. Eight cows with an average body weight of 600 kg, average milk yield of 20 kg/day and 80 days in milk were utilized. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and sweating rate were not affected (P > 0.05), with average values of 38.5°C, 53.8 movements/min and 104 g/m 2 /h respectively. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on the eating time (314 min/day), ruminating time (564 min/day), drinking time (61 min/day) and idle time (502 min/day). Similarly, the intake of nutrients and performance of lactating cows were not affected (P > 0.05), with average dry matter intake of 19.8 kg/day, 4% fat-corrected milk of 20.6 kg/day and milk fat concentration of 4.03 g/100 g. Since the behavior and performance have not altered, any times of feed delivery evaluated could be used to crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows maintained on a feedlot in semi-arid regions during the hot season. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... between conformation traits and other traits of interest in dairy cattle, such as fertility, longevity and feed effciency, but little is known about how methane emissions correlate with conformation traits. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the genetic correlations between methane and six conformation...

  16. Holstein polaron in a valley-degenerate two-dimensional semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingu; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Woo Jong; Sohn, Yeongsup; Ryu, Sae Hee; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Kim, Keun Su

    2018-05-28

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals have emerged as a class of materials with tunable carrier density 1 . Carrier doping to 2D semiconductors can be used to modulate many-body interactions 2 and to explore novel composite particles. The Holstein polaron is a small composite particle of an electron that carries a cloud of self-induced lattice deformation (or phonons) 3-5 , which has been proposed to play a key role in high-temperature superconductivity 6 and carrier mobility in devices 7 . Here we report the discovery of Holstein polarons in a surface-doped layered semiconductor, MoS 2 , in which a puzzling 2D superconducting dome with the critical temperature of 12 K was found recently 8-11 . Using a high-resolution band mapping of charge carriers, we found strong band renormalizations collectively identified as a hitherto unobserved spectral function of Holstein polarons 12-18 . The short-range nature of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling in MoS 2 can be explained by its valley degeneracy, which enables strong intervalley coupling mediated by acoustic phonons. The coupling strength is found to increase gradually along the superconducting dome up to the intermediate regime, which suggests a bipolaronic pairing in the 2D superconductivity.

  17. Comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, R.C.S.; Lende, van der T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Mamuad, F.V.; Garillo, E.P.; Cruz, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected between 1981 and 1991 at the Philippine Carabao Center at Central Luzon State University (PCC-CLSU) were used for the comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes. Body weights and body measurements were available

  18. Molecular characterization and expression profile of partial TLR4 gene in association to mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.

  19. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Tammy L; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L

    2014-07-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications.

  20. [Familial occurrence of diprosopus in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ursula; Kuiper, Heidi; Doeleke, Renate; Ulrich, Reiner; Gerdwilker, Axel; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Diprosopus was diagnosed in six German Holstein calves born on different dairy farms. The degree of facial duplication varied from a partial doubling of the nostrils and upper jaw to complete duplication of the face with formation of two mouths, four eyes and four ears. Further calves descending from the same parents or dams and calves from the same farms were not affected. A joint pedigree was ascertained for the calves with diprosopus. Furthermore, a previously reported case of diprosopus could be traced back to the same ancestors of this pedigree. Consequently, we detected the first time a familial accumulation of diprosopus. Since the ancestors showed no signs of diprosopus and the frequency of diprosopus in German Holsteins is presumably low, an oligogenic inheritance is likely. Recessive genes or a combination of recessive and dominant genes may cause this anomaly.

  1. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  2. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jingar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease (P<0.01 thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21 in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c, and steeper increase in ascending slope (b from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination (R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield (P<0.05. The FTDMY was maximum (P<0.05 in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows.

  3. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiachao Zhang; Chuanbiao Xu; Dongxue Huo; Qisong Hu; Qiannan Peng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural differenc...

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (pdystocia than male calves (pdystocia than singletons (pdystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  5. Effect of feeding aflatoxin on nitrogen kinetics in crossbred and buffalo calves fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, R.S.; Arora, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of feeding aflatoxin on nitrogen kinetics in rumen fistulated calves. One calf each in groups 1, 2, 5 and 6 and one bufffalo calf each, in groups 3, 4, 7 and 8 were alloted. Calves of groups 5 to 8 were provided optimum protein (OP) while those in groups 1 to 4 were given 42.5 per cent more protein (HP) in their diets. In addition, animals in groups 2, 4, 6 and 8 were given an oral dose of aflatoxin at the rate of 1.0 ppm of drymatter intake. Subsequent to digestibility trial, 2 hourly feeding was practised for 10 days, after which 15 N-ammonium sulphate and 51 Cr-EDTA were infused intra-ruminally. Results indicated that there was no effect of feeding aflatoxin on the digestibility of nutrients except crude protein. Nitrogen balances were better with groups fed OP diets as compared to HP diets, more in crossbreds than the buffalo. The estimated rumen volume ranged from 37.70 to 56.00 litres and rumen fluid outflow rates varied from 87.34 to 123.70 litres per day. Ruminal ammonia pool size, ruminal ammonia entry rates and irreversible loss rates were higher in HP fed groups without showing any effect of afflatoxins. Ruminal ammonia-N was better utilized for incorporation into bacterial protein and for transfer to plasma urea-N with OP fed groups, again without showing aflatoxin toxicity effect. Ruminal ammonia-N excretion pattern through urine was greater as a result of aflatoxin toxicity, more in crossbreds as compared to buffalo. (author). 19 refs. 5 tabs

  6. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  7. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P Angus direct effects were beneficial for both traits (0.1 ± 0.05, P Angus, respectively (P Angus dams had the most occurrences of difficult births as a proportion of cows that calved (0.028 and 0.025, P = 0.04). Angus-sired crossbred cows and Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P Angus cow performance was acceptable, but for most traits, those pairs of breeds had lower heterosis than Brahman-Angus.

  8. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79...

  9. Applying real-time quantitative PCR to diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle by quantifying SRY gene: a comparison experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Freemartinism generally occurs in female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most bovine heterosexual twin females are freemartins. However, about 10% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. Farmers mostly cull bovine fertile heterosexual twin females due to the lack of a practical diagnostic approach. Culling of such animals results in economic and genetic-material losses both for dairy and beef industry. Methods In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was performed to establish the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were used in this study, while three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Results Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that SRY gene were absent in three heterosexual twin females and only two of them were verified as fertile in later age. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was more than 14.2% in freemartins and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical difference between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. Discussion Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR is a better detection method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle as compare to qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We concluded that low-level of SRY would not influence fertility of bovine heterosexual twin female.

  10. Genetic analysis of slaughter and carcass quality traits in crossbred rabbits coming from a diallel cross of four maternal lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to estimate the genetic group effects and the crossbreeding genetic parameters of slaughter and carcass traits using data on the rabbits that were progeny of does coming from a full diallel cross between 4 maternal lines (A, V, H and LP mated to bucks of the paternal line R. The rabbits of the 16 genetic groups, corresponding to the type of does of the diallel cross, were distributed in 4 Spanish farms and 1 genetic group (V line was present in all farms in order to connect records among them and to be used as reference group. Crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson’s model. 1896 rabbits were measured for slaughter traits and 950 for carcass traits. The A and LP lines had the lowest values for dressing percentage (–1.71 and –1.98 compared with H line and –1.49 and –1.75 with the V line, respectively. The A line was the heaviest for commercial carcass weight. No relevant differences were observed between the crossbred groups for all traits. Regarding the reciprocal effects, there were significant differences in favour of A line as sire line in the crossbred AV. Regarding the combination of direct and maternal effects, the A line showed significantly higher values for cold carcass weight (133 g., 71 g. and 142 g. compared to the H, LP and V lines. For the same parameter the H line showed significantly higher averages on dressing percentages than A and LP lines, 1.44 and 2.13%, respectively. Line A also showed, in general, better direct- maternal effects than the V line. Grand-maternal effects were less important than direct-maternal ones. The estimates of maternal heterosis were, in general, negative, which could be a consequence of the positive heterosis for litter size. However, despite this relationship between growth and litter traits, it has not been common to find negative maternal heterosis in growth traits. A diminution of dressing percentage was detected in

  11. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Mastitis Subklinis pada Kambing Peranakan Etawah di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta (RISK FACTORS OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS ON ETTAWA CROSSBRED GOAT IN SLEMAN REGENCY, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Sleman, a regency in Yogyakarta special region, Etawah crossbred goats are excessively bred for thedairy produce called the goat’s milk. Subclinical mastitis is one of diseases which reduce the yield of goat’smilk. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors that contribute to the subclinical mastitis onthe Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman. The 200 samples one of which contains 10 mL of goat’s milk weretaken from the udders of the Etawah crossbred goats from the eight goat farms in Sleman. The 200samples were analyzed for the subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT. The data of riskfactors were gathered through a questionnaire. The risk factors on Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman weredetermine with the use of bivariate analysis chi square (X2, odds ratio (OR and relative risk (RR. Thegoat’s milk which subclinical mastitis was isolation and identification of bacteria based on biochemicaltests. The risk factors that cause the subclinicall mastitis on Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman were (1milk yield (X2=14.23; OR=6.52; RR=4.42, (2 age status of lactation (X2=1.60; OR=59.09; RR=17.94, (3age of weaning (X2=26.06; OR=2.22; RR=1.91, and (4 Body Condition Score (BCS (X2=13.89; OR=1.29;RR=1.22. Goat’s milk which subclinicall mastitis were isolated  Bacillus sp  (70%, Staphylococcus sp(33%, Pseudomonas sp (29%, Streptococcus sp (25%, Corynebacterium sp (12%, and E. coli (4%.

  13. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G

    2009-01-01

    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...... for QTL segregating on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA)1, BTA7, BTA10, and BTA26. On each of these chromosomes, several QTL were detected affecting more than one of the fertility traits investigated in this study. Evidence for segregation of additional QTL on BTA2, BTA9, and BTA24 was found...

  14. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  15. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  16. Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Nils H.

    2017-06-01

    Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels) and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs) directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API) is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d), to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1) the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2) strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise) derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation measures to floods

  17. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  18. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  19. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences of farmers keeping N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle and implications for breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, S A; Markemann, A; Reiber, C; Piepho, H P; Valle Zárate, A

    2017-04-01

    Many local livestock breeds in developing countries are being replaced by exotic breeds, leading to a loss of genetic resources. In southern Mali, for the past two decades, a trend towards increasing crossbreeding between the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and the trypano-susceptible Fulani Zebu cattle has been taking place. A survey with 160 farmers owning a cattle herd was carried out in southern Mali to investigate their production objectives, as well as trait and breed preferences and correlated socio-economic determinants in order to understand farmers' breeding decisions and to identify comparative advantages of three breed groups (N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbreds) raised in the study area. Data were analyzed using an exploded logit model. The reasons for raising cattle, as well as trait and breed preferences reflected the multiple objectives of the farmers. Draught power and savings were the most important production objectives. Productive traits were ranked highest; farmers reported large body size as the most preferred trait, followed by fertility, draught ability and milk yield. Crossbreds were the favored breed group. Breed preferences were mainly explained by 'resistance to disease' for N'Dama cattle and 'high market price' for Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences were mainly influenced by farmer group (local farmers and settled transhumants). Local farmers put comparatively more emphasis on livestock functions linked to crop production such as draught power. They had a higher preference for traction ability as a selection trait and preferred N'Dama over Fulani Zebu cattle. Settled transhumants emphasized milk yield as a selection trait and preferred Fulani Zebu over N'Dama. The results indicate that the trend towards more crossbreeding will continue putting the N'Dama breed under high risk of genetic dilution in southern Mali. The N'Dama cattle remain a valuable breed due to their adaptive traits such as

  20. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  1. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  2. Ingestive behavior of crossbred Santa Inês sheep fed water with different salinity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Helder Andrade de Moura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four water salinity levels on the ingestive behavior of non-castrated crossbred Santa Inês sheep. Thirty-two non-castrated crossbred Santa Inês sheep in feedlot, at seven months of age and initial average weight of 21.76±1.25 kg, were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and eight replicates. Four concentrations of salts in the water fed to the animals were evaluated: low (640 mg/l; medium (3,188 mg/l; high (5,740 mg/l and very high (8,326 mg/l levels of total dissolved solids (TDS. For the ingestive behaviors, the animals were observed every ten minutes, for 24 hours, to determine the time spent feeding, ruminating and idle. Also, cud chewing and the average number of defecations and urinations and the frequency of water ingestion were determined. The time spent feeding, ruminating and idle were not changed by the salinity levels in the water. Dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber intake, total chewing time, total cud chews per day, number of daily meals, average duration of each meal and number of defecations per day did not change either. However, feeding and rumination efficiency in grams of DM/h, water intake and number of urinations were linearly affected, whereas the variables rumination efficiency in grams of NDF/h, grams of dry matter per cud, grams of neutral detergent fiber per cud, number of cuds, number of chews per cud and chewing time per cud presented quadratic effect. The different levels of total dissolved solids (640; 3,188; 5,740; and 8.326 mg/l in the water fed to the sheep did not cause alterations in their ingestive behavior. In conclusion, water with up to 8,326 mg TDS/l can be an alternative strategic and seasonal method to water crossbred Santa Ines sheep.

  3. The role of local repulsion in superconductivity in the Hubbard–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chungwei, E-mail: clin@merl.com; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • There exists an optimal Boson energy for superconductivity in Hubbard–Holstein model. • The electron-Boson coupling is essential for superconductivity, but the same coupling can lead to polaron insulator, which is against superconductivity. • The local Coulomb repulsion can sometimes enhance superconductivity. - Abstract: We examine the superconducting solution in the Hubbard–Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field Theory. The Holstein term introduces the site-independent Boson fields coupling to local electron density, and has two competing influences on superconductivity: The Boson field mediates the effective electron-electron attraction, which is essential for the S-wave electron pairing; the same coupling to the Boson fields also induces the polaron effect, which makes the system less metallic and thus suppresses superconductivity. The Hubbard term introduces an energy penalty U when two electrons occupy the same site, which is expected to suppress superconductivity. By solving the Hubbard–Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field theory, we find that the Hubbard U can be beneficial to superconductivity under some circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate that when the Boson energy Ω is small, a weak local repulsion actually stabilizes the S-wave superconducting state. This behavior can be understood as an interplay between superconductivity, the polaron effect, and the on-site repulsion: As the polaron effect is strong and suppresses superconductivity in the small Ω regime, the weak on-site repulsion reduces the polaron effect and effectively enhances superconductivity. Our calculation elucidates the role of local repulsion in the conventional S-wave superconductors.

  4. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  5. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-09-01

    Haematological profiles indicate the health status of an animal and can be used to identify sub-clinical stress responses. The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii) the effect of breed on immune response genes in bovine whole blood using real-time quantitative PCR. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves were group housed indoors and individually fed using an automatic feeder. They were allocated to a high, medium or low plane of nutrition, based on milk replacer (MR) and concentrate. The nutrition treatments were calculated using National Research Council guidelines in order to achieve a high, medium or low growth rate for each respective breed. During the weaning phase MR was gradually reduced over a 14-day (d) period (d -13 to d 0). Calves were blood sampled on d -14, -6, -3, 0, 1, 3, 8 and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) for subsequent haematological analysis. On d -14, 1 and 8, a subset of eight Holstein-Friesian calves randomly selected from the medium nutrition treatment and eight Jersey calves randomly selected from the high nutrition treatment, were blood sampled for gene expression profiling, targeting biomarkers of weaning stress. These two treatment groups were chosen to examine the effect of breed on expression of the genes of interest, as energy intake and animal performance were similar. There was no effect of breed×plane of nutrition interaction nor effect of plane of nutrition on any variable measured (P>0.05). Gradual weaning produced differential biological responses in the two breeds evidenced by breed×time interactions for lymphocyte, monocyte and red blood cell number, plasma haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations (Plevel of the pro-apoptotic gene, Fas, increased on d 1 relative to d -14 (Plevels were greater in Jersey calves compared with Holstein-Friesian for

  6. Lactation curves of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,05) by die Holstein-Fries nie. Die gebruik van maandelikse of weeklikse melkproduksie totale om gemiddelde daaglikse produksie te bereken, het hoogs betekenisvolle effekte (P<0,01) op die laktasiekurwe parameters van die Jersey gehad.

  7. Immune responses of Holstein and Jersey calves during the preweaning and immediate postweaned periods when fed varying planes of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of breed and planes of preweaned milk replacer (MR) nutrition on the immune responses of pre- and postweaned dairy calves. Forty-two bull calves (n=20 Holstein and n=22 Jersey, 2±1 d old) were studied. Holstein and Jersey calves came from separate dairies. Calves were fed either a higher plane of MR nutrition or a lower plane of MR nutrition. Holstein and Jersey calves on the lower planes of MR nutrition were fed 454 g (as fed)/d of a 20% crude protein (CP)/20% fat MR. Holstein calves on the higher plane of MR nutrition were fed 810 and 1,180 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/20% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. Jersey calves on the higher plane of nutrition were fed 568 and 680 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/25% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. On d 4, 42, and 77, peripheral blood was collected for ex vivo immunological analyses, and on d 7 all calves were challenged subcutaneously with commercially available lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (4 µg/kg of body weight); clinical and biochemical responses were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 72 h. We observed a breed difference in total serum protein, wherein Jersey calves had higher concentrations than Holsteins. Holsteins and calves fed the higher plane of MR nutrition had greater glucose concentrations following the LPS challenge. With the exception of plasma haptoglobin concentrations at 24 h postchallenge, we observed no treatment × time interactions following the LPS challenge. Calves fed higher planes of MR nutrition had greater plasma haptoglobin concentrations 24h following the LPS challenge. Isolated mononuclear cells from Holstein calves secreted more tumor necrosis factor-α than did cells from Jersey calves when stimulated ex vivo with LPS on d 77. In addition, when whole blood was incubated with a live enteropathogenic E. coli culture, blood from Holsteins had a greater killing capacity than did whole blood from

  8. Taani - külade maa / Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu, Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuhi-Teesalu, Silvi

    2005-01-01

    Taanit ja taanlasi eestlase pilguga tutvustab Taani-Eesti Kultuuriinstituudi juhataja Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu. Eestlastest taanlase pilguga räägib Taani-Eesti Seltsi esimees krahv Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

  9. Growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of Mubende and Mubende×Boer crossbred goats under different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, D.; Mpairwe, D.; Kabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    A surge in the demand for goats׳ meat both locally and internationally has prompted many goat farmers in Uganda to venture into commercial goat production. However, goat production is highly challenged by breed characteristics and extreme fluctuations in feed quantity and quality. This study...... evaluated the effects of supplementing grazing Mubende goats and their crossbreds (Mubende×Boer) with concentrates on growth, carcass and non-carcass characteristics. A 2×3 factorial treatment arrangement was used to randomly allocate 96 pure Mubende and Mubende×Boer castrates (mean±SE; 31.3±2.2 kg initial...... regardless of concentrate type, however, inclusion of molasses resulted in lower concentrate intake. The Mubende goats were more efficient in utilising concentrate with molasses while the crossbreds utilised concentrate without molasses more efficiently. Average daily gain (ADG) was higher (P

  10. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yusuf; T. Nakao; S. T. Long; S. Fujita

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  11. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  12. Microscopy of bosonic models using Schwinger and Holstein - Primakoff bosonization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.E.B.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of bosonic expansions for the SU(2) case, one being finite (Schwinger) and the other being infinite (Holstein-Primakoff) are analysed. The existence of a transformation connecting them was discussed. Utilizing the two methods, the Two Level Model hamiltonian into the many boson space is mapped. Considering systems composed by 4, 6 and 14 particles, calculations for the eigenenergies within the ''vibrational limit'' of the model were performed. The results show that the Schwinger mapping is exact. Approximated bosonic images with the Holstein-Primakoff mapping are obtained. Indeed, the anharmonicities observed in the region between the ideal '' spherical limit'' and the ''transitional point'', were well described by the approximation containing up to quartic terms on the bosonic operators. (author) [pt

  13. Comparison of allele-specific PCR, created restriction-site PCR, and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis methods used for screening complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein cattle. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and rapidity of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), created restriction-site PCR (CRS-PCR), and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA), three methods used in identification of CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. In order to screen for the G>T mutation in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 (SLC35A3) gene, DNA sequencing as the gold standard method was used. The prevalence of carriers and the mutant allele frequency were 3.2% and 0.016, respectively, among Holstein cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey. Among the three methods, the fastest but least accurate was AS-PCR. Although the rapidity of CRS-PCR and PCR-PIRA were nearly equal, the accuracy of PCR-PIRA was higher than that of CRS-PCR. Therefore, among the three methods, PCR-PIRA appears to be the most efficacious for screening of mutant alleles when identifying CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. PMID:28927256

  14. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  15. Assessment of glucose homeostasis in crossbred steer progeny sired by Brahman bulls that experienced prenatal transportation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to assess glucose homeostasis of crossbred male progeny whose Brahman sires experienced prenatal transportation stress (PS) in utero. Sixteen steers (PNS group) sired by 3 PS bulls gestating dams were transported for 2 h at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ± 5 d of gest...

  16. Trends for monthly changes in days open in Holsteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pszczola, M.J.; Aguilar, I.; Misztal, I.

    2009-01-01

    A reaction norm approach was used to estimate trends for days open (DO) with a model that indirectly accounted for heat stress. Data included 3.4 million first-parity records of DO of US Holsteins. A fixed effect model included herd-year, month of calving within region (MOC), age class, and

  17. Influência do período de descanso da pastagem de capim-elefante na produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu Effect of grazing interval for elephantgrass pastures on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Deresz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito de três períodos de descanso (T30 = 30 dias, T36 = 36 dias e T45 = 45 dias sobre a produção de leite e variação de peso vivo de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante manejada em sistema rotativo. O experimento foi realizado durante a estação chuvosa, usando-se 18 vacas, tendo em média 30 dias de lactação e peso vivo médio de 488 kg. As vacas foram distribuídas pelos tratamentos em seis blocos completos ao acaso, constituídos de duas séries de piquetes (repetição de área e três vacas/piquete, formados com base na produção de leite e no peso vivo no início da lactação. A lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha para todos os tratamentos e as vacas não receberam concentrado. O período de ocupação dos piquetes foi de três dias. A pastagem foi adubada com 200 kg/ha de N e K2O, divididos em três aplicações, durante a época das chuvas. Foram aplicados também 40 kg de P2O5 e 1 t de calcário dolomítico, no início da época das chuvas. A produção média de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura foi de 11,4; 10,6; e 10,3 kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário, de 114, 160 e 116 g para os tratamentos T30, T36 e T45, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para produção de leite, nem para ganho de peso.The objective of this trial was to study the effect of three grazing intervals (T30 = 30 days, T36 = 36 days and T45 = 45 days on milk yield and live weight changes of crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows grazing elephantgrass pasture rotationally managed. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season using 18 crossbred cows averaging 30 days of lactation and 488 kg of average live weight. The cows were allocated to experimental treatments according to a completely randomized block design, with six blocks, two series of paddocks and three cows/paddock, based on milk yield and body weight of cows at the beginning of lactation. The stocking rate

  18. Biliary clearance of bromosulfophthalein in healthy and ketotic Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kirovski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holstein cows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holstein cows divided in two groups (10 cows each were involved in the study. The first group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was significantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was significantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a significant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a significant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.

  19. Non-genetic factors affecting fertility traits in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    referee1

    2014-03-08

    Mar 8, 2014 ... non-genetic factors affect the fertility of dairy cows. ... (2002) found conception rates of 64% in open heifers and 39% in .... the number of days from calving date to first service date for Holstein cows in the USA increased from.

  20. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  1. The role of local repulsion in superconductivity in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2017-01-01

    We examine the superconducting solution in the Hubbard-Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field Theory. The Holstein term introduces the site-independent Boson fields coupling to local electron density, and has two competing influences on superconductivity: The Boson field mediates the effective electron-electron attraction, which is essential for the S-wave electron pairing; the same coupling to the Boson fields also induces the polaron effect, which makes the system less metallic and thus suppresses superconductivity. The Hubbard term introduces an energy penalty U when two electrons occupy the same site, which is expected to suppress superconductivity. By solving the Hubbard-Holstein model using Dynamical Mean Field theory, we find that the Hubbard U can be beneficial to superconductivity under some circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate that when the Boson energy Ω is small, a weak local repulsion actually stabilizesthe S-wave superconducting state. This behavior can be understood as an interplay between superconductivity, the polaron effect, and the on-site repulsion: As the polaron effect is strong and suppresses superconductivity in the small Ω regime, the weak on-site repulsion reduces the polaron effect and effectively enhances superconductivity. Our calculation elucidates the role of local repulsion in the conventional S-wave superconductors.

  2. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Meat Characteristic of Crossbred Local Chicken Fed Inulin of Dahlia Tuber and Lactobacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Husein Abdurrahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the meat characteristic of crossbred local chicken fed diet containing both dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and probiotic Lactobacillus sp. The experimental animals were 168 crossbred local chickens which were randomly divided into 6 groups of treatment (4 replications each when they were 21-d old. A completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial pattern consisted of 2 levels of prebiotic [(0.8% (D1 and 1.2% (D2] and 3 levels of probiotic [without probiotic (L0, 1.2 mL (L1, and 2.4 mL (L2] was arranged in the present study. One mL probiotic (Lactobacillus sp. was equal to 108 cfu. Results showed that the supplementation of prebiotic and probiotic significantly (P<0.05 affected breast meat color in terms of L* (lightness and b* (yellowness. The meat fat mass and cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05 decreased by the combination of prebiotic and probiotic. The hardness of meat was not affected significantly by all treatments. The conclusion is that breast meat color could be improved, and both meat fat mass and cholesterol content could be decreased by feeding a combination of 1.2% dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and 1.2 mL probiotic Lactobacillus sp.

  5. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  6. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  7. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model with different genomic relationship matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Lund, M S; Wang, Y; Su, G

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using various genomic relationship matrices. Different sources of information, such as consistencies of linkage disequilibrium (LD) phase and marker effects, were used to construct the genomic relationship matrices (G-matrices) across these two breeds. Single-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model and two-trait GBLUP model were used for single-breed and two-breed genomic predictions. The data included 5215 Nordic Holstein bulls and 4361 Nordic Red bulls, which was composed of three populations: Danish Red, Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. The bulls were genotyped with 50 000 SNP chip. Using the two-breed predictions with a joint Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red reference population, accuracies increased slightly for all traits in Nordic Red, but only for some traits in Nordic Holstein. Among the three subpopulations of Nordic Red, accuracies increased more for Danish Red than for Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. This is because closer genetic relationships exist between Danish Red and Nordic Holstein. Among Danish Red, individuals with higher genomic relationship coefficients with Nordic Holstein showed more increased accuracies in the two-breed predictions. Weighting the two-breed G-matrices by LD phase consistencies, marker effects or both did not further improve accuracies of the two-breed predictions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  10. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bobby

    1 ARC-Livestock Business Division, P/Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa .... Descriptive statistics of all traits were computed using the Proc Means procedure of the Statistical. Analysis System (SAS ..... of Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle. Anim.

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  12. Action of exogenous oxytocin on stress modulation in crossbred Red Angus cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Paula Neres de Barros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus are organised on the basis of leadership and dominance in such a manner that a disturbance by an external stressor causes negative effects on their health, productivity, well-being, and behaviour. One of these effects is the excessive release of glucocorticoids, which results in increased alertness. We evaluated the action of exogenous oxytocin (OT on serum cortisol levels in crossbred Red Angus heifers. Twelve Red Angus crossbred heifers were moved daily from the pasture to the corral in weeks 1 and 2 for adaptation to human contact and handling in the cattle crush. In weeks 3 and 4, they were divided into two groups of six (T1 and T2. The T1 group was administered 20 IU (2 mL of OT via intramuscular injection and the T2 group was administered 2 mL of saline solution 0.85% (SS. In weeks 5 and 6, they were only contained in the cattle crush for evaluation. On days 01, 07, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, blood samples were collected by jugular venepuncture in vacuum tubes without anticoagulants. Then, serum cortisol levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay. In the period of adaptation, during weeks 1 and 2, serum cortisol levels decreased in both the groups, with higher levels in the SS group; the same result was obtained in weeks 5 and 6. During treatment, however, there was a significant difference between the two groups in week 4, with a reduction in cortisol levels in the OT group. This result suggests a modulator effect of OT on neuroendocrine response to stress.

  13. Molecular Relationship Between BALADI And Crossbred Bovine Female Calves Using AP-PCR And Its Relation To Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-FOOLY, H.A.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, which is located in the desert area of Inshas. DNA fingerprinting analysis using arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) is a powerful technique for detecting markers that can be used for establishment of genetic variations, molecular relationships and taxonomy identifications between different animal breeds. In the present study, for detecting the genetic relationship between Egyptian bovine Baladi female and crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) previously imported, blood samples were collected from 10 animals (5 for each breed), DNA was isolated and AP-PCR technique was applied using four random primers to establish fingerprinting and molecular relationship between the two breeds using radioactive 32 P-dCTP for labelling the fragments amplified in PCR.. The band sharing coefficient between the two groups was calculated, and the quantity of DNA was correlated with average daily gain (ADG). The data showed non- significant correlation between the quantity of DNA and average daily gain. Also, data showed the powerful of the technique for detecting the molecular variations and there is a specific pattern for certain breeds especially when using the Knp-X primer. The present study also revealed that there was a close genetic relationship between the Egyptian Baladi breed and the crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) in about seventy percent of the genetic materials as represented by band-sharing (BS) = 0.7. In conclusion, the AP-PCR technique is effective in detecting the molecular variations between different breeds and provides a potential tool for studying the molecular relationships. The native Egyptian calves are genetically closely related to crossbred (Brown Swiss Baladi) by about 70%. Further studies on the large scale are needed using different primers for detecting patterns specific for each breed and

  14. Assessment of optimum thermal humidity index for crossbred dairy cows in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Uttarakhand is a relatively new state and many cross bred cattle were introduced to boost the milk yield of the state. Despite all efforts the milk yield of dairy in Uttarakhand is comparatively low. In our study, we assessed the effect of heat stress on milk production, using thermal humidity index (THI in high (cross bred cattle and low milk producing (LMP cows (native cows in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Effect of heat stress was measured on high and LMP cross bred cows using THI maintained on standard feeding and nutritional value. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the THI. Daily milk production was noted to verify the effect of heat stress. Furthermore, profile the thyroid hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Low yielding cows did not show any significant change when the THI was above 72 from month June to October during stress condition. But high yielding cows shows a significant decrease (p<0.05 in milk yield when THI was above 80 (severe stress zone in the month of June to October and milk production decrease from an average of 18±1.4 to 10.9±0.92 L whereas in November-December when THI declines in the zone of comfort the milk yield did not show significant rise. The thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 level were found lower in summer heat stress condition for a high yielding cattle. Conclusion: Summer heat stress significantly decreased milk yield in high milk producing (HMP crossbred cows. As THI rises from comfort zone to stress zone milk yield decreased by 30-40% and this loss in milk production is irreversible. Management strategies should be needed as environmental control housing is suggested for the HMP crossbred cattle to minimize the heat stress. If all the dairies with cross bred cattle implement these small modifications in housing of cattle, there would be a huge increase in milk production.

  15. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

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    D. J. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  16. Mass communication for energy efficiency. Experiences from energy efficiency campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2000. Final report; Massenkommunikation fuer Energieffizienz. Erfahrungen aus landesweiten Energieeffizienz-Kampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2002. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, K.; Moehring-Hueser, W.

    2002-10-01

    The report sums up the experience gained with energy efficiency pilot campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein (Schoeth et al., to appear, and Wortman et al., 2000, 2001). The information is to help other actors in this field to develop and optimize their own campaigns. [German] Dieser Bericht resuemiert die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen mit wirkungsvoller Umweltwerbung auf Basis der ausfuehrlichen Werbewirkungskontrollen zu den Energieeffizienz-Pilotkampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein (vgl. ausfuehrlicher Schoetz et al., im Druck sowie Wortmann et al., 2000, 2001). Die abschliessenden Abschnitte 'Empfehlungen' und 'Ausblick' kennzeichnen den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und sollen anderen Akteuren mit gleicher oder aehnlicher Zielsetzung Hilfestellung und Anregung fuer die optimierte eigene Planung von Kampagnen geben. (orig.)

  17. Differential responsiveness of Holstein and Angus dermal fibroblasts to LPS challenge occurs without major differences in the methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aimee L; Green, Benjamin B; Crooker, Brian A; McKay, Stephanie D; Kerr, David E

    2016-03-24

    We have previously found substantial animal-to-animal and age-dependent variation in the response of Holstein fibroblast cultures challenged with LPS. To expand on this finding, fibroblast cultures were established from dairy (Holstein) and beef (Angus) cattle and challenged with LPS to examine breed-dependent differences in the innate immune response. Global gene expression was measured by RNA-Seq, while an epigenetic basis for expression differences was examined by methylated CpG island recovery assay sequencing (MIRA-Seq) analysis. The Holstein breed displayed a more robust response to LPS than the Angus breed based on RNA-Seq analysis of cultures challenged with LPS for 0, 2, and 8 h. Several immune-associated genes were expressed at greater levels (FDR Angus fibroblasts, and two of these regions fell within the promoter region (-2500 to +500 bp of the transcription start site) of the genes NTRK2 and ADAMTS5. Fibroblasts isolated from Holstein cattle display a more robust response to LPS in comparison to cultures from Angus cattle. Different selection strategies and management practices exist between these two breeds that likely give rise to genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to the different immune response phenotypes.

  18. Identification and characterization of novel and differentially expressed microRNAs in peripheral blood from healthy and mastitis Holstein cattle by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Ru, Caixia; Song, Ailong

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) mediates post-transcriptional gene regulation and plays an important role in regulating the development of immune cells and in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses in mammals, including cattle. In the present study, we identified novel and differentially expressed miRNAs in peripheral blood from healthy and mastitis Holstein cattle by Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics. In total, 608 precursor hairpins (pre-miRNAs) encoding for 753 mature miRNAs were detected. Statistically, 173 unique miRNAs (of 753, 22.98%) were identified that had significant differential expression between healthy and mastitis Holstein cattle (P mastitis Holstein cattle, which provide important information on mastitis in miRNAs expression. Diverse miRNAs may play an important role in the treatment of mastitis in Holstein cattle. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Evaluation of serum profile during various stages of gestation in crossbred deoni cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S. Dodamani

    Full Text Available The research was conducted on 36 (Deoni and Deoni X H.F. cross-bred cows between 2nd to 5th lactation. Cows were divided as early, mid and late gestation period comprising 12 cows in each group. Results of the present study indicated that there is no variation in serum Ca, Mg, Na and K level but serum P level declines significantly from early to late gestation, where as serum Cl level decreases from early to mid gestation and again increases from mid to late gestation. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 398-399

  20. Evaluation of heat stress on Tarentaise and Holstein cow performance in the Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagi, Rahma; Martin, Bruno; Chassaing, Chantal; Najar, Taha; Pomiès, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to first quantify the effect of heat stress on milk yield and components of Tarentaise in comparison to Holstein cows. A dataset of 16,143 monthly individual records of production traits was collected for 435 Tarentaise and 543 Holstein cows from 21 farms in Tunisia (2009 to 2014). This dataset was merged with meteorological data from 5 public stations relative to the 21 farms. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated as a combination of ambient temperature and relative humidity, was used to characterize heat stress. When the THI increased from an average value of 53.7 in winter to 75.4 in summer, the Holstein and Tarentaise cows decreased their milk production by 0.93 and 0.15 kg/day, respectively. Milk fat, protein, and urea content decreased similarly in both breeds (-2.20 g/kg, -1.40 g/kg, and -14 mg/L, respectively), and the milk somatic cell count increased for Holstein cows (+352,000/mL) while decreased for Tarentaise cows (-160,000/mL). The second aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the variations of the milk yields between the summer and the winter (Δ milk yields) and some barn characteristics during the hot season. A survey carried out on 19 of the 21 previous farms permitted to conclude that the closed buildings led to a higher decrease in milk yield between the summer and winter than the open buildings (-1.13 vs. -0.27 kg/day). A metallic roof had a more negative impact on Δ milk yields than the other roof types (-1.04 vs. -0.15 kg/day).

  1. Multi-year evaluation of stocking rate and animal genotype on milk production per hectare within intensive pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Delaby, L; Fleming, C; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of stocking rate (SR) and animal genotype (BR) on milk production, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within intensive pasture-based systems. A total of 533 lactation records, from 246 elite genetic merit dairy cows were available for analysis; 68 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 71 Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JxHF) crossbred cows in each of 4 consecutive years (2013-2016, inclusive). Cows from each BR were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm comparative SR treatments, low (LSR; 1,200 kg of BW/ha), medium (MSR; 1,400 kg of BW/ha), and high (HSR; 1,600 kg of BW/ha), and remained in the same SR treatments for the duration of the experiment. The effects of SR, BR, and their interaction on milk production/cow and per hectare, BW, BCS, and grazing characteristics were analyzed. Total pasture utilization per hectare consumed in the form of grazed pasture increased linearly as SR increased: least in LSR (10,237 kg of dry matter/ha), intermediate in MSR (11,016 kg of dry matter/ha), and greatest in HSR (11,809 kg of dry matter/ha). Milk and milk solids (MS) yield per hectare was greatest for HSR (15,942 and 1,354 kg, respectively), intermediate for MSR (14,191 and 1,220 kg, respectively), and least for LSR (13,186 and 1,139 kg, respectively) with similar trends evident for fat, protein, and lactose yield/ha. At higher SR (MSR and HSR), MS yield per kg of BW per ha was reduced (0.85 and 0.82 kg of MS/kg of BW, respectively) compared with LSR (0.93 kg of MS/kg of BW/ha). Holstein-Friesian cows achieved fewer grazing days per hectare (-37 d), and produced more milk (+561 kg/ha) but less fat plus protein (-57 kg/ha) compared with JxHF cows; the JxHF cows were lighter. At similar BW per hectare, JxHF cows produced more fat plus protein/ha during the grazing season at low (1,164 vs. 1,113 kg), medium (1,254 vs. 1,185 kg), and high (1,327 vs. 1,380 kg) SR. In addition, JxHF cows produced more fat plus

  2. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  3. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  4. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  5. Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T L; Pralle, R S; Dórea, J R R; Poock, S E; Oetzel, G R; Fourdraine, R H; White, H M

    2018-03-01

    Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK. Given the data available, a secondary objective was to evaluate differences in test-day milk and performance variables (continuous measurements) between Holsteins and Jerseys and between cows with or without HYK within breed. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 658 Holstein and 468 Jersey cows between 5 and 20 d in milk (DIM). Diagnosis of HYK was at a serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. Concentrations of milk BHB and acetone were predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark). Thresholds of milk BHB and acetone were tested for diagnostic accuracy, and logistic models were built from continuous variables to predict HYK in primiparous and multiparous cows within breed. Linear models were constructed from continuous variables for primiparous and multiparous cows within breed that were 5 to 11 DIM or 12 to 20 DIM. Milk ketone body thresholds diagnosed HYK with 64.0 to 92.9% accuracy in Holsteins and 59.1 to 86.6% accuracy in Jerseys. Logistic models predicted HYK with 82.6 to 97.3% accuracy. Internally cross-validated multiple linear regression models diagnosed HYK of Holstein cows with 97.8% accuracy for primiparous and 83.3% accuracy for multiparous cows. Accuracy of Jersey models was 81.3% in primiparous and 83

  6. Study of Blood Metabolites Changes of Purebred Ghezel and Crossbred Arkhar Merinos × Ghezel Ewes during Late Pregnancy

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    Leila Ahmadzadeh

    2016-11-01

    analysis of metabolites. Measurement of blood metabolites, including total protein, calcium, glucose, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and albumin was done by spectrophotometer set. SAS software (2003 was used for statistical analysis. Mixed procedure of SAS software was used for statistical analysis and Tukey- Kramer test was applied for comparison of means. T-test was used for comparison of blood metabolites between ewes with single and twin lambs. Results and Discussion The results showed that the blood glucose, total protein, albumin and calcium on days 90, 120 and 140 of pregnancy were less than 15 days prior to mating but blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol levels were increased. These variations could originate from fetus metabolism since fetus requirements for tissue growth, muscles and bones increases during pregnancy, which should be supplied from maternal body reserves. The comparison of blood metabolites on the both crossbred and purebred pregnant ewes showed that in the late pregnancy, twin pregnant ewes had less glucose, total protein and calcium and more blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol compared with single pregnant ewes because there is a higher fetus requirement for twin fetuses during gestation. Our results also showed that glucose, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen ‏levels of crossbred ewes were higher than purebred Ghezel ewes on 15 days prior to mating period. This may be due to different genetic potential of these breeds. During the gestation period, levels of mentioned metabolites except for blood urea nitrogen‏ were higher in both single and twin crossbred pregnant ewes than purebred Ghezel ewes significantly. It is seemed that these differences may be related to variation in the genetic potential of studying animals. Conclusion The results of present study showed that there were no signs of pregnancy toxemia in the two experimental groups; however some differences among blood metabolites of purebred and hybrid ewes were found

  7. Progesterone production in superovulated holstein heifers and in crossbred recipient of embryo supplemented with betacarotene and tocopherol Produção de progesterona em novilhas Holandesas superovuladas e receptoras de embrião mestiças suplementadas com betacaroteno e tocoferol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nélio de Sousa Sales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the intramuscular injection of betacarotene associated to tocopherol on the plasma concentration progesterone of superovulated Holstein heifers (experiment 1 and in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus heifers submitted to fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET, experiment 2. In experiment 1, after estrus synchronization and superovulation animals were inseminated 12 and 24 hours after estrus onset and embryos flushed 7 days later. Heifers were allocated randomly to one of three treatments: Control; T800 (800 mg of betacarotene plus 500 mg of tocopherol and T1200 (1,200 mg of betacarotene plus 750 mg of tocopherol. The treatments were given on the day of ear implant placement and repeated on the first day of superovulation. Blood samples were collected on D0, D5, D9, D12 and D16. In experiment 2, treatments were imposed at intravaginal device insertion (D0. The same experimental design, as in experiment 1, was used. Blood samples were collected on D17 (embryos implanted for progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay. In experiment 1, average plasma progesterone concentrations after corpora lutea formation (D12 plus D16 means were 13.7±1.8 ng/ml, 14.5±2.3 ng/ml and 10.8±2.3 ng/ml for control, T800 and T1200, respectively, and did not differ (P=0.44. In experiment 2, progesterone concentrations on D17 in Control (8.88±0.57 ng/ml, T800 (7.48±0.64 ng/ml and T1200 (5.90±1.33 ng/ml groups were similar (P=0.11. Results indicate that the supplemental betacarotene and tocopherol injections did not influence peripheral progesterone concentrations in superovulated Holstein donors and crossbreed recipients heifers.Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito da injeção intramuscular de betacaroteno associada ao tocoferol, na concentração plasmática de progesterona de novilhas Holandesas superovuladas (Experimento 1 e em novilhas cruzadas (Bos taurus x Bos indicus submetidas

  8. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  9. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  10. EFFECT OF SEASON ON SERUM COPPER AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN CROSSBRED GOATS HAVING DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STATUS UNDER SEMIARID RANGELAND CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season (rainy: RS, and dry: DS and reproductive status on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations in blood serum of crossbred goats (BW= 36.01 ± 1.59 kg were studied under semiarid rangeland conditions in Southern Mexico State. Blood samples from 80 crossbred goats were taken each season (RS and DS. The goats were clustered into 10 different groups considering their reproductive status. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum were assayed using atomic absorption. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure for a completely randomized design and differences among means were examined using a Tukey test. Blood serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were affected by reproductive status and season (P

  11. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  12. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  13. Injury scores and locomotor disorders of Holstein cows in a free-stall facility with different beds

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchin, Daiane; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Sousa, Francine Aparecida; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Amaral, Pedro Ivo Sodré; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Yanagi Junior, Tadayuki; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Ferreira, Suane Alves; Médica Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Souza, Myriam Cristiane Morais; Graduanda em Medicina Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Cecchin, Diego; Especialista em Gestão – UPF, Passo Fundo, RS

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders in 36 multiparous Holstein cows confined in a free-stall model system with two types of beds at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in the city of Coronel Pacheco / MG. Rubber composite beds and sand beds were compared and the hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders were assessed for severity scores. There was no difference between the scores or hock lesions observed at the beginning and end of the trial perio...

  14. Risk factors for postpartum anestrus in crossbred cows in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Uddin Bhuiyan, M.M.; Parveen, N.; Momont, H.W.; Shamsuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Ultrasonography and a structured questionnaire were used in a cross-sectional study to gather data on the prevalence and risk factors for anestrus in crossbred cows at ≥60 days postpartum in 273 smallholder farms. The prevalence of anestruc was 18%. The odds ratio (OR) for true anestrus was 17.52 and 2.81 times higher (P < 0.05) in cows with poor (≤2.0) and excessive (>3.5) body condition score (BCS), respectively, compared to those with optimal BCS (2.5-3.5), 2.82 times higher in suckled than in nonsuckled cows (P = 0.03), and 2.53 times higher in cows that calved during the cold season than in those that calved during the hot season (P = 0.03). The OR for anestrus was 1.62 times higher (P = 0.017) in cows managed by an employee than in those managed by the farmers themselves (P = 0.001), and 2.66 times higher (P = 0.003) in small farms (≤5 cows) than in large farms (≥11 cows). The OR was 0.71 to 0.46 times lower in farms having a guaranteed market to sell milk than those with an uncertain traditional milk market (P < 0.05). Maintaining optimal BCS of cows, farmers' training on management of cattle reproduction, and development of a market linkage to sell milk would improve the number of cows for breeding by 60 days postpartum. (author)

  15. EFECTO DE LA ENDOGAMIA SOBRE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS EN VACAS HOLSTEIN Y JERSEY DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judyana Aguirre-Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo en 208 148 registros de vacas Holstein y Jersey de 545 hatos lecheros especializados presentes en la Base Nacional de Datos VAMPP Bovino, del Centro Regional de Informática para la Producción Animal Sostenible (CRIPAS, de la Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional (EMV-UNA, período 1995-2010. Se analizó el efecto de la endogamia sobre la producción corregida a 305 días (PC305d y la vida productiva -calculada según la fórmula USDA--, con regresión lineal múltiple, mediante un modelo mixto. Se usó como punto de corte, un valor de coeficiente de endogamia (F de ≥6,25% para valores altos. Además, se estimó la posibilidad de que una vaca con F≥6,25% presente parámetros productivos bajos, mediante regresión logística no condicional. El análisis de supervivencia, mediante la distribución de Weibull, determinó el efecto de endogamia sobre la vida productiva. Se encontró un 17,9% de animales con endogamia, siendo la raza Holstein la de más animales consanguíneos, aunque la Jersey fue la que tuvo, en promedio, los niveles más elevados. Las vacas con baja endogamia produjeron +140,4 kg PC305d en relación con las que tienen niveles elevados (p<0,01. Las vacas con alta endogamia tuvieron más riesgo de PC305d <5000 kg (Jersey y <6500 kg (Holstein que las de baja endogamia (OR=1,3; IC95%: 1,2-1,4. Se observó, para las razas Holstein y Jersey, +10,3 meses y +19,3 meses de vida productiva (USDA para los animales con F bajo. Se concluye que existe un efecto negativo de la consanguinidad elevada sobre la vida productiva (USDA y sobre la PC305d de las vacas Holstein y Jersey en fincas lecheras de Costa Rica.

  16. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

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    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  17. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BONE STRENGTH (ossis tibiae OF NATIVE PIGS ZŁOTNICKA SPOTTED BREED AND CROSSBREDS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE AND PoLISH LANDRACE PIGS

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    Wojciech KAPELAŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the bone strength traits in two groups of pigs different in terms of genetic value, fast growth capability and meat deposition in the body. The study covered 33 fatteners of the Złotnicka Spotted breed (ZŁP and 20 crossbreds F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace. Tibial bones were obtained following slaughter and evaluated in terms of properties and geometry, as well as bending and compressive strength. Mineral composition of the bone tissue was also established, i.e.: ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Zn and Mg. The significance of differences between the traits demonstrated by pigs in both groups subject to the study was estimated, with calculated overall correlations between the primary bone properties. The results confirmed significant differences in terms of geometry of the bones in both animal groups. In the ZŁP breed pigs, compared to the F1 crossbred group (PLW x PL, the outside and inside diameters of the tibial shaft were smaller (P ≤ 0.01, yet the average thickness of the wall of the bone was slightly larger. The bending force required to fracture the bone turned out to be lower in Złotnicka Spotted pigs, the opposite of the results obtained with regard to the compressive strength. Furthermore, calcium content, calcium-phosphorus ratio (Ca : P and sodium content were highly statistically or significantly larger in the bone tissue of the Złotnicka Spotted pigs. Consequently, the final results show that the bone strength demonstrated by modern pig breeds subject to intensive selection focused on high growth rate and increased meat deposition is in no way lower than the same trait recognized in the Złotnicka Spotted breed kept in preservative breeding conditions.

  19. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

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    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  20. The effect of adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes on intramuscular fat and backfat content in Meishan crossbred pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Koning, de D.J.; Harders, F.L.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veerkamp, R.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of genetic variation in porcine adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, respectively, on intramuscular fat (IMF) content and backfat thickness (BFT) were examined in F2 crossbreds of Meishan and Western pigs. The involvement of each FABP gene in IMF accretion

  1. Influence of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Aviña, Daniel; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Since very little information exists about the topic; in this experiment we compare, in a long-term finishing program, the growth-performance responses and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers where non-structural carbohydrate concentration of the diet is reduced from 64% to 51% (dry matter basis). Sixty Holstein steer calves (129±2.2 kg) were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF during the initial 112-d period. Overall (308-d) gain efficiency and estimated dietary NE were similar for both dietary treatments. However, due to differences in tabular dietary NE, the ratio of observed:expected dietary NE tended to be greater (4.1%, p = 0.06) for the HF vs LF diet. There were no treatment effects on carcass characteristics except for a tendency toward a slightly greater (0.5%, p = 0.09) estimated carcass yield. Reducing the non-structural carbohydrate concentration of a conventional steam-flaked corn-based growing finishing diet for Holstein steers can effectively enhance growth performance, particularly during the early

  2. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo del ganado holstein rojo, holstein negro y pardo suizo en Palmira, Valle del Cauca

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    Zapata Oscar

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Three breeds of dairy cattle (26 Red Holstein RH, 97 Black Holstein BH and 29 Brown Swiss BS, were evaluated for reproductive eficiency, and milk production for the years 1979 - 1987 a t the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira. Days of milking, milk and fat production were for BH (324.0days, 2545.9 kg, 91.1 kg for the RH (300.0 days, 2243.7 kg, 81.0 kg for the BS (298.2 days, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. % fat average were 3.6% in RH, 3.7 % in BH and BS. The lactation curves for the three breeds were best ajusted with the model: Y=A+B(lnt + C(lnt2. Larger persistaency was observed on BS followed by RH. The BS presented better reproductive efficiency than RH and BH with a mean of 169.0,177.4 and 195.6 days, calving data-conception and 2.0, 22 and 22 for number of services per conception. The HR breed had a calving age of 3.4 years and 470.5 kg of calving weight larger than 3.5 years and 440.0 kg for the BH and 3.8 years and 458.1 kg for the BS. Average weight at birth for males and females together BS showed grater weights (37.02 kq, BH and RH showed similar results (36.0 and 362 kg. The incidence of problem at birth was higher for RH (10.90/0 and puerperium problems in BS(21.60,b. Not significal effect of calving weight and rainfall on milk yield and calving date-conception. In most cases there was no correlation between milk yield and calving date-conception. There was a very narow relation between calving date- conception and number of services per conception.En el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-Palmira, se evaluó el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de 152 vacas; 26 Holstein Rojo (HR, 97 Holstein Negro (HN y 29 vacas Pardo Suizo (PS, durante el período 1979-1987. La mayor duración de la lactancia, producción de leche y grasa (kg la presentó la raza HN (324 días, 2545.9 ka, 91.1 kg, seguido de la HR (300 días, 2243.7,81.0 kg y de la PS (298.2 días, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. los porcentajes de grasa fueron 3.6 (HR y 3.7010 (HN y PSI

  3. Genetic and environmental causes of variation in gestation length of Jersey crossbred cattle

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    Anshuman Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors and estimate the genetic parameter for gestation length (GL of Jersey crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The data included the 986 parturition records on Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Eastern Regional Station of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during 36 years (1978-2013. The data were analyzed applying mixed model least square technique considering the fixed effects of genetic group, season of calving, period of calving, parity of animal, birth weight, and sex of calf born from animal. The effect of sire was included as a random effect in the model. Results: The genetic group of animal, season of calving, parity of animal, and birth weight of calf born were found to be a significant source of variation in the GL, whereas the period of calving and sex of calf did not affect this trait. Cows with 62.5% Jersey inheritance had the shortest and longest GLs, respectively. Cows calved in summer and rainy season had shorter GL than those calved in the winter season. Older cows in 4th parity carried calves for longer days than the cows in 1st parity. The increase in calf birth weight significantly (p<0.01 contributed to a linear increase in GL value in this study. The heritability estimate of GL was 0.24±0.08. Conclusion: It can be concluded that selection for lower GL without distressing future growth of calf can be used to reduce calving difficulty, but a very small standard deviation of GL limits the benefit. Moreover, more accurate prediction of calving date will help in better management and health care of pregnant animals.

  4. Contribution of Holstein cows to sustainability of dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Waltrick, de B.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: sustainability,Holsteincows,

  5. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  6. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

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    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  7. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

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    Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months, 40 heifers aged 16.6±2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0±0.2 ticks/animal, with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9±0.3 flies/animal and D. hominis (1.5±0.2 larvae/animal on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals.

  8. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  9. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pcows (2.7 ± 0.1) and also higher plasma glucose concentrations from Day -30 to Day 120 relative to parturition (4.1 ± 0.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1 log ; mg/100 ml, respectively; p cows than in Holsteins at Day -14 before calving, indicating higher mobilisation of lipid from adipose tissue already before calving. In contrast, Holstein cows had higher NEFA at Day 14 postpartum than SRB cows (p cows prioritise milk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  11. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an indicator of microbial protein supply in Sri Lankan local Zebu cattle and crossbred milking cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakshala Seresinhe; Pathirana, K.K.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of purine derivative (PD) method to Sri Lankan Zebu cattle and their crosses. In the first experiment four male Zebu cattle (LW 100 kg) were used to determine the response of PD excretion at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of the voluntary intake). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter were not affected (P > 0.05) but nitrogen retention was increased with increasing levels of feed intake. The PD excretion were 1.91, 1.46, 1.21 and 0.66 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d for 95, 80, 60 and 40% of the voluntary intake levels, respectively. The proportion of allantoin in total PD was 82.6%. The excretion of creatinine was 1.05, 1.04, 0.92 and 0.84 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d, respectively. Daily output of total PD showed a positive response to the level of feed intake, while creatinine excretion was independent of dietary treatments. The correlation between PD excretion and digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) was significant (r 2 0.70). Nevertheless, the PDC index was affected (P > 0.05) by the level of feed intake and the correlation of the PDC index and DOMI was significant as well (r 2 =0.63). Results of spot urine analysis showed that the sampling period had little or no influence on the concentration of total PD or creatinine in urine. The PDC index was affected by the level of feed intake, but not by the time of sampling. In the second experiment, crossbred milking cows showed a higher PD excretion when fed with the experimental ration as compared with the farm ration. The mean PD excretion were 3.45 and 5.21 mmol/d for farm and experimental diets respectively. Allantoin accounted for more than 80% of the total PD, as in the previous experiment. In conclusion, urinary PD excretion appears to be a valid and non-invasive procedure to assess the microbial protein supply in local Zebu cattle and crossbred milking cows in Sri Lanka. Spot urine sampling also appeared to be a satisfactory method for

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

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    Hadi Atashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42 kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05. Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05. Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05. Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI = 1.1(1.08–1.11. Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23, 3.16 (0.80 and 6.52 (1.01 kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05.

  14. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

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    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  15. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

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    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  16. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  17. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  20. Performance and financial consequences of stillbirth in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Keshavarzi, H

    2018-03-01

    Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013. The final data set included 160 410 calving records from 53 265 cows. A linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the effects of stillbirth on performance of primiparous and multiparous cows separately and overall. An economic model was used to estimate the economic losses due to stillbirth. The incidence of stillbirth cases per cow per year was 4.2% on average (3.4% to 6.8% at herd level). The least square means results showed that a case of stillbirth significantly (P0.05). Overall, a case of stillbirth reduced 305-day milk yield by 544.0±76.5 kg/cow per lactation. Stillbirth had no significant effects on 305-day fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, cows that gave birth to stillborn calves had significantly increased days open by 14.6±2.6 days and the number of inseminations per conception by 0.2 compared with cows that gave birth to live calves (Pfinancial losses associated with stillbirth incidence averaged US$ 938 per case (range from $US 767 to $US 1189 in the nine investigated farms). The loss of a calf was not the only cost associated with stillbirth, as it accounted for 71.0% of the total cost. The costs of dystocia (7.6%) and culling and replacement expenses (6.3%) were the next most important costs associated with stillbirth. These results can be used to assess the potential return from management strategies to reduce the occurrence of stillbirths.

  1. Effect on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls of adding combinations of vitamin C and either catalase or reduced glutathione to Tris extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidan, Sajeda M

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of adding combinations of vitamin C to Tris extender with either catalase or reduced glutathione on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5°C, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years of age were used in this experiment. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 7 week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into three treatments using Tris extender. Combinations of vitamin C (2.5mM) were added with either catalase (100 IU/ml, T2) or reduced glutathione (2mM, T3) to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, T1). Individual sperm motility (IM), viability (V), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (AI) were assessed during all periods of the study along with Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and freezing ability. The IM was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at all periods of the study. Furthermore, the IM were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T3 as compared with the T1 group at the 48 h time period and at 3 months PC. The V, PMI and AI were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in T2 and T3 as compared with the T1 group at all the experimental periods. The MDA was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at 3 months PC. In conclusion, there was improved semen quality if semen of Holstein bulls was collected and stored in combinations of vitamin C with either catalase (T2) or reduced glutathione (T3) being added to Tris extender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of gene expression of Toll-like receptors and cytokines between Piau and Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida type D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Ribeiro, André Mauric Frossard; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Gasparino, Eliane; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to compare Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytokines expression in local Piau breed and a Commercial line (Landrace×Large White crossbred) pigs in response to vaccination against Pasteurella multocida type D. Seronegative gilts for Pasteurella multocida type D and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were used, from which peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected in four time points (T0, T1, T2 and T3; before and after each vaccination dose). For bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells (BALF), we set groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals for both genetic groups. Gene expression was evaluated on PBMC and BALF. In PBMC, when we analyzed time points within breeds, significant differences in expression for TLRs and cytokines, except TGFβ, were observed for Commercial animals. For the Piau pigs, only TGFβ showed differential expression. Comparing the expression among genetic groups, the Commercial pigs showed higher expression for TLRs after first vaccination dose, while for IL2, IL6, IL12 and IL13, higher expression was also observed in T3 and IL8 and IL10, in T1 and T3. Still comparing the breeds, the crossbred animals showed higher expression for TNFα in T1 and T2, while for TGFβ only in T2. For gene expression in BALF, vaccinated Commercial pigs showed higher expression of TLR6, TLR10, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα and TGFβ genes than vaccinated Piau pigs. The Commercial line pigs showed higher sensitivity to vaccination, while in local Piau breed lower responsiveness, which may partly explain genetic variability in immune response and will let us better understand the tolerance/susceptibility for pasteurellosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Traumatic pericarditis. Pericardiostomy in a 2.5 year old Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecteau, G.; Grisneaux, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A primiparous Holstein cow, two and a half years of age and more than five months pregnant, was presented for consultation at Davis University (California, USA). Traumatic reticuloperitonitis, complicated with exudative pericarditis and pleurisy, was diagnosed. Treatment, by pericardiostomy, produced rapid regression of the symptoms of cardiac insufficiency. Despite complications arising from wound healing and an unexpected left abomasal displacement, the animal made a favourable recovery and can continue milking until term [it

  4. Effect of ractopamine and sex on growth, carcass characteristics, processing yield, and meat quality characteristics of crossbred swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttaro, B E; Ball, R O; Dick, P; Rae, W; Vessie, G; Jeremiah, L E

    1993-09-01

    One hundred twenty-eight 64-kg crossbred barrows and gilts were administered either 0 or 20 ppm of Ractopamine (RAC) in a pelleted corn-soybean meal diet that contained either 17.5 or 19.6% CP. Carcass quality was evaluated after slaughter at 100 kg. Dietary protein levels produced few significant effects; therefore, data were pooled for analysis. Pigs fed RAC exhibited improvement in feed efficiency (P processed ham was greater from both pigs fed RAC (P additive.

  5. Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. PMID:25049722

  6. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  7. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  8. Comparison of daily weight gain and fattening characteristics between buffalo and Holstein male calves with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousef-Elahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out over 180 days for comparison of daily weight gain and carcass characteristics of male buffalo (BW=200.8±8.00 Kg, days from birth day=360±28 calves to Holstein male calves (BW=195.2± 10 Kg, days from birth day= 240± 22 with different diets. The 27 male buffalo calves and 27 Holstein male calves after an adaptation period and health treatment (3 weeks allotted in factorial design (2×3 based on completely randomized design with 18 treatments. Experimental diets used to applying three treatments (three levels of NDF, including low NDF (LNDF, medium NDF (MNDF and high NDF (HNDF, so that final prices of these diets were different. All of these experimental calves weighted by 21 days intervals after a fasting for 12h and fed twice daily at 09.00 and 21.00 with Total Mix Ration (TMR ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment, three replicate from each treatment were slaughtered and used for carcass analysis. The result from this experiment shows that: There was no significant difference in initial body weight in the treatments of buffalo and Holstein male calves. Both Holstein and buffalo calves have the higher FBV and best FC in LNDF diet. There was no significant difference between MNDF and HNDF in buffalo calves treatments. The proportion of abdominal fat and fat of carcass in LNDF treatment was higher. The carcass efficiency and cost of meat production in better quality per Kg was higher and lower in buffalo calves respectively especially in treatments with higher NDF.

  9. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  10. Evaluation of Closed Adult Nucleus Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer and Conventional Progeny Testing Breeding Schemes for Milk Production from Crossbred Cattle in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential benefits of closed adult nucleus multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and conventional progeny testing (CNS) schemes, and the logistics of their integration into large-scale continuous production of crossbred cattle were studied by deterministic simulation. The latter was

  11. Fore limb bilateral polydactyly and ocular dermoid in a Holstein Friesian calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadari, A.; Spinella, G.; Venturini, A.; Gentile, A.

    2003-01-01

    A clinical case of polydactyly in fore limbs of a Holstein Friesian calf was radiographically and ultrasonographically examined and thus was surgically treated by amputation of the first right digit and of the first left digit, the latter present in a vestigial form. Furthermore, a ocular dermoid cyst was removed in the same animal [it

  12. Ocular squamous cell carcinoma in Holstein cows from the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Fornazari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate 10 cases of bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC diagnosed in Holstein or Holstein-crosses cows. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed exclusively in OSCC cases diagnosed in the State of Parana and Santa Catarina. A combination of two previously existing histopathological classifications systems was used. The tissue samples were tested for immunoexpression of p53 and p16 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus. Results: A positive correlation between number of mitotic figures and tissue invasion was found. Anaplasia parameters did not correlate well with tumor invasion of deeper tissues and mitotic counts. Six of 10 OSCC cases were in animals with heavily pigmented eyes. Immunoexpression of p53 and p16 was observed in 3 cases each. Bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus were not detected by PCR. Conclusion: Our results indicate that OSCC occurrence is most likely multifactorial with genetic, phenotypic, and environmental influences contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  14. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  15. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  16. Influence Of Summer Season On Some Biochemical And Hormonal Changes In Crossbred Cows During Suckling Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the seasonal variations in environmental conditions in post-partum cows, some biochemical and physiological changes which affect the productive efficiency of farm animals may occur. This study was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, to evaluate some blood biochemical and some hormonal changes during the suckling period in crossbred cows under winter and summer conditions. Alterations in metabolites and metabolic hormones during the first 10 weeks post-partum in both winter and summer during a period of suckling were analyzed on a total of 13 crossbred (Brown Swiss X Balady) cows (winter, n=7; summer, n=6). The blood samples were taken at 2 weeks intervals, 5 times in each season to determine the concentrations and changes in glucose, urea, total cholesterol, total proteins and some hormones including leptin, T4 and progesterone (P4) under winter and summer conditions. The data indicated that total protein (P<0.01), glucose (P<0.05), leptin (P<0.01), total cholesterol (P<0.01), and T4 (P<0.01) had significant seasonal differences between the two calving groups. A positive correlation coefficient was observed between leptin and T4 hormone. From the obtained data, it could be concluded that in summer season, certain biochemical and hormonal levels of calving cows may enhanced but not enough to affect the levels of urea and progesterone. The positive correlation between leptin and T4 may indicate association in the rate of metabolism.

  17. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  18. Influence of clinical mastitis and its treatment outcome on reproductive performance in crossbred cows: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Sivaram, M; Kumaresan, A; Jeyakumar, S; Sreela, L; Mooventhan, P; Rajendran, D

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM) and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012) were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH), days to first insemination (DTFI), days open (DO), and number of services per conception (SC) were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 20 software. The means were compared with the Duncan's multiple comparison post-hoc test. CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05) higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with a single episode of CM had significantly (p<0.05) delayed DTFDH while, DO and SC were significantly higher (p<0.05) in cows diagnosed by multiple episodes of CM. SC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cows diagnosed with both relapse and recurrence. Severe CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05) altered reproductive parameters. The reproductive parameters were altered to high extent when CM occurred during the breeding period. CM-affected cows had higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. The negative effects of CM on reproduction parameters were higher when CM occurred during the breeding period.

  19. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin levels in crossbred cows with endometritis following different therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Biswal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the serum variations of two major acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (Hp levels in crossbred endometritis cows following pre and post immunomodulation therapy. Materials and Methods: 21 endometritis cows were randomly assigned to three groups (n=7 and treated with three different immunomodulators while seven healthy cows served as control. Uterine flushing collected from all animals was subjected to bacteriological study and serum samples were analyzed for SAA and Hp by sandwich ELISA method. Results: Escherichia coli was most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria (6.02 × 106 CFU/ml while Staphylococcus (0.86 × 106 CFU/ml and Streptococcus (0.52 × 106 CFU/ml were most predominant Gram-positive species isolated from uterine flushing. The pre-treatment SAA values (μg/ml varied significantly (p<0.01 between the treatment groups whereas no difference was observed in post-treatment groups. No significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for Hp values between the treatment groups, but the mean SAA (μg/ml and Hp (μg/ml levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher in pre-treatment when compared to post-treatment within the groups. Conclusion: In the diagnosis and monitoring of bovine endometritis, both SAA and Hp might serve as reliable biomarkers.

  20. Population Structure and Genomic Breed Composition in an Angus-Brahman Crossbred Cattle Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobena, Mesfin; Elzo, Mauricio A; Mateescu, Raluca G

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreeding is a common strategy used in tropical and subtropical regions to enhance beef production, and having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential for the success of a crossbreeding program. Although pedigree records have been traditionally used to obtain the breed composition of crossbred cattle, the accuracy of pedigree-based breed composition can be reduced by inaccurate and/or incomplete records and Mendelian sampling. Breed composition estimation from genomic data has multiple advantages including higher accuracy without being affected by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records and the ability to be used as independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products. The present study was conducted with 676 Angus-Brahman crossbred cattle with genotype and pedigree information to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using genomic data to determine breed composition. We used genomic data in parametric and non-parametric methods to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships. By applying principal component analysis (PCA) and the maximum likelihood method of ADMIXTURE to genomic data, it was possible to successfully characterize population structure resulting from heterogeneous breed ancestry, while accounting for close familial relationships. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus-Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage-indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals. This was most likely due

  1. Population Structure and Genomic Breed Composition in an Angus–Brahman Crossbred Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Gobena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding is a common strategy used in tropical and subtropical regions to enhance beef production, and having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential for the success of a crossbreeding program. Although pedigree records have been traditionally used to obtain the breed composition of crossbred cattle, the accuracy of pedigree-based breed composition can be reduced by inaccurate and/or incomplete records and Mendelian sampling. Breed composition estimation from genomic data has multiple advantages including higher accuracy without being affected by missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records and the ability to be used as independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products. The present study was conducted with 676 Angus–Brahman crossbred cattle with genotype and pedigree information to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using genomic data to determine breed composition. We used genomic data in parametric and non-parametric methods to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships. By applying principal component analysis (PCA and the maximum likelihood method of ADMIXTURE to genomic data, it was possible to successfully characterize population structure resulting from heterogeneous breed ancestry, while accounting for close familial relationships. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus–Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage—indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals

  2. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  3. Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdestany, Jamshid Moradi; Satpathy, S.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the current interest in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half-filling, observed in many perovskite oxides, we study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model using the Hartree-Fock mean field theory. The Hubbard-Holstein model is the simplest model containing both the Coulomb and the electron-lattice interactions, which are important ingredients in the physics of the perovskite oxides. In contrast to the half-filled Hubbard model, which always results in a single phase (either metallic or insulating), our results show that away from half-filling, a mixed phase of metallic and insulating regions occurs. As the dopant concentration is increased, the metallic part progressively grows in volume, until it exceeds the percolation threshold, leading to percolative conduction. This happens above a critical dopant concentration δc, which, depending on the strength of the electron-lattice interaction, can be a significant fraction of unity. This means that the material could be insulating even for a substantial amount of doping, in contrast to the expectation that doped holes would destroy the insulating behavior of the half-filled Hubbard model. While effects of fluctuation beyond the mean field remain an open question, our results provide a starting point for the understanding of the density-driven metal-insulator transition observed in many complex oxides.

  4. Genetic parameters for fertility measurements ind Holstein heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. H.; Sørensen, A. C.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    first to last insemination (IFL), age at first insemination (AFI), and age at first calving (AFC) in Danish Holstein heifers. The means of the traits were all significantly different between the two groups of herds. Heritabilities for NINS and IFL were lower than 1%, while heritabilities for AFI and AFC...... were 12–29%. Heritabilities were all lower in Heatime herds than in reference herds. The genetic correlations between traits in different environments were high for NINS, AFI, and AFC (>0.88), while the correlation for IFL was 0.68 but with a higher SE (0.313). Thus, IFL seems not to be the same trait...

  5. Productive, physiological and biochemical changes in imported and locally born Friesian and holstein lactating cow under hot summer conditions of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Marai, I.F.M.; Gabr, H.; Farghaly, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of 20 of each of healthy lactating friesian and holstein cows similar age and body weight, non-pregnant at the 3 rd lactation season, 80-100 days postpartum, were used in the present study. The investigation was carried out in two farms at the same time during the hot summer season of egypt and lasted 8 weeks. The first farm was in damietta (North east of the nile delta, 31 degree 40 N) including 20 friesian cows and the second one was in Fakous (East of the Nile delta 30 degree 40 N) including 20 holstein cows. In each of the two farms, 10 cows were newly imported and other 10 ones were born in egypt. The results showed that the newly imported cows were significantly (P <0.01) higher than the locally born cows in average daily milk yield, as well as, milk production in both friesian and holstein strains at the same time, the newly imported cows were significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower than the locally born in T4, T3, urea-N, blood picture values and GPT enzyme activity in the two strains of cattle, while the locally born cows showed significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower values in rectal temperature and respiration rate, as well as, Got and ALK-P enzymes activities than in the newly imported cows either in friesian or holstein cattle. Holstein cows surpassed friesian ones (P < 0.01 or 0.05) in milk production, thyroid hormones content, cholesterol, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte count values. The opposite was true in serum total protein, urea-N, creatinine concentrations, leucocyte counts, Got, GPT and ALK-P enzymes activities

  6. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  7. Down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Lin; Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Min-Yan; Li, Hui-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Heat stress can weaken the immune system and even increase livestock's susceptibility to disease. MicroRNA (miR) is short non-coding RNA that functions in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and some phenotypes. Our recent study found that miR-181a is highly expressed in the serum of heat-stressed Holstein cows, but the potential function of miR-181a is still not clarified. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from Holstein cows' peripheral blood, were used to investigate the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on heat stress damage. Our results showed that significant apoptosis and oxidative damage were induced by heat stress in PBMCs. However, with apoptosis, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced, while the content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased even under heat stress conditions after transfecting miR-181a inhibitors to PBMCs. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of bax and caspase-3 was significantly decreased, but mRNA expression of bcl-2 was increased in transfected PBMCs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

  8. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  9. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2009-01-01

    , it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...

  10. Identification of genomic regions associated with resistance to clinical mastitis in US Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to identify genomic regions associated with clinical mastitis (MAST) in US Holsteins using producer-reported data. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed on deregressed PTA using GEMMA v. 0.94. Genotypes included 60,671 SNP for all predictor bulls (n...

  11. Compensatory gain of crossbred heifers supplemented in pastures under evaluation hormonal profile and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Trindade Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to verify the effect of nutritional management that alternates periods of energy/protein restriction and refeeding of grazing crossbred heifers during their prepuberty on the hormonal profile and blood parameters. The study was conducted at Princesa do Mateiro farm in Ribeirão do Largo, in the southwest region of the state of Bahia. Twenty crossbred heifers 5/8 Dairy Guzerat x 3/8 Dutch with an average age of 12 months and average body weight of 187 ± 13.74 kg were used at the beginning of the experiment. It lasted 238 days, 14 out of them were for the animals’ adaptation. The animals were kept in rotational grazing of Brachiariabrizantha cv. Marandú pastures and randomly assigned to two treatments: Control (T100 = animals receiving concentrate supplement to supply 100% of the nutrients requirement to gain 750 g day-1 of live weight and Compensatory Nutrition (CN. The animals of the CN treatment alternated periods of Restriction (T80 = receiving concentrate supplement to meet 80% of the demand for nutrients of the (T100 and periods of Refeeding (T120 = getting concentrate supplement to supply 120% of the nutrient requirements of the (T100 The final plasma concentrations of IGF-I, glucose and urea were higher (P0.05. There were positive correlations (P<0.05 between IGF-I, insulin, glucose and cholesterol, and a negative correlation (P<0.05 between IGF-I and urea. There were also positive correlation (P<0.05 between insulin and glucose and positive correlation (P<0.05 between glucose and cholesterol. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 of the urea with cholesterol, progesterone and protein. Progesterone also showed a positive correlation (P<0.05 with the protein.

  12. Effect of Supplementations of Comin+ and Zn-biocomplex on the performances of Ettawa Crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of ruminant feeds is greatly determined by ruminal fermentation which in turn is greatly affected by micro-ecology of the rumen. Manipulation of micro-ecology such as supplementing with various yeasts or micro elements could improve digestibility of the feed. The effect of Comin+ (R1 and Zn-biocomplex (R2 alone or their combination (R3 on performance of Ettawa Crossbred kids, fed concentrate containing Aspergillus oryzae (R0 was studied. Twenty four Ettawa Crossbred kids (6-8 month of age; initial liveweights =16.63±2.10 kg were divided into 4 groups. Feeds given were King grass (Pennicetum purpuroides ad libitum and concentrate. The observations were carried out for 16 weeks with 2 weeks adaptation period and the experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 6 replications. The results showed that supplementations significantly (P < 0.05 increased total DM intakes from 685 g/d (R0 became 748, 711 and 858 g/d; and grass DM intakes from 304 g/d (R0 became 373, 331 and 479 g/d for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Digestibilities of DM, NDF and DE/GE were not affected by supplementation, but supplementations significantly (P < 0.05 affected digestibilities of ADF and CP. Supplementation also significantly improved (P < 0.05 ADG from 65.18 g/d (R0 became 94.64, 83.04 and 90.77 g/d; and FCR from 10.51 (R0 became 7.82, 8.36 and 9.46 for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. It was concluded that supplementation of Comin+ (R1 gave the best growth performance of Ettawa Croosbred goats, where ADG and FCR improved by 45.20% and 34.40%.

  13. Finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron: The thermo-field dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Combining the multiple Davydov D2 Ansatz with the method of thermo-field dynamics, we study finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron on a lattice. It has been demonstrated, using the hierarchy equations of motion method as a benchmark, that our approach provides an efficient, robust description of finite temperature dynamics of the Holstein polaron in the simultaneous presence of diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling. The method of thermo-field dynamics handles temperature effects in the Hilbert space with key numerical advantages over other treatments of finite-temperature dynamics based on quantum master equations in the Liouville space or wave function propagation with Monte Carlo importance sampling. While for weak to moderate diagonal coupling temperature increases inhibit polaron mobility, it is found that off-diagonal coupling induces phonon-assisted transport that dominates at high temperatures. Results on the mean square displacements show that band-like transport features dominate the diagonal coupling cases, and there exists a crossover from band-like to hopping transport with increasing temperature when including off-diagonal coupling. As a proof of concept, our theory provides a unified treatment of coherent and incoherent transport in molecular crystals and is applicable to any temperature.

  14. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  15. Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kumaresan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred cows with mummified fetus were utilized for the study. The cows weresubjected togynecologicalexamination and based on the findings the cases were diagnosed asmummified fetus. The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 μg cloprostenoland were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and othersigns related to fetal expulsion. The time duration between treatment and starting of cervicaldilatation ranged from 48 to 58h (53.00 ± 2.08 hr. Complete dilatation of cervix was observedafter 70.00 ± 2.94 hr post treatment (Range = 64-76 hr. The mean fetalcrown-rump length(CRL was 31.5 cm, which ranged from 27.5 to 38 cm. The number of cotyledons in pregnanthorn also showed wide variation (Range 24-38 numbers with mean ± SE of 30.3 ± 3.07numbers. In the placenta of three animals irregular shaped large adventitious cotyledons wereobserved in the inter-cotyledonary areas. Out of the four animals treated, three animals wereconceived within three estrous cycles and one animal had cystic ovary in the next cycle and wasnot conceived even after four cycles. It was concluded that the estradiolandprostaglandin F2α(PGF2αcombinationtherapy was effective for expulsion of mummified fetus in crossbred cowswithout affecting much on future fertility.

  16. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  17. Effects of dietary yeastβ-glucan on nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; GUO Jiang-peng; DENG Kai-dong; ZHOU Yi; YUN Qiang; DIAO Qi-yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan on the nutrient digestibility and serum proifles in pre-ruminant Holstein calves. Forty-two neonatal Holstein calves ((39.6±4.2) kg) were randomly al otted to six groups, and each was offered one of the fol owing diets:a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75, 100 or 200 mg of yeastβ-glucan kg–1 feed (dry matter basis). The basal diet consisted of a milk replacer and a starter feed. The trial lasted for 56 d. Two digestibility trials were conducted from d 14 to 20 and from d 42 to 48. Blood samples were col ected on d 0, 14, 28 and 42 for serum proifle analyses. On d 56, three calves from each group were slaughtered, and intestinal samples were col ected to assess the vil ous height, crypt depth and mucosal thickness. Although feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), the average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratios were higher (P0.05). Compared with the control group, supplementation of yeastβ-glucan decreased (P0.05). The supplementation of yeastβ-glucan stimu-lated the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The lysozyme (LYZ) concentration increased quadratical y (P<0.05) with increasing yeastβ-glucan levels. The results suggested that dietary supplementation of yeastβ-glucan at 75 mg kg–1 feed improved nutrient digestibility, enhanced immunity by increasing the immunoglobulin concentration and stimulating ALP, and exerted no adverse effects on metabolism in pre-ruminant calves.

  18. Quasi-exact solvability of the one-dimensional Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Dai Lianrong; Draayer, J P

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional Holstein model of spinless fermions interacting with dispersionless phonons is solved by using a Bethe ansatz in analogue to that for the one-dimensional spinless Fermi-Hubbard model. Excitation energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the model are determined by a set of partial differential equations. It is shown that the model is, at least, quasi-exactly solvable for the two-site case, when the phonon frequency, the electron-phonon coupling strength and the hopping integral satisfy certain relations. As examples, some quasi-exact solutions of the model for the two-site case are derived. (letter to the editor)

  19. Comparison of holstein and jersey milk production with a new stochastic animal reproduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsteins and Jerseys are the most popular breeds in the US dairy industry. We built a stochastic, Monte Carlo life events simulation model in Python to test if Jersey cattle’s higher conception rate offsets their lower milk production. The model simulates individual cows and their life events such ...

  20. Comparison of clinical signs and bacterial isolates of postpartum endometritis in holstein dairy cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the uterine bacteria in cows with endometritis and to compare other characteristics in cases of endometritis without bacterial growth, with Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes or other bacteria. In total, 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis from 13 commercial dairy herds were sampled once between 21-35 days postpartum. We used several diagnostic techniques for endometritis such as external observation, vaginal exam, rectal palpation, ultrasonography, and cervical and uterine cytological examination. Clear mucus with flakes of pus (E1, mucopurulent discharge (E2, and purulent discharge (E3 are three groups of endometritis. A transcervical double-guarded swab was used for bacterial sampling. The samples were cultured aerobic and anaerobically and biochemical tests were used for differentiation. Measurements were compared between groups: A, no growth (n=47; B, positive bacterial growth without T. pyogenes (n=21; and C, positive bacterial growth with T. pyogenes (n=18. There were no differences (P>0.05 in uterine wall thickness, body condition score (BCS and milk yield between the groups. The uterine horn diameter was largest in groups A (4.30±0.88 in comparison with groups B (4.81±1.17 and C (5.53±2.17 (P<0.05. The percentage of neutrophiles in smears of the uterine discharge (45.7±33.4 in group C was higher (P<0.05 than in groups A (14.5±22.7 and B (23.5±24.0. Eighty-three percent of group C have shown purulent discharge. In conclusion, the facultative anaerobe T. pyogenes may be the most common bacterial agent of postpartum endometritis in Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

  1. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Dahl, G E; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. Three variants with moderate effects on the () gene were identified in 2 Larson blue cows. Despite being lighter in color, there was no difference in daily variation in vaginal temperature between Larson Blue and other Holsteins when recorded during the summer for cows housed in free-stall barns with shade, fans, and sprinklers. Similarly, there was no effect of the Larson Blue phenotype on seasonal variation in milk yield. Therefore, the phenotype confers no advantage in terms of response to heat stress when cattle are housed in facilities with extensive cooling.

  2. SLAUGHTERING QUALITY OF CROSSBRED PIGS WITH GERMAN LANDRACE AND PIETRAIN AS TERMINAL BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aim of slaugtering quality improvement of pigs, crossbred sows of Large White and Swedish Landrace (F1 are crossed with German Landrace, Pietrain or some other boars from exemptionaly lean breeds. Triple crosses between Large White, Swedish Landrace and Pietrain are different from triple crosses with German Landrace as terminal breed regarding the conformation and leaness of carcasses and meat quality. Triple crosses with Pietrain have bigger ham diameter (72.40 cm: 70.30 cm, bigger share of ham (29.24% : 28.54%, necks (8.05% : 7.64% and belly-rib parts (19.15% : 17.33%, better leaness (55.64% : 53.40%, lower pH2 values in muscle tissue (5,50 : 5,86, lower water holding capacity (9.70 cm2: 8.50 cm2 and paler color (58.00 : 65.50 Göfo values.

  3. Relationships between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition, acetone and urea content in milk and cervical mucus and sperm survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Beran; Luděk Stádník; Jaromír Ducháček; Monika Okrouhlá

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition score (BCS), acetone and urea content in the milk and cervical mucus (CM) and sperm survival in CM. At insemination, samples of milk and CM were collected from 64 Holstein cows. Content of acetone and urea were determined. Sperm motility was assessed subjectively at the beginning and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the short-term heat test in CM. Data about evaluation of cow’s BCS we...

  4. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  5. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  6. Genome-wide association mapping for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2010-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was conducted using a mixed model analysis for QTL for fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,531 progeny tested bulls, and a total of 36 387 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Eleven fertility traits were ana...

  7. Influence of clinical mastitis and its treatment outcome on reproductive performance in crossbred cows: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. Materials and Methods: Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012 were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH, days to first insemination (DTFI, days open (DO, and number of services per conception (SC were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 20 software. The means were compared with the Duncan's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Results: CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05 higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with a single episode of CM had significantly (p<0.05 delayed DTFDH while, DO and SC were significantly higher (p<0.05 in cows diagnosed by multiple episodes of CM. SC was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cows diagnosed with both relapse and recurrence. Severe CM affected cows had significantly (p<0.05 altered reproductive parameters. The reproductive parameters were altered to high extent when CM occurred during the breeding period. Conclusion: CM-affected cows had higher DTFDH, DTFI, DO and SC compared to clinically healthy cows. The negative effects of CM on reproduction parameters were higher when CM occurred during the breeding period.

  8. Incidence and occurrence time of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    BOUJENANE, Ismail; AIMANI, Jalila EL; BY, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) and its risk factors in 1725 Holstein cows. Data were collected from a private farm from 2008 to 2012. The analysis of risk factors, performed with logistic regression, showed that cows at parity 2, 3, and 4 had 65%, 88%, and 115% risk of mastitis, respectively. This risk was higher (P < 0.001) than in cows at first parity. Cows that calved from October to January had the highest (P < 0.05) risk of masti...

  9. Gastrointestinal parasite control during prepuberty improves mammary parenchyma development in Holstein heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, AF; Mejía, ME; Licoff, N; Diab, SS; Formía, N; Ornstein, A; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, IM

    2013-01-01

    Parasitism during development impairs normal growth and delays the onset of puberty through altered hormone profiles, including insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1).Asmammary gland development during prepuberty is strongly dependent on IGF-1, we determined if antiparasitic treatment during this stage of growth improved mammary gland development. One group of Holstein heifers was treated monthly, rotationally with antiparasitic drugs from birth to 70 weeks of age, a secon...

  10. Preliminary analysis on hybrid vigor in Indonesian indigenous and crossbred cattle population using data from published studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S.; Widi, TSM; Widyas, N.

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid vigor or heterosis is the phenomenon where a crossbreed progeny has better performance compared to its parents. Heterosis can be quantified relative to the mid-parents value or relative to one of its parent’s population average by crossing two breeds. Crossbreeding is aimed to increase the production performance of local breeds. According to the Indonesian government policy, crossbreeding program is one of main strategies to achieve meat self-sufficiency. We explore the possibilities observing of heterosis exhibited by crossing Bali and Peranakan Onggole (PO) cattle as local breed with the exotic breed based on the published data. In this paper, growth and reproductive traits from Bali and PO from year 2000-2010 were used for analysis. Moreover, Limousine and Simmental exotic breed data were collected from official information of artificial insemination (AI) centre. Data in growth trait (chest girth, mature weight, weaning weight and yearling weight) in all breeds and their crosses were then analysed using standard heterosis estimation method. Result, shows that crossbred offspring perform better in the growth trait in relative to Bali and PO as local breed. Specifically in Bali crossed with PO, the offspring shown better estimated heterosis effect in yearling weight compared to both parents. Despite heterosis were observed in some traits, careful planning of crossbreeding program is a must in order to avoid the loss of genetic variance.

  11. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  12. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Šimková; Miloslav Šoch; Kateřina Švejdová; Kristýna Šimák-Líbalová; Luboš Smutný; Šárka Smutná; Bohuslav Čermák; Iveta Novotná

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120) in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The ...

  13. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  14. Atrial Fibrillation in a Diarrheic Holstein Dairy Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac auscultation of a 10-day-old diarrheic female Holstein dairy calf revealed irregularities in rhythm and absence of 4th heart sound. Electrocardiogram (ECG and blood sample were obtained before and after the treatment. Based on ECG and cardiac auscultation findings, atrial fibrillation (AF was diagnosed. Serum sodium, calcium and magnesium before treatment were significantly lower than their reference ranges and potassium was significantly higher. One day after treating this patient, serum electrolytes were reached to reference ranges and AF was changed to normal sinus rhythm. Based on resolving the AF after treating the patient and correcting the electrolyte imbalances, it can be suggested that electrolyte imbalances were the main cause of the occurrence of AF in the present case.

  15. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  16. Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Zambrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI, days open (DO, number of services per conception (NSC and conception rate (CR in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia. Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors were: 0.088(0.037, 0.082(0.037, 0.040(0.025 and 0.030(0.026 in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098, 0.090(0.104, 0.093(0.097 and 0.147(0.117 in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (<8% in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.

  17. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  18. Effect of anthelmintics on reproductive performance and first-lactation culling rate in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Miglierina, M M; Formía, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2009-12-26

    Female Holstein calves were treated with ivermectin from birth to first oestrus to study the effect of parasitic burden and anthelmintic treatment on reproductive and productive performance. First oestrus, age at first service and age at calving were advanced by 30, 70 and 110 days, respectively (P<0.05), in ivermectin-treated animals compared with controls. No significant differences were observed in the conception rate, the number of services and the characteristics of the newborn calves and any problems at calving between the two groups. Daily milk yield, fat content in milk during first lactation, and the concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor type 1, insulin and prolactin in serum were similar in both groups of cows. Culling during the first lactation was more common in untreated (47 per cent) than in treated (11 per cent) cows (P<0.05).

  19. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  20. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  1. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study ...

  3. Study of mutations available in first-halfexon 2 of GDF9 gene in crossbred sheep born from crossing of Romanov rams with Kermani ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Khodabakhshzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For decreasing the numberofbreedingewes onpastures and prevention of demolition pastures, Animal breedingprograms are necessary on genes with major effects on litter size in Iranian sheep breeds for Identify effective candidate genes on these economical traits .The GDF9 gene is one of the most important effective factors on litter size in sheep. The aim of the present study was to identify G2, G3 and G4 mutations in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in crossbred sheep (Romanov rams×Kermani ewes using PCR-SSCP. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein of 121 crossbred individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted using salting-out method. Partial region of exon 2 (633 bp segments of GDF9 gene was amplified with designed specific primers. The single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP patterns of PCR products were studied using acrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver-nitrate staining method. Finally, we obtained 5 banding patterns 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 with frequencies of 0.314, 0.024, 0.289, 0.232 & 0.141, respectively. The sequencing results showed presence 5 mutations in the studied population.

  4. Genetic analysis of body condition score of lactating Dutch Holstein and Red-and-White heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dobbelaar, P.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for body condition scores (BCS) from the Dutch type classification system. Data included 108,809 Holstein (H) and 26,208 Red-and-White (R) heifers from 9701 herds that were scored once during lactation on a 1 to 9 scale (1 =

  5. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  6. Blood serum metabolites and meat quality in crossbred pigs experiencing different lairage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juric

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigs of two crosses: A (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain (n=24 and B (Swedish Landrace x Large White x Pietrain (n=26 were used to investigate the effects of different lairage time (2 and 24 hours on levels of stress and meat quality traits. No direct effect of lairage time on cortisol, lactate, electrolytes and meat quality parameters was observed. However, after long lairage time, pigs showed lower level of glucose and higher CK, AST and ALT activity. Crossbred B pigs exposed to short lairage time, showed higher blood lactate, sodium, and potassium level, higher drip loss and lower pHi, whereas there were no significant differences between the crossbreeds in the long lairage group. The results indicate that long lairage time decreases blood glucose level and produces signs of muscle damage. In the short lairage period, the crossbreed B showed a higher response to pre-slaughter handling affecting the meat quality.

  7. Efecto de la raza y la edad sobre las concentraciones de hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 de bovinos en condiciones tropicales Effect of the breed and age on the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 concentrations in bovines under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Campos Gaona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el efecto en condiciones de trópico seco de la edad y del grupo racial sobre las concentraciones séricas de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4, se muestrearon 158 animales de los grupos raciales Holstein, Lucerna, Hartón del Valle, Cebú Brahman y mestizo F1 (Cebú Brahman x Pardo Suizo, distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad desde el nacimiento hasta el destete (8 meses. La concentración media de T3 fue 2.25 mmol/L y la de T4, 57.37 mmol/L. La correlación entre T3 y T4 fue de 0.53. Se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa para el efecto grupo racial, grupo de edad (PTo study the effect of age and breed on blood concentration of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 under the dry tropic conditions, 158 animals from the groups Holstein, Lucerna, Hartón del Valle, Brahman and crossbred F1 Brahman x Brown Swiss were sampled. The animals were allocated in four age groups from newborns calves until eight month old. The average T3 concentration was of 2.25 mmolL-¹ and the T4 was of 57.37 mmolL-¹. The correlation between T3 and T4 was of 0.53. A statistical significant difference (p<0.001 was found for the effects of age breed and group, but not difference was found for the interaction between breed and age (p=0.286. The breeds with higher blood concentrations of T3 and T4 were Holstein and Lucerna. The lowest concentration was found among the crossbred group. The higher concentration of T3 and T4 of thyroid hormones was found in the newborn group. As the calves grow, the concentrations of T3 and T4 decrease progressively. This study found that under dry tropic conditions, in a thermo-neutral borderline zone (according to the THI index the young bovines show clear differences in the concentration of the thyroid hormones

  8. Comparison of Genetic Parameters Estimation of Fatty Acids from Gas Chromatography and FT-IR in Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Eskildsen, Carl Emil; Skov, T.

    or on fatty acids data measured from gas chromatography in 371 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed similar heritability estimates and strong genomic correlations for most of the fatty acids. However, for some fatty acids, the choice of data affected the genetic parameter estimation, which may be due...

  9. Guiding principles for energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein set forward in this brochure are neither an energy programme nor a descriptive report on the policy of the day. Rather, they are intended to mark the energy-political frame of action within which the government of the Land will more. At the same time their purpose is to provide a medium-term orientation for politics and the power economy, consumers and producers. They are thus consciously made to contrast with political trends conceiving energy policy first of all as a plan-dependent activity. With these guiding principles the government of the Land consistantly continues an energy policy it has exposed in detail in its answer to the Question submitted by the CDU parliamentary party on December 8, 1980. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Physical quality of Simental Ongole crossbred silverside meat at various boiling times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, J.; Cahyadi, M.; Guntari, W. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the physical quality of silverside beef meat at various boiling times. Samples that have been used are the back thigh or silverside meat. Treatment of boiling meat included TR (meat without boiled), R15 (boiled 15 minutes), and R30 (boiled for 30 minutes). The experimental design using Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Each replication was done in triple physical quality test. Determination of physical quality was performed at the Livestock Industry and Processing Laboratory at Sebelas Maret University Surakarta and the Meat Technology Laboratory at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Gadjah Mada University. The result of variance analysis showed that boiling affect cooking loss (P≥0.05) and but did not affect (P≤0,05) pH, water holding capacity and meat tenderness. The conclusions of the study showed that boiling for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreased the cooking loss of Simental Ongole Crossbred silverside meat. Meat physical quality of pH, water holding capacity and the value of tenderness is not affected by boiling for 15 and 30 minutes.

  11. FEEDING EFFECT OF INULIN DERIVED FROM DAHLIA TUBER COMBINED WITH Lactobacillus sp. ON MEAT PROTEIN MASS OF CROSSBRED KAMPONG CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Abdurrahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus sp. and inulin derived from dahlia tuber powder on antioxidant activity, calcium mass, and protein mass of crossbred kampong chicken meat. A total of  168 birds of 21 days old crossbred kampong chickens were randomly allocated into 6 treatments with four replications per treatment. The present experiment was assigned in  a completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial scheme. The first factor was levels of dahlia tuber powder, namely 0.8% (A1 and 1.2% (A2, and the second factor was levels of Lactobacillus sp., namely none (B0, 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL/B1 and 2.4 mL (108 cfu/mL/B2. The parameters measured were antioxidant activity, meat calcium and protein mass. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by Duncan multiple range test (P<0.05 when the treatment indicated significant effect. The supplementation of dahlia tuber powder and Lactobacillus sp. significantly (P<0.05 increased antioxidant activity and protein mass of meat. However, calcium mass of meat was not significantly affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding dahlia tuber powder at the level of 1.2% combined with Lactobacillus sp. at 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL, can be categorized as the best combination based on the increase in antioxidant activity and meat protein mass.  

  12. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present......, reflecting the “fingerprint” of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  14. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2018-02-01

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  16. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  17. Effect of dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance and functional longevity in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dystocia on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in Iranian Holsteins. Data consisted of 1 467 064 lactation records of 581 421 Holstein cows from 3083 herds which were collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from April 1987 to February 2014. Reproduction traits in this study included interval from first to second calving, days open and days from first calving to first service. The generalized linear model was used for the statistical analysis of reproductive traits. Survival analysis was performed using the Weibull proportional hazards models to analyse the impact of dystocia on functional longevity. The incidence of dystocia had an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, reproductive traits deteriorated along with increase in dystocia score (p dystocia (p 33 months had the greatest risk (p dystocia had important negative effects on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in dairy cows, and it should be avoided as much as possible to provide a good perspective in the scope of economic and animal welfare issues in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  19. The Comparison of Ruminal Protozoa Morphology and Population of Holstein Cow and Khuzestan Water Buffalo under the Same Feeding Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabbari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to compare the population and morphology of ruminal protozoa of Holstein and Khuzestan water buffalo steers fed with the same diet. Rumen fluid collected from cow and buffaloes (12 head that were fed with the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. The collected samples were fixed by formaldehyde 18.5%, and ciliates were counted and their genus and species were determined. The results of this experiment showed, total rumen protozoal number of khuzestani water buffalo was higher than the cattle (3.68×105 vs. 2.18×105/ mL of rumen content, respectively. The genus of Diplodinium, Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Holotriches of cow and water buffalo was 37.63, 48.77, 0, 3.75, 9.83 and 44.47, 42.35, 5.31, 0.68, 7.18 %, respectively. There was no species from Epidinium genus (Epidinium ecaudatum and Epidinium cudatum and Diplodinium cristagalli species in the rumen of cattle, but they found in the rumen of khuzestani water Buffalo. Also it was identified that there was Ophryoscolex purkynei in both rumen cattle and water buffalo, but in the rumen of cattle was higher in comparison to the buffalos. Therefore, it appears under the same diet, there is a significant difference in total rumen protozoal number and species of Holstein cow and Khuzestani water buffalo.

  20. Relation between Climate and Milk Yield of Holstein in Nanshan%南山气候与荷斯坦奶牛泌乳量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿燃莉; 卿国清; 严光荣; 杨志军; 谢美兰

    2017-01-01

    南山是中国南方独特的天然草场,气候温凉,年平均气温11.2℃,最热月7月平均气温为18.4℃,极端最高气温26.8℃,最冷月1月平均气温2.2℃,极端最低气温-16.0℃,荷斯坦奶牛耐寒怕热,适宜温度为11-16℃,适宜在南山养殖,每头奶牛年产奶量为6900 kg,达到产奶量先进水平,其产奶量高峰值在6月,产奶量低值出现在10月.%Nanshan, an unique natural meadow, has cool climate. In Nanshan, annual average temperature was 11.2 ℃; average temperature in the hottest month July was 18.4 ℃, and extremely maximum temperature was 26.8 ℃; average temperature in the coldest month January was 2.2 ℃, and extremely minimum temperature in February was -16.0 ℃. Holstein is resistant to low temperature but not resistant to high temperature. The suitable temperature for Holstein ranges from 11 to 16 ℃,so the climatic environment in Nanshan is suitable for the breeding of Holstein. Annual average milk yield of each Holstein was up to 6900 kg, reaching the advanced level of annual average milk yield of each Holstein in China. The milk yield of cows was the highest in June and the lowest in October.

  1. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...

  2. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  3. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  4. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  5. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  6. Effect on incorporating urea molasses mineral block lick in the diet of crossbred calves on the protozoal production rate in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, M.R.; Gupta, B.N.; Singh, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen male rumen fistulated calves (18-24 months of age; 180-200 kg body wt) were divided into four groups of four animals each. Animals in all groups were fed wheat straw ad lib as the sole roughage. However, animals in Gr I were fed concentrate mixture at maintenance level whereas, animals in Gr II, III and IV had free access to urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) lick existing modified 'A' and modified 'B', respectively without any concentrate mixture. Dry matter intake (kg/100 kg body wt) were similar in four groups. However, straw intake was significantly higher in UMMB supplemented groups. Protozoa production rate (gN/d) was significantly higher in Gr I (7.112 + 0.27) as compared to Gr II (4.302 + 0.51), Gr III (4.743 + 0.27) and Gr IV (4.501 + 0.25). Thus, these results indicated that protozoal production rate in the rumen is significantly lower when crossbred calves were fed on wheat straw based diet supplemented with different UMMB licks as compared to those fed concentrate mixture at maintenance level. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Short communication. Behavioural activities of two dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian vs. Jersey x Holstein-Friesian in two milk production systems (grazing vs. confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Roca-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the behavioural activities of two cow genotypes, Holstein-Friesian (HF vs. Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (Jx, when managed within two production systems, a low inputs grazing (G system vs. a high inputs confinement (C system. Eighty spring calving cows (HF, n=40 and Jx, n=40, from AFBI Hillsborough (Northern Ireland experimental dairy cattle, were randomly assigned to one of two production systems (G, n=40 and C, n=40 in a block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments (HF-G, HF-C, Jx-G and Jx-C. Cow behavioural activities (feeding, lying, standing and ruminating were registered on three periods at 20-min intervals, between 16.00-22.00 h and 07.00-14.00 h. Average milk yields (kg cow-1 day-1 were higher (p<0.001 in the C system (27.0 than in the G system (20.1, with differences (p<0.001 between the two cow genotypes (HF, 25.1 vs. Jx, 22.0 kg cow-1 day-1. Milk production system showed an effect on cow behavioural activities. Animals on the G system spent more time (p<0.001 grazing (522 min than those on the C system spent feeding (173 min. Cows on the C system spent more time (p<0.001 lying (C, 411 vs. G, 212 min, standing (C, 236 vs. G, 85 min and ruminating (C, 244 vs. G, 141 min than those on the G system. There were differences between periods for time spent lying (p<0.001, feeding (p<0.05 and ruminating (p<0.001, while time spent standing did not differ between periods. Cow genotype had no effect on any of the behavioural activities.

  8. A case of mesothelioma in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francoz, D.

    2004-01-01

    A seven-year old Holstein cow was referred to the Saint Hyacinth (Quebec) veterinary school for anorexia, progressive weight loss, rapid decline in milk production and abdominal pain. Due to the presence of abdominal and thoracic fluid, abdominal pain and tachycardia with jugular pulse, initially a possible diagnosis was traumatic reticuloperitonitis and pericarditis, but excluded after radiography and ultrasonography. On exploratory laparotomy, numerous 1 to 50 mm diameter nodules were seen on the peritoneum and throughout the abdominal serosa. The animal was euthanased due to the presence of generalised tumour. On histopathology, a mesothelioma was diagnosed. Mesothelioma is rarely diagnosed in cattle. However, it is impossible to know whether this is due to its rarity or to the fact that it may be easily mistaken for other diseases and its histological diagnosis is currently difficult [it

  9. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  10. Possibilities of electricity generation in Schleswig-Holstein without using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer; Kohler; Natsch; Rossnagel; Sailer.

    1986-10-01

    The study is arranged in three main parts: Part A discusses safety reasons for backing out of nuclear energy utilisation, and the current legal situation and available scope of action. Part B investigates the technical feasibility of an immediate, complete reactor shut-down in Schleswig-Holstein (in 1987). Part C deals with the framework conditions of a nuclear power shut-off and with accompanying measures on the energy market. According to the order, the main goal of the study was to prove that a nuclear power shut-off is technically feasible. So this study presents assessments with a view to technical feasibility, legal scope of action, costs, ecological effects, and alternative strategies for efficient energy policy on the Land level. This relatively restricted framework, considering exclusively the possibilities of the Land Schleswig-Holstein, necessarily brings about a reduction of the scope of action or optimisation. It is therefore recommended to have an analysis prepared that considers the country as a whole, in order to enhance perspectives and the scope of action. The study does not deal with aspects such as political acceptability and feasibility, or concrete legal processes or procedural steps that would have to be taken in case of backing out and making the turn in energy. The study to a great part relies on assumptions and framework conditions defined in another study by the authors Mueller-Reissmann and Schaffner, entitled 'Power generation without nuclear energy - consequences of backing out of nuclear power'. A brief summary of this study is given in the appendix to the study in hand. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Meat and nutritional quality comparison of purebred and crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chai, Jie; Luo, Zonggang; He, Hang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhou, Qinfei

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs. Moreover, LY had higher values for post mortem pH and lower values for a* and b* than the purebreds. In contrast, DLY had lower values for pH and higher values for a* and b* than the purebreds. Meat quality-related gene analysis showed that the CAST, IGF2 and MC4R gene expression levels in the LY and DLY pigs were significantly higher than those in the D, L and Y pigs. These results indicate that crossbreeding can alter the meat quality, nutritive value, energy metabolism and gene expression of pigs. Future research should focus on microRNA expression and DNA methylation that regulate gene expression and thus affect the meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  13. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation,...

  14. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  15. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Huo, Dongxue; Hu, Qisong; Peng, Qiannan

    2017-02-08

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural difference to the genera of Sutterella, Coprococcus and Dorea. A further analysis of microbial functional features revealed that the biosynthesis of amino acids (including lysine, valine, leucine and isoleucine), lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and cofactor/vitamin biosynthesis were enriched in the buffalo. In contrast, dairy cattle had higher levels of pyruvate metabolism and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. A further correlation analysis based on different milk components and the typical microbiome uncovered a significant positive correlation between milk protein and the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids, which was also positively correlated in the genera of Parabacteroides, Dorea and Sutterella. This study will expand our understanding of the intestinal microbiome of buffalo and cattle as representative ruminants, as well as provide new views about how to improve the production and nutritional qualities of animal milk.

  16. Genetic associations between reproductive and linear-type traits of Holstein cows in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Tatiana Prestes; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Daltro, Darlene dos Santos; Braccini Neto, José; McManus, Concepta; Thaler Neto, André; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate heritability, genetic, and residual correlations between reproductive traits such as age at first calving, calving interval, dry period, and first service period and linear type traits measured in Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008 in Brazil. The (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, using the MTDFREML software. The heritability for reproductive traits and linear-type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 and f...

  17. Relationships between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition, acetone and urea content in milk and cervical mucus and sperm survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Beran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition score (BCS, acetone and urea content in the milk and cervical mucus (CM and sperm survival in CM. At insemination, samples of milk and CM were collected from 64 Holstein cows. Content of acetone and urea were determined. Sperm motility was assessed subjectively at the beginning and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the short-term heat test in CM. Data about evaluation of cow’s BCS were taken from farm evidence. The data set was analyzed using SAS/STAT software. Effect of change in cow’s BCS one month before insemination was significant only in relation to the acetone content in milk (P < 0.05. Higher values of acetone and urea content were found in the CM compared to milk. Higher levels of both metabolites were detected in primiparous cows and in cows on the third and subsequent lactation, resp. in cows inseminated 3 times and more. The highest values of both metabolites negatively affected sperm survival during the short-term heat test, especially after 90 minutes (P < 0.05–0.01. Significant decreases (P < 0.05–0.01 were detected in cows with the highest level of acetone and urea.

  18. Sahiwal-Friesian Crossbreds for Milk Production at Loldia Estate in a Semi-Arid Area of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhuyi, W.B.; Lokwaleput, I.

    1999-01-01

    Data for this study was obtained from the Sahiwal-Friesian crossbred herd at Loldia Estate on northern shore of Lake Naivasha in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. Records on performance traits included milk yield, lactation length, age at first calving, calving interval, survival rate, herd structure and size for the period 1986-1991. The total herd size was 430 head of cattle and consisted of 33% calves, 14% steers, 14% heifers and breeding cows 39%.The mean Location Milk yield was 2,785 + or -- 871 kg (M + or - S.D) with a coefficient of variation of 31.26%. Month of calving had no effect on milk yield. Milk yield increased with parity, first lactation yield was 2434 kg and reached maximum yield of 3158 kg in the fourth lactation, an increase of 30%

  19. Energy partition for maintenance and weight gain in Nellore and crossbred steers finished under grazing Partição de energia para mantença e ganho em novilhos nelores e mestiços terminados a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Sant´Ana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate net energy (NEm and metabolizable energy (MEm requirements for maintenance and efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintanence (k m and gain (k g of grazing Nellore and crossbred steers. It was used 24 castrated steers, 12 Nellore breed (386 kg SBW and 12 ½ Limousin-Nelore crossbred (397 kg SBW. The comparative slaughter method was used. In each genetic group, animals were grouped in three similar groups: reference; restrict feeding and ad libitum feeding. The reference group was slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment whereas the others were slaughtered at the end of it. During the 104 days of the experimental period, the group under restrict feeding had access to pastures for 3.5 hours daily whereas the group with ad libitum feeding remained on pasture full time. Forage intake was estimated in two trials by using the double-indicator method. Values of NEm, MEm, k m and k g were estimated on the basis of empty body weight (EBW through linear and non-linear model fitting. Requirements of NEm and MEm did not differ among Nellore and crossbred animals. In the linear model, the following results were obtained: Requirements of NEm = 86 kcal/kg0.75; requirements of MEm = 136 kcal/kg0.75 and k m = 0.63. Kg value was higher for Nellore animals (0.39 than for crossbred animals (k g = 0.33. Requirement of net energy of maintenance does not differ among grazing Nellores and ½ European-Nellore crossbred. For the same body weight, Nellore animals present greater fat proportion in gain composition than ½European-Nelore crossbred.Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estimar as exigências de energia líquida (ELm e metabolizável (EMm para mantença e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para mantença (k m e ganho (k g de novilhos nelores e mestiços a pasto. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos castrados, sendo 12 da raça Nelore (386 kg PCJ e 12 mestiços ½ Limousin

  20. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum

  1. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  2. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  3. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g......An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  4. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  5. Effect of tempe waste on excreation of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A Astuti

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate excretion of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats fed with fermented soybean waste. Sixteen first lactating goats were randomly allotted into four dietary treatment groups that received 50% king grass plus R1: 50% concentrate, R2: 25% concentrate and 25% fresh tempe waste, R3: 25% concentrate and 25% fermented tempe waste, and R4: 25% concentrate and 25% gelatinizing of liquid tempe waste. Fermented tempe waste was made by fermentation of tempe waste (seed content of soybean using Aspergillus niger, while for the gellatinizing of liquid tempe waste was made by gelatinized with maize flour. Protein balance studies were conducted during two week trial and at the end of the research. Urinary protein and purine derivatives were collected for analysis. Microbial–N supply was calculated from purine derivatives excretion. Results showed that nitrogen consumptions were significantly different between R4 and three other treatments and apparent digestible nitrogen in R3 were higher than that of R4 (P<0.05. The nitrogen retention in R1 and R3 were higher than that of R2 and R4. Urinary purine derivatives in this study showed that allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine in R3 were higher than that of R4, while R1 and R2 were the same and the highest uric acid excretion and total purine derivatives were observed in R3. Microbial–N supply were significantly different between all treatments where R3 was the highest. This research concluded that fermented soybean waste had the highest total purine derivatives excretion and microbial–N supply to the lactating Etawah crossbred goats.

  6. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine...... different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA....... A large region (14.9–24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97–73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP...

  7. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield Using Random Regression Test Day Model in Tehran Province Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seyeddokht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research a random regression test day model was used to estimate heritability values and calculation genetic correlations between test day milk records. a total of 140357 monthly test day milk records belonging to 28292 first lactation Holstein cattle(trice time a day milking distributed in 165 herd and calved from 2001 to 2010 belonging to the herds of Tehran province were used. The fixed effects of herd-year-month of calving as contemporary group and age at calving and Holstein gene percentage as covariate were fitted. Orthogonal legendre polynomial with a 4th-order was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. RRM using Legendre polynomials as base functions appears to be the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. The results showed that the average of heritability for the second half of lactation period was higher than that of the first half. The heritability value for the first month was lowest (0.117 and for the eighth month of the lactation was highest (0.230 compared to the other months of lactation. Because of genetic variation was increased gradually, and residual variance was high in the first months of lactation, heritabilities were different over the course of lactation. The RRMs with a higher number of parameters were more useful to describe the genetic variation of test-day milk yield throughout the lactation. In this research estimation of genetic parameters, and calculation genetic correlations were implemented by random regression test day model, therefore using this method is the exact way to take account of parameters rather than the other ways.

  8. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  9. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  10. Heritability estimates for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis status of German Holstein cows tested by fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic manifestation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in German Holstein cows. Incorporated into this study were 11,285 German Holstein herd book cows classified as MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals using fecal culture results and originating from 15 farms in Thuringia, Germany involved in a paratuberculosis voluntary control program from 2008 to 2009. The frequency of MAP-positive animals per farm ranged from 2.7 to 67.6%. The fixed effects of farm and lactation number had a highly significant effect on MAP status. An increase in the frequency of positive animals from the first to the third lactation could be observed. Threshold animal and sire models with sire relationship were used as statistical models to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of fecal culture varied from 0.157 to 0.228. To analyze the effect of prevalence on genetic parameter estimates, the total data set was divided into 2 subsets of data into farms with prevalence rates below 10% and those above 10%. The data set with prevalence above 10% show higher heritability estimates in both models compared with the data set with prevalence below 10%. For all data sets, the sire model shows higher heritabilities than the equivalent animal model. This study demonstrates that genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for paratuberculosis infection susceptibility and furthermore, leads to the conclusion that MAP detection by fecal culture shows a higher genetic background than ELISA test results. In conclusion, fecal culture seems to be a better trait to control the disease, as well as an appropriate feature for further genomic analyses to detect MAP-associated chromosome regions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of finishing diet and pre-slaughter fasting time on meat quality in crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs

  12. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND ELECTROLYTE COMPONENTS OF MILK IN SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to investigate whether the chemical and electrolyte components of milk can be used as an indicator to detect subclinical mastitis in Holstein X Haryana cows. The bacterial cultural examination revealed 32 cows comprising 34 quarters are SCM positive. SCM positive and negative samples were estimated for electrical conductivity (EC and pH with respective meters, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ with Flame photometer and chloride (Cl- by titremetric method. The result demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in EC, Na+ and Cl- and decrease in K+. After studying the correlation coefficient among the milk components and comparing them with a Gold standard (Log10 SCC separately in normal and infected milk it was found that Na+, Cl- and K+ are the indicators of SCM in the present study.

  13. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  14. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  15. Extension model of lactation curves to evaluate the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield in Holstein cows Modelo de extensão de curvas de lactação para avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palacios-Espinosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extension model of lactation curves was used to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST-r on milk yield in Holstein dairy cattle. This model use the fitted values obtained by the Wood model, and was tested on the records of 66 cows. The milk yield predicted with the extension model and the observed yield were compared and no significant differences were observed (P>0.05. Once the extension model was validated, the milk yield tests of 199 cows were used. The cows received bST-r 500mg by subcutaneous injections. The injections were applied after 100 days in milk at 14-day intervals (seven injections. The observed milk yield was compared with the yield expected by the extension model. An increase of 5.3% was observed in milk yield in response to the bST-r. This increase is lower than that reported in the literature in response to the growth hormone in dairy cattle. It is concluded that extension model used in the present work is reliable for extending the lactation curve in Holstein cows, and the increase in milk yield in response to the application of bST-r, determined in the same animal using the extension model, was lower than that reported by other authors.Um modelo de extensão de curvas de lactância foi utilizado para determinar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein. Este modelo, que utiliza os valores ajustados obtidos pelo modelo de Wood, foi testato nos registros de 66 vacas. A produção de leite predita com o modelo de extensão e a produção observada foram comparadas e não se observaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05. Uma vez validado o modelo de extensão, utilizaram-se os controles de produção de leite (de cada 15 dias de 199 vacas. As vacas receberam injeções de 500mg de bST-r via subcutânea. As injeções fora aplicadas a partir dos 100 dias de lactação a intervalos de 14 dias (sete injeções. A produção de leite observada foi

  16. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  17. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  18. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  19. Numerical and Weight Productivities of Crossbred D’man by Local Queue Fine de l’Ouest Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rekik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of F1 crossbred ewes between the prolific D’man and the local Queue fine de l’Ouest breeds (D’man x QFO mated with terminal sires of the Brune noire de Suisse (BNS breed was evaluated and compared to that of (i QFO and D’man ewes respectively mated to rams of the same breed in a research station (ESAK and of (ii QFO ewes mated to rams of the same breed in a commercial farm (El-Mabrouka. In ESAK station, data collected between 1995 and 2003, and related to 343, 168 and 323 lambings of QFO, D’man, and F1 crosses D’man x QFO ewes, respectively, were used. At birth, the mean litter size was 1.17 ± 0.37, 1.76 ± 0.71, and 1.40 ± 0.54 for ewes of the QFO, D’man, and crosses D’man x QFO genotypes, respectively, whereas at 90 days after lambing, the corresponding figures were 1.13 ± 0.40, 1.65 ± 0.70, and 1.31 ± 0.54. The year of lambing, genotype of the ewe as well as their interaction were significant sources of variation of all litter sizes. At 10 days after lambing, the weight productivity of QFO ewes was 7.3 ± 2.5 kg, and was thus significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of D’man (6.6 ± 2.7 kg, and D’man x QFO (7.0 ± 2.3 kg ewes. This trend was reversed 90 days after lambing with weight productivity of D’man x QFO, and D’man ewes reaching 22.9 ± 7.7 and 22.5 ± 12.0 kg, respectively, and that of QFO sheep 19.5 ± 6.7 kg. With the exception of the age of the ewe, all other sources of variation highly influenced (p < 0.001 most weight productivity traits. In El-Mabrouka farm, the data used concerned 1048 and 529 lambings of QFO, and D’man x QFO breeds, respectively, that occurred during years 1999, 2000 and 2001. The year of lambing, genotype of the ewe as well as its age were highly significant sources of variation for the litter size at birth. Crossbred ewes produced on average 0.2 lamb more than QFOs (p < 0.05. Difference in productivity at 70 days after lambing was approximately 3 kg in favor of D

  20. Efeito da composição genética e de fatores de meio sobre a produção de leite, a duração da lactação e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos de vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir Effects of genetic composition and environmental factors on milk production, lactation length and milk production per day of calving interval in crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Glória

    2006-12-01

    environmental factors on milk production (MP, lactation length (LL and milk yield per day of calving intervals (P/I (n=2,016 of 822 crossbred (1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows, raised in the West of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were evaluated using least squares methodology. The effect of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of the Holstein sires on MP of their daughters was also evaluated. The effect of genetic composition on the three traits was an important source of variation. MP, LL and P/I increased with the increase of Holstein contribution. Season of calving was an important source of variation for MP of 3/4 cows and for LL of 3/4 and 1/2 cows. The highest MP and LL were observed for lactations starting at the end of the rainy season. The effect of age at calving on MP was linear for 1//2 and 3/4 cows and curvilinear for 7/8 cows. For LL the effect of age at calving was curvilinear for 1/2 and 3/4 cows and linear for 7/8 cows. On P/I was linear for 3/4 and 7/8 cows and curvilinear for 1/2 cows. The effect of PTA on MP was not different from zero. Estimated repeatability for MP were .72, .69 and .63, respectively, for the 1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows.

  1. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  2. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  3. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  4. Performance of dairy heifers raised on Xaraés palissadgrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés pasture supplemented with two types of mineral mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto B. de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selective (e.g. mineral supplement formulated on the basis of nutritional and clinical examination of the herd or commercial mineral supplementation of crossbred dairy heifers (Holstein-Mantiqueira, on daily weight gain (DWG, body condition score (BCS, age at first mating (AFM and the intake of mineral mixture (IMM managed on Xaraés palissadgrass pasture (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés were evaluated from February 2006 to March 2008. Structural characteristics, forage allowance and nutritional value of Xaraés palissadgrass were also evaluated. The structural variables of pasture, allowances and nutritive value of forage, besides the DWG were only affected (p<0.05 by season, with highest results for spring and summer. Throughout the experimental period (730 days, no sign of mineral deficiency was detected in heifers that ingested the selective supplement. The DWG and AFM were not influenced by the mineral mixture offered (0.52 and 0.33 kg/day during the spring/summer and in fall/winter for DWG, respectively, and 813 days of AFM. The IMM was higher for commercial mineral mixture than for selective (61.6 and 51.0g/day respectively. The BCS was slightly higher for selective (3.17 than for the commercial (3.02 mineral mixture. Thus, the selective mineral supplement was a strategy to prevent mineral deficiency in this herd and resulted in similar performance at lower costs (e.g. due to less IMM of crossbred heifers when compared with the commercial mineral supplementation.

  5. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  6. Bioclimatic influence of extension of white and black coat color on Holstein cows production in a hot tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique P, Luis Phanor

    1999-01-01

    Was determined the influence of the white and black hair coat percentage in Holstein cows managed under hot climate condition at the San Jose del Hato farm, located in Palmira, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Three categories or classes of hair score were established, according to the white color distribution and with three observers it was determined the relative frequency of cows within each color category; the productive data were studied through an Anova using the least squares means method and Ducan test for means separation. The results were in agreement with the effect of color categories in the 305 days of milk production and in the total milk production (p < 0.05), being the best producer the cows group with 40 - 60 % white hair coats. These results showed the influence of the hair coat surface over the productive capability of Holstein cattle for selection programs in tropical conditions of hot climates

  7. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  8. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  9. Determination of the reproductive performance of Holstein cows in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Tagle, R.; Lanzzeri, S.; Miranda, W.; Gama, S.

    1990-01-01

    Trials to determine the onset of post-partum (pp) ovarian activity in a Holstein herd were carried out in 1985 and repeated during the same time of the year in 1987. In each, 20 recently calved adult cows and first-calf heifers were randomly selected and sampled for milk progesterone (MP 4 ) determination twice a week between days 10 and 90 pp. Climatic conditions and availability of high quality fodder were better in 1987 than 1985. Results showed differences both in pregnancy rate (40% vs. 65%), as well as in the percentage of anoestrous cows (60% vs. 15%) between 1985 and 1987, respectively. In the second trial, not all cows in physiological oestrus (according to MP 4 measurements) were identified in heat by observation of behavioural signs. It was concluded that nutritional levels greatly influence the reproductive efficiency of the herd on this farm, and that poor oestrus detection was a further contributory factor. Another trial conducted on a dairy herd in order to compare the efficiency of oestrus synchronization by PGF 2α with manual enucleation of the corpus luteum (CL) showed no differences between treatment groups. Ovarian palpation to assess the presence of a CL was accurate in 69% of cases while the use of MP 4 estimations proved to be 100% efficent. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Heat stress effects on Holstein dairy cows' rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, R; Biffani, S; Chessa, S; Bozzi, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and rumination time (RT) in order to possibly exploit it as a useful tool for animal welfare improvement. During summer 2015 (1 June to 31 August), data from an Italian Holstein dairy farm located in the North of Italy were collected along with environmental data (i.e. ambient temperature and relative humidity) recorded with a weather station installed inside the barn. Rumination data were collected through the Heatime® HR system (SCR Engineers Ltd., Hadarim, Netanya, Israel), an automatic system composed of a neck collar with a Tag that records the RT and activity of each cow. A significant negative correlation was observed between RT and THI. Mixed linear models were fitted, including animal and test day as random effects, and parity, milk production level and date of last calving as fixed effects. A statistically significant effect of THI on RT was identified, with RT decreasing as THI increased.

  11. Nutrient Digestibility and Performances of Frisian Holstein Calves Fed with Pennisetum purpureum and Inoculated with Buffalo’s Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prihantoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB are potential in digesting fiber feed. BRB already adapted well with low quality forages and agricultural byproducts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB consortium inoculated into preweaning Frisian Holstein calves on nutrient digestibility, physiological status, mineral uptake, and blood profile. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of four local buffalos. The research units consisted of seven Frisian Holstein calves at two weeks old with the average body weight of 43.6±4.5 kg. Calves were inoculated with 20 mL of buffalo’s rumen bacteria isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/mL] every morning for 10 weeks. The calves were divided into two groups i.e., three calves received bacterial inoculation and four calves without any inoculation. The variables which were analyzed in the preweaning and weaning period were feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, rumen fermentation characteristics, body weight, physiological status, blood profile, and mineral status. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test. The results showed that inoculation of buffalo’s rumen bacteria into Frisian Holstein calves effectively increased feed intake, characteristics of leukocytes and neutrophils, and cobalt (Co uptake during the weaning period. Inoculation of rumen bacteria improved rumen pH during preweaning and weaning periods. Inoculation of rumen bacteria also had no negative effects on digestibility, feed conversion (FCR, average daily gain (ADG, and physiological status.

  12. Molecular cloning, purification, expression, and characterization of β-1, 4-endoglucanase gene ( from sp. isolated from Holstein steers’ rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansol Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to isolate the cellulolytic microorganism from the rumen of Holstein steers and characterize endoglucanase gene (Cel5A from the isolated microorganism. Methods To isolate anaerobic microbes having endoglucanase, rumen fluid was obtained from Holstein steers fed roughage diet. The isolated anaerobic bacteria had 98% similarity with Eubacterium cellulosolvens (E. cellulosolvens Ce2 (Accession number: AB163733. The Cel5A from isolated E. cellulolsovens sp. was cloned using the published genome sequence and expressed through the Escherichia coli BL21. Results The maximum activity of recombinant Cel5A (rCel5A was observed at 50°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was constant at the temperature range of 20°C to 40°C but also, at the pH range of 3 to 9. The metal ions including Ca2+, K+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ increased the endoglucanase activity but the addition of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ decreased. The Km and Vmax value of rCel5A were 14.05 mg/mL and 45.66 μmol/min/mg. Turnover number, Kcat and catalytic efficiency, Kcat/Km values of rCel5A was 96.69 (s−1 and 6.88 (mL/mg/s, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicated that rCel5A of E. cellulosolvens isolated from Holstein steers had a broad pH range with high stability under various conditions, which might be one of the beneficial characteristics of this enzyme for possible industrial application.

  13. Genotype by housing interaction for conformation and workability traits in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, J.; Mark, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A total of 30,190 first-parity Danish Holstein cows housed in free stalls or tie stalls were analyzed to quantify to what degree genotype by housing interaction existed for 21 conformation and 2 workability traits. Each trait measured in different housing systems was treated as 2 separate traits...... in a bivariate animal model. Genetic correlations between the 2 traits as well as differences in genetic and residual variance were used as measurements of whether or not genotype by housing interaction occurred. Genetic correlations were in general close to unity (>0.9), except for body width (0.87 +/- 0...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N. Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed, gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic. Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6 of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p83 units had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001. Evidence for a greater (p<0.001 stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%. Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  15. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Diana, A.; Testoni, S.; Olzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy [it

  16. Molting characteristics of crossbreds between Alabio and Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molting is a problem for duck farmers, during which the ducks stop laying eggs. Molting characteristics may be altered through crossing between non-molting to molting ducks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molting characteristics of the crossing between Alabio and Pekin ducks. The materials used were 90 female AP (Alabio males x Pekin females and 90 female PA (Pekin males x Alabio females, 25 female Alabio and 25 female Pekin ducks. The ducks were housed in individual cages at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. Variables measured were the length of molting and egg production in 30 weeks, data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by the estimation of the value of heterosis. Result showed that the molting of Pekin ducks was 71.31±9.36 days, it was longer than Alabio, AP or PA ducks, which were respectively 42.44±8.59, 43.63±4.88 and 49.35±4.85 days (P<0.01. Egg production of Pekin duck (56.41±4.59 was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that of Alabio, AP or PA, which were 72.48±3.24, 83.75±1.39 and 76.12±1.68 respectively. The heterosis of molting period of AP was higher than that of PA (-23.29 vs -13.23%. The heterosis of egg production of AP was higher than PA (29.96 vs 18.12%. It is concluded that the AP crossbred could be utilized as the initial population to produce a superior line characterized by high egg production and controllable molting.

  17. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-01-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  18. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  19. Uranium concentration in drinking water from small-scale water supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Urankonzentration im Trinkwasser aus Hausbrunnen in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer soziale Dienste, Kiel (Germany). Dezernat Umweltbezogener Gesundheitsschutz

    2015-07-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 μg/lL, the 95th percentile was 2.5 μg/L. The maximum level was 14 μg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  20. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  1. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  2. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  4. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Brian K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems. This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input. Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework

  5. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the

  6. Surface hopping with a manifold of electronic states. II. Application to the many-body Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham [School of Chemistry, The Sackler Faculty of Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-02-28

    We investigate a simple surface hopping (SH) approach for modeling a single impurity level coupled to a single phonon and an electronic (metal) bath (i.e., the Anderson-Holstein model). The phonon degree of freedom is treated classically with motion along–and hops between–diabatic potential energy surfaces. The hopping rate is determined by the dynamics of the electronic bath (which are treated implicitly). For the case of one electronic bath, in the limit of small coupling to the bath, SH recovers phonon relaxation to thermal equilibrium and yields the correct impurity electron population (as compared with numerical renormalization group). For the case of out of equilibrium dynamics, SH current-voltage (I-V) curve is compared with the quantum master equation (QME) over a range of parameters, spanning the quantum region to the classical region. In the limit of large temperature, SH and QME agree. Furthermore, we can show that, in the limit of low temperature, the QME agrees with real-time path integral calculations. As such, the simple procedure described here should be useful in many other contexts.

  7. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  8. Comparison between a sire model and an animal model for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... the results suggest that the animal model, rather than the sire model, should be used for genetic evaluation of fertility traits......Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... 1995 to 2004. The traits in the analysis were days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, days from first to last insemination, number of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The correlations between sire estimated breeding value...

  9. Holstein-Primakoff representation and supercoherent states for strongly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.

    1999-09-01

    First we show that the algebra of operators entering the Hamiltonian of the t-J model describing the strongly correlated electron system is graded spl(2.1) algebra. Then after a brief discussion of its atypical representations we construct the Holstein-Primakoff nonlinear realization of these operators which allows to carry out the systematic semiclassical approximation, similarly to the spin-wave theory of localized magnetism. The fact that the t-J model describes the itinerant magnetism is reflected in the presence of the spinless fermions. For the supersymmetric spl(2.1) algebra the supercoherent states are proposed and the partition function of the t-J model is represented as a path integral with the help of these states. (author)

  10. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  11. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

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    Reinsch Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The somatic cell score (SCS is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18. In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833 in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A. Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9 to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A with SCS. For this

  12. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  13. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  14. Some reproductive performances of Thai native (TN and 50% TN x Anglo-Nubian crossbred does with different levels of concentrate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choldumrongkul, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial in completely randomized design was conducted to determine the effect of genotype of does (Thai native (TN or 50% Anglo-Nubian (AN crossbred, levels of concentrate supplementation(1 % body weight or ad libitum and body condition of does (poor or good on oestrus incidence, kidding rate and multiple birth rate of does. Does rotationally grazed on Paspalum plicatulum pasture for 4 weeks andwere supplemented with concentrate. The experiment was divided into 4 periods: 1 does run with a teaser for 105 days before mating to determine an oestrus incidence 2 does joined with bucks of the same genotypefor 45 days 3 does run with a teaser for 150 days during pregnancy and 4 does run with a teaser 90 days post-partum. Genotype, levels of concentrate supplementation and body condition of does did not significantlyaffect (P>0.05 kidding rate or multiple birth rate and average kidding rate and multiple birth rate of the does was 83.8 and 82.3%, respectively. Birth weight of kids from TN does was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that from 50% TN x AN crossbred does (1.9 and 2.5 kg, respectively. Number of days of the first oestrus incidence in post-partum period for TN does was significantly (P<0.01 less than that of 50% ANcrossbred does (59.1 days and 75.0 days, respectively. Number of days of the first oestrus incidence in postpartum for does supplemented with concentrate ad libitum was significantly (P<0.01 lower than that ofdoes supplemented with 1% BW of concentrate (60.5 and 73.6 days, respectively.

  15. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were consistent with this being a less-developed adipose

  16. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Pcows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single nucleotide variants and InDels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza

    Full Text Available Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production. A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel. The submission of these genetic variants to the dbSNP database significantly increased the number of known variants, particularly for the indicine genome. The concordance rate between genotypes obtained using the Bovine HD BeadChip array and the same variants identified by sequencing was about 99.05%. The annotation of variants identified numerous non-synonymous SNVs and frameshift InDels which could affect phenotypic variation. Functional enrichment analysis was performed and revealed that variants in the olfactory transduction pathway was over represented in all four cattle breeds, while the ECM-receptor interaction pathway was over represented in Girolando and Guzerat breeds, the ABC transporters pathway was over represented only in Holstein breed, and the metabolic pathways was over represented only in Gyr breed. The genetic variants discovered here provide a rich resource to help identify potential genomic markers and their associated molecular mechanisms that impact economically important traits for Gyr, Girolando, Guzerat and Holstein breeding programs.

  18. X-autosome translocation and low fertility in a family of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrur, P K; Reyes, E R; Farazmand, A; King, W A; Popescu, P C

    2001-07-03

    An investigation was carried out on a family of Limousin-Jersey crossbreds exhibiting low fertility in the females, to determine the impact of a previously identified X-autosome translocation (X-AT) on the reproductive performance of the carrier cows. Three of the identified translocation carriers, including a cow and two of her daughters, were maintained at our University Research Station and artificially inseminated periodically with semen from different bulls of known fertility. Attempts to breed the X-AT carriers resulted in high rates of return to estrus between days 28 and 60, abortions between days 121 and 235 after insemination, and a total of 13 live births including 4 translocation carrier calves. Results of superovulation and embryo retrieval trials on X-AT carriers revealed significantly higher proportions of unfertilized and uncleaved ova and abnormal embryos compared to those from normal cows, and no pregnancy in the recipients transferred with morphologically normal blastocysts from X-AT carriers. While the higher rates of failed fertilization and cleavage, abnormal embryos and return to estrus in X-AT carriers could be attributed to chromosome imbalance expected in their gametes, the relatively high prevalence of abortion (late in gestation) was unexpected. Our observations on the fetuses expelled by X-AT carriers after 5 months of gestation indicated that a majority (three out of four) of these fetuses were products of abnormal (3:1) segregation in meiosis I and that these chromosomally unbalanced (hyperdiploid) conceptuses were able to survive early embryogenesis and fetal life up to the end of the second trimester. We hypothesize that their relatively long in utero life and the absence of any overt birth defects may be attributable to the type of chromosomes over-represented in these fetuses and that their eventual expulsion may have been the result of selection against the clonal population of cells in which the altered X carrying a segment of

  19. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  20. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos para características produtivas e reprodutivas em vacas mestiças Holandês × Gir Additive and non-additive genetic effects on productive and reproductive traits in Holstein × Gir crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivardo Facó

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de registros de genealogia e controle leiteiro e reprodutivo fornecidos pela Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Girolando, foram estimados os efeitos de diferença genética aditiva entres as raças Holandesa e Gir, de dominância e de recombinação, além das herdabilidades e repetibilidades, para as características produção de leite por lactação (PL, produção de leite até os 305 dias de lactação (PL305, duração da lactação (DL, intervalo de partos (IDP, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP e produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos (PL/IDP. Foram utilizados 4.805 registros de PL, PL305 e DL e 2.222, 1.408 e 2.363 registros de IDP, IPP e PL/IDP, respectivamente. Análises unicaracterísticas foram realizadas considerando os efeitos de diferença genética aditiva entre as raças, de dominância e de recombinação como covariáveis. As estimativas para a diferença genética aditiva entre as duas raças foram significativas para todas as características, exceto para o IDP, e foram estimadas em 3.115 ± 273 kg, 2.574 ± 226 kg, 98 ± 13 dias, -236 ± 67 dias e 7,5 ± 0,9 kg/dia para PL, PL305, DL, IPP e PL/IDP, respectivamente. Os efeitos de dominância (heterose também foram significativos para todas as características, exceto para a DL. Foi verificada significativa perda por recombinação para PL e PL305. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram de 0,25 ± 0,05, 0,21 ± 0,04, 0,12 ± 0,04, 0,05 ± 0,05, 0,33 ± 0,09 e 0,21 ± 0,07 para PL, PL305, DL, IDP, IPP e PL/IDP, respectivamente, enquanto as estimativas de repetibilidade foram de 0,49 ± 0,05; 0,47 ± 0,04; 0,18 ± 0,04; 0,09 ± 0,06; e 0,37 ± 0,07 para PL, PL305, DL, IDP e PL/IDP, respectivamente.Pedigree and performance records of Holstein × Gir crossbred cows provided by the Brazilian Association of Girolando Breeders were used to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield (PL, 305 days milk yield (PL305, lactation length (DL, calving interval (IDP

  1. Presumptive Iatrogenic Microcystin-Associated Liver Failure and Encephalopathy in a Holsteiner Gelding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, N S; Engiles, J B; Murphy, L; Vudathala, D; Johnson, A L

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old Holsteiner gelding was presented for evaluation of anorexia, obtundation, icterus, and mild colic signs of 48 hours duration. History, physical examination, and initial diagnostics were suggestive of hepatic disease and encephalopathy. Microcystin toxicosis was suspected based on historical administration of a cyanobacteria supplement, associated serum biochemistry abnormalities, and characteristic histopathological changes. Microcystin contamination was confirmed in both supplement containers fed to the horse. Fulminant hepatic failure and encephalopathy progressed resulting in euthanasia. Necropsy findings were consistent with microcystin induced liver failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. [The use of macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed macrolides, lincomycin and tiamulin as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include macrolides, lincomycin or tiamulin in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics (2000). The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  3. Episodes of clinical mastitis and its relationship with duration of treatment and seasonality in crossbred cows maintained in organized dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study aimed to evaluate the different episodes of clinical mastitis (CM and influence of duration of treatment and seasonality on the occurrence of different episodes of CM in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 1194 lactation data of crossbred CM cows were collected from mastitis treatment record from 2002 to 2012. Data of CM cows were classified into types of episodes (pattern of repeated or multiple episodes occurrence and number of episodes (magnitude of multiple cases. Types of episodes were divided as single (clinical cure by a single episode of treatment, relapse (retreatment of the same cow within 21 days, recurrence (new CM at least 21 days after treatment, and both (relapse and recurrence. The season was classified as winter (December to March, summer (April to June, rainy (July to September, and autumn (October to November. The difference between incidences of different types of CM episodes and the association between number or type of CM episodes with duration of treatment and seasons of CM occurrence were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Among 1194 animals suffered with CM, 53, 16, and 18% had the single episode, relapse, and recurrence, respectively; while 13% suffered by both relapse and recurrence. We estimated the duration of treatment and found 80% of the cows treated 1-8 days, in which 65% treated for 1-4 days, while 35% cows were treated for 5-8 days. Further, 12% cows treated for 9-15 days and 7.5% cows treated >15 days. The relationship between duration of treatment and different episodes of CM revealed that 1-8 days treated cows were mostly cured by the single episode with less relapse and recurrence. In contrast, the incidences of recurrence and relapse episodes were higher in cows treated for more than 9 days. The highest incidence of relapse was noticed in winter (36% than other seasons (10-28%, while the recurrence was less during autumn (9% compared to other seasons (20-40%. Conclusion

  4. Episodes of clinical mastitis and its relationship with duration of treatment and seasonality in crossbred cows maintained in organized dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Sreela, L; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Tiwari, Shiwani; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Present study aimed to evaluate the different episodes of clinical mastitis (CM) and influence of duration of treatment and seasonality on the occurrence of different episodes of CM in crossbred cows. A total of 1194 lactation data of crossbred CM cows were collected from mastitis treatment record from 2002 to 2012. Data of CM cows were classified into types of episodes (pattern of repeated or multiple episodes occurrence) and number of episodes (magnitude of multiple cases). Types of episodes were divided as single (clinical cure by a single episode of treatment), relapse (retreatment of the same cow within 21 days), recurrence (new CM at least 21 days after treatment), and both (relapse and recurrence). The season was classified as winter (December to March), summer (April to June), rainy (July to September), and autumn (October to November). The difference between incidences of different types of CM episodes and the association between number or type of CM episodes with duration of treatment and seasons of CM occurrence were analyzed by Chi-square test. Among 1194 animals suffered with CM, 53, 16, and 18% had the single episode, relapse, and recurrence, respectively; while 13% suffered by both relapse and recurrence. We estimated the duration of treatment and found 80% of the cows treated 1-8 days, in which 65% treated for 1-4 days, while 35% cows were treated for 5-8 days. Further, 12% cows treated for 9-15 days and 7.5% cows treated >15 days. The relationship between duration of treatment and different episodes of CM revealed that 1-8 days treated cows were mostly cured by the single episode with less relapse and recurrence. In contrast, the incidences of recurrence and relapse episodes were higher in cows treated for more than 9 days. The highest incidence of relapse was noticed in winter (36%) than other seasons (10-28%), while the recurrence was less during autumn (9%) compared to other seasons (20-40%). Cows those suffered by both relapse and recurrence

  5. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FSHR POLYMORPHISM WITH PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ANTIOQUIA HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because FSH and its receptor play a fundamental role in reproduction, the objective of this research was determining the effect of the A-320T polymorphism in productive and reproductive traits in Antioquia Holstein cows. The PCR-RFLP was used to amplify a segment of 970 bp of the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR which was digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The effect of the FSHR genotypes on productive and reproductive traits was determinate by a Mixed Linear Model and Tukey Test was used to establish significant differences between means for the three genotypes. The effect of allelic substitution was studied through a linear regression model where the genotypes AA, AT and TT were transformed into a quantitative scale of 0, 1 and 2, respectively according to the number of possessed T alleles. In Antioquia Holstein cattle the most common genotype was the AT (0.485 followed by TT (0.417 and AA (0.096 genotypes. Allele frequencies were 0.339 for A and 0.660 for T, respectively. The FSHR genotypes did not exert a significant effect on the principal productive parameters, except for fat percentage (P<0.01 where the TT individuals presented the highest percent. Results showed that T allele seems to improve the solids in milk while A allele improves dairy yield. The reproductive parameters were not affected by this SNP but AT animals showed a higher number of services per conception. Further studies are required to determine whether this SNP may be used as a molecular marker

  7. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  8. Trends in genome-wide and region-specific genetic diversity in the Dutch-Flemish Holstein-Friesian breeding program from 1986 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekes, Harmen P.; Veerkamp, Roel F.; Bijma, Piter; Hiemstra, Sipke J.; Windig, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, Holstein-Friesian (HF) selection schemes have undergone profound changes, including the introduction of optimal contribution selection (OCS; around 2000), a major shift in breeding goal composition (around 2000) and the implementation of genomic selection (GS;

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, M.; Chávez, M.I.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Carrillo, E.; García, J.E.

    2017-07-01

    Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N). Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI) during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed), gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic). Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6) of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p<0.0001) and calves with birth weights <35 kg compared with heavier calves at calving (19.3% vs. 2.3%, p<0.0001), and was lower in calves whose gestation length was >278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p<0.0001). Cows in a severe state of heat stress prenatally and at birth (THI >83 units) had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001). Evidence for a greater (p<0.001) stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%). Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, M.; Chávez, M.I.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Carrillo, E.; García, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N). Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI) during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed), gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic). Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6) of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p<0.0001) and calves with birth weights <35 kg compared with heavier calves at calving (19.3% vs. 2.3%, p<0.0001), and was lower in calves whose gestation length was >278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p<0.0001). Cows in a severe state of heat stress prenatally and at birth (THI >83 units) had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001). Evidence for a greater (p<0.001) stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%). Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  11. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  12. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P cow exposed were 31.6 7.7, 36.9 ± 7.4, and 59.1 ± 7.5 kg for Romosinuano-Angus, Romosinuano-Brahman, and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P cows excelled.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasite control during prepuberty improves mammary parenchyma development in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Adrián F; Mejía, Miguel E; Licoff, Nicolás; Diab, Santiago S; Formía, Néstor; Ornstein, Ana; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M

    2013-12-06

    Parasitism during development impairs normal growth and delays the onset of puberty through altered hormone profiles, including insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1). As mammary gland development during prepuberty is strongly dependent on IGF-1, we determined if antiparasitic treatment during this stage of growth improved mammary gland development. One group of Holstein heifers was treated monthly, rotationally with antiparasitic drugs from birth to 70 weeks of age, a second group was untreated. Treated heifer calves had between 56% and 65% less EPG counts than untreated ones. Presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was demonstrated. Treatment effectively advanced the onset of puberty and increased IGF-1 levels. At 20, 30, 40 and 70 weeks of age biopsies from the mammary gland were taken and histological sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Pictures were analyzed to compare parenchyma area in relation to total mammary tissue between groups. Mammary samples from treated heifers had higher ratios of parenchyma/total area than untreated ones. As mammary development during prepuberty is crucial for mammary performance during lactation, these results add new evidence to the importance of gastrointestinal parasite control in heifers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  15. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  16. Genome-wide association study for milking speed in French Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marete, Andrew Gitahi; Sahana, Goutam; Fritz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    in 32,491 French Holstein dairy cows. Milking speed was measured by a score given by the farmer. Phenotypes were yield deviations as obtained from the French evaluation system. They were analyzed with a linear mixed model for association studies. We identified SNP on 22 chromosomes significantly...... was located on chromosome 14 (ZFAT gene). Eleven novel milking speed quantitative trait loci (QTL) were observed on chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 14, 18, 25, and 26. Twelve candidate SNP for milking speed mapped directly within genes. Of these 10 were QTL lead SNP, which mapped within the genes HMHA1, POLR2E, GNB5......, KLHL29, ZFAT, KCNB2, CEACAM18, CCL24, and LHPP. Limited pleiotropy was observed between milking speed QTL and clinical mastitis....

  17. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Šimková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.

  18. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Eslamizad, M

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal...... from –7 to 7 DIM. Postpartum feed intake and milk yield was not affected by PG allocation. The body content of lipid was not affected by treatment, but tended to decrease from 4 to 29 DIM with both treatments. Except for the first week postpartum, no difference in plasma nonesterified fatty acids...

  19. Renaissance des Dorfladens oder Versorgungswüsten?. Erfahrungen und Lernpotenziale am Beispiel Schleswig-Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    It has become more and more complicated for the customers to make their food shopping in local environments because smaller shops close down and the distances to supermarkets and discount stores have increased, especially in rural areas. The paper will discuss which alternatives of food retailing exist outside the supermarket world and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of shop formats on the micro level. The statements are based on a conscious selection of different shop formats and expert interviews in rural areas of the province of Schleswig-Holstein.

  20. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    suggest that calves exposed to repeated transport may decrease feed intake compared to nontransported calves as an initial response to transport; however, overall feed conversion was not affected and these Holstein calves may have quickly acclimated to repeated transport.

  1. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    The GARUNS model is a lifetime performance model taking into account the changing physiological priorities of an animal during its life and through repeated reproduction cycles. This dynamic and stochastic model has been previously used to predict the productive and reproductive performance...... of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...

  2. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  3. Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, G.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M. . E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed

  4. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of corn grain particle size on ruminant fermentation and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR as a basal diet to explain fundamental data of corn grain for cattle in Korea. Methods Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (body weight 592±29.9 kg fed TMR as a basal diet were housed individually in an auto temperature and humidity modulated chamber (24°C and 60% for 22 h/d. Treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design were TMR only (control, TMR with whole corn grain (WC, coarsely ground corn grain (CC, and finely ground corn grain (FC, respectively. The corn feeds substituted for 20% energy intake of TMR intake. To measure the ruminal pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA, ruminal digesta was sampled through ruminal cannula at 1 h intervals after the morning feeding to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics. Blood was sampled via the jugular vein after the ruminal digesta sampling. Results There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between different corn particle size because the DM intake was restricted to 1.66% of body weight. Different corn particle size did not change mean ammonia N and total VFA concentrations whereas lower (p<0.05 ruminal pH and a ratio of acetate to propionate, and higher (p<0.05 propionate concentration were noted when the steers consumed CC compared with WC and FC. Concentration of blood metabolites were not affected by different particle size of corn grain except for blood triglyceride concentration, which was significantly (p<0.05 increased by FC. Conclusion Results indicate that feeding CC may increase feed digestion in the rumen, whereas the FC group seemed to obtain inadequate corn retention time for microbial degradation in the rumen.

  5. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  6. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mellado; Laura Maricela Lara; Francisco Gerardo Veliz; María Ángeles de Santiago; Leonel Avendaño-Reyes; Cesar Meza-Herrera; José Eduardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services), raised under intense heat (mea...

  7. Exact results and conjectures on the adiabatic Holstein-Hubbard model at large electron-phonon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, S.

    1993-01-01

    Principles and notations of the Holstein-Hubbard model in a magnetic field are first reviewed. Effects of the dimensionality, the lattice discreteness and the magnetic field on single polarons, are examined and the existence of many polarons and bipolarons structures at large electron-phonon coupling is discussed. Properties of bipolaronic and polaronic structures are examined together with the magnetic field effects on these structures. High Tc superconductivity resulting from the competition between the electron-phonon and Hubbard couplings is discussed. 7 figs., 18 refs

  8. DETECCIÓN SEROLÓGICA DEL BLV EN MUESTRAS DE LECHE EN UNA POBLACIÓN DE VACAS HOLSTEIN, ANTIOQUIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ÚSUGA MONROY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV is the etiological agent of the Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL, this disease is infectious, chronic and specifically cattle, presenting a low percentage of patients with clinical manifestations. Between 30-70% of infected animals can develop persistent lymphocytosis (LP and between 0,1-10% of cattle over three years of infection suffers some form of lymphosarcoma (LS. The aim of this work was serologically detection of BLV in milk samples from Holstein cows in three dairy herds in the department of Antioquia. Were taken 133 milk samples from Holstein cows three dairy herds located in the municipality of Medellin and Belmira, was conducted an indirect ELISA against gp51 envelope protein of the virus. The ELISA test showed a seroprevalence of 79,69% (106/133 for all samples tested. The herd was the largest herd seroprevalence 1 (82,86%, followed by the herd 2 (80% and finally the herd 3 (77,08%. The presence of the BLV has increased in recent years in Antioquia, so fast and efficient diagnosis through reliable methodologies allow control over the spread of the disease in dairy herds.

  9. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of reliability and prediction bias on the prediction method, the contribution of including animals (bulls or cows), and the genetic relatedness, when including genotyped cows in the progeny-tested bull reference population. We performed genomic evaluation using a Japanese Holstein population, and assessed the accuracy of genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) for three production traits and 13 linear conformation traits. A total of 4564 animals for production traits and 4172 animals for conformation traits were genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50 array. Single- and multi-step methods were compared for predicting GEBV in genotyped bull-only and genotyped bull-cow reference populations. No large differences in realized reliability and regression coefficient were found between the two reference populations; however, a slight difference was found between the two methods for production traits. The accuracy of GEBV determined by single-step method increased slightly when genotyped cows were included in the bull reference population, but decreased slightly by multi-step method. A validation study was used to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV when 800 additional genotyped bulls (POPbull) or cows (POPcow) were included in the base reference population composed of 2000 genotyped bulls. The realized reliabilities of POPbull were higher than those of POPcow for all traits. For the gain of realized reliability over the base reference population, the average ratios of POPbull gain to POPcow gain for production traits and conformation traits were 2.6 and 7.2, respectively, and the ratios depended on heritabilities of the traits. For regression coefficient, no large differences were found between the results for POPbull and POPcow. Another validation study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic relatedness between cows and bulls in the reference and test populations. The effect of genetic relationship among bulls in the reference

  10. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  11. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Standard electrocardiographic values in Holstein calves Valores eletrocardiográficos normais para bezerros holandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.N. Mendes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents electrocardiographic values in 25 Holstein calves using the standard bipolar limbs leads (I, II and III, augmented unipolar limb leads (avL, avR and avF and a bipolar chest lead (V10. Two groups with different ages were compared (newborn - 18 to 72 hours and calves - 27 to 33 days old. It was concluded that no differences between age groups in P, Q, R, S and T waves, in the PR, QRS, QT and ST intervals and in axis orientation were observed.Este artigo apresenta valores eletrocardiográficos de 25 bezerros da raça Holandesesa, utilizando-se as derivações bipolares de membro (I, II, III, unipolares aumentadas de membro (avL, avR e avF e uma derivação bipolar de torax (V10. Dois grupos com animais de diferentes idades foram comparados (18 a 72 horas e 27 a 33 dias de idade. Conclui-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nas ondas P, Q, R, S e T, nos intervalos PR, QRS, QT e ST e no eixo cardíaco.

  13. Short communication: Association of disease incidence and adaptive immune response in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hine, B; Quinton, M; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use previously calculated estimated breeding values for cell- (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) to determine associations between immune response (IR) and economically important diseases of dairy cattle. In total, 699 Holsteins were classified as high, average, or low for CMIR, AMIR, and overall IR (combined CMIR and AMIR), and associations with mastitis, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasums, and retained fetal membranes were determined. The incidence of mastitis was higher among average cows as compared with cows classified as high AMIR [odds ratio (OR)=2.5], high CMIR (OR=1.8), or high IR (OR=1.8). Low-CMIR cows had a higher incidence of metritis (OR=11.3) and low-IR cows had a higher incidence of displaced abomasum (OR=4.1) and retained fetal membrane (OR=2.8) than did average responders. Results of this study show that cows classified as high immune responders have lower occurrence of disease, suggesting that breeding cattle for enhanced IR may be a feasible approach to decrease the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping for the next-to-leading order of the 1/N expansion at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhioev, Alan; Storozhenko, A.; Vdovin, A.; Aouissat, Z.; Wambach, J.

    2004-01-01

    An extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping which incorporates both single- and double-fermion mappings is used in the context of thermofield dynamics to study the next-to-leading order of the 1/N expansion at finite temperature. For the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model it is shown that the extended mapping naturally leads to the correct Fermi statistics both in leading and next-to-leading order

  16. Rendimento, composição e análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal fabricado com leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2012-04-01

    , sorghum silage, sunflower silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Yield, physical-chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of Minas cheese, as well as the physical-chemical composition of milk were analyzed. For the experiment, eight 1/2 Holstein/Gir crossbred cows, with lactation period of 180 ± 12 days were distributed in two 4 × 4 latin squares (four animals, four diets and four periods. The experimental periods had a duration of 18 days: 15 days of adaptation and three days of data collection. After cheese processing microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory analysis were done. Cheese samples were frozen and analyzed for fatty acid profile. The fat content of cheese was higher for diets with sugar cane and sunflower silage compared with sorghum silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed sunflower silage had superior fatty acid composition and nutritional quality indexes, and better profile and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Cheese yield did not differ between diets containing different roughages. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed a diet with sunflower silage presents higher preference at the sensory analysis test, especially regarding the attribute appearance.

  17. Effects of Clinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance in Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gunay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive performance in 135 early lactation cows. The animals were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of mastitis as follows: group I (n = 45, clinical mastitis prior to the first artificial insemination breeding; group II (n = 45, clinical mastitis after artificial insemination and being diagnosed pregnant. Forty-five cows without any mastitis served as control group. Calving to first service intervals were significantly longer (P P P < 0.05 in cows with clinical mastitis after first service (3.4 ± 0.9 than in cows with clinical mastitis before first service (2.1 ± 0.9 and in cows with no clinical mastitis (1.8 ± 0.8. This study indicated that clinical mastitis during early lactation in Holstein cows had a negative impact on their reproductive performance.

  18. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  19. Productive and Reproductive Performances of Female Etawah Crossbred Goats in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.

  20. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration......; C), propanol (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM and 15 g propylacetate/kg DM; PPA) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d period. Daily rations were fed in three equally sized portions at 8 hour intervals and 8 hourly sets of ruminal fluid, arterial...

  1. Genetic parameters of subclinical macromineral disorders and major clinical diseases in postparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9dairy herds located in Northern Greece. None of the herds used any kind of preventive measures for milk fever (MF). A total of 1,021 Holstein cows with pedigree information were examined from November 2010 until November 2012. The distribution across parities was 466 (parity 1), 242 (parity 2), 165 (parity 3), and 148 (parity 4 and above) cows. All cows were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and blood was sampled on d 1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving. Serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in all samples, whereas β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was measured only for d 8. The final data set included 4,064 clinical and 16,848 biochemical records (4,020 Ca, 4,019 P, 4,020Mg, 3,792K, and 997 BHB). Data of 1,988 observations of body condition score at d 1 and 8 were also available. All health traits were analyzed with a univariate random regression model. The genetic analysis for macromineral-related disorders included 986 cows with no obvious signs of MF (35 cows with MF were excluded). Analysis for other health traits included all 1,021 cows. A similar single record model was used for the analysis of BHB. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated with a series of bivariate analyses. Statistically significant daily heritabilities of subclinical hypocalcemia (0.13-0.25), hypophosphatemia (0.18-0.33), subclinical hypomagnesemia (0.11-0.38), and hyperphosphatemia (0.14-0.22) were low to moderate, whereas that of hypokalemia was low (0.08-0.10). The heritability of body

  2. [The use of sulfonamides and sulfonamide/trimethoprim combinations as animal feed drugs for pigs in Schleswig-Holstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Susanne; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bettin, Ulrich; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of production orders for medicated feedingstuffs for pigs given in 1998 in Schleswig-Holstein showed sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim as frequently used antibiotical ingredients. The presented study analyses the production orders which include sulphonamides and combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim in more detail. There were large deviations to the rules of good clinical practise for the use of antibiotics. The applied dosage was often lower than suggested in the literature.

  3. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  4. Linear and Poisson models for genetic evaluation of tick resistance in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Silva, F F; Schenkel, F S; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-12-01

    Cattle resistance to ticks is measured by the number of ticks infesting the animal. The model used for the genetic analysis of cattle resistance to ticks frequently requires logarithmic transformation of the observations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and goodness of fit of different models for the analysis of this trait in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle. Three models were tested: a linear model using logarithmic transformation of the observations (MLOG); a linear model without transformation of the observations (MLIN); and a generalized linear Poisson model with residual term (MPOI). All models included the classificatory effects of contemporary group and genetic group and the covariates age of animal at the time of recording and individual heterozygosis, as well as additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.04 for MLIN, MLOG and MPOI models, respectively. The model fit quality, verified by deviance information criterion (DIC) and residual mean square, indicated fit superiority of MPOI model. The predictive ability of the models was compared by validation test in independent sample. The MPOI model was slightly superior in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, whereas the correlations between observed and predicted tick counts were practically the same for all models. A higher rank correlation between breeding values was observed between models MLOG and MPOI. Poisson model can be used for the selection of tick-resistant animals. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  6. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  8. Impact of the Egyptian summer season on oxidative stress biomarkers and some physiological parameters in crossbred cows and Egyptian buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Hady

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to compare the impact of heat stress (HS on some physiological functions and blood oxidative stress biomarkers between dry dairy crossbred (Balady X Friesian cows and buffaloes during Egyptian summer season (July-September. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 healthy animals were equally used in the in the current study. The criterion for cows and buffaloes selection and the management conditions were similar. A total mixed ration to meet the animal's requirements was used, and dry matter intake (DMI was calculated. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature (RT were daily recorded. Meanwhile, live body weight and body condition score were weekly recorded. Blood samples were collected bi-weekly, and plasma samples were harvested for malondialdehyde (MDA content and enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities determinations throughout the experimental period (8 weeks - prepartum. Results: The results confirmed, the HS condition, as the THI values ranged from 79.74 to 90.4 throughout the experimental period. In both species, HS increased RT and decreased DMI (<10.5 kg/day and 9.5 kg/day in cows and buffaloes, respectively. Buffaloes seemed to be more affected by the hostile environmental condition of this study compared with their respective cows. Buffaloes had recorded up to 1 °C increase in their RTs in most of the point's period compared to cows. There was a continuous increase in MDA values (194.7 and 208.4 nmol/gHb in buffaloes and cows, respectively, 2 weeks prepartum as the animals come close to parturition with moderate decrements for the enzymatic antioxidant activities in both cows and buffaloes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that during Egyptian's summer season, HS had adversely affected feed intake and consequently animal's production performances.

  9. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution...... relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV...... and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian...

  10. The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Fridoon Niazi; Mohsen Ghiasvand

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning an...

  11. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexed-semen use for breeding Holstein heifers and cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds was documented by frequency and percentage for parity and service number as well as for herd region, size, and milk yield. Year of breeding accounted for the most variation in the amount of use of sexed semen for ...

  12. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  13. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP. This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and the Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher’s theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1% in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B, serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40, collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1, ephrin-A1 (EFNA1, netrin 4 (NTN4, neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, neurexin 3 (NRXN3, spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1, ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1, transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7, carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2 and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12. These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

  14. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  15. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  16. FABP4 is a leading candidate gene associated with residual feed intake in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Asher, Aviv; Lipkin, Ehud; Feingersch, Roi; Agmon, Rotem; Karasik, David; Brosh, Arieh; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Ecological and economic concerns drive the need to improve feed utilization by domestic animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is one of the most acceptable measures for feed efficiency (FE). However, phenotyping RFI-related traits is complex and expensive and requires special equipment. Advances in marker technology allow the development of various DNA-based selection tools. To assimilate these technologies for the benefit of RFI-based selection, reliable phenotypic measures are prerequisite. In the current study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI phenotypic consistency across different ages and diets (named RFI 1-3), using DNA samples of high or low RFI ranked Holstein calves. Using targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions associated with FE- and RFI-related traits, we identified 48 top SNPs significantly associated with at least one of three defined RFIs. Eleven of these SNPs were harbored by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). While 10 significant SNPs found in FABP4 were common for RFI 1 and RFI 3, one SNP (FABP4_5; AHolstein breed, following a larger-scale validation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol in Holstein whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Magliaro, A L; Kensinger, R S

    2007-07-01

    Some individuals have expressed concern about estrogens in food because of their potential to promote growth of estrogen-sensitive human cancer cells. Researchers have reported concentrations of estrogen in milk but few whole milk samples have been analyzed. Because estrogen associates with the fat phase of milk, the analysis of whole milk is an important consideration. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to quantify 17beta-estradiol (E2) in whole milk from dairy cows and to determine whether E2 concentrations in milk from cows in the second half of pregnancy were greater than that in milk from cows in the first half of pregnancy or in nonpregnant cows. Milk samples and weights were collected during a single morning milking from 206 Holstein cows. Triplicate samples were collected and 2 samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell counts (SCC); 1 sample was homogenized and analyzed for E2. The homogenized whole milk (3 mL) was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and once with methanol. The extract was reconstituted in benzene:methanol (9:1, vol/vol) and run over a Sephadex LH-20 column to separate E2 from cholesterol and estrone before quantification using radioimmunoassay. Cows were classified as not pregnant (NP, n = 138), early pregnant (EP, 1 to 140 d pregnant, n = 47), or midpregnant (MP, 141 to 210 d pregnant, n = 21) at the time of milk sampling based on herd health records. Mean E2 concentration in whole milk was 1.4 +/- 0.2 pg/mL and ranged from nondetectable to 22.9 pg/mL. Milk E2 concentrations averaged 1.3, 0.9, and 3.0 pg/mL for NP, EP, and MP cows, respectively. Milk E2 concentrations for MP cows were greater and differed from those of NP and EP cows. Milk composition was normal for a Holstein herd in that log SCC values and percentages of fat, protein, and lactose averaged 4.9, 3.5, 3.1, and 4.8, respectively. Estradiol concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.20) with percentage fat in milk. Mean milk yield was

  18. QTL-Kartierung und funktionelle Kandidatengenanalyse für das Merkmal Totgeburt in einer fortgeschrittenen Fleckvieh- x Red-Holstein-Rückkreuzungspopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomeringer, Verena

    2007-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Kartierung eines QTL mit Effekt auf paternalen Kalbeverlauf und paternale Totgeburt auf Bos Taurus Autosom 9 (BTA09) in einer fortgeschrittenen Fleckvieh x Red-Holstein Rückkreuzungspopulation mit positioneller und funktioneller Kandidatengenanalyse. Dazu wurden Untersuchungen mit verschiedenen Kartierungsdesigns in Granddaughter und Daughter Designs durchgeführt. Intervallkartierung und Linkage / Linkage-Disequilibrium-Kartierung wurden verwendet um den QTL ...

  19. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  20. A rare case of monozygotic iniodymic diprosopiasis in a German Holstein calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jim; Behn, Holger; Freick, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication abnormity is a rare phenomenon in buiatric practice. This report attends to a male German Holstein calf which could be classified as a diprosopic iniodymus. A fetus exhibiting a doubled face was delivered after fetotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of diprosopiasis with two cranial cavities as well as two separate encephala in a calf showing the potential extent of duplication. Throughout this work also the question is answered of whether this malformation in a bovine species arose from one embryo or rather, there is a dizygotic background by genotyping of tissue samples from both parts of the diprosopus. Regarding etiology, not only hereditary dispositions including among others a failed function of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog mediating regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, but also incompletely separated monozygotic twins are discussed.