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Sample records for holographic interferometry technique

  1. REAL TIME MICRODISPLACEMENTS TESTING BY OPTO-DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L BOUAMAMA

    2007-12-01

    Since all the process is controlled numerically, it is possible to follow in real time using the holographic interferometry techniques, double exposure, real time or time average, any changes in the object under study and to start and stop the process at any time by adequate software. This can be done by subtracting a reference image by suitable software directly on the CCD camera. We show also, the ability of the technique to study in real time all evolutional phenomena.

  2. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  3. Holographic interferometry of high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlwain, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods. Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma. Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry, and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained. This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented

  4. Holographic interferometry - a nondestructive inspection technique for early detection of construction element damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachutka, H.; Fritzsch, W.; Gruenewald, K.

    1977-01-01

    After a short introduction into the fundamentals of holographic interferometry, the application of this process to non-destructive material testing is explained. Practical examples of qualitative and quantitative deformation measurements carried out on building elements of different materials as well as on metallic and nonmetallic combinations show the possibilities of early recognition of manufacturing flaws and weak points due to the construction and also the determination of construction material characteristic coefficients. (orig.) [de

  5. Digital holographic interferometry: A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavan, Alicia, E-mail: alicia.cavan@cdhb.health.nz [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand and Christchurch Hospital, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Meyer, Juergen, E-mail: juergen@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium. Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform. This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0.0381 K across a distance of 6.8 mm near the source was measured, corresponding to a dose of 159.3 Gy. The standard deviation in a typical measurement set was ±3.45 Gy (corresponding to an uncertainty in the temperature value of ±8.3 × 10{sup −4} K). The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach. The prototype achieves high spatial resolution of approximately 3 × 10{sup −5} m. The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions.

  6. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  7. Visualization and direct comparison of large displacements using difference holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necati Ecevit, F.; Aydin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The difference holographic interferometry provides the possibility of direct comparison of large displacements and deformations of two similar but different objects by application of a special kind of illumination. In this work, the principles of the difference holographic interferometry and the experimental results obtained by applying the single beam technique to large displacements is presented. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  8. Deformation measurement of a pressure vessel flange by holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Junior, Armando A.; Schneider, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    An automatic metodology used for the measurement of displacement through the holographic interferometry is presented. In order to shown its performance and potentiality, the displacement field from a pipe's and flange, when submited to an internal pressure, is experimentally found. Holography's results are compared with other technique's results. (Author) [pt

  9. Photopolymer for Optical Holography and Holographic Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květoň, M.; Lédl, Vít; Havránek, A.; Fiala, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 1 (2010), s. 107-113 ISSN 1022-1360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : holographic interferometry * holography * photopolymerization * recording material * refractive index Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/masy.200900093/pdf

  10. Vibration Analysis Of Automotive Structures Using Holographic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. M.; Wales, R. R.

    1983-10-01

    Since 1979, Ford Motor Company has been developing holographic interferometry to supplement more conventional test methods to measure vehicle component vibrations. An Apollo PHK-1 Double Pulse Holographic Laser System was employed to visualize a variety of complex vibration modes, primarily on current production and prototype powertrain components. Design improvements to reduce powertrain response to problem excitations have been deter-mined through pulsed laser holography, and have, in several cases, been put into production in Ford vehicles. Whole-field definition of vibration related deflections provide continuity of information missed by accelerometer/modal analysis techniaues. Certain opera-tional problems, common among pulsed ruby holographic lasers, have reauired ongoing hardware and electronics improvements to minimize system downtime. Real-time, time-averaged and stroboscopic C. W. laser holographic techniques are being developed at Ford to complement the double pulse capabilities and provide rapid identification of modal frequencies and nodal lines for analysis of powertrain structures. Methods for mounting and exciting powertrains to minimize rigid body motions are discussed. Work at Ford will continue toward development of C. W. holographic techniques to provide refined test methodology dedicated to noise and vibration diagnostics with particular emphasis on semi-automated methods for quantifying displacement and relative phase using high resolution digitized video and computers. Continued use of refined pulsed and CW laser holographic interferometry for the analysis of complex structure vibrations seems assured.

  11. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  12. The compact and inexpensive arrowhead setup for holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladera, Celso L; Donoso, Guillermo, E-mail: clladera@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that requires neither a collimator nor a beam-splitter, and whose layout is reminiscent of an arrowhead. We show that this inexpensive setup is a good alternative for the study and applications of scientific holography by measuring small displacements and deformations of a body. The arrowhead setup will be found particularly useful for holography and holographic interferometry experiments and projects in teaching laboratories.

  13. The digital holographic interferometry in resonant acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAPONOV, V.E.; AZAMATOV, Z.T.; REDKORECHEV, V.I.; ISAEV, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunities of application of digital holographic interferometry method for studies of shapes of resonant modes in resonant acoustic spectroscopy are shown. The results of experimental measurements and analytical calculations are submitted. (authors)

  14. Investigation of surface deformations by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecevit, F.N.; Guven, H.; Aydin, R.

    1990-01-01

    Surface deformations of rigid bodies produced by thermal as well as mechanical strains have been investigated using double-exposure holographic interferometry. The recorded interference fringes have been discussed qualitatively. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  15. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  16. High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.

  17. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  18. Real-time laser holographic interferometry for aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil pressure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer. 13 references

  19. Digital Double-Pulse Holographic Interferometry for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Tiziani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Different arrangements for double-pulsed holographic and speckle interferometry for vibration analysis will be described. Experimental results obtained with films (classical holographic interferometry and CCD cameras (digital holographic interferometry as storage materials are presented. In digital holography, two separate holograms of an object under test are recorded within a few microseconds using a CCD camera and are stored in a frame grabber. The phases of the two reconstructed wave fields are calculated from the complex amplitudes. The deformation is obtained from the phase difference. In the case of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (or image plane hologram, the phase can be calculated by using the sinusoid-fitting method. In the case of digital holographic interferometry, the phase is obtained by digital reconstruction of the complex amplitudes of the wave fronts. Using three directions of illumination and one direction of observation, all the information necessary for the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional deformation vector can be recorded at the same time. Applications of the method for measuring rotating objects are discussed where a derotator needs to be used.

  20. Holographic interferometry using a digital photo-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, H.; Hledik, S.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of running digital holographic interferometry using commonly available compact digital zoom photo-cameras are studied. The recently developed holographic setup, suitable especially for digital photo-cameras equipped with an un detachable object lens, is used. The method described enables a simple and straightforward way of both recording and reconstructing of a digital holographic interferograms. The feasibility of the new method is verified by digital reconstruction of the interferograms acquired, using a numerical code based on the fast Fourier transform. Experimental results obtained are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Deformation Measurement Of Lumbar Vertebra By Holographic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryoukei; Iwata, Koichi; Nagata, Ryo

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of normal lumbar vertebra and one with the interarticular part cut off to simulate hemi-spondylolysis were measured by the double exposure holographic interferometry. In the normal lumbar vertebra, displacement due to the load applied to the inferior articular process was greater than that of superior articular process under the same load. The interarticular part was subjected to the high stress. From these points, one of the valuable data to consider the cause of spondylolysis was obtained.

  2. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k......Rad. The precision limits of the measurement of dose were found to be ±4%. The procedure was simple and the holographic equipment stable and compact, thus allowing experimentation under routine laboratory conditions and limited space....

  3. Holographic interferometry of isolated deuterium plasmas produced by a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatenby, P.V.; Walker, A.C.

    1978-10-01

    The application of double exposure fractional fringe holographic interferometry to measurements of electron density in a plasma generated by irradiation of a freely falling pellet of solid deuterium with a focused CO 2 laser pulse is discussed. A particularly simple technique is used for processing and reconstructing the holograms and this is described in detail. A summary and discussion of the results is included with the emphasis on the observed evolution of the deuterium plasma over the duration of the laser irradiation. (author)

  4. Visualization of flows in a motored rotary combustion engine using holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Y. R.; Schock, H. J.; Craig, J. E.; Umstatter, H. L.; Lee, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The use of holographic interferometry to view the small- and large-scale flow field structures in the combustion chamber of a motored Wankel engine assembly is described. In order that the flow patterns of interest could be observed, small quantities of helium were injected with the intake air. Variation of the air flow patterns with engine speed, helium flow rate, and rotor position are described. The air flow at two locations within the combustion chamber was examined using this technique.

  5. Application Of Holographic Interferometry For Investigation Of Microroughness Of Engineering Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Marek; Mruk, Irena; Stupnicki, Jacek

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes an improved immersion method of holographic interferometry /IMHI/ adjusted for studies of roughness of engineering surfaces. Special optical arrangement, with two types of immersion cells and adequate technique of preparing transparent replicas reproducting with high fidelity details of differently machined surfaces was elaborated. It permits to obtain the contour maps of the surface asperities with intervals between the planes of succesive contour lines within a range of 1 μm. The results obtained for some engineering surfaces are given.

  6. Holographic interferometry applied to the measurement of displacements of the interior points of transparent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C A; Gilbert, J A

    1976-09-01

    Utilizing the light scattering property of transparent media, holographic interferometry is applied to the measurement of displacement at the interior planes of three dimensional bodies. The use of a double beam illumination and the introduction of a fictitious displacement make it feasible to obtain information corresponding to components of displacement projected on the scattering plane. When the proposed techniques are invoked, it is possible to eliminate the use of a matching index of refraction fluid in many problems involving symmetrically loaded prismatic bodies. Scattered light holographic interferometry is limited in its use to small changes in the index of refraction and to low values of relative retardation. In spite of these restrictions, a large number of technical problems in both statics and dynamics can be solved.

  7. Weld evaluation on spherical pressure vessels using holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Wilcox, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Waist welds on spherical experimental pressure vessels have been evaluated under pressure using holographic interferometry. A coincident viewing and illumination optical configuration coupled with a parabolic mirror was used so that the entire weld region could be examined with a single hologram. Positioning the pressure vessel at the focal point of the parabolic mirror provides a relatively undistorted 360 degree view of the waist weld. Double exposure and real time holography were used to obtain displacement information on the weld region. Results are compared with radiographic and ultrasonic inspections

  8. Measurement of Three-Dimensional Deformations by Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-plane deformations of a cantilever were measured using phase-shifting digital holographicinterferometry (PSDHI and the Fourier transform method (FTM. The cantilever was recorded in twodifferent states, and holograms were stored electronically with a charge-coupled device (CCD camera.When the holograms are superimposed and reconstructed jointly, a holographic interferogram results.The three-dimensional (3D surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM toholographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. Theprocessing time for the digital reconstruction and visualization of 3D deformation took about 1 minute.The technique was calibrated using Michelson interferometry setup.

  9. High-speed digital holographic interferometry for vibration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang; Gusev, Mikhail E.

    2006-01-01

    A system based on digital holographic interferometry for the measurement of vibrations is presented. A high-power continuous laser(10 W) and a high-speed CCD camera are used. Hundreds of holograms of an object that has been subjected to dynamic deformation are recorded. The acquisition speed and the time of exposure of the detector are determined by the vibration frequency. Two methods are presented for triggering the camera in order to acquire at a given phase of the vibration. The phase of the wavefront is calculated from the recorded holograms by use of a two-dimensional digital Fourier-transform method. The deformation of the object is obtained from the phase. By combination of the deformations recorded at different times it is possible to reconstruct the vibration of the object

  10. Analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry using the polynomial phase transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    A noisy wrapped phase map is the end-output of commonly employed phase estimation methods in digital holographic interferometry. Hence filtering and unwrapping are necessary to obtain continuous phase distributions. This paper introduces a new approach for phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using the polynomial phase transform. The proposed approach directly provides an accurate estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution from a noisy reconstructed interference field, thereby bypassing cumbersome and error-prone filtering and 2D phase unwrapping procedures

  11. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow-visualization holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    Heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam are discussed. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  12. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow visualization holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows, where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  13. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, V.B.; Shinde, N.S.; Fulari, V.J.

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with monoclinic crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with bandgap energy 1.1 eV. The determination of thickness and stress of the Ag 2 S thin films was carried out by Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry (DEHI) technique.

  14. Sensor influence in digital 3λ holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desse, J M; Picart, P; Tankam, P

    2011-01-01

    In digital holographic interferometry, the resolution of the reconstructed hologram depends on the pixel size and pixel number of the sensor used for recording. When different wavelengths are simultaneously used as a luminous source for the interferometer, the shape and the overlapping of three filters of a color sensor strongly influence the three reconstructed images. This problem can be directly visualized in 2D Fourier planes on red, green and blue channels. To better understand this problem and to avoid parasitic images generated at the reconstruction, three different sensors have been tested: a CCD sensor equipped with a Bayer filter, a Foveon sensor and a 3CCD sensor. The first one is a Bayer mosaic where one half of the pixels detect the green color and only one-quarter detect the red or blue color. As the missing data are interpolated among color detection positions, offsets and artifacts are generated. The second one is a specific sensor constituted with three stacked photodiode layers. Its technology is different from that of the classical color mosaic sensor because each pixel location detects the three colors simultaneously. So, the three colors are recorded simultaneously with identical spatial resolution, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of the sensor. However, the spectral curve of the sensor is large along each wavelength since the color segmentation is based on the penetration depth of the photons in silicon. Finally, with a 3CCD sensor, each image is recorded on three different sensors with the same resolution. In order to test the sensor influence, we have developed a specific optical bench which allows the near wake flow around a circular cylinder at Mach 0.45 to be characterized. Finally, best results have been obtained with the 3CDD sensor

  15. Accuracy concerns in digital speckle photography combined with Fresnel digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Zemmamouche, Redouane; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Georges, Marc P.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) and digital speckle photography (DSP) allows in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurement between two states of an object. The former can be determined by correlating the two speckle patterns whereas the latter is given by the phase difference obtained from DHI. We show that the amplitude of numerically reconstructed object wavefront obtained from Fresnel in-line digital holography (DH), in combination with phase shifting techniques, can be used as speckle patterns in DSP. The accuracy of in-plane measurement is improved after correcting the phase errors induced by reference wave during reconstruction process. Furthermore, unlike conventional imaging system, Fresnel DH offers the possibility to resize the pixel size of speckle patterns situated on the reconstruction plane under the same optical configuration simply by zero-padding the hologram. The flexibility of speckle size adjustment in Fresnel DH ensures the accuracy of estimation result using DSP.

  16. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  17. Application of holographic interferometry to the vibrational analysis of the harpsichord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Gardner, J. W.

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents an original piece of research using holographic interferometry as a quantitative optical diagnostic. The object under investigation was the soundboard of a harpsichord. The results obtained show that it is possible to measure the spatial vibrational behaviour of the whole soundboard with an accuracy of better than 170 nm. Several features which characterize the vibration behaviour of the soundboard have been visualized including a discontinuity created by a crack which has resulted in a phase change of the interferometric fringes. Finally, the theoretical model response of the harpsichord soundboard is determined and compared to our holographic measurement.

  18. High-contrast Nulling Interferometry Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We are developing rotating-baseline nulling-interferometry techniques and algorithms on the single-aperture Hale and Keck telescopes at near-infrared wavelengths,...

  19. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  20. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.

    1975-01-01

    This paper gives details of the defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in phase movement and strain in pressurized components. The new fibre optic technique and system appraisal is included. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tubes defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain. (Auth.)

  1. Demodulation of moire fringes in digital holographic interferometry using an extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Jagadesh; Rastogi, Pramod; Rajshekhar, Gannavarpu

    2018-03-10

    This paper presents a method for extracting multiple phases from a single moire fringe pattern in digital holographic interferometry. The method relies on component separation using singular value decomposition and an extended Kalman filter for demodulating the moire fringes. The Kalman filter is applied by modeling the interference field locally as a multi-component polynomial phase signal and extracting the associated multiple polynomial coefficients using the state space approach. In addition to phase, the corresponding multiple phase derivatives can be simultaneously extracted using the proposed method. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using simulation and experimental results.

  2. Measurement of Poisson's ratio of nonmetallic materials by laser holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian T.

    1991-12-01

    By means of the off-axis collimated plane wave coherent light arrangement and a loading device by pure bending, Poisson's ratio values of CFRP (carbon fiber-reinforced plactics plates, lay-up 0 degree(s), 90 degree(s)), GFRP (glass fiber-reinforced plactics plates, radial direction) and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate, x, y direction) have been measured. In virtue of this study, the ministry standard for the Ministry of Aeronautical Industry (Testing method for the measurement of Poisson's ratio of non-metallic by laser holographic interferometry) has been published. The measurement process is fast and simple. The measuring results are reliable and accurate.

  3. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  4. Direct phase derivative estimation using difference equation modeling in holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the direct phase derivative estimation from a single spatial frequency modulated carrier fringe pattern in holographic interferometry. The fringe intensity in a given row/column is modeled as a difference equation of intensity with spatially varying coefficients. These coefficients carry the information on the phase derivative. Consequently, the accurate estimation of the coefficients is obtained by approximating the coefficients as a linear combination of the predefined linearly independent basis functions. Unlike Fourier transform based fringe analysis, the method does not call for performing the filtering of the Fourier spectrum of fringe intensity. Moreover, the estimation of the carrier frequency is performed by applying the proposed method to a reference interferogram. The performance of the proposed method is insensitive to the fringe amplitude modulation and is validated with the simulation results. (paper)

  5. Study for stress analysis and defect evaluation of reactor components using holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jueptner, W.; Geldmacher, J.; Kreis, T.

    1989-07-01

    The results of the studies in phases 1 and 2 of the project RS 1500 699/9 have shown that both in flat and curved structures, materials defects develop under loading stresses very characteristic deformation patterns at the specimens surface. These deformation patterns can be recorded and made visible by holographic interferometry if one uses a method that is capable of measuring exactly even between the interference bands. The best suitable of the tested methods is the phase-shifting method which has been further developed to meet the requirements of the project tasks. The development work achieved better measurements at non-vibration-isolated specimens, and improved hardware and software for digital image processing. This was a vital task, as only computerized image processing allows an economically sensible evaluation of the interferograms. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Bubble nucleation dynamics in 3He/4He mixture by holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, M; Abe, H; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y

    2009-01-01

    We were able to nucleate a gas bubble in the diluted phase of 3 He- 4 He mixture by a 1 ms width strong sound pulse. The nucleated bubble became large and detached from the bottom transducer and was pushed out to the bulk liquid by the acoustic wave pulse. The bubble then repeatedly expanded and contracted a few times and finally disappeared. The overall motion of the bubble was traced by a high speed camera with a time resolution of 1 ms. We are attempting to investigate the small density fluctuation around the bubble by incorporating holographic interferometry technology. The measurement was done at T=0.35 K for the phase separated mixture at saturated vapor pressure. An acoustic wave transducer was located at the bottom of the cell, so the bubble was nucleated in the dilute phase of the mixture. We resolved the density fluctuation as small as Δρ/ρ = 2 x 10 -6 in the dilute phase with the sample width of 25 mm, which could not be obtained by other methods. It was found that there appeared a less dense region of -Δρ/ρ ∼ 1.46 x 10 -3 just above the bubble. The bubble appeared just after the pulse was turned off, but this less dense region appeared prior to the emergence of the bulk bubble. It should be an important information about the bubble nucleation mechanism. This very high sensitivity of holographic interferometry with respect to the density fluctuation could be widely used in quantum liquid.

  7. Off-axis low coherence digital holographic interferometry for quantitative phase imaging with an LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongli; Wang, Fan; Hu, Xiaoying; Yang, Wenqian

    2017-11-01

    Off-axis digital holographic interferometry with the light source of a light emitting diode (LED) is presented and its application for quantitative phase imaging in a large range with low noise is demonstrated. The scheme is implemented in a grating based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. To achieve off-axis interferometry, firstly, the collimated beam emitted from an LED is diffracted into multiple orders by a grating and they are split into two copies by a beam splitter; secondly, in the object arm the zero order of one copy is filtered in the Fourier plane and is reshaped to illuminate the sample, while in the reference arm one of its first order of another copy is selected to serve as the reference beam, and then an off-axis hologram can be obtained at the image plane. The main advantage stemming from an LED illumination is its high spatial phase resolution, due to the subdued speckle effect. The off-axis geometry enables one-shot recording of the hologram in the millisecond scale. The utility of the proposed setup is illustrated with measurements of a resolution target and part of a wing of green-lacewing, and dynamic evaporation process of an ethanol film.

  8. Phase-conjugate resonant holographic interferometry applied to NH concentration measurements in a 2D diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A P; Beaud, P; Frey, H M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Resonant Holographic Interferometry is a method based on the anomalous dispersion of light having a frequency close to an electronic transition of a molecule. We propose a novel single-laser, two-colour setup for recording resonant holograms and apply it to 2D species concentration measurements. The second colour is generated by optical phase-conjugation from Stimulated Brillouin scattering in a cell. Phase-Conjugate Resonant Holographic Interferometry (PCRHI) is demonstrated in a 2D NH{sub 3}/O{sub 2} flame yielding interferograms that contain information on the NH radical distribution in the flame. Experimental results are quantified by applying a numerical computation of the Voigt profiles. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  9. Beam shaping optics to enhance performance of interferometry techniques in grating manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2018-02-01

    Improving of industrial holographic and interferometry techniques is of great importance in interference lithography, computer-generated holography, holographic data storage, interferometry recording of Bragg gratings as well as gratings of various types in semiconductor industry. Performance of mentioned techniques is essentially enhanced by providing a light beam with flat phase front and flat-top irradiance distribution. Therefore, transformation of Gaussian distribution of a TEM00 laser to flat-top (top hat, uniform) distribution is an important optical task. There are different refractive and diffractive beam shaping approaches used in laser industrial and scientific applications, but only few of them are capable to fulfil the optimum conditions for beam quality demanding holography and interferometry. As a solution it is suggested to apply refractive field mapping beam shaping optics πShaper, which operational principle presumes almost lossless transformation of Gaussian to flat-top beam with flatness of output wavefront, conserving of beam consistency, providing collimated low divergent output beam, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several lasers with different wavelengths simultaneously. High optical quality of resulting flat-top beam allows applying additional optical components to build various imaging optical systems for variation of beam size and shape to fulfil requirements of a particular application. This paper will describe design basics of refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holography and laser interference lithography. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  10. On the use of holographic interferometry in deformation analysis with additional degrees of freedom during the reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, W.; Dubas, M.

    1978-01-01

    In holographic interferometry with two reconstructed wavefronts, additional flexibility is obtained when the fringes may be modified. This is achieved during the reconstruction by moving part of the optical arrangement. First, the equation relating the optical path difference to the displacement and the fringe control parameters and, secondly, those relating the derivative of the optical path difference to the strain and the rotation are worked out and their practical use is discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Detection of hidden stationary deformations of vibrating surfaces by use of time-averaged digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Vukicevic, Dalibor

    2004-10-15

    A method of detecting displacements of a surface from its steady-state position to its equilibrium position while it is vibrating has been developed by use of time-average digital holographic interferometry. This method permits extraction of such a hidden deformation by creating two separated systems of interferogram fringes: one corresponding to a time-varying resonantly oscillating optical phase, the other to the stationary phase modification. A mathematical description of the method and illustrative results of experimental verification are presented.

  12. Holographic interferometry as electrochemical emission spectroscopy of carbon steel in seawater with low concentration of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K.; Al-Muhana, K.; Habib, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, holographic interferometry was utilized for the first time to determine the rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during the corrosion test of carbon steel in blank seawater and with seawater with different concentrations of a corrosion inhibitor. In other words, the anodic dissolution behaviors (corrosion) of the carbon steel were determined simultaneously by holographic interferometry, an electromagnetic method, and by the electrochemical impedance (EI) spectroscopy, an electronic method. So, the abrupt rate change of the number of the fringe evolutions during corrosion test (EI) spectroscopy, of the carbon steel is called electrochemical emission spectroscopy. The corrosion process of the steel samples was carried out in blank seawater and seawater with different concentrations, 5-20 ppm, of RA-41 corrosion inhibitor using the EI spectroscopy method, at room temperature. The electrochemical emission spectra of the carbon steel in different solutions represent a detailed picture of the rate change of the anodic dissolution of the steel throughout the corrosion processes. Furthermore, the optical interferometry data of the carbon steel were compared to the data, which were obtained from the EI spectroscopy. Consequently, holographic interferometric is found very useful for monitoring the anodic dissolution behaviors of metals, in which the number of the fringe evolutions of the steel samples can be determined in situ. (Author)

  13. Modal analysis by holographic interferometry of a turbine blade for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponero, Michele A.; De Angelis, Alberto; Filetti, V. R.; Gammella, S.

    1994-11-01

    Within the planning stage devoted to realize an innovative turbine for an aircraft engine, an experimental prototype has been made. Several measurements have been carried out to experimentally verify the expected structural and dynamic features of such a prototype. Expected properties were worked out by finite elements method, using the well-known Nastran software package. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of the designed prototype were computed assuming the turbine being in both `dynamic condition' (rotating turbine at running speed and temperature), and in `static condition' (still turbine at room temperature). We present the experimental modal analysis carried out by time average holographic interferometry, being the prototype in `static condition;' results show the modal behavior of the prototype. Experimental and computed modal features are compared to evaluate the reliability of the finite elements model of the turbine used for computation by the Nastran package; reliability of the finite elements model must be checked to validate results computed assuming the turbine blade is in hostile environments, such as `dynamic condition,' which could hardly be tested by experimental measurements. A piezoelectric transducer was used to excite the turbine blade by sine variable pressure. To better estimate the natural vibration modes, two holographic interferograms have been made for each identified natural frequency, being the sensitivity vector directions of the two interferograms perpendicular to each other. The first ten lower natural frequencies and vibration modes of the blade have been analyzed; experimental and computed results are compared and discussed. Experimental and computed values of natural frequencies are in good agrement between each other. Several differences are present between experimental and computed modal patterns; a possible cause of such discrepancies is identified in wrong structural constraints imposed at nodes of the finite elements

  14. Simultaneous estimation of multiple phases in digital holographic interferometry using state space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2018-05-01

    A new approach is proposed for the multiple phase estimation from a multicomponent exponential phase signal recorded in multi-beam digital holographic interferometry. It is capable of providing multidimensional measurements in a simultaneous manner from a single recording of the exponential phase signal encoding multiple phases. Each phase within a small window around each pixel is appproximated with a first order polynomial function of spatial coordinates. The problem of accurate estimation of polynomial coefficients, and in turn the unwrapped phases, is formulated as a state space analysis wherein the coefficients and signal amplitudes are set as the elements of a state vector. The state estimation is performed using the extended Kalman filter. An amplitude discrimination criterion is utilized in order to unambiguously estimate the coefficients associated with the individual signal components. The performance of proposed method is stable over a wide range of the ratio of signal amplitudes. The pixelwise phase estimation approach of the proposed method allows it to handle the fringe patterns that may contain invalid regions.

  15. Comparison of the laser ablation process on Zn and Ti using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, E., E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se [Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Gren, P.; Kaplan, A.F.H.; Sjoedahl, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); El Shaer, M. [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

    2010-05-01

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to compare the laser ablation process of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) on two different metals (Zn and Ti) under atmospheric air pressure. Digital holograms were recorded for different time delays using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the volume along the target. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the attenuation of the probing laser beam by the ablated plume. The different structures of the plume, namely streaks normal to the surface for Zn in contrast to absorbing regions for Ti, indicates that different mechanisms of laser ablation could happen for different metals for the same laser settings and surrounding gas. At a laser fluence of 5 J/cm{sup 2}, phase explosion appears to be the ablation mechanism in case of Zn, while for Ti normal vaporization seems to be the dominant mechanism.

  16. Shock wave generation in laser ablation studied using pulsed digital holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjoedahl, Mikael [Division of Experimental Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)], E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se, E-mail: per.gren@ltu.se, E-mail: mikael.sjodahl@ltu.se

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the shock wave induced by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm and pulse duration 12 ns) on a polycrystalline boron nitride (PCBN) ceramic target under atmospheric air pressure. A special setup based on using two synchronized wavelengths from the same laser for processing and measurement simultaneously has been introduced. Collimated laser light ({lambda} = 532 nm) passed through the volume along the target and digital holograms were recorded for different time delays after processing starts. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps showing the propagation of the shock wave generated by the process. The location of the induced shock wave front was observed for different focusing and time delays. The amount of released energy, i.e. the part of the incident energy of the laser pulse that is eventually converted to a shock wave has been estimated using the point explosion model. The released energy is normalized by the incident laser pulse energy and the energy conversion efficiency between the laser pulse and PCBN target has been calculated at different power densities. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency seems to be constant around 80% at high power densities.

  17. Impact of an extended source in laser ablation using pulsed digital holographic interferometry and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, E., E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se [Lulea University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Gren, P.; Kaplan, A.F.H.; Sjoedahl, M. [Lulea University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2009-08-15

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the effect of the laser spot diameter on the shock wave generated in the ablation process of an Nd:YAG laser pulse on a Zn target under atmospheric pressure. For different laser spot diameters and time delays, the propagation of the expanding vapour and of the shock wave were recorded by intensity maps calculated using the recorded digital holograms. From the latter, the phase maps, the refractive index and the density field can be derived. A model was developed that approaches the density distribution, in particular the ellipsoidal expansion characteristics. The induced shock wave has an ellipsoid shape that approaches a sphere for decreasing spot diameter. The ellipsoidal shock waves have almost the same centre offset towards the laser beam and the same aspect ratio for different time steps. The model facilitates the derivation of the particle velocity field. The method provides valuable quantitative results that are discussed, in particular in comparison with the simpler point source explosion theory.

  18. Holographic grating relaxation technique for soft matter science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnichii, Vasilii, E-mail: vasilii.lesnichii@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); ITMO University, Kronverksky prospekt 49, Saint-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kiessling, Andy [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); Current address: Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 West 33rd Street, Chicago,IL60616 (United States); Bartsch, Eckhard [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Albertstraße 21, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Stefan-Meier-Str. 31, Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg im Breisgau 79104 (Germany); Veniaminov, Andrey, E-mail: veniaminov@phoi.ifmo.ru [ITMO University, Kronverksky prospekt 49, Saint-Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The holographic grating relaxation technique also known as forced Rayleigh scattering consists basically in writing a holographic grating in the specimen of interest and monitoring its diffraction efficiency as a function of time, from which valuable information on mass or heat transfer and photoinduced transformations can be extracted. In a more detailed view, the shape of the relaxation curve and the relaxation rate as a function of the grating period were found to be affected by the architecture of diffusing species (molecular probes) that constitute the grating, as well as that of the environment they diffuse in, thus making it possible to access and study spatial heterogeneity of materials and different modes of e.g., polymer motion. Minimum displacements and spatial domains approachable by the technique are in nanometer range, well below spatial periods of holographic gratings. In the present paper, several cases of holographic relaxation in heterogeneous media and complex motions are exemplified. Nano- to micro-structures or inhomogeneities comparable in spatial scale with holographic gratings manifest themselves in relaxation experiments via non-exponential decay (stepwise or stretched), spatial-period-dependent apparent diffusion coefficient, or unusual dependence of diffusion coefficient on molecular volume of diffusing probes.

  19. In situ visualizing the evolution of the light-induced refractive index change of Mn:KLTN crystal with digital holographic interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The light-induced refractive index change in Mn:KLTN crystal, illuminated by focused light sheet, is visualized in situ and quantified by digital holographic interferometry. By numerically retrieving a series of sequential phase maps from recording digital holograms, the spatial distribution of the induced refractive index change can be visualized and estimated readily. This technique enables the observation of the temporal evolution of the refractive index change under different recording situations such as writing laser power, applied voltage, and temperature, and the photoconductivity of Mn:KLTN crystal can be calculated as well, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theory. The research results suggest that the presented method is successful and feasible.

  20. High quality 3D shape reconstruction via digital refocusing and pupil apodization in multi-wavelength holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li

    Multi-wavelength holographic interferometry (MWHI) has good potential for evolving into a high quality 3D shape reconstruction technique. There are several remaining challenges, including I) depth-of-field limitation, leading to axial dimension inaccuracy of out-of-focus objects; and 2) smearing from shiny smooth objects to their dark dull neighbors, generating fake measurements within the dark area. This research is motivated by the goal of developing an advanced optical metrology system that provides accurate 3D profiles for target object or objects of axial dimension larger than the depth-of-field, and for objects with dramatically different surface conditions. The idea of employing digital refocusing in MWHI has been proposed as a solution to the depth-of-field limitation. One the one hand, traditional single wavelength refocusing formula is revised to reduce sensitivity to wavelength error. Investigation over real example demonstrates promising accuracy and repeatability of reconstructed 3D profiles. On the other hand, a phase contrast based focus detection criterion is developed especially for MWHI, which overcomes the problem of phase unwrapping. The combination for these two innovations gives birth to a systematic strategy of acquiring high quality 3D profiles. Following the first phase contrast based focus detection step, interferometric distance measurement by MWHI is implemented as a next step to conduct relative focus detection with high accuracy. This strategy results in +/-100mm 3D profile with micron level axial accuracy, which is not available in traditional extended focus image (EFI) solutions. Pupil apodization has been implemented to address the second challenge of smearing. The process of reflective rough surface inspection has been mathematically modeled, which explains the origin of stray light and the necessity of replacing hard-edged pupil with one of gradually attenuating transmission (apodization). Metrics to optimize pupil types and

  1. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography as aids to assessment of pressurised components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.V.

    1975-01-01

    This summary gives defect detection holographic technique and describes laser speckle photography to evaluate in-plane movement and strain in pressurized components and conclusions. In holography no lens is used, coherent light is reflected from all points of an object to all parts of a photosensitive surface, such as a photographic plate, simultaneously light of the same wave length and coherence is made to illuminate at a different angle the same plate. These two beams, the object and the reference, cause primary fringes. The developed plate when illuminated with the reference reconstructs the original object in three dimensions. If a double exposure is made on the same plate and if parts of the object have moved between exposure the reconstructed object will be lined with secondary fringes, each fringe representing displacement down the line of sight of one wavelength of the light used. Speckle photography is the same as conventional photography excepting, that instead of using daylight or a flash lamp a coherent light beam is used. Minute points on the object illuminated by divergent laser beam act as point sources of light giving the surface a speckled appearance. In speckle photography a camera records on the plate the object and speckles. A double exposure taken on the same plate when the object has moved between exposures will, after development, when illuminated with the laser beam from Youngs fringes. Speckles and fringes are related to points on the object therefore it is possible to obtain movement and strain. The holographic tests show that it is possible to detect on the outside of tube defects in the bore approximately 10% of thickness deep. Speckle photography gives object lateral movement, direction and strain

  2. Digital holographic setups for phase object measurements in micro and macro scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédl Vít

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of properties of so called phase objects is being solved for more than one Century starting probably with schlieren technique 1. Classical interferometry served as a great measurement tool for several decades and was replaced by holographic interferometry, which disposes with many benefits when compared to classical interferometry. Holographic interferometry undergone an enormous development in last decade when digital holography has been established as a standard technique and most of the drawbacks were solved. The paper deals with scope of the huge applicability of digital holographic interferometry in heat and mass transfer measurement from micro to macro scale and from simple 2D measurement up to complex tomographic techniques. Recently the very complex experimental setups are under development in our labs combining many techniques leading to digital holographic micro tomography methods.

  3. Separate recording of rationally related vibration frequencies using digital stroboscopic holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeenko, Igor; Gusev, Michael; Gurevich, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    A method for separate recording of rationally related vibration frequencies is presented. To record and measure the mode shape of vibrations, a synchronized stroboscopic CCD camera is used. Synchronization and control of the camera acquisition for recording stroboscopic holographic sequence has been realized. The phase for different states of the object vibration is calculated using the Fourier-transform method. Experimental results are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method are discussed.

  4. Strain analysis of a disk subjected to diametral compression by means of holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C A; Gilbert, J A

    1973-08-01

    Two simultaneous holograms and several directions of observation are utilized to determine the components of displacement and strain in the disk. A reference strip is introduced to relate the fringe orders in the two holograms. A very good agreement is obtained between the holographic results and the elasticity theory solution. The obtained displacement field is estimated to be accurate to 8 x 10(-6) cm, which is approximately one-eighth the wavelength of the laser light utilized to obtain the holograms.

  5. Speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Rajpal S.

    2002-03-01

    Illumination of a rough surface by a coherent monochromatic wave creates a grainy structure in space termed a speckle pattern. It was considered a special kind of noise and was the bane of holographers. However, its information-carrying property was soon discovered and the phenomenon was used for metrological applications. The realization that a speckle pattern carried information led to a new measurement technique known as speckle interferometry (SI). Although the speckle phenomenon in itself is a consequence of interference among numerous randomly dephased waves, a reference wave is required in SI. Further, it employs an imaging geometry. Initially SI was performed mostly by using silver emulsions as the recording media. The double-exposure specklegram was filtered to extract the desired information. Since SI can be configured so as to be sensitive to the in-plane displacement component, the out-of-plane displacement component or their derivatives, the interferograms corresponding to these were extracted from the specklegram for further analysis. Since the speckle size can be controlled by the F number of the imaging lens, it was soon realized that SI could be performed with electronic detection, thereby increasing its accuracy and speed of measurement. Furthermore, a phase-shifting technique can also be incorporated. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry. We present three examples covering diverse areas. In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this. The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications

  6. Applying field mapping refractive beam shapers to improve holographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Williams, Gavin; McWilliam, Richard; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Performance of various holographic techniques can be essentially improved by homogenizing the intensity profile of the laser beam with using beam shaping optics, for example, the achromatic field mapping refractive beam shapers like πShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several laser sources with different wavelengths simultaneously. Applying of these beam shapers brings serious benefits to the Spatial Light Modulator based techniques like Computer Generated Holography or Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms since uniform illumination of an SLM allows simplifying mathematical calculations and increasing predictability and reliability of the imaging results. Another example is multicolour Denisyuk holography when the achromatic πShaper provides uniform illumination of a field at various wavelengths simultaneously. This paper will describe some design basics of the field mapping refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  7. Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totzeck, Michael

    The intention of this chapter is to provide a fast and comprehensive overview of the principles of interferometry and the various types of interferometer, including interferogram evaluation and applications. Due to the age and the importance of the subject, you can find a number of monographs [16.1,2,3,4] and book chapters [16.5] in the literature. The number of original papers on optical interferometry is far too large to even attempt complete coverage in this chapter. Whenever possible, review papers are cited. Original papers are cited according to their aptness as starting points into the subject. This, however, reflects my personal judgment. Even if you do not share my opinion, you should find the references therein useful.

  8. Phase-shifting Real-time Holographic Microscopy applied in micro-structures surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, I V; Gesualdi, M R R; Muramatsu, M; Ricardo, J

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic real-time analysis of micro structured materials is of great importance in various domains of science and technology. For other hand, the holographic interferometry comprises a group of powerful optical methods for non-destructive testing in surface analysis. The holographic microscopy uses the holographic interferometric techniques to obtain quantitative intensity and phase information of the optical waves by microscopic systems. With the development of CCD cameras, computers (hardware and software), and new materials for holographic recording, these techniques can be used to replace the classical form of registration and became promising tools in surface analysis. In this work, we developed a prototype of Photorefractive and Digital Holographic Microscope for real-time analysis of micro-structured systems based on the phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry techniques. Using this apparatus, we are made analysis of shapes and surfaces to obtain the phase maps and the 3D profiles of some samples.

  9. Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Wilson, Robert W.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Bender, Peter; Burke, Bernard F.; Cornwell, Tim; Drever, Ronald; Dyck, H. Melvin; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Kibblewhite, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The following recommended programs are reviewed: (1) infrared and optical interferometry (a ground-based and space programs); (2) compensation for the atmosphere with adaptive optics (a program for development and implementation of adaptive optics); and (3) gravitational waves (high frequency gravitational wave sources (LIGO), low frequency gravitational wave sources (LAGOS), a gravitational wave observatory program, laser gravitational wave observatory in space, and technology development during the 1990's). Prospects for international collaboration and related issues are also discussed.

  10. Holographic Interferometry (HI), Infrared Vision and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues: a new integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, Domenica; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier; Ridolfi, Stefano; Cerichelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been routinely employed in decorative arts, as well as in sculptures and paintings (support) during the Middle Ages, because of its unique aesthetic virtues. It may safely be assumed that wood, as a material for monumental sculpture, was much more commonly employed in the mediaeval period than existing examples would seem to indicate (Bulletin of the metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013). Wood is easily obtainable; it could be carved and put in place with less difficulty than stone, it is chemically stable when dry, and its surface offers a compatible substrate for paint application. However, the use of wood is not without pitfalls, and requires an understanding of its anisotropic and hygroscopic nature. It is also dimensionally unstable and subject to deterioration by fungi and insects. Moisture-related dimensional changes are certainly among the most challenging problems in painting conservation. With the purpose of preventing important damages, the use of non-or microdestructive testing (NDT) techniques is undoubtedly of paramount interest for painted wooden statues of great value. This work has a threefold purpose: (1) to validate the effectiveness of an integrated approach using near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, square pulse thermography (SPT), and holographic interferometry (HI) techniques for discovering old repairs and/or inclusions of foreign materials in a wooden structure, (2) to confirm and approximately date the restoration carried out by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (that is assembled with a scanning electron microscopy - SEM) techniques, and (3) to combine into a multidisciplinary approach two quantitative NDT results coming from optical and thermographic methods. The subject of the present study was a statue named ''Virgin with her Child'' (XIV century), whose origins are mysterious and not properly documented. (orig.)

  11. Holographic Interferometry (HI), Infrared Vision and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues: a new integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, Domenica [University of L' Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Las.E.R. Laboratory, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, AQ (Italy); Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier [Laval University, Computer Vision and Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Quebec City (Canada); Ridolfi, Stefano [Ars Mensurae, Rome (Italy); Cerichelli, Giorgio [University of L' Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Loc. Coppito, AQ (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Wood has been routinely employed in decorative arts, as well as in sculptures and paintings (support) during the Middle Ages, because of its unique aesthetic virtues. It may safely be assumed that wood, as a material for monumental sculpture, was much more commonly employed in the mediaeval period than existing examples would seem to indicate (Bulletin of the metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013). Wood is easily obtainable; it could be carved and put in place with less difficulty than stone, it is chemically stable when dry, and its surface offers a compatible substrate for paint application. However, the use of wood is not without pitfalls, and requires an understanding of its anisotropic and hygroscopic nature. It is also dimensionally unstable and subject to deterioration by fungi and insects. Moisture-related dimensional changes are certainly among the most challenging problems in painting conservation. With the purpose of preventing important damages, the use of non-or microdestructive testing (NDT) techniques is undoubtedly of paramount interest for painted wooden statues of great value. This work has a threefold purpose: (1) to validate the effectiveness of an integrated approach using near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, square pulse thermography (SPT), and holographic interferometry (HI) techniques for discovering old repairs and/or inclusions of foreign materials in a wooden structure, (2) to confirm and approximately date the restoration carried out by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (that is assembled with a scanning electron microscopy - SEM) techniques, and (3) to combine into a multidisciplinary approach two quantitative NDT results coming from optical and thermographic methods. The subject of the present study was a statue named ''Virgin with her Child'' (XIV century), whose origins are mysterious and not properly documented. (orig.)

  12. Bacteria interface interactions in Ecology-on-a-Chip by holographic microscopy and interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    To improve our remediation of oil spills into marine system, one must understand the fate of oil under complex physical, chemical and biological environments. It is found that various processes such as wind, wave, turbulence and currents break oil into suspensions of droplets, in which states consumption by microbial further degrade the oil. Our prior studies show that marine bacteria do not adopt biofilm life style at oil-water interface in comparison to those near a solid substrate. On the contrary, Extracellular Polymer Substance of oily microbial aggregates is easily formed around an oil droplet. This highlights complexities of cell oil interactions at a liquid-liquid interface. To investigate these mechanisms at oil water interface quantitative, we have developed a micro-bioassay consisting of continuous microfluidics with a substrate printed with oil droplet array, namely Ecology-on-a-Chip, and an integrated digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and interferometer (DHI). The oil-water interface can be maintained over days (>10 days), suitable for conducting long-term observations. 3D movements of bacteria are tracked by DHM, while the interface morphology are measured by DHI at 10nm. The system is applied to Pseudomonas sp. (PS62) near crude-water interface and Escherichia coli (AW405) at hexadecane-water interface subject to low surface tension. The 3D motility, attachment, detachment and dispersion of cells as well as motility induced interface change are discussed. Funded by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  13. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  14. Verification of time-delay interferometry techniques using the University of Florida LISA interferometry simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitryk, Shawn J; Wand, Vinzenz; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: smitryk@phys.ufl.ed, E-mail: mueller@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, PO Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a cooperative NASA/ESA mission proposed to directly measure gravitational waves (GW) in the frequency range from 30 muHz to 1 Hz with an optimal strain sensitivity of 10{sup -21}/sq root(Hz) at 3 mHz. LISA will utilize a modified Michelson interferometer to measure length changes of 40 pm/sq root(Hz) between drag-free proof masses located on three separate spacecraft (SC) separated by a distance of 5 Gm. The University of Florida has developed a hardware-in-the-loop simulator of the LISA constellation to verify the laser noise cancellation technique known as time-delay interferometry (TDI). We replicate the frequency stabilization of the laser on the local SC and the phase-locking of the lasers on the far SC. The laser photodetector beatnotes are electronically delayed, Doppler shifted and applied with a mock GW signal to simulate the laser link between the SC. The beatnotes are also measured with a LISA-like phasemeter and the data are used to extract the laser phase and residual phase-lock loop noise in post-processing through TDI. This uncovers the GW modulation signal buried under the laser noise. The results are then compared to the requirements defined by the LISA science collaboration.

  15. A novel holographic technique for strain and deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettemeyer, A.

    1988-01-01

    A complete holographic system is presented after a description of the holographic measurement principle and of the fundamentals of three-dimensional deformation and dilatation analysis. The new holographic system permits quasi-simultaneous measurements from three extremely divergent directions. For this purpose, the object is illuminated and observed from each of three perspectives. To avoid perturbing interferences and Moire effects, the laser beam is split up into three beams which are no longer coherent with each other. In this way, three holograms are produced in various sections of a single holographic plate. The holograms for the three measurement directions are evaluated with the help of a computer (Phase-shift method). A picture rectification is effected to compensate for the distortion of the object's perspectives due to diverging directions of observation. The three-dimensional shifting components of the displacement vector are calculated for each point of the object's surface. The expansion of the object's surface is derived from these calculations, by means of differentiation. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Concealed holographic coding for security applications by using a moire technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiangsu; Dalsgaard, Erik

    1997-01-01

    We present an optical coding technique that enhances the anticounterfeiting power of security holograms. The principles of the technique is based on the moire phenomenon. The code in the hologram has a phase pattern that is invisible and cannot be detected by optical equipment, so that imitation...... is extremely difficult. Holographic, photographic and embossing technique are used in fabricating coded holograms and decoders....

  17. Holographic Spectroscopy: Wavelength-Dependent Analysis of Photosensitive Materials by Means of Holographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Michael Voit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Holographic spectroscopy is highlighted as a powerful tool for the analysis of photosensitive materials with pronounced alterations of the complex permittivity over a broad range in the visible spectrum, due to the advances made both in the fields of advanced holographic media and highly tunable lasers systems. To analytically discuss consequences for in- and off-Bragg reconstruction, we revised Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory strictly on the basis of complex permittivities. We extended it to comply with modern experimental parameters such as out-of-phase mixed holograms and highly modulated gratings. A spatially modulated, wavelength-dependent permittivity that superimposes a spatially homogeneous wavelength-dependent ground state spectrum is taken into account for signal wave reconstruction with bulky elementary mixed gratings as an example. The dispersion characteristics of the respective diffraction efficiency is modelled for color-center-absorption and absorption of strongly localized carriers. As an example for the theoretical possibilities of our newly derived set of equations, we present a quantitative analysis of the Borrmann effect connected to out-of-phase gratings, providing easier and more intuitive methods for the derivation of their grating parameters.

  18. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.; Pegoraro, V.; Shankar, S.; McCormick, Patrick S.; Hansen, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry

  19. Holographic monitoring of spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, A. V.; Bel'tyukova, D. M.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Chupov, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A method for monitoring spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in biological media has been developed. Singlet oxygen was generated using Radachlorin® photosensitizer, while thermal disturbances caused by nonradiative deactivation of singlet oxygen were detected by the holographic interferometry technique. Processing of interferograms yields temperature maps that characterize the deactivation process and show the distribution of singlet oxygen species.

  20. Problems on holographic imaging technique and adapt lasers for bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelkhagen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Different types of holographic recording technique for bubble chambers are presented and compared. The influence of turbulence on resolution is discussed as well as the demand on laser equipment. Experiments on a test model of HOLEBC using a pulsed ruby laser are also presented. (orig.)

  1. Experimental investigation of solid hydrogen pellet ablation in high-temperature plasmas using holographic interferometry and other diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The technology currently most favored for the refueling of fusion reactors is the high-velocity injection of solid hydrogen pellets. Design details are presented for a holographic interferometer/shadowgraph used to study the microscopic characteristics of a solid hydrogen pellet ablating in an approx. 1-keV plasma. Experimental data are presented for two sets of experiments in which the interferometer/shadowgraph was used to study approx. 1-mm-diam solid hydrogen pellets injected into the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at velocities of 1000 m/s. In addition to the use of the holographic interferometer, the pellet ablation process is diagnosed by studying the emission of Balmer-alpha photons and by using the available tokamak diagnostics

  2. Report on the set-up of a holographic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.

    1977-10-01

    Holographic interferometry is well suited for visualizing temperature, density, pressure and concentration fields in transparent fluids. The holographic real-time interferometer allows a continuous observation of stationary and instationary flow processes. After the explanation of the measuring technique, the problems arising during the interferometer set-up as well as the necessary adjusting operations are described. For heat transfer problems new possibilities for the application of holographic interferometry are revealed. Convection in boxes, temperature fields around heated or cooled bodies, concentration and diffusion processes in two phase-flows, mixtures and solutions as well as melting and freezing processes may be investigated. On the basis of particular examples some applications are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  4. High resolution imaging of particle interactions in a large bubble chamber using holographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Homaira.

    1988-01-01

    Particle interactions were recorded holographically in a large volume of the 15-foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab. This cryogenic bubble chamber was filled with a heavy Neon-Hydrogen mixture and was exposed to a wideband neutrino beam with mean energy of 150 GeV. The use of holography in combination with conventional photography provides a powerful tool for direct detection of short-lived particles. Holography gives a high resolution over a large depth of field which can not be achieved with conventional photography. A high-power pulsed ruby laser was used as the holographic light source. Since short pulses of some 50 ns duration at the required energy were found to give rise to boiling during the chamber's expansion, a reduction of the instantaneous power at a given energy was required to suppress this unwanted after-effect. This was achieved by developing a unique technique for stretching the pulses using an electro-optic feedback loop. One hundred thousand holograms were produced during a wide-band neutrino experiment (E-632, 1985) using a dark-field holographic system. Analysis of a sample of holograms shows a resolution of 150 μm was achieved in an ovoidal shape fiducial volume of 0.48 m 3 % of the 14 m 3 total fiducial volume of the chamber

  5. Actively stabilized optical fiber interferometry technique for online/in-process surface measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn; Jiang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research. It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic-interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement. In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3.3 nm

  6. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  7. X-ray phase radiography and tomography with grating interferometry and the reverse projection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Ge, Xin; Wu, Zhao; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu; Zhu, Peiping; Yuan, Qingxi; Huang, Wanxia; Zhang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    X-ray grating interferometry provides substantially increased contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging methods, and therefore new and complementary information. Compared with other phase-contrast imaging techniques, x-ray grating interferometry can overcome some of the problems that have impaired the applications of x-ray phase-contrast radiography and phase tomography. Recently, special attention has been paid to the development of quantitative phase retrieval methods, which is mandatory to perform x-ray phase tomography, to achieve material identification, to differentiate distinct tissues, etc. Typically, the phase-stepping approach has been utilized for phase retrieval in grating interferometry. This method requires a grating scanning and acquisition of multiple radiographic projections, and therefore is disadvantageous in terms of imaging speed and radiation damage. Here we present an innovative, highly sensitive approach, dubbed ‘reverse projection’ (RP), for quantitative phase retrieval. Compared with the phase-stepping approach, the present RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and thus is advantageous due to its much higher efficiency and the reduced radiation dose, without the degradation of reconstruction quality. This review presents a detailed explanation of the principle of the RP method. Both radiography and phase tomography experiments are performed to validate the RP method. We believe that this new technique will find widespread applications in biomedical imaging and in vivo studies. (paper)

  8. Digital holographic inspection for drying processes of paint films and ink dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M.; Aoyama, F.

    2017-06-01

    Digital holographic techniques to investigate drying processes of both paint films and ink dot is presented. The proposed technique based on digital holographic interferometry can achieve both visualization of variations and analysis of dryness of paint films in the drying process by using phase changes between two subsequent reconstructed complex amplitudes of the reflected light from the film. To follow the drying processes, holograms are recorded at a constant time interval. Phase-shifting digital holography has been applied to analyze the dryness of commercial paints applied on the metal plate. For analysis of an ink dot having diameter of a few hundred micrometers, digital holographic microscopy is applied to evaluating the time history of dryness of ink dot in the drying process. This paper describes these holographic techniques applied to the commercially available paint and ink and presents some experimental results.

  9. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts. (paper)

  10. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  12. Calibrated Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Microscope Using a Sampling Moiré Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated phase-shifting digital holographic microscope system capable of improving the quality of reconstructed images is proposed. Phase-shifting errors are introduced in phase-shifted holograms for numerous reasons, such as the non-linearity of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs, wavelength fluctuations in lasers, and environmental disturbances, leading to poor-quality reconstructions. In our system, in addition to the camera used to record object information, an extra camera is used to record interferograms, which are used to analyze phase-shifting errors using a sampling Moiré technique. The quality of the reconstructed object images can be improved by the phase-shifting error compensation algorithm. Both the numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  13. Full characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton formation process using a digital holographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, F; Miccio, L; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P; De Nicola, S

    2009-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the photorefractive bright soliton writing process in a lithium niobate crystal is presented. An interferometric approach based on a digital holographic technique has been used to reconstruct the complex wavefield at the exit face of the crystal. Temporal evolution of both intensity and phase profile of the writing beam has been analysed. The effective changes of the refractive index of the medium during the writing process and after the soliton formation are determined from the optical phase distribution. This method provides a reliable way to observe the process of soliton formation, whereas the determination of the intensity distribution of the output beam does not show clearly whether the soliton regime has been achieved or not. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the soliton in a steady-state situation and under different writing conditions is presented and discussed

  14. Digital holographic microscopy as a technique to monitor macrophages infected by leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Rodríguez, E.; Organista-Castelblanco, C.; Camacho, M.; Monroy-Ramírez, F.

    2017-06-01

    The Digital Holographic Microscopy in Transmission technique (DHM) is considered a useful tool in the noninvasive quantifying of transparent biological objects like living cells. In this work, we propose this technique to study and to monitor control macrophages infected by Leishmania (mouse lineJ774.A1). When the promastigotes enter in contact with healthy macrophages, they got phagocytosed and latterly confined in the formed parasitophorous vacuole. These processes change the morphology and density of the host macrophage. Both parameters can be measured in a label-free analysis of cells with the aid of the DHM technique. Our technique begins with the optical record of the holograms using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the reconstruction of the complex optical field transmitted by macrophages. In the latter point, we employ the angular spectrum algorithm. With the complex optical field reconstruction, we compute the field amplitude and the phase difference maps, which leads to describe one morphological characterization for the samples. Using phase difference maps is possible to measure internal variations for the integral refractive index, estimating the infection level of macrophages. Through the changes in the integral refractive index, it is also possible to describe and quantify in two different states the evolution of the infection. With these results some parameters of cells have been quantified, making the DHM technique a viable tool for diagnosis of biological samples under the presence of some pathogen.

  15. Phase-measuring laser holographic interferometer for use in high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanta, William J.; Spring, W. Charles, III; Gross, Kimberly Uhrich; McArthur, J. Craig

    Phase-measurement techniques have been applied to a dual-plate laser holographic interferometer (LHI). This interferometer has been used to determine the flowfield densities in a variety of two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows. In particular, LHI has been applied in three different experiments: flowfield measurements inside a two-dimensional scramjet inlet, flow over a blunt cone, and flow over an indented nose shape. Comparisons of experimentally determined densities with computational results indicate that, when phase-measurement techniques are used in conjunction with state-of-the-art image-processing instrumentation, holographic interferometry can be a diagnostic tool with high resolution, high accuracy, and rapid data retrieval.

  16. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI. This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented.

  17. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  18. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung Woo [Dept. of of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  19. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, An Won

    2006-01-01

    We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.

  20. Development of a measurement technique to characterize erosion and redeposition in a tokamak by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, P.

    2006-11-01

    This work aims at proving the feasibility of temporal phase shifting speckle interferometry to make erosion/redeposition measurements on plasma facing components in situ on a tokamak. Results show clearly that the interferometric technique can be implemented on a tokamak to provide erosion/redeposition measurements. The optical setup and the interferograms acquisition and processing have been developed and tested in laboratory before being suited to the complex tokamak environment. We finally have an optical technique able to characterize erosion/redeposition mechanisms (amount of eroded/redeposited material, location) on optically rough plasma facing components (carbon fibre composite, tungsten). These components, suffering from random displacements (as vibrations) during acquisition, are relatively large (∼ 50 x 50 cm 2 ) and could be situated far away from the CCD camera (∼ 3 m). Now, we need to define the regions of plasma facing components where we want to make erosion and redeposition measurements. After that, we propose a diagnostic to validate the optical technique in situ on a tokamak, allowing us to develop a diagnostic for ITER. (author)

  1. Application of interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Ma, C.H.; Peebles, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    There is a need for real time, reliable density measurement for density control, compatible with the restricted access and radiation environment on ITER. Line average density measurements using microwave or laser interferometry techniques have proven to be robust and reliable for density control on contemporary tokamaks. In ITER, the large path length, high density and density gradients, limit the wavelength of a probing beam to shorter then about 50 microm due to refraction effects. In this paper the authors consider the design of short wavelength vibration compensated interferometers and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on ITER. These techniques allow operation of the diagnostics without a prohibitively large vibration isolated structure and permits the optics to be mounted directly on the radial port plugs on ITER. A beam path designed for 10.6 microm (CO2 laser) with a tangential path through the plasma allows both an interferometer and a Faraday rotation measurement of the line average density with good density resolution while avoiding refraction problems. Plasma effects on the probing beams and design tradeoffs will be discussed along with radiation and long pulse issues. A proposed layout of the diagnostic for ITER will be present

  2. Characterization of Nb SRF cavity materials by white light interferometry and replica techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); The Applied Science Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); Reece, Charles [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kelley, Michael, E-mail: mkelley@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); The Applied Science Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Much work has shown that the topography of the interior surface is an important contributor to the performance of Nb superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities. Micron-scale topography is implicated in non-linear loss mechanisms that limit the useful accelerating gradient range and impact cryogenic cost. Aggressive final chemical treatments in cavity production seek to reliably obtain “smoothest” surfaces with superior performance. Process development suffers because the cavity interior surface cannot be viewed directly without cutting out pieces, rendering the cavities unavailable for further study. Here we explore replica techniques as an alternative, providing imprints of cavity internal surface that can be readily examined. A second matter is the topography measurement technique used. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven successful, but too time intensive for routine use in this application. We therefore introduce white light interferometry (WLI) as an alternative approach. We examined real surfaces and their replicas, using AFM and WLI. We find that the replica/WLI is promising to provide the large majority of the desired information, recognizing that a trade-off is being made between best lateral resolution (AFM) and the opportunity to examine much more surface area (WLI).

  3. Uncertainty Analysis for Oil-Film Interferometry Skin-Friction Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jonathan W.; Brown, James L.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the use of oil-film interferometry to measure the skin friction coefficient (C(sub f) = tau/q where tau is the surface shear stress and q is the dynamic pressure) has increased. Different forms of this oil-film technique with various levels of accuracy and ease of use have been successfully applied in a wide range of flows. The method's popularity is growing due to its relative ease of implementation and minimal intrusiveness as well as an increased demand for C(sub f) measurements. Nonetheless, the accuracy of these methods has not been rigorously addressed to date. Most researchers have simply shown that the skin-friction measurements made using these techniques compare favorably with other measurements and theory, most of which are only accurate to within 5-20%. The use of skin-friction data in the design of commercial aircraft, whose drag at cruise is 50% skin-friction drag, and in the validation of computational fluid dynamics programs warrants better uncertainty estimates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Forest parameter estimation using polarimetric SAR interferometry techniques at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (Pol-InSAR) is an active radar remote sensing technique based on the coherent combination of both polarimetric and interferometric observables. The Pol-InSAR technique provided a step forward in quantitative forest parameter estimation. In the last decade, airborne SAR experiments evaluated the potential of Pol-InSAR techniques to estimate forest parameters (e.g., the forest height and biomass) with high accuracy over various local forest test sites. This dissertation addresses the actual status, potentials and limitations of Pol-InSAR inversion techniques for 3-D forest parameter estimations on a global scale using lower frequencies such as L- and P-band. The multi-baseline Pol-InSAR inversion technique is applied to optimize the performance with respect to the actual level of the vertical wave number and to mitigate the impact of temporal decorrelation on the Pol-InSAR forest parameter inversion. Temporal decorrelation is a critical issue for successful Pol-InSAR inversion in the case of repeat-pass Pol-InSAR data, as provided by conventional satellites or airborne SAR systems. Despite the limiting impact of temporal decorrelation in Pol-InSAR inversion, it remains a poorly understood factor in forest height inversion. Therefore, the main goal of this dissertation is to provide a quantitative estimation of the temporal decorrelation effects by using multi-baseline Pol-InSAR data. A new approach to quantify the different temporal decorrelation components is proposed and discussed. Temporal decorrelation coefficients are estimated for temporal baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 54 days and are converted to height inversion errors. In addition, the potential of Pol-InSAR forest parameter estimation techniques is addressed and projected onto future spaceborne system configurations and mission scenarios (Tandem-L and BIOMASS satellite missions at L- and P-band). The impact of the system parameters (e.g., bandwidth

  5. The use of holographic techniques for recording high-speed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, B.M.; Filenko, Yu.I.

    The metods resulting from studies carried out using the commercial holographic device UIG-I are described. The device is intended for recording and investigating moving scenes and high-speed events by a holographic method. It consists of a quantum generator with a two-stage amplifier whose radiation energy in a single-mode operation is 0.7 J, and pulse width for passive Q-switching is 40nsec. Hologram portrait making was one of the experiments which illustrate the possible applications of the device. Hologram portraits such as group portraits and those that can be reconstructed in white light, were obtained on Micrat BP-2 and Agfa Gevaert plates

  6. Interferometry with polarised neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badurek, G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper aimed to give an outline of what might be expected from an extension of polarized beam techniques in neutron interferometry and how it could be achieved properly and what is the present state of this special field of interferometry

  7. Holographic Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  8. Atomic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation λ = h/(mv), where λ is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  9. Holography and LDV techniques, their status and use in airfoil research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement capabilities of laser velocimetry and holographic interferometry in transonic airfoil testing were demonstrated. Presented are representative results obtained with these two nonintrusive techniques on a 15.24 cm chord airfoil section. These results include the density field about the airfoil, flow angles in the inviscid flow and viscous flow properties including the turbulent Reynolds stresses. The accuracies of the density fields obtained by interferometry were verified from comparisons with surface pressure and laser velocimeter measurements.

  10. Experimental investigation for determination of thermal effects in a Nd: YAG laser crystal by use of interferometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safary, E.; Movahedinejad, H.; Razzaghi, H.; Haj Esmaeilbeigi, F.; Tohidi, T.; Shiri, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal effects have an important role in high power solid state laser designing. Known of this effect and their roles on intensity and quality of output beam needs so many experiments. In this paper, we focused on influence of temperature distribution on thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG laser by use of interferometry technique. Then we used from a plariscop set up for describing of intensity reduce and distortion of the wave shape when it use from the Polaroid into the resonator at side pump.

  11. Detection techniques in low-coherence interferometry and their impact on overall measurement accuracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikálek, Tomáš; Fořt, Tomáš; Buchta, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 36 (2014), s. 8463-8470 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : interferometry * fringe analysis * surface measurements, figure * optical data processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2014

  12. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...

  13. Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, F. P.; Jin, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, N.

    Before the milestone work of Leedertz in 1970 coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized. Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers. Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy), to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS (Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy).

  14. New developments in NDT through electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Murugesan, P; Mas, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    experiment was carried out using mechanical and thermal loading techniques. different types of defects are introduced in the test specimen and the corresponding interference fringe patterns generated are studied for the identification and detection of defects. The nature of fringe anomalies in the presence of defects in the case of mechanical and thermal loading are studied for the characterization defects. This technique is also successfully used in medical diagnosis. Endoscopy is minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure used to evaluate the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a small tube into body, often, but not necessarily, through a natural body opening. Through endoscope, one can see lesions and the other surface conditions. An endoscopic electronic speckle pattern interferometer camera can be applied to examine objects as well as for in vitro and in vivo minimal invasive medical diagnostics. The combination of holographic interferometric metrology with endoscopic imaging allows the development of a special class of instruments for nondestructive quantitative diagnostics with in body cavities. The development of digital imaging, digital holographic interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry are very useful in medical diagnosis. In the present investigation, the non destructive dynamic holographic endoscopy was used to study the disturbances of stomach wall intensity using speckle images. The various speckle images were recorded at different portions of the human stomach and esophagus. It is concluded that this method is very good method to study deformations, abnormalities in the stomach and related organs. The speckle interferometry is a very useful tool in biological and medical fields to study the deformations and displacements in tissues and related parameters. (author)

  15. A Procedure to Map Subsidence at the Regional Scale Using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascanio Rosi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a procedure to map subsidence at the regional scale by means of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI. Subsidence analysis is usually restricted to plain areas and where the presence of this phenomenon is already known. The proposed procedure allows a fast identification of subsidences in large and hilly-mountainous areas. The test area is the Tuscany region, in Central Italy, where several areas are affected by natural and anthropogenic subsidence and where PSI data acquired by the Envisat satellite are available both in ascending and descending orbit. The procedure consists of the definition of the vertical and horizontal components of the deformation measured by satellite at first, then of the calculation of the “real” displacement direction, so that mainly vertical deformations can be individuated and mapped.

  16. Radio Occultation Experiments with Venus Express and Mars Express using the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Bahamon, T.; Gurvits, L.; Molera Calves, G.; Cimo, G.; Duev, D.; Pogrebenko, S.; Dirkx, D.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that can be used to enhance multiple radio science experiments of planetary missions. By 'eavesdropping' on the spacecraft signal using radio telescopes from different VLBI networks around the world, the PRIDE technique provides precise open-loop Doppler and VLBI observables to able to reconstruct the spacecraft's orbit. The application of this technique for atmospheric studies has been assessed by observing ESA's Venus Express (VEX) and Mars Express (MEX) during multiple Venus and Mars occultation events between 2012 and 2014. From these observing sessions density, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus and Mars neutral atmosphere and ionosphere have been retrieved. We present an error propagation analysis where the uncertainties of the atmospheric properties measured with this technique have been derived. These activities serve as demonstration of the applicability of the PRIDE technique for radio occultation studies, and provides a benchmark against the traditional Doppler tracking provided by the NASA's DSN and ESA's Estrack networks for these same purposes, in the framework of the upcoming ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system.

  17. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  18. Using wire shaping techniques and holographic optics to optimize deposition characteristics in wire-based laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, N J; Higginson, R L; Tyrer, J R

    2016-12-01

    In laser cladding, the potential benefits of wire feeding are considerable. Typical problems with the use of powder, such as gas entrapment, sub-100% material density and low deposition rate are all avoided with the use of wire. However, the use of a powder-based source material is the industry standard, with wire-based deposition generally regarded as an academic curiosity. This is because, although wire-based methods have been shown to be capable of superior quality results, the wire-based process is more difficult to control. In this work, the potential for wire shaping techniques, combined with existing holographic optical element knowledge, is investigated in order to further improve the processing characteristics. Experiments with pre-placed wire showed the ability of shaped wire to provide uniformity of wire melting compared with standard round wire, giving reduced power density requirements and superior control of clad track dilution. When feeding with flat wire, the resulting clad tracks showed a greater level of quality consistency and became less sensitive to alterations in processing conditions. In addition, a 22% increase in deposition rate was achieved. Stacking of multiple layers demonstrated the ability to create fully dense, three-dimensional structures, with directional metallurgical grain growth and uniform chemical structure.

  19. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  20. Velocities of gas and plasmas from real time holographic interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A truly noninvasive measurement technique for plasma velocity has not been demonstrated. Plasma velocities have been inferred using laser Doppler anemometry or photographic analysis of the position of smoke or small particles. This paper describes an alternate method based on the refractive index change created in a plasma by a gaseous probe material injected into the plasma. This disturbance of the refractive index can be monitored using interferometry. A multipass real time holographic interferometry system was used to follow the changes of the interferometric pattern, and the data was recorded using high speed cinematography. A transparent model of an industrial plasma torch was employed in these studies, and a number of different types of trace gas materials were used to track the plasma flow. Using a combination of multipass interferometry and a laser line absorbing gas, sufficient interferometric sensitivity was obtained to determine plasma velocities in the 100 m/s range. Based on these results, a working plasma torch was constructed. Further studies are planned using this torch and actual plasmas

  1. Mapping Ground Subsidence Phenomena in Ho Chi Minh City through the Radar Interferometry Technique Using ALOS PALSAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Ho Tong Minh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry, especially with a persistent scatters interferometry (PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from 2006 to 2010. The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city. The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. The correlation between the reference leveling velocity and the estimated PSI result is R2 = 0.88, and the root mean square error is 4.3 (mm/year, confirming their good agreement. From 2006 to 2010, the estimation of the average subsidence rate is -8.0 mm/year, with the maximum value up to -70 mm/year. After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to -12 cm. If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent. Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7.5 million people, where subsidence directly impacts urban structures and infrastructure.

  2. Pump-induced optical distortions in disk amplifier modules: holographic and interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Chau, H.H.; Glaze, J.A.; Layne, C.B.; Rainer, F.

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric measurements have been made of the optical distortions induced in laser disk amplifiers during the flashlamp pumping pulse. Both conventional interferometric methods and the techniques of double exposure holographic interferometry were used to identify four major sources of pump-induced optical distortions: subsonic intrusion of hot gas (traced to leakage of atmospheric oxygen into the amplifier), microexplosions of dust particles, thermally induced optical distortions in the glass disks, and gaseous optical distortion effects caused by turbulent flow of the purging nitrogen gas supply used within the laser amplifier head. Methods for reducing or eliminating the effects of each of these optical distortions are described

  3. Holographic optical security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F.

    1990-06-01

    One of the most successful applications of Holography,in recent years,has been its use as an optical security technique.Indeed the general public's awareness of holograms has been greatly enhanced by the incorporation of holographic elements into the VISA and MASTERCHARGE credit cards.Optical techniques related to Holography,are also being used to protect the currencies of several countries against the counterfeiter. The mass production of high quality holographic images is by no means a trivial task as a considerable degree of expertise is required together with an optical laboratory and embossing machinery.This paper will present an overview of the principal holographic and related optical techniques used for security purposes.Worldwide, over thirty companies are involved in the production of security elements utilising holographic and related optical technologies.Counterfeiting of many products is a major criminal activity with severe consequences not only for the manufacturer but for the public in general as defective automobile parts,aircraft components,and pharmaceutical products, to cite only a few of the more prominent examples,have at one time or another been illegally copied.

  4. Kaon interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results of the χ 2 analysis where data on kaon interferometry, obtained from the E859 Collaboration of the AGS/Brookhaven Nat.Lab., are compared with results of a hadronic resonance production model are presented. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry

  5. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  6. Acoustical holographic Siamese image technique for imaging radial cracks in reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes a unique technique (i.e., ''Siamese imaging'') for imaging quasi-vertical defects in reactor pipe weldments. The Siamese image is a bi-symmetrical view of the inner surface defect. Image construction geometry consists of two probes (i.e., source/receiver) operating either from opposite sides or the same side of the defect to be imaged. As the probes are scanned across a lower surface connected defect, they encounter two images - first the normal upright image and then the inverted image. The final integrated image consists of two images connected along their baselines, thus we call it a ''Siamese image.'' The experimental imaging results on simulated and natural cracks in reactor piping weldments graphically illustrate this unique technique. Excellent images of mechanical fatique and thermal cracks were obtained on ferritic and austenitic piping

  7. The holographic entropy cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nezami, Sepehr [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Stoica, Bogdan [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sully, James [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  8. The holographic entropy cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  9. Computer analysis of holographic interferograms for NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichenor, D.A.; Madsen, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Holographic interferometry (or holometry) is a non-destructive technique that measures the microscopic displacement of all points on the surface of a test object. The displacement field is represented by a pattern of interference fringes superimposed on the image of the test object. Each fringe can be interpreted as a contour line representing points of equal displacement normal to the image plane. The displacement interval between adjacent fringes is half of the optical wavelength used in recording the hologram. For many NDT applications the fringe density information alone is sufficient to identify all defects of interest. Also fringe density is more easily extracted from the interferogram than is the complete deformation map. An algorithm to generate local estimates of fringe density and determine acceptability of product based on this data is described

  10. Holographic Moire, An Optical Tool For The Determination Of Displacements, Strains, Contours, And Slopes Of Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1982-06-01

    In conventional holographic interferometry, the observed fringe patterns are determined by the object displacement and deformation, and by the illumination and observation configurations. The obtained information may not be in the most convenient form for further data processing. To overcome this problem, and to create new possibilities, holographic fringe patterns can be changed by modifying the optical setup. As a result of these modifications, well-known procedures of the moire method can be applied to holographic interferometry. Components of displacement and components of the strain tensor can be isolated and measured separately. Surface contours and slopes can also be determined.

  11. Technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan Kumar, Yeddanapudi; Chatterjee, Sanjib

    2009-01-01

    We present what we believe is a new technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometery. The technique utilizes the Gaussian lens equation. The image distance is measured interferometrically in terms of the radius of curvature of the image-forming wavefront emerging from the lens. The radii of curvature of the image-forming wavefronts corresponding to two different axial object positions of known separation are measured. The focal length of the lens is determined by solving the equations obtained using the Gaussian lens equation for the two object positions. Results obtained for a corrected doublet lens of a nominal focal length of 200.0 mm with a measurement uncertainty of ±2.5% is presented

  12. Microwave Interferometry Based On Open-ended Coaxial Technique for High Sensitivity Liquid Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bakli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified open-ended coaxial technique for microwave dielectric characterization in liquid media. A calibration model is developed to relate the measured transmission coefficient to the local properties of the sample under test. As a demonstration, the permittivity of different sodium chloride solutions is experimentally determined. Accuracies of 0.17% and 0.19% are obtained respectively for the real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity at 5.9 GHz.

  13. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  14. Comparison of holographic setups used in heat and mass transfer measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleček, R.; Psota, P.; Lédl, V.; Vít, T.; Kopecký, V.

    2014-03-01

    The authors of the paper deal with measurement of heat and mass transfer for several years and they have frequently used few techniqes for measurement of refractive index distribution based on holographic interferometry. Some of the well known techniques have been modified some and some new ones developped. Every technique could be applied with success in different type of meassurement and obviously every one has set of properties making them unique. We decided to digest few different basic techniques and describe its properties in this paper with the aim to help the reader select the proper one for their measurement. The list of techniques and its properties is not comprehensive but schould serve as a basic orientation in the field.

  15. Comparison of holographic setups used in heat and mass transfer measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doleček R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the paper deal with measurement of heat and mass transfer for several years and they have frequently used few techniqes for measurement of refractive index distribution based on holographic interferometry. Some of the well known techniques have been modified some and some new ones developped. Every technique could be applied with success in different type of meassurement and obviously every one has set of properties making them unique. We decided to digest few different basic techniques and describe its properties in this paper with the aim to help the reader select the proper one for their measurement. The list of techniques and its properties is not comprehensive but schould serve as a basic orientation in the field.

  16. Real-time vibration measurement by a spatial phase-shifting technique with a tilted holographic interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, S; Isshiki, M

    1997-01-01

    Real-time vibration measurement by a tilted holographic interferogram is presented that utilizes the real-time digital fringe processor of a video signal. Three intensity data sampled at every one-third of the fringe spacing of the tilted fringes are used to calculate the modulation term of the fringe that is a function of a vibration amplitude. A three-dimensional lookup table performs the calculation in a TV repetition rate to give a new fringe profile that contours the vibration amplitude. Vibration modes at the resonant frequencies of a flat speaker were displayed on a monitor as changing the exciting frequency of vibration.

  17. Holographic Phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberte, Lasma; Ammon, Martin; Jiménez-Alba, Amadeo; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2018-04-01

    We present a class of holographic massive gravity models that realize a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry—they exhibit transverse phonon modes whose speed relates to the elastic shear modulus according to elasticity theory. Massive gravity theories thus emerge as versatile and convenient theories to model generic types of translational symmetry breaking: explicit, spontaneous, and a mixture of both. The nature of the breaking is encoded in the radial dependence of the graviton mass. As an application of the model, we compute the temperature dependence of the shear modulus and find that it features a glasslike melting transition.

  18. Vibration insensitive interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.

    2017-11-01

    The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.

  19. Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2009-05-01

    Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. We present advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full field-of-view characterization of nanometer-scale sound-induced displacements of the TM surface at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical research environment to address basic science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and human cadaver samples are shown, and their potential utility is discussed.

  20. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Mercedes E.; Garcia, Paulo; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce...

  1. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  2. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  3. Techniques for the reconstruction of two-dimensional images from projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Von Goeler, S.

    1978-08-01

    Several plasma diagnostics techniques measure the line integrals of quantities such as densities and optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray emission. Some approaches for reconstructing the local quantities from their line integrals, based on methods utilized in computerized tomography, electron microscopy, holographic interferometry, and radio astromony, are derived and presented. Results for the special cases with source functions posessing helical symmetry--ranging from DNA to MHD--are emphasized

  4. Characterization of the multi-component driving land subsidence using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Ravenna case of study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonì, Roberta; Fiaschi, Simone; Calcaterra, Domenico; Di Martire, Diego; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Meisina, Claudia; Perini, Luisa; Ramondini, Massimo; Tessitore, Serena; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Land subsidence represents a kind of hazard, which affects an increasing number of worldwide regions, densely populated, causing damage to the environment and infrastructures. Settlements can be related to multiple processes both natural and anthropic (i.e. vadose zone processes, soil consolidation, aquifer compaction, solid and fluid extraction and load-induced compaction) which take place at different spatio-temporal scale. Over the last decades, advanced subsidence studies exploited Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) data, a recent remote sensing tool, to investigate land subsidence phenomena around the world. In particular, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique, allowing a quantitative estimation at high resolution of the surface deformations, has already been successfully applied to monitor the phenomenon evolution; PSI measurements represent the cumulative displacement, deriving from the contribution of natural and anthropic components, both superficial and deep. The overlapping of several causative factors makes more difficult to accurately interpret the resulting deformations; therefore, it is essential to implement a suitable methodology to distinguish the shallow and deep components of motion. The aim of our research is to introduce a PSI-based approach not only to monitoring but also to understand the land subsidence mechanism, in order to disentangle the natural and anthropic components of motion. The methodology consists of three main phases: 1) Post-processing elaborations (i.e. interpolation of the cumulated displacements and isokinetics map implementation); 2) Characterization of the subsidence areas (i.e. subsidence pattern recognition by means of automatic time series classification); 3) Mechanisms recognition (i.e. identification of the predisposing and triggering factors and comparison with lito-technical model of subsoil, and with earth measurements). In this work, the methodology has been applied to the Ravenna area, Italy, using

  5. Optical processing of holographic lateral shear interferograms recorded by displacing an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyalikov, A M

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is considered which is used in holographic lateral shear interferometry and allows the combination of the displacement of a phase object under study during the recording of holographic interferograms with the optical processing of displaced and optically conjugate holographic interferograms. Depending on the method of optical processing of such a pair of holographic interferograms, several aberration-free interference patterns are observed, which reflect with different sensitivities variations in the light wave phase caused by the phase object. Due to the lateral shear, which is equal to or exceeds the linear size of the object, the interference patterns of the object are identical to interference patterns obtained in a two-beam, reference-wave interferometer. The possibility of using this method to control optical inhomogeneities in active crystals in solid-state lasers is studied experimentally. (interferometry)

  6. Application of holographic interferometric studies of underwater shock-wave focusing to medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nagoya, H.; Obara, Tetsuro; Kuwahara, M.

    1993-01-01

    Holographic interferometric flow visualization was successfully applied to underwater shock wave focusing and its application to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Real time diffuse holograms revealed the shock wave focusing process in an ellipsoidal reflector made from PMMA and double exposure holographic interferometry also clarified quantitatively the shock focusing process. Disintegration of urinary tract stones and gallbladder stones was observed by high speed photogrammetry. Tissue damage associated with the ESWL treatment is discussed in some detail.

  7. Measurement of a 3D Ultrasonic Wavefield Using Pulsed Laser Holographic Microscopy for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic array imaging, 3D ultrasonic wavefields are normally recorded by an ultrasonic piezo array transducer. Its performance is limited by the configuration and size of the array transducer. In this paper, a method based on digital holographic interferometry is proposed to record the 3D ultrasonic wavefields instead of the array transducer, and the measurement system consisting of a pulsed laser, ultrasonic excitation, and synchronization and control circuit is designed. A consecutive sequence of holograms of ultrasonic wavefields are recorded by the system. The interferograms are calculated from the recorded holograms at different time sequence. The amplitudes and phases of the transient ultrasonic wavefields are recovered from the interferograms by phase unwrapping. The consecutive sequence of transient ultrasonic wavefields are stacked together to generate 3D ultrasonic wavefields. Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed technique, and preliminary results are presented.

  8. The AdS/CFT Correspondence and Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, J.

    2012-01-01

    Holographic QCD is an extra-dimensional approach to modeling QCD resonances and their interactions. Holographic models encode information about chiral symmetry breaking, Weinberg sum rules, vector meson dominance, and other phenomenological features of QCD. There are two complementary approaches to holographic model building: a top-down approach which begins with string-theory brane configurations, and a bottom-up approach which is more phenomenological. In this talk I will describe the AdS/CFT correspondence, which motivates Holographic QCD, and the techniques used to build holographic models of QCD and to calculate observables in those models. I will also discuss an intriguing light cone approach to Holographic QCD discovered by Brodsky and De Teramond. (author)

  9. Holographic non-Gaussianity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the non-Gaussianity of primordial cosmological perturbations within our recently proposed holographic description of inflationary universes. We derive a holographic formula that determines the bispectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations in terms of correlation functions of a holographically dual three-dimensional non-gravitational quantum field theory (QFT). This allows us to compute the primordial bispectrum for a universe which started in a non-geometric holographic phase, using perturbative QFT calculations. Strikingly, for a class of models specified by a three-dimensional super-renormalisable QFT, the primordial bispectrum is of exactly the factorisable equilateral form with f NL equil. = 5/36, irrespective of the details of the dual QFT. A by-product of this investigation is a holographic formula for the three-point function of the trace of the stress-energy tensor along general holographic RG flows, which should have applications outside the remit of this work

  10. Holographic wavefront characterization of a frequency-tripled high-peak-power neodymium:glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Near-field amplitude and phase distributions from a high-peak-power, frequency converted Nd:glass laser (lambda = 351 nm) have been holographically recorded on silver-halide emulsions. Conventionally, the absence of a suitable reference beam forces one to use some type of shearing interferometry to obtain phasefront information, while the near-field and far-field distributions are recorded as intensity profiles. In this study, a spatially filtered, locally generated reference beam was created to holographically store the complex amplitude distribution of the pulsed laser beam, while reconstruction of the original wavefront was achieved with a continuous-wave laser. Reconstructed near-field and quasi-far-field intensity distributions closely resembled those obtained from conventional techniques, and accurate phasefront reconstruction was achieved. Furthermore, several two-beam interferometric techniques, not practicable with a high-peak-power laser, have been successfully implemented on a continuous-wave reconstruction of the pulsed laser beam. 46 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  11. Basics of interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, P

    1992-01-01

    This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry. Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter. Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers.The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discus

  12. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  13. Fundamental physics research and neutron interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioffe, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of the use of an extremely sensitive neutron interferometry technique for the study of electromagnetic structure of the neutron and the parity non-conservative effects in neutron spin rotation is discussed. (author)

  14. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric radar interferometry (PolInSAR) is a new SAR imaging mode that is rapidly becoming an important technique for bare earth topographic mapping, tree...

  15. Development of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques in New Zealand: Array simulation, image synthesis and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, S. D.

    2008-04-01

    This thesis presents the design and development of a process to model Very Long Base Line Interferometry (VLBI) aperture synthesis antenna arrays. In line with the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Institute for Radiophysics and Space Research (IRSR) aims to develop the knowledge, skills and experience within New Zealand, extensive use of existing radio astronomical software has been incorporated into the process namely AIPS (Astronomical Imaging Processing System), MIRIAD (a radio interferometry data reduction package) and DIFMAP (a program for synthesis imaging of visibility data from interferometer arrays of radio telescopes). This process has been used to model various antenna array configurations for two proposed New Zealand sites for antenna in a VLBI array configuration with existing Australian facilities and a passable antenna at Scott Base in Antarctica; and the results are presented in an attempt to demonstrate the improvement to be gained by joint trans-Tasman VLBI observation. It is hoped these results and process will assist the planning and placement of proposed New Zealand radio telescopes for cooperation with groups such as the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA), others in the Pacific Rim and possibly globally; also potential future involvement of New Zealand with the SKA. The developed process has also been used to model a phased building schedule for the SKA in Australia and the addition of two antennas in New Zealand. This has been presented to the wider astronomical community via the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand Journal, and is summarized in this thesis with some additional material. A new measure of quality ("figure of merit") for comparing the original model image and final CLEAN images by utilizing normalized 2-D cross correlation is evaluated as an alternative to the existing subjective visual operator image comparison undertaken to date by other groups. This new unit of measure is then used ! in the presentation of the

  16. Holographic method coupled with an optoelectronic interface applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.; Sporea, D.; Niculescu, V.I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a holographic method applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. It is possible to use two types of holographic interferometry like as double exposure holographic interferometry, or fast real time holographic interferometry. In this paper the applications of holographic interferometry to ionizing radiation dosimetry are presented. The determination of the accurate value of dose delivered by an ionizing radiation source (released energy per mass unit) is a complex problem which imposes different solutions depending on experimental parameters and it is solved with a double exposure holographic interferometric method associated with an optoelectronic interface and Z80 microprocessor. The method can determine the absorbed integral dose as well as the three-dimensional distribution of dose in given volume. The paper presents some results obtained in radiation dosimetry. Original mathematical relations for integral absorbed dose in irreversible radiolyzing liquids where derived. Irradiation effects can be estimated from the holographic fringes displacement and density. To measure these parameters, the obtained holographic interferograms were picked-up by a closed TV circuit system in such a way that a selected TV line explores the picture along the direction of interest using a special designed interface, a Z80 and our microprocessor system captures data along the selected TV line. When the integral dose is to be measured the microprocessor computes it from the information contained in the fringes distribution, according to the proposed formulae. Integral absorbed dose and spatial dose distribution can be estimated with an accuracy better than 4%. Some advantages of this method are outlined comparatively with conventional method in radiation dosimetry. The paper presents an original holographic set-up with an electronic interface, assisted by a Z80 microprocessor and used for nondestructive testing of transparent objects at the laser wave length

  17. Holographic Moire Contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Sainov, Ventseslav; Simova, Eli

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical analysis and experimental results on holographic moire contouring (HMC) of difussely reflecting objects are presented. The sensitivity and application constraints of the method are discussed. A high signal-to-noise ratio and contrast of the fringes is achieved through the use of high quality silver halide holographic plates HP-650. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed.

  18. Holographic interferometric observation of shock wave focusing to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu

    1991-04-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.

  19. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, S., E-mail: feister.7@osu.edu; Orban, C. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Nees, J. A. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Center for Ultra-Fast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 20001 (United States); Frische, K. D. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Chowdhury, E. A. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Intense Energy Solutions, LLC., Plain City, Ohio 43064 (United States); Roquemore, W. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser “noise” (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120° phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements

  20. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  1. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  2. Optical design and analysis of carbon dioxide laser fusion systems using interferometry and fast Fourier transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The optical design and analysis of the LASL carbon dioxide laser fusion systems required the use of techniques that are quite different from the currently used method in conventional optical design problems. The necessity for this is explored and the method that has been successfully used at Los Alamos to understand these systems is discussed with examples. This method involves characterization of the various optical components in their mounts by a Zernike polynomial set and using fast Fourier transform techniques to propagate the beam, taking diffraction and other nonlinear effects that occur in these types of systems into account. The various programs used for analysis are briefly discussed

  3. Non-contact test of coating by means of laser-induced ultrasonic excitation and holographic sound representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Pohl, K.Y.; Radtke, U.

    1991-01-01

    In order to circumvent the problems of introducing and picking off sound, which occur in conventional ultrasonic testing, a completely non-contact test process was developed. The ultrasonic surface wave required for the test is generated without contact by absorption of laser beams. The recording of the ultrasound also occurs by a non-contact holographic interferometry technique, which permits a large scale representation of the sound. Using the example of MCrAlY and ZrO 2 layers, the suitability of the process for testing thermally sprayed coatings on metal substrates is identified. The possibilities and limits of the process for the detection and description of delamination and cracks are shown. (orig.) [de

  4. Holographic characterization of colloidal particles in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Fook Chiong; Kasimbeg, Priya; Ruffner, David B.; Hlaing, Ei Hnin; Blusewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Philips, Laura A.; Grier, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Holographic particle characterization uses in-line holographic microscopy and the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure the diameter and the refractive index of individual colloidal particles in their native dispersions. This wealth of information has proved invaluable in fields as diverse as soft-matter physics, biopharmaceuticals, wastewater management, and food science but so far has been available only for dispersions in transparent media. Here, we demonstrate that holographic characterization can yield precise and accurate results even when the particles of interest are dispersed in turbid media. By elucidating how multiple light scattering contributes to image formation in holographic microscopy, we establish the range conditions under which holographic characterization can reliably probe turbid samples. We validate the technique with measurements on model colloidal spheres dispersed in commercial nanoparticle slurries.

  5. Holographic anyonic superfluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Starting with a holographic construction for a fractional quantum Hall state based on the D3-D7' system, we explore alternative quantization conditions for the bulk gauge fields. This gives a description of a quantum Hall state with various filling fractions. For a particular alternative quantization of the bulk gauge fields, we obtain a holographic anyon fluid in a vanishing background magnetic field. We show that this system is a superfluid, exhibiting the relevant gapless excitation.

  6. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daniel; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  7. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-04-21

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  8. Investigation of the Qadimah Fault in Western Saudi Arabia using Satellite Radar Interferometry and Geomorphology Analysis Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The Qadimah Fault has been mapped as a normal fault running through the middle of a planned $50 billion city. For this reason, there is an urgent need to evaluate the seismic hazard that the fault poses to the new development. Although several geophysical studies have supported the existence of a fault, the driving mechanism remains unclear. While a fault controlled by gravity gliding of the overburden on a mobile salt layer is unlikely to be of concern to the city, one caused by the continued extension of a normal rotational fault due to Red Sea rifting could result in a major earthquake. A number of geomorphology and geodetic techniques were used to better understand the fault. An analysis of topographic data revealed a sharp discontinuity in slope aspect and hanging wall tilting which strongly supports the existence of a normal fault. A GPS survey of an emergent reef platform which revealed a tilted coral surface also indicates that deformation has occurred in the region. An interferometric synthetic aperture radar investigation has also been performed to establish whether active deformation is occurring on the fault. Ground movements that could be consistent with inter-seismic strain accumulation have been observed, although the analysis is restricted by the limited data available. However, a simple fault model suggests that the deformation is unlikely due to continued crustal stretching. This, in addition to the lack of footwall uplift in the topography data, suggests that the fault is more likely controlled by a shallow salt layer. However, more work will need to be done in the future to confirm these findings.

  9. THE PULSATION OF χ CYGNI IMAGED BY OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY: A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO DERIVE DISTANCE AND MASS OF MIRA STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, S.; Perrin, G.; Haubois, X.; Poncelet, A.; Thiebaut, E.; Meimon, S.; Pedretti, E.; Ridgway, S. T.; Monnier, J. D.; Berger, J. P.; Schuller, P. A.; Woodruff, H.; Le Coroller, H.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Lacasse, M.; Traub, W.

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared interferometric imaging of the S-type Mira star χ Cygni. The object was observed at four different epochs in 2005-2006 with the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array optical interferometer (H band). Images show up to 40% variation in the stellar diameter, as well as significant changes in the limb darkening and stellar inhomogeneities. Model fitting gave precise time-dependent values of the stellar diameter, and reveals presence and displacement of a warm molecular layer. The star radius, corrected for limb darkening, has a mean value of 12.1 mas and shows a 5.1 mas amplitude pulsation. Minimum diameter was observed at phase 0.94 ± 0.01. Maximum temperature was observed several days later at phase 1.02 ± 0.02. We also show that combining the angular acceleration of the molecular layer with CO (Δv = 3) radial velocity measurements yields a 5.9 ± 1.5 mas parallax. The constant acceleration of the CO molecules-during 80% of the pulsation cycle-lead us to argument for a free-falling layer. The acceleration is compatible with a gravitational field produced by a 2.1 +1.5 -0.7 solar mass star. This last value is in agreement with fundamental mode pulsator models. We foresee increased development of techniques consisting in combining radial velocity with interferometric angular measurements, ultimately allowing total mapping of the speed, density, and position of the diverse species in pulsation-driven atmospheres.

  10. Coastal city subsidence in Shenzhen (China), monitored using multi-frequency radar interferometry time-series techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Yongsheng; Singleton, Andrew; Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Jingfa; Li, Zhenhong

    2014-05-01

    In just 26 years, the coastal city of Shenzhen (Southern China) has been transformed from a small fishing village to a modern city with a population exceeding 8.5 million people. Following its designation as a Special Economic Zone in the 1980s, the city became a test bed for China's economic reforms and currently leads many new practices in urban planning. The rapid economic development was matched by a sharp increase in the demand for usable land and consequently, extensive coastal reclamation has been undertaken by piling rock fragments from nearby hills onto the seabed. However, it has recently been reported that new apartments, offices and transport networks built on the reclaimed land have become unusable due to ground subsidence. The additional threat of coastal inundation from sea-level rise also requires serious consideration. InSAR time-series techniques (such as Persistent Scatterer and Small Baseline InSAR) are capable of detecting sub-centimetre elevation changes of the Earth's surface over large areas and at a density far exceeding the capabilities of a GPS network - particularly for such an urban environment as Shenzhen. This study uses numerous independent tracks of SAR data (two ENVISAT C-band tracks and two ALOS L-band tracks) to determine the surface movements between 2004 and 2013. Quantitative comparative analyses are carried out in the overlapping area between two adjacent tracks, and thus no ground data is required to validate InSAR results. The results show greatest subsidence in coastal areas with the areas of reclaimed land also predominantly undergoing subsidence. The combination of different ascending and descending tracks allows 2D velocity fields to be estimated and it will be important to determine whether the subsidence from the recently reclaimed land is consolidation or part of a longer-term trend. This ability to provide accurate measurements of ground stability for the city of Shenzhen will help focus investigations into areas of

  11. Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can

  12. Vibration measurements by pulsed digital holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedin, Staffan; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Perez-Lopez, Carlos; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2005-02-01

    Digital holographic interferometry in combination with a flexible fiber endoscope allows high precision measurements of deformations on hidden objects surfaces, inside cavities and objects with small access apertures. A digital holographic endoscopy system is described with a frequency-doubled, twin oscillator Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. A sequence of digital hologram pairs are recorded with a maximum repetition rate of 260 ms. Each digital hologram is captured at separate video frames of a CCD-camera. The time separation between the laser pulses from each cavity can be set in the range from 50 to 500 μs. The digital holograms are transferred to a PC via a frame grabber and evaluated quantitatively by the Fourier transform method. The resulting phase fringe pattern has the information needed to evaluate quantitatively the amount of the deformation. Experimental results of vibration measurements of hidden mechanical and biological object surfaces are presented. The quality of the results obtained by mechanical object surfaces is usually higher than for biological surfaces. This can be explained easily by the fact that a biological surface is much more complex than a mechanical surface in the sense that some parts of the surface may reflect the light well whereas other parts may absorb the light. Also, biological surfaces are translucent, which means that part of the light may enter inside the sample where it may be absorbed or reflected.

  13. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  14. Acceleration and holographic studies on different types of dynamization of external fixators of the bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Halina; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Voloshin, Arkady S.; Pennig, Dietmar; von Bally, Gert

    1992-08-01

    The unilateral axially dynamic fixator (Orthofix) was mounted on a sheep tibial shaft. Three fixation modes: static, dynamic controlled, and dynamic free were examined by means of double exposure holographic interferometry. Simultaneously, the acceleration was measured by an accelerometer and displayed on the monitor together with loading characteristics. The first exposure was made before the acting force was applied to the tibia plateau. The second one after the moment when the acceleration wave started to propagate through the specimen. We stated that in the case of dynamization less torsion occurs at the fracture site. So far, we have not been able to determine any correlation between results of holographic and accelerometric measurements.

  15. Combination of interferometry and thermography data for cultural heritage structural diagnostic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornari, Vivi; Andrianakis, Michalis; Hatzigiannakis, Kostas; Kosma, Kiki; Detalle, Vincent; Giovanacci, David

    2017-07-01

    The demand for non destructive and non invasive structural diagnostic techniques able to perform on field remote structural evaluation of historical structures and works of art it faces an increased demand. The techniques must have some basic important characteristics The non destructivity, accuracy, repeatability, non physical contact, portability, resolution, broad range of applicability depending on the type of artwork and the question at hand, are all among the important requirements underlying the requirement for on-field structural diagnostics. In this respect there are two known techniques that have been developed at full to provide a suited structural diagnostic application in artwork conservation. The systems presented here but discussed in detail elsewhere are stimulated infrared thermography (SIRT) and digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry (DHSPI) the prior can be found n market at commercial devise level while the latter is at laboratory prototype level. The two systems are being exploited for their complimentary advantages and in this paper are used in combined testing on art related targets according to the above criteria to confirm the enhanced diagnostic information that their complimentary use provides. Results confirm the effectiveness of each technique alone and the combination of data of both techniques in the conservation field. Each system is first briefly described and examples are given with the aim to present the suitability and appropriateness for use in structural documentation analysis and reports. The experimental work is in laboratory work-in-progress focusing on the hybriding of data synthesis.

  16. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  17. The holographic universe

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot, Michael

    1991-01-01

    'There is evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it - from snowflakes to maple trees to falling stars and spinning electrons - are only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality literally beyond both space and time.' This is the astonishing idea behind the holographic theory of the universe, pioneered by two eminent thinkers: physicist David Bohm, a former protege of Albert Einstein, and quantum physicist Karl Pribram. The holographic theory of the universe encompasses consciousness and reality as we know them, but can also explain such hitherto unexplained phenomena as telepathy, out-of-body experiences and even miraculous healing. In this remarkable book, Michael Talbot reveals the extraordinary depth and power of the holographic theory of the universe, illustrating how it makes sense of the entire range of experiences within our universe - and in other universes beyond our own.

  18. Information retrieval from holographic interferograms: Fundamentals and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    Holographic interferograms can contain large amounts of information about flow and temperature fields. Their information content can be very high because they can be viewed from many different directions. This multidirectionality, and fringe localization add to the information contained in the fringe pattern if diffuse illumination is used. Additional information, and increased accuracy can be obtained through the use of dual reference wave holography to add reference fringes or to effect discrete phase shift or hetrodyne interferometry. Automated analysis of fringes is possible if interferograms are of simple structure and good quality. However, in practice a large number of practical problems can arise, so that a difficult image processing task results.

  19. DH and ESPI laser interferometry applied to the restoration shrinkage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.M.P.; Parra, D.F.; Vasconcelos, M.R.; Vaz, M.; Monteiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    In dental restoration postoperative marginal leakage is commonly associated to polymerization shrinkage effects. In consequence the longevity and quality of restorative treatment depends on the shrinkage mechanisms of the composite filling during the polymerization. In this work the development of new techniques for evaluation of those effects under light-induced polymerization of dental nano composite fillings is reported. The composite resins activated by visible light, initiate the polymerization process by absorbing light in wavelengths at about 470 nm. The techniques employed in the contraction assessment were digital holography (DH) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) based on laser interferometry. A satisfactory resolution was achieved in the non-contact displacement field measurements on small objects concerning the experimental dental samples. According to a specific clinical protocol, natural teeth were used (human mandibular premolars). A class I cavity was drilled and restored with nano composite material, according to Black principles. The polymerization was monitored by DH and ESPI in real time during the cure reaction of the restoration. The total displacement reported for the material in relation of the tooth wall was 3.7 μm (natural tooth). The technique showed the entire tooth surface (wall) deforming during polymerization shrinkage. - Highlights: • Both of holographic techniques were able to measure the polymerization shrinkage. • The entire tooth surface was deformed during the polymerization shrinkage. • The group with greater percentage of filler showed the lowest value of deformation. • The values of displacement ranged from 0.9 to 3.4 μm

  20. Computer generated holographic microtags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-01-01

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs

  1. Optical interferometry in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, John D

    2003-01-01

    Here I review the current state of the field of optical stellar interferometry, concentrating on ground-based work although a brief report of space interferometry missions is included. We pause both to reflect on decades of immense progress in the field as well as to prepare for a new generation of large interferometers just now being commissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck and VLT Interferometers). First, this review summarizes the basic principles behind stellar interferometry needed by the lay-physicist and general astronomer to understand the scientific potential as well as technical challenges of interferometry. Next, the basic design principles of practical interferometers are discussed, using the experience of past and existing facilities to illustrate important points. Here there is significant discussion of current trends in the field, including the new facilities under construction and advanced technologies being debuted. This decade has seen the influence of stellar interferometry extend beyond classical regimes of stellar diameters and binary orbits to new areas such as mapping the accretion discs around young stars, novel calibration of the cepheid period-luminosity relation, and imaging of stellar surfaces. The third section is devoted to the major scientific results from interferometry, grouped into natural categories reflecting these current developments. Lastly, I consider the future of interferometry, highlighting the kinds of new science promised by the interferometers coming on-line in the next few years. I also discuss the longer-term future of optical interferometry, including the prospects for space interferometry and the possibilities of large-scale ground-based projects. Critical technological developments are still needed to make these projects attractive and affordable

  2. Multilevel recording of complex amplitude data pages in a holographic data storage system using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-09-05

    A holographic data storage system using digital holography is proposed to record and retrieve multilevel complex amplitude data pages. Digital holographic techniques are capable of modulating and detecting complex amplitude distribution using current electronic devices. These techniques allow the development of a simple, compact, and stable holographic storage system that mainly consists of a single phase-only spatial light modulator and an image sensor. As a proof-of-principle experiment, complex amplitude data pages with binary amplitude and four-level phase are recorded and retrieved. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed holographic data storage system.

  3. Holographic and acoustic emission evaluation of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical holographic interfereometry and acoustic emission monitoring were simultaneously used to evaluate two small, high pressure vessels during pressurization. The techniques provide pressure vessel designers with both quantitative information such as displacement/strain measurements and qualitative information such as flaw detection. The data from the holographic interferograms were analyzed for strain profiles. The acoustic emission signals were monitored for crack growth and vessel quality

  4. Holographic memories with encryption-selectable function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chia; Lee, Xuan-Hao

    2006-03-01

    Volume holographic storage has received increasing attention owing to its potential high storage capacity and access rate. In the meanwhile, encrypted holographic memory using random phase encoding technique is attractive for an optical community due to growing demand for protection of information. In this paper, encryption-selectable holographic storage algorithms in LiNbO 3 using angular multiplexing are proposed and demonstrated. Encryption-selectable holographic memory is an advance concept of security storage for content protection. It offers more flexibility to encrypt the data or not optionally during the recording processes. In our system design, the function of encryption and non-encryption storage is switched by a random phase pattern and a uniform phase pattern. Based on a 90-degree geometry, the input patterns including the encryption and non-encryption storage are stored via angular multiplexing with reference plane waves at different incident angles. Image is encrypted optionally by sliding the ground glass into one of the recording waves or removing it away in each exposure. The ground glass is a key for encryption. Besides, it is also an important key available for authorized user to decrypt the encrypted information.

  5. Survey of holographic security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  6. High contrast laser beam collimation testing using two proximately placed holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar; Dubey, Rajiv; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Chhachhia, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    Accuracy in laser beam collimation is very important in systems used for precision measurements. The present work reports a technique for collimation testing of laser beams using two proximately placed holographic optical elements (HOEs). The required HOEs are designed and fabricated such that upon illumination with the test beam, they release two laterally sheared wavefronts, at desired angles from the directly transmitted beam, that superimpose each other to generate straight interference fringes. Deviation from the collimation of the test beam results in orientation of these otherwise horizontal fringes. The novelty of this setup comes from the fact that HOEs are lightweight, as well as easy to fabricate as compared to conventional wedge plates used for collimation testing, and generate high contrast fringes compared to other interferometry, holography, Talbot and Moiré based techniques in a compact manner. The proposed technique is experimentally validated by measuring the orientation of fringes by an angle of 16.4° when a collimating lens of focal length 200 mm is defocused by 600 μm. The accuracy in the setting of this collimation position is obtained to be 10 μm.

  7. Holographic renormalization and supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genolini, Pietro Benetti [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Cassani, Davide [LPTHE, Sorbonne Universités UPMC Paris 6 and CNRS, UMR 7589,F-75005, Paris (France); Martelli, Dario [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Sparks, James [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-27

    Holographic renormalization is a systematic procedure for regulating divergences in observables in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. For dual boundary field theories which are supersymmetric it is natural to ask whether this defines a supersymmetric renormalization scheme. Recent results in localization have brought this question into sharp focus: rigid supersymmetry on a curved boundary requires specific geometric structures, and general arguments imply that BPS observables, such as the partition function, are invariant under certain deformations of these structures. One can then ask if the dual holographic observables are similarly invariant. We study this question in minimal N=2 gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. In four dimensions we show that holographic renormalization precisely reproduces the expected field theory results. In five dimensions we find that no choice of standard holographic counterterms is compatible with supersymmetry, which leads us to introduce novel finite boundary terms. For a class of solutions satisfying certain topological assumptions we provide some independent tests of these new boundary terms, in particular showing that they reproduce the expected VEVs of conserved charges.

  8. Holodiagram: elliptic visualizing interferometry, relativity, and light-in-flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Nils H

    2014-04-10

    In holographic interferometry, there is usually a static distance separating the point of illumination and the point of observation. In Special Relativity, this separation is dynamic and is caused by the velocity of the observer. The corrections needed to compensate for these separations are similar in the two fields. We use the ellipsoids of the holodiagram for measurement and in a graphic way to explain and evaluate optical resolution, gated viewing, radar, holography, three-dimensional interferometry, Special Relativity, and light-in-flight recordings. Lorentz contraction together with time dilation is explained as the result of the eccentricity of the measuring ellipsoid, caused by its velocity. The extremely thin ellipsoid of the very first light appears as a beam aimed directly at the observer, which might explain the wave or ray duality of light and entanglement. Finally, we introduce the concept of ellipsoids of observation.

  9. Non-contact test of coating by means of laser-induced ultrasonic excitation and holographic sound representation. Beruehrungslose Pruefung von Beschichtungen mittels laserinduzierter Ultraschallanregung und holographischer Schallabbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crostack, H A; Pohl, K Y [QZ-DO Qualitaetszentrum Dortmund GmbH und Co. KG (Germany); Radtke, U [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Qualitaetskontrolle

    1991-01-01

    In order to circumvent the problems of introducing and picking off sound, which occur in conventional ultrasonic testing, a completely non-contact test process was developed. The ultrasonic surface wave required for the test is generated without contact by absorption of laser beams. The recording of the ultrasound also occurs by a non-contact holographic interferometry technique, which permits a large scale representation of the sound. Using the example of MCrAlY and ZrO[sub 2] layers, the suitability of the process for testing thermally sprayed coatings on metal substrates is identified. The possibilities and limits of the process for the detection and description of delamination and cracks are shown. (orig.).

  10. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  11. A holographic perspective on phonons and pseudo-phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Andrea [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg,97074 Würzburg (Germany); Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Areán, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Musso, Daniele [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostelaand Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías (IGFAE),E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.

  12. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  13. Holographic-interferometric and thermoanemometric study of a thermoacoustic prime mover

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Wang, A. B.; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Chen, Y. Ch.; Maršík, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-66 ISSN 1727-7191 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermoacoustics * holographic interferometry * hot-wire anemometry Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics; BJ - Thermodynamics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.314, year: 2013 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8832965

  14. HOMES - Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HOMES (Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy) is a space telescope that employs a double dispersion architecture, using a holographic optical element...

  15. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of diffuse-illumination holographic cinematography in a flutter cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1979, the Lewis Research Center has examined holographic cinematography for three-dimensional flow visualization. The Nd:YAG lasers used were Q-switched, double-pulsed, and frequency-doubled, operating at 20 pulses per second. The primary subjects for flow visualization were the shock waves produced in two flutter cascades. Flow visualization was by diffuse-illumination, double-exposure, and holographic interferometry. The performances of the lasers, holography, and diffuse-illumination interferometry are evaluated in single-window wind tunnels. The fringe-contrast factor is used to evaluate the results. The effects of turbulence on shock-wave visualization in a transonic flow are discussed. The depth of field for visualization of a turbulent structure is demonstrated to be a measure of the relative density and scale of that structure. Other items discussed are the holographic emulsion, tests of coherence and polarization, effects of windows and diffusers, hologram bleaching, laser configurations, influence and handling of specular reflections, modes of fringe localization, noise sources, and coherence requirements as a function of the pulse energy. Holography and diffuse illumination interferometry are also reviewed.

  17. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  18. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation...... and perturbations of the surface of the Earth. The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has experimented with airborne INSAR since 1993. Multiple track data are collected in a special mode in which the radar directly steers the aircraft which allows for very precise control of the flight path. Such data sets......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  19. Intelligent holographic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  20. Magnonic holographic imaging of magnetic microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, D.; Chiang, H.; Bhowmick, T.; Volodchenkov, A.D.; Ranjbar, M.; Liu, G.; Jiang, C.; Warren, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khivintsev, Y.; Filimonov, Y. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch, Saratov 410019 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Garay, J.; Lake, R.; Balandin, A.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khitun, A., E-mail: akhitun@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves. In this approach, the object of interest is placed on top of a magnetic testbed made of material with low spin wave damping. There are micro-antennas incorporated in the testbed. Two of these antennas are used for spin wave excitation while another one is used for the detecting of inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. The measurements are repeated for different phase differences between the spin wave generating antennas which is equivalent to changing the angle of illumination. The collected data appear as a 3D plot – the holographic image of the object. We present experimental data showing magnonic holographic images of a low-coercivity Si/Co sample, a high-coercivity sample made of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and a diamagnetic copper sample. We also present images of the three samples consisting of a different amount of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder. The imaging was accomplished on a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(FeO{sub 4}){sub 3} testbed at room temperature. The obtained data reveal the unique magnonic signatures of the objects. Experimental data is complemented by the results of numerical modeling, which qualitatively explain the characteristic features of the images. Potentially, magnonic holographic imaging may complement existing techniques and be utilized for non-destructive in-situ magnetic object characterization. The fundamental physical limits of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • A technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves is proposed. • In this technique, magnetic structures appear as 3D objects. • Several holographic images of magnetic microstructures are presented.

  1. A new method for building an atomic matter-wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hongyi; Chen Jianwen; Xie Honglan; Chen Min; Xu Zhizhan; Xiao Tiqiao; Zhu Peiping

    2002-01-01

    A new method for building an atomic matter-wave interferometry is proposed. A Fresnel zone-plate is used for restricting the linewidth of atomic beams, then a quasi-monochromatic atomic beam is obtained to illuminate four slits on a copper foil. The phenomenon of atomic interference and holograph can be observed, which is used to measure the coherent length of atomic beams

  2. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  3. Holographic Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed a Raman lidar system that incorporates a holographic optical element. By resolving just 3 nitrogen lines in the Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) spectrum, temperature fits as good as 1% at altitudes of 20km can be made in 30 minutes. Due to the narrowband selectivity of the HOE, the lidar provides measurements over a continuous 24hr period. By adding a 4th channel to capture the Rayleigh backscattered light, temperature profiles can be extended to 80km

  4. Flowing holographic anyonic superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lippert, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the flow of a strongly coupled anyonic superfluid based on the holographic D3-D7' probe brane model. By analyzing the spectrum of fluctuations, we find the critical superfluid velocity, as a function of the temperature, at which the flow stops being dissipationless when flowing past a barrier. We find that at a larger velocity the flow becomes unstable even in the absence of a barrier.

  5. Magnonic holographic imaging of magnetic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, D.; Chiang, H.; Bhowmick, T.; Volodchenkov, A. D.; Ranjbar, M.; Liu, G.; Jiang, C.; Warren, C.; Khivintsev, Y.; Filimonov, Y.; Garay, J.; Lake, R.; Balandin, A. A.; Khitun, A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves. In this approach, the object of interest is placed on top of a magnetic testbed made of material with low spin wave damping. There are micro-antennas incorporated in the testbed. Two of these antennas are used for spin wave excitation while another one is used for the detecting of inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. The measurements are repeated for different phase differences between the spin wave generating antennas which is equivalent to changing the angle of illumination. The collected data appear as a 3D plot - the holographic image of the object. We present experimental data showing magnonic holographic images of a low-coercivity Si/Co sample, a high-coercivity sample made of SrFe12O19 and a diamagnetic copper sample. We also present images of the three samples consisting of a different amount of SrFe12O19 powder. The imaging was accomplished on a Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 testbed at room temperature. The obtained data reveal the unique magnonic signatures of the objects. Experimental data is complemented by the results of numerical modeling, which qualitatively explain the characteristic features of the images. Potentially, magnonic holographic imaging may complement existing techniques and be utilized for non-destructive in-situ magnetic object characterization. The fundamental physical limits of this approach are also discussed.

  6. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  7. A holographic bound for D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)

  8. Theoretical investigations on dual-beam illumination electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudemand, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to what is found in most of the existing scientific literature,where a specific frame is developed, the theory of speckle interferometry is (conveniently) presented here as a particular case of the more general theory of holographic interferometry. In addition to the intellectual benefit of dealing with a single unified theory, this brings about many advantages when it comes to discuss fundamental topics such as the three-dimensional evolution of the complex amplitude of the diffuse optical wave fronts, the degree of approximation of the leading formulas, the loss of fringe contrast,the decorrelation effects, the real influence of the terms generally neglected in out-of-focus regions. In the same way, the statistical properties of the speckle fields, usually treated as a separate subject matter, are also integrated in the theory, thus providing a comprehensive knowledge of the qualitative features of speckle interferometry methods, otherwise difficult to understand

  9. Theoretical investigations on dual-beam illumination electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudemand, Nicolas

    2006-07-01

    Contrary to what is found in most of the existing scientific literature, where a specific frame is developed, the theory of speckle interferometry is (conveniently) presented here as a particular case of the more general theory of holographic interferometry. In addition to the intellectual benefit of dealing with a single unified theory, this brings about many advantages when it comes to discuss fundamental topics such as the three-dimensional evolution of the complex amplitude of the diffuse optical wavefronts, the degree of approximation of the leading formulas, the loss of fringe contrast, the decorrelation effects, the real influence of the terms generally neglected in out-of-focus regions. In the same way, the statistical properties of the speckle fields, usually treated as a separate subject matter, are also integrated in the theory, thus providing a comprehensive knowledge of the qualitative features of speckle interferometry methods, otherwise difficult to understand.

  10. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  11. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  12. Holographic Twin Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-01

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at mKK , naturally allowing for mKK beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  13. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Kulchin, Yu N; Bezruk, M N; Ermolaev, S A [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa{sup -1} in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz. (laser hydrophones)

  14. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  15. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.

  16. Constraining holographic cosmology using Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Gould, Elizabeth; Skenderis, Kostas

    2017-06-01

    Holographic cosmology offers a novel framework for describing the very early Universe in which cosmological predictions are expressed in terms of the observables of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). This framework includes conventional slow-roll inflation, which is described in terms of a strongly coupled QFT, but it also allows for qualitatively new models for the very early Universe, where the dual QFT may be weakly coupled. The new models describe a universe which is nongeometric at early times. While standard slow-roll inflation leads to a (near-) power-law primordial power spectrum, perturbative super-renormalizable QFTs yield a new holographic spectral shape. Here, we compare the two predictions against cosmological observations. We use CosmoMC to determine the best fit parameters, and MultiNest for Bayesian evidence, comparing the likelihoods. We find that the dual QFT should be nonperturbative at the very low multipoles (l ≲30 ), while for higher multipoles (l ≳30 ) the new holographic model, based on perturbative QFT, fits the data just as well as the standard power-law spectrum assumed in Λ CDM cosmology. This finding opens the door to applications of nonperturbative QFT techniques, such as lattice simulations, to observational cosmology on gigaparsec scales and beyond.

  17. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  18. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  19. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  20. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hagan, Ola

    2014-05-02

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  1. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-10-24

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  2. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  3. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hagan, Ola; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  4. Adventures in holographic dimer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Karch, Andreas; Yaida, Sho

    2011-01-01

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  5. Computer assisted holographic moire contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental results on holographic moire contouring on diffusely reflecting objects are presented. The sensitivity and limitations of the method are discussed. Particular emphasis is put on computer-assisted data retrieval, processing, and recording.

  6. Scope of neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with the interferometry of well separated coherent beams, where the phase of the beams can be manipulated individually. The basic equation of the dynamical neutron diffraction theory are recalled. The various contributions to the interaction of as low neutron with its surroundings are discussed: the various terms denote the nuclear, magnetic, electromagnetic, intrinsic, gravitational, and weak interaction respectively. Applications to nuclear physics, fundamental physics and solid state physics are successively envisaged

  7. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  8. Space Interferometry Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    1992-12-01

    Decisions taken by the astronomy and astrophysics survey committee and the interferometry panel which lead to the formation of the Space Interferometry Science Working Group (SISWG) are outlined. The SISWG was formed by the NASA astrophysics division to provide scientific and technical input from the community in planning for space interferometry and in support of an Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM). The AIM program hopes to measure the positions of astronomical objects with a precision of a few millionths of an arcsecond. The SISWG science and technical teams are described and the outcomes of its first meeting are given.

  9. Holographic NDE of pressure tubes for Cirene nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Chirico, G.; Pirodda, L.; Villani, A.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure tubes for CIRENE nuclear reactor can be subjected to fretting corrosion of the inner walls. The resulting marks exhibit different geometries, whose influence on the structural behaviour of the tubes has been evaluated by means of a real time holographic technique. The paper shows the results of this investigation. Position and shape of internal defects have been directly visualized by observing holographic fringe distorsions on the outside surface of the tubes. Furthermore, through the fringe patterns, circumferential stress values have also been obtained. (Author) [pt

  10. An Extension of Holographic Moiré to Micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Sciammarella, F. M.

    The electronic Holographic Moiré is an ideal tool for micromechanics studies. It does not require a modification of the surface by the introduction of a reference grating. This is of particular advantage when dealing with materials such as solid propellant grains whose chemical nature and surface finish makes the application of a reference grating very difficult. Traditional electronic Holographic Moiré presents some difficult problems when large magnifications are needed and large rigid body motion takes place. This paper presents developments that solves these problems and extends the application of the technique to micromechanics.

  11. Page Oriented Holographic Memories And Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. J.

    1987-08-01

    In the twenty-two years since VanderLugt's introduction of holographic matched filtering, the intensive research carried out throughout the world has led to no applications in complex environment. This leads one to the suspicion that the VanderLugt filter technique is insufficiently complex to handle truly complex problems. Therefore, it is of great interest to increase the complexity of the VanderLugt filtering operation. We introduce here an approach to the real time filter assembly: use of page oriented holographic memories and optically addressed SLMs to achieve intelligent and fast reprogramming of the filters using a 10 4 to 10 6 stored pattern base.

  12. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  13. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  14. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-07-11

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  15. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  16. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  17. Holographic Chiral Magnetic Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Sahoo, Bindusar; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2010-06-01

    We study the ground state of baryonic/axial matter at zero temperature chiral-symmetry broken phase under a large magnetic field, in the framework of holographic QCD by Sakai-Sugimoto. Our study is motivated by a recent proposal of chiral magnetic spiral phase that has been argued to be favored against previously studied phase of homogeneous distribution of axial/baryonic currents in terms of meson super-currents dictated by triangle anomalies in QCD. Our results provide an existence proof of chiral magnetic spiral in strong coupling regime via holography, at least for large axial chemical potentials, whereas we don't find the phenomenon in the case of purely baryonic chemical potential. (author)

  18. Interpixel crosstalk cancellation on holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Toshiki; Fujimura, Ryushi

    2017-09-01

    In holographic memory systems, there have been no practical techniques to minimize interpixel crosstalk thus far. We developed an interpixel crosstalk cancellation technique using a checkerboard phase pattern with a phase difference of π/2, which can decrease the size of the spatial filter along the Fourier plane with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) kept high. This interpixel crosstalk cancellation technique is simple because it requires only one phase plate in the signal beam path. We verified the effect of such a cancellation technique by simulation. The improvement of SNR is maximized to 6.5 dB when the filter size specified in the Nyquist areal ratio is approximately 1.05 in ideal optical systems with no other fixed noise. The proposed technique can improve SNR by 0.85 in an assumed monocular architecture at an actual noise intensity. This improvement of SNR is very useful for realizing high-density recording or enhancing system robustness.

  19. Holographic construction of open structure, dispersion transmission gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.H.; Lantwaard, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of fabricating free-standing transmission gratings with line densities of the order of 1000 /nm is described. The technique involves a combination of two well-known procedures: application of photoresist and electroplating for the production of fine metal grids, and holographic

  20. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Phase recording for formation of holographic optical elements on silver-halide photographic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, Nina M.; Gulyaev, Sergey N.; Maurer, Irina A.; Chernykh, Dmitrii F.

    2009-05-01

    Holographic fabrication methods of regular and nonregular relief-phase structures on silver-halide photographic emulsions are considered. Methods of gelatin photodestruction under short-wave ultra-violet radiation and chemical hardening with the help of dichromated solutions were used as a technique for surface relief formation. The developed techniques permitted us to study specimens of holographic diffusers and microlens rasters with small absorption and high light efficiency.

  2. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent

  3. Optical interferometry for biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Nolte, David D

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental physics of optical interferometry as applied to biophysical, biological and medical research. Interference is at the core of many types of optical detection and is a powerful probe of cellular and tissue structure in interfererence microscopy and in optical coherence tomography. It is also the root cause of speckle and other imaging artefacts that limit range and resolution. For biosensor applications, the inherent sensitivity of interferometry enables ultrasensitive detection of molecules in biological samples for medical diagnostics. In this book, emphasis is placed on the physics of light scattering, beginning with the molecular origins of refraction as light propagates through matter, and then treating the stochastic nature of random fields that ultimately dominate optical imaging in cells and tissue. The physics of partial coherence plays a central role in the text, with a focus on coherence detection techniques that allow information to be selectively detected out of ...

  4. Formation of random and regular relief-phase structures on silver halide photographic emulsions by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, N. M.; Gulyaev, S. N.; Gurin, A. S.; Kramushchenko, D. D.; Maurer, I. A.; Chernykh, D. F.

    2009-07-01

    The formation of diffusers and microlens rasters on silver halide emulsions by holographic methods is considered. Two techniques for converting amplitude holographic recording to relief-phase recording, selective curing and irradiation of the emulsion gelatin by short-wavelength UV radiation, are compared.

  5. Holography and holographic dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yungui; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-01-01

    The holographic principle is used to discuss the holographic dark energy model. We find that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy bound is far from saturation under certain conditions. A more general constraint on the parameter of the holographic dark energy model is also derived

  6. Interferometry with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmcke, J.; Riehle, F.; Witte, A.; Kisters, T.

    1992-01-01

    Physics and experimental results of atom interferometry are reviewed and several realizations of atom interferometers are summarized. As a typical example of an atom interferometer utilizing the internal degrees of freedom of the atom, we discuss the separated field excitation of a calcium atomic beam using four traveling laser fields and demonstrate the Sagnac effect in a rotating interferometer. The sensitivity of this interferometer can be largely increased by use of slow atoms with narrow velocity distribution. We therefore furthermore report on the preparation of a laser cooled and deflected calcium atomic beam. (orig.)

  7. An external interface for processing 3-D holographic and X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jueptner, W.; Kreis, T.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the ESPRIT project 898 is the development of an external interface system, that links physically generated 3-D images to inspection and analysis procedures. While this has to be a general and flexible system, it is used in this project for holographic interferograms and X-ray radiographs for applications in areas such as real time testing and inspection and 3-D measurment. For this task, optical and electronic methods have to be combined in order to extract the relevant information from multiple 3-D images. A further aim of the project is the automation of the holographic interferometry and the X-ray radioscopy for on-line testing in the manufacturing process. (orig./HP)

  8. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Generation of Bell, NOON and W states via atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Rameez-ul; Saif, Farhan [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-02-14

    We propose atom interferometric techniques for the generation of Bell, NOON and W states of an electromagnetic field in high-Q cavities. The fundamental constituent of these techniques is off-resonant Bragg diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves. We show good success probabilities for these schemes under the currently available experimental environment of atom interferometry.

  10. Radio astronomical interferometry and x-ray's computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1982-01-01

    Radio astronomical interferometry and computerized tomography are techniques of great importance for astronomy and medicine, respectively. In this paper we emphasize that both techniques are based on the same mathematical principles, and present them as an example of interaction between basic and applied science.

  11. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry : Principles and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montilla, I.; Pereira, S.F.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new interferometric technique for Michelson wide-field interferometry is presented that consists of a Michelson pupil-plane combination scheme in which a wide field of view can be achieved in one shot. This technique uses a stair-shaped mirror in the intermediate image plane of each telescope in

  12. Speckle interferometry of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.

    1988-01-01

    By studying the image two-dimensional power spectra or autocorrelations projected by an asteroid as it rotates, it is possible to locate its rotational pole and derive its three axes dimensions through speckle interferometry under certain assumptions of uniform, geometric scattering, and triaxial ellipsoid shape. However, in cases where images can be reconstructed, the need for making the assumptions is obviated. Furthermore, the ultimate goal for speckle interferometry of image reconstruction will lead to mapping albedo features (if they exist) as impact areas or geological units. The first glimpses of the surface of an asteroid were obtained from images of 4 Vesta reconstructed from speckle interferometric observations. These images reveal that Vesta is quite Moon-like in having large hemispheric-scale albedo features. All of its lightcurves can be produced from a simple model developed from the images. Although undoubtedly more intricate than the model, Vesta's lightcurves can be matched by a model with three dark and four bright spots. The dark areas so dominate one hemisphere that a lightcurve minimum occurs when the maximum cross-section area is visible. The triaxial ellipsoid shape derived for Vesta is not consistent with the notion that the asteroid has an equilibrium shape in spite of its having apparently been differentiated

  13. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  14. Gauge invariance and holographic renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalization: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. There is a mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the bulk theory and the boundary one. We resolve this problem by noticing that there is a residual gauge symmetry (RGS. By extending the RGS such that it satisfies infalling boundary condition at the horizon, we can understand the problem in the context of general holographic embedding of a global symmetry at the boundary into the local gauge symmetry in the bulk.

  15. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  16. Interferometry and synthesis in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, A Richard; Swenson Jr , George W

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signal-processing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics. With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferomete...

  17. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  18. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications.

  19. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications

  20. Precision measurement with atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of atom interferometry and its application in precision measurement are reviewed in this paper. The principle, features and the implementation of atom interferometers are introduced, the recent progress of precision measurement with atom interferometry, including determination of gravitational constant and fine structure constant, measurement of gravity, gravity gradient and rotation, test of weak equivalence principle, proposal of gravitational wave detection, and measurement of quadratic Zeeman shift are reviewed in detail. Determination of gravitational redshift, new definition of kilogram, and measurement of weak force with atom interferometry are also briefly introduced. (topical review)

  1. An elementary research on wireless transmission of holographic 3D moving pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Sato, Koki; Endo, Takaya; Asano, Hiroaki; Fukuzawa, Atsuo; Asai, Kikuo

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, a transmitting process of a sequence of holograms describing 3D moving objects over the communicating wireless-network system is presented. A sequence of holograms involves holograms is transformed into a bit stream data, and then it is transmitted over the wireless LAN and Bluetooth. It is shown that applying this technique, holographic data of 3D moving object is transmitted in high quality and a relatively good reconstruction of holographic images is performed.

  2. High-speed off-axis holographic cinematography with a copper-vapor-pumped dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterborn, W; Judt, A; Schmitz, E

    1993-01-01

    A series of coherent light pulses is generated by pumping a dye laser with the pulsed output of a copper-vapor laser at rates of as much as 20 kHz. Holograms are recorded at this pulse rate on a rotating holographic plate. This technique of high-speed holographic cinematography is demonstrated by viewing the bubble filaments that appear in water under the action of a sound field of high intensity.

  3. Pipeline monitoring with interferometry in non-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCardle, Adrian; Rabus, Bernhard; Ghuman, Parwant [MacDonald Dettwiler, Richmond, BC (Canada); Freymueller, Jeff T. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Interferometry has become a proven technique for accurately measuring ground movements caused by subsidence, landslides, earthquakes and volcanoes. Using space borne sensors such as the ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT satellites, ground deformation can be monitored on a millimeter level. Traditionally interferometry has been limited to arid areas however new technology has allowed for successful monitoring in vegetated regions and areas of changing land-cover. Analysis of ground movement of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline demonstrates how these techniques can offer pipeline engineers a new tool for observing potential dangers to pipeline integrity. Results from Interferometric Point Target Analysis were compared with GPS measurements and speckle tracking interferometry was demonstrated to measure a major earthquake. (author)

  4. Practical optical interferometry imaging at visible and infrared wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Buscher, David F

    2015-01-01

    Optical interferometry is a powerful technique to make images on angular scales hundreds of times smaller than is possible with the largest telescopes. This concise guide provides an introduction to the technique for graduate students and researchers who want to make interferometric observations and acts as a reference for technologists building new instruments. Starting from the principles of interference, the author covers the core concepts of interferometry, showing how the effects of the Earth's atmosphere can be overcome using closure phase, and the complete process of making an observation, from planning to image reconstruction. This rigorous approach emphasizes the use of rules-of-thumb for important parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratios, requirements for sampling the Fourier plane and predicting image quality. The handbook is supported by web resources, including the Python source code used to make many of the graphs, as well as an interferometry simulation framework, available at www.cambridg...

  5. Photopolymer holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. R.; O'Neill, F. T.; Sheridan, J. T.

    Photopolymers are promising materials for use in holography. They have many advantages, such as ease of preparation, and are capable of efficiencies of up to 100%. A disadvantage of these materials is their inability to record high spatial frequency gratings when compared to other materials such as dichromated gelatin and silver halide photographic emulsion. Until recently, the drop off at high spatial frequencies of the material response was not predicted by any of the diffusion based models available. It has recently been proposed that this effect is due to polymer chains growing away from their initiation point and causing a smeared profile to be recorded. This is termed a non-local material response. Simple analytic expressions have been derived using this model and fits to experimental data have allowed values to be estimated for material parameters such as the diffusion coefficient of monomer, the ratio of polymerisation rate to diffusion rate and the distance that the polymer chains spread during holographic recording. The model predicts that the spatial frequency response might be improved by decreasing the mean polymer chain lengths and/or by increasing the mobility of the molecules used in the material. The experimental work carried out to investigate these predictions is reported here. This work involved (a) the changing of the molecular weights of chemical components within the material (dyes and binders) and (b) the addition of a chemical retarder in order to shorten the polymer chains, thereby decreasing the extent of the non-local effect. Although no significant improvement in spatial frequency response was observed the model appears to offer an improved understanding of the operation of the material.

  6. Parsimonious refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-09-06

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from just two shot gathers. The assumptions are that the first arrivals are comprised of head waves and direct waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers is recorded over the line of interest. The refraction traveltimes from these reciprocal shot gathers can be picked and decomposed into O(N2) refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. This enormous increase in the number of virtual traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the 2N traveltimes from the two reciprocal shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and better condition numbers in the normal equations. Also, a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.

  7. Interferometry with Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthilkumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference of optical beams with optical vortices is often encountered in singular optics. Since interferometry makes the phase observable by intensity measurement, it brings out a host of applications and helps to understand the optical vortex. In this article we present an optical vortex interferometer that can be used in optical testing and has the potential to increase the accuracy of measurements. In an optical vortex interferometer (OVI, a lattice of vortices is formed, and the movement of the cores of these vortices is tracked when one of the interfering beams is deformed. Instead of multiple vortices in an OVI, an isolated single vortex also finds applications in optical testing. Finally, singularity in scalar and vector fields is presented, and the relation between them is illustrated by the superposition of these beams.

  8. Parsimonious refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from just two shot gathers. The assumptions are that the first arrivals are comprised of head waves and direct waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers is recorded over the line of interest. The refraction traveltimes from these reciprocal shot gathers can be picked and decomposed into O(N2) refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. This enormous increase in the number of virtual traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the 2N traveltimes from the two reciprocal shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and better condition numbers in the normal equations. Also, a reciprocal survey is far less time consuming than a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.

  9. Measuring technology using holography and interferometry. HOLOMETEC. Pamphlet for the concluding presentation; Holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik. HOLOMETEC. Broschuere zur Abschlusspraesentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) provided funds to the focal item of research, `Laser science and laser technology`, for the development of measuring and testing methods based on holography and interferometry, for applications such as quality assurance and experimental stress analysis. The main objective of research activities with collaborators from science and industry was to develop the holographic and interferometric techniques to a contactless measuring technology fit for applications in industry. The BMBF contributed for the R and D programme financial support amounting to DM 6.6 million, in a total budget of DM 9.6 million. The concluding presentation was intended to summarize and demonstrate the work performed and results achieved. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie foerderte im Foerderschwerpunkt ``Laserforschung und Lasertechnik`` die Erarbeitung von Verfahrensgrundlagen zur holografisch-interferometrischen Messtechnik fuer die Qualitaetssicherung und experimentelle Spannungsanalyse. Wesentliches Ziel der Forschungsarbeiten, an denen sich Partner aus Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft beteiligten, war es, die holografisch-interferometrische Messtechnik als beruehrungsloses Mess- und Pruefverfahren fuer die industrielle Anwendung tauglich zu machen. Das BMBF unterstuetzte die F und E-Arbeiten mit insgesamt 6.6 Mio DM bei einem Gesamtaufwand von 9.6 Mio DM. Mit der Abschlusspraesentation sollen der Fachoeffentlichkeit die nun vorliegenden Ergebnisse der Forschungsarbeiten vorgestellt werden. (orig./MM)

  10. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  11. Interferometry using undulator sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beguiristain, R.; Goldberg, K.A.; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J.; Medecki, H.; Attwood, D.T.; Jackson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. A Virtual Holographic Display Case for Museum Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Chessa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important in society to make artworks accessible to mass audiences and to widen participation in culture. In such a context, virtual reality is one of the areas of greatest interest: new devices and new techniques are affordable for many users, and virtual and real worlds are often mixed together. In this paper, we propose a "virtual holographic" display, i.e. a stereoscopic virtual reality system that is able to replicate the behavior of a real showcase for exhibitions. It works in a completely virtual manner and it can yield to a new generation of entertainment "holographic" installations. We evaluate such a system through an experimental session with 20 users. In particular, we compare the proposed system, based on a stereoscopic technique (TD3D, with respect to a standard motion parallax technique in terms of the users' perceptual experience.

  13. Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves

  14. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  15. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  16. Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of

  17. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  18. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  19. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  20. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  1. Isotope Analysis of Uranium by Interferometry; Analyse isotopique de l'uranium par interferometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicknam, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Among the optical methods which may be used to make isotopic measurements of {sup 235}U interferometry gives promising results. An apparatus is described which has a photomultiplier as receiver; the source must therefore have characteristics (intensity, stability, fineness of emitted rays) which have led to the use of electrode-less discharge tubes whose methods of production and excitation are given. An example of calibration is given. (author) [French] Parmi les methodes optiques permettant le dosage isotopique de l'uranium 235, l'interferometrie est une technique qui donne des resultats prometteurs. On decrit ici un appareil ayant un photo-multiplicateur comme recepteur; la source doit donc avoir des caracteristiques (intensite, stabilite, finesse des raies emises) qui ont conduit a utiliser des tubes a decharge sans electrode dont on indique la fabrication et le mode d'excitation. Un exemple d'etalonnage est enfin donne. (auteur)

  2. Intelligent interaction based on holographic personalized portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the architecture of holographic personalized portal, user modeling, commodity modeling and intelligent interaction. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, the authors propose crowd-science industrial ecological system based on holographic personalized portal and its interaction. The holographic personality portal is based on holographic enterprises, commodities and consumers, and the personalized portal consists of accurate ontology, reliable supply, intelligent demand and smart cyberspace. Findings – The personalized portal can realize the information acquisition, characteristic analysis and holographic presentation. Then, the intelligent interaction, e.g. demand decomposition, personalized search, personalized presentation and demand prediction, will be implemented within the personalized portal. Originality/value – The authors believe that their work on intelligent interaction based on holographic personalized portal, which has been first proposed in this paper, is innovation focusing on the interaction between intelligence and convenience.

  3. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbet, Fabien; Mella, Guillaume; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  4. Holographic techniques for condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Chistopher

    2009-01-01

    Full text. Gauge/gravity duality, a concept which emerged from string theory, holds promise for revealing the secrets of certain strongly interacting real world condensed matter systems. Historically, string theorists presented their subject as a promising framework for a quantum theory of gravity. More recently, the AdS/CFT correspondence and gauge/gravity dualities have emerged as powerful tools for using what we already know about gravity to investigate the properties of strongly interacting field theories. In this colloquium, I will survey recent developments where black holes are used to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of quantum critical systems, superconductors, superfluids, and fermions at unitarity. (author)

  5. Holographic detection of hydrocarbon gases and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hurtado, J L; Davidson, C A B; Blyth, J; Lowe, C R

    2010-10-05

    There is a need to develop sensors for real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbon gases in both external and indoor environments, since these compounds are of growing concern in human health and welfare. Current measurement technology for VOCs requires sophisticated equipment and lacks the prospect for rapid real-time monitoring. Holographic sensors can give a direct reading of the analyte concentration as a color change. We report a technique for recording holographic sensors by laser ablation of silver particles formed in situ by diffusion. This technique allows a readily available hydrophobic silicone elastomer to be transformed into an effective sensor for hydrocarbon gases and other volatile compounds. The intermolecular interactions present between the polymer and molecules are used to predict the sensor performance. The hydrophobicity of this material allows the sensor to operate without interference from water and other atmospheric gases and thus makes the sensor suitable for biomedical, industrial, or environmental analysis.

  6. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (Tholographic complexity will be divergent.

  7. Homodyne detection of holographic memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urness, Adam C.; Wilson, William L.; Ayres, Mark R.

    2014-09-01

    We present a homodyne detection system implemented for a page-wise holographic memory architecture. Homodyne detection by holographic memory systems enables phase quadrature multiplexing (doubling address space), and lower exposure times (increasing read transfer rates). It also enables phase modulation, which improves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to further increase data capacity. We believe this is the first experimental demonstration of homodyne detection for a page-wise holographic memory system suitable for a commercial design.

  8. Holographic kinetic k-essence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es; Sanchez, Guillermo [Departamento de Matematica y Ciencia de la Computacion, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gsanchez@usach.cl

    2009-08-31

    We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice c{>=}1, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this Letter we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with c{>=}1 and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X)

  9. Lectures on holographic methods for condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A

    2009-01-01

    These notes are loosely based on lectures given at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge theories, February 2009, and at the IPM String School in Tehran, April 2009. I have focused on a few concrete topics and also on addressing questions that have arisen repeatedly. Background condensed matter physics material is included as motivation and easy reference for the high energy physics community. The discussion of holographic techniques progresses from equilibrium, to transport and to superconductivity.

  10. Holographic duality: Stealing dimensions from metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaanen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Although electrically charged black holes seem remote from superconductors and strange metals in the laboratory, they might be intimately related by the holographic dualities discovered in string theory.

  11. Holographic Jet Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficnar, Andrej

    In this dissertation we study the phenomenon of jet quenching in quark-gluon plasma using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We start with a weakly coupled, perturbative QCD approach to energy loss, and present a Monte Carlo code for computation of the DGLV radiative energy loss of quarks and gluons at an arbitrary order in opacity. We use the code to compute the radiated gluon distribution up to n=9 order in opacity, and compare it to the thin plasma (n=1) and the multiple soft scattering (n=infinity) approximations. We furthermore show that the gluon distribution at finite opacity depends in detail on the screening mass mu and the mean free path lambda. In the next part, we turn to the studies of how heavy quarks, represented as "trailing strings" in AdS/CFT, lose energy in a strongly coupled plasma. We study how the heavy quark energy loss gets modified in a "bottom-up" non-conformal holographic model, constructed to reproduce some properties of QCD at finite temperature and constrained by fitting the lattice gauge theory results. The energy loss of heavy quarks is found to be strongly sensitive to the medium properties. We use this model to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA of charm and bottom quarks in an expanding plasma with Glauber initial conditions, and comment on the range of validity of the model. The central part of this thesis is the energy loss of light quarks in a strongly coupled plasma. Using the standard model of "falling strings", we present an analytic derivation of the stopping distance of light quarks, previously available only through numerical simulations, and also apply it to the case of Gauss-Bonnet higher derivative gravity. We then present a general formula for computing the instantaneous energy loss in non-stationary string configurations. Application of this formula to the case of falling strings reveals interesting phenomenology, including a modified Bragg-like peak at late times and an approximately linear path dependence. Based

  12. Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, S.N., E-mail: sshevchenko@ilt.kharkov.u [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Kharkov (Ukraine); RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan); Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan); Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A transition between energy levels at an avoided crossing is known as a Landau-Zener transition. When a two-level system (TLS) is subject to periodic driving with sufficiently large amplitude, a sequence of transitions occurs. The phase accumulated between transitions (commonly known as the Stueckelberg phase) may result in constructive or destructive interference. Accordingly, the physical observables of the system exhibit periodic dependence on the various system parameters. This phenomenon is often referred to as Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg (LZS) interferometry. Phenomena related to LZS interferometry occur in a variety of physical systems. In particular, recent experiments on LZS interferometry in superconducting TLSs (qubits) have demonstrated the potential for using this kind of interferometry as an effective tool for obtaining the parameters characterizing the TLS as well as its interaction with the control fields and with the environment. Furthermore, strong driving could allow for fast and reliable control of the quantum system. Here we review recent experimental results on LZS interferometry, and we present related theory.

  13. Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, S.N.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    A transition between energy levels at an avoided crossing is known as a Landau-Zener transition. When a two-level system (TLS) is subject to periodic driving with sufficiently large amplitude, a sequence of transitions occurs. The phase accumulated between transitions (commonly known as the Stueckelberg phase) may result in constructive or destructive interference. Accordingly, the physical observables of the system exhibit periodic dependence on the various system parameters. This phenomenon is often referred to as Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg (LZS) interferometry. Phenomena related to LZS interferometry occur in a variety of physical systems. In particular, recent experiments on LZS interferometry in superconducting TLSs (qubits) have demonstrated the potential for using this kind of interferometry as an effective tool for obtaining the parameters characterizing the TLS as well as its interaction with the control fields and with the environment. Furthermore, strong driving could allow for fast and reliable control of the quantum system. Here we review recent experimental results on LZS interferometry, and we present related theory.

  14. Experimental research of digital holographic microscopic measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueliang; Chen, Feifei; Li, Jicheng

    2013-06-01

    Digital holography is a new imaging technique, which is developed on the base of optical holography, Digital processing, and Computer techniques. It is using CCD instead of the conventional silver to record hologram, and then reproducing the 3D contour of the object by the way of computer simulation. Compared with the traditional optical holographic, the whole process is of simple measuring, lower production cost, faster the imaging speed, and with the advantages of non-contact real-time measurement. At present, it can be used in the fields of the morphology detection of tiny objects, micro deformation analysis, and biological cells shape measurement. It is one of the research hot spot at home and abroad. This paper introduced the basic principles and relevant theories about the optical holography and Digital holography, and researched the basic questions which influence the reproduce images in the process of recording and reconstructing of the digital holographic microcopy. In order to get a clear digital hologram, by analyzing the optical system structure, we discussed the recording distance and of the hologram. On the base of the theoretical studies, we established a measurement and analyzed the experimental conditions, then adjusted them to the system. To achieve a precise measurement of tiny object in three-dimension, we measured MEMS micro device for example, and obtained the reproduction three-dimensional contour, realized the three dimensional profile measurement of tiny object. According to the experiment results consider: analysis the reference factors between the zero-order term and a pair of twin-images by the choice of the object light and the reference light and the distance of the recording and reconstructing and the characteristics of reconstruction light on the measurement, the measurement errors were analyzed. The research result shows that the device owns certain reliability.

  15. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space

  16. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  17. Holographic models with anisotropic scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjolfsson, E. J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.

    2013-12-01

    We consider gravity duals to d+1 dimensional quantum critical points with anisotropic scaling. The primary motivation comes from strongly correlated electron systems in condensed matter theory but the main focus of the present paper is on the gravity models in their own right. Physics at finite temperature and fixed charge density is described in terms of charged black branes. Some exact solutions are known and can be used to obtain a maximally extended spacetime geometry, which has a null curvature singularity inside a single non-degenerate horizon, but generic black brane solutions in the model can only be obtained numerically. Charged matter gives rise to black branes with hair that are dual to the superconducting phase of a holographic superconductor. Our numerical results indicate that holographic superconductors with anisotropic scaling have vanishing zero temperature entropy when the back reaction of the hair on the brane geometry is taken into account.

  18. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.; Meyer, René; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  19. Baryon physics in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pomarol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In a simple holographic model for QCD in which the Chern–Simons term is incorporated to take into account the QCD chiral anomaly, we show that baryons arise as stable solitons which are the 5D analogs of 4D skyrmions. Contrary to 4D skyrmions and previously considered holographic scenarios, these solitons have sizes larger than the inverse cut-off of the model, and therefore they are predictable within our effective field theory approach. We perform a numerical determination of several static properties of the nucleons and find a satisfactory agreement with data. We also calculate the amplitudes of “anomalous” processes induced by the Chern–Simons term in the meson sector, such as ω→πγ and ω→3π. A combined fit to baryonic and mesonic observables leads to an agreement with experiments within 16%.

  20. Constructive use of holographic projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  1. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  2. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  3. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV

  4. Volume Holographic Storage of Digital Data Implemented in Photorefractive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heanue, John Frederick

    A holographic data storage system is fundamentally different from conventional storage devices. Information is recorded in a volume, rather than on a two-dimensional surface. Data is transferred in parallel, on a page-by -page basis, rather than serially. These properties, combined with a limited need for mechanical motion, lead to the potential for a storage system with high capacity, fast transfer rate, and short access time. The majority of previous volume holographic storage experiments have involved direct storage and retrieval of pictorial information. Success in the development of a practical holographic storage device requires an understanding of the performance capabilities of a digital system. This thesis presents a number of contributions toward this goal. A description of light diffraction from volume gratings is given. The results are used as the basis for a theoretical and numerical analysis of interpage crosstalk in both angular and wavelength multiplexed holographic storage. An analysis of photorefractive grating formation in photovoltaic media such as lithium niobate is presented along with steady-state expressions for the space-charge field in thermal fixing. Thermal fixing by room temperature recording followed by ion compensation at elevated temperatures is compared to simultaneous recording and compensation at high temperature. In particular, the tradeoff between diffraction efficiency and incomplete Bragg matching is evaluated. An experimental investigation of orthogonal phase code multiplexing is described. Two unique capabilities, the ability to perform arithmetic operations on stored data pages optically, rather than electronically, and encrypted data storage, are demonstrated. A comparison of digital signal representations, or channel codes, is carried out. The codes are compared in terms of bit-error rate performance at constant capacity. A well-known one-dimensional digital detection technique, maximum likelihood sequence estimation, is

  5. Kaon interferometry; Interferometria de kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldao, C.G.; Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-06-01

    Preliminary results of the {chi}{sup 2} analysis where data on kaon interferometry, obtained from the E859 Collaboration of the AGS/Brookhaven Nat.Lab., are compared with results of a hadronic resonance production model are presented. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry. 11 refs., 2 figs.; e-mail: roldao at axp.ift.unesp.br; padula at axp.ift.unesp.br.

  6. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  7. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  8. The future of holographic technologies and their use by artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S.; Richardson, M.

    2013-02-01

    The use of holographic technologies in the past has faced resistance in the artistic field. The most conservative artists and critiques saw the term "holographic" more as a technical subject than an artistic one. Nevertheless, to explore new forms to create art has been a constant challenge for any artist, whatever their field. At the end of the 20-century the concept that art can explore any field or subject, create a vision that is somehow technological, is part of the evolving artistic world. In the last two decades, in the search for new terminologies, scientists and artists have used the expression "Holographic" as a synonym of evolution, but with different meanings. Artists are using it as a new form of art call "Holo Art"; scientists see it as a "new" science technique where light takes an important part in the process, and can be used in various aspects of daily life, such as, security and medicine. This paper will explore artists who take the challenge of combining their art with new technologies and how they are viewed in a world where the question of 'what is and what isn't art' is very debatable. Other questions that will be explored are 'How can these techniques be useful to artists?' and 'How do artists challenge themselves to analyse the pros and cons of the results that can be obtained?'

  9. Toward a holographic theory for general spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Salzetta, Nico; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J.

    2017-04-01

    We study a holographic theory of general spacetimes that does not rely on the existence of asymptotic regions. This theory is to be formulated in a holographic space. When a semiclassical description is applicable, the holographic space is assumed to be a holographic screen: a codimension-1 surface that is capable of encoding states of the gravitational spacetime. Our analysis is guided by conjectured relationships between gravitational spacetime and quantum entanglement in the holographic description. To understand basic features of this picture, we catalog predictions for the holographic entanglement structure of cosmological spacetimes. We find that qualitative features of holographic entanglement entropies for such spacetimes differ from those in AdS/CFT but that the former reduce to the latter in the appropriate limit. The Hilbert space of the theory is analyzed, and two plausible structures are found: a direct-sum and "spacetime-equals-entanglement" structure. The former preserves a naive relationship between linear operators and observable quantities, while the latter respects a more direct connection between holographic entanglement and spacetime. We also discuss the issue of selecting a state in quantum gravity, in particular how the state of the multiverse may be selected in the landscape.

  10. Synfograms: a new generation of holographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Öhlmann, Odile; Öhlmann, Dietmar; Zacharovas, Stanislovas J.

    2008-04-01

    The new synthetic Four-dimensional printing technique (Syn4D) Synfogram is introducing time (animation) into spatial configuration of the imprinted three-dimensional shapes. While lenticular solutions offer 2 to 9 stereoscopic images Syn4D offers large format, full colors true 3D visualization printing of 300 to 2500 frames imprinted as holographic dots. This past 2 years Syn4D high-resolution displays proved to be extremely efficient for museums presentation, engineering design, automobile prototyping, and advertising virtual presentation as well as, for portrait and fashion applications. The main advantages of syn4D is that it offers a very easy way of using a variety of digital media, like most of 3D Modelling programs, 3D scan system, video sequences, digital photography, tomography as well as the Syn4D camera track system for life recording of spatial scenes changing in time. The use of digital holographic printer in conjunction with Syn4D image acquiring and processing devices separates printing and imaging creation in such a way that makes four-dimensional printing similar to a conventional digital photography processes where imaging and printing are usually separated in space and time. Besides making content easy to prepare, Syn4D has also developed new display and lighting solutions for trade show, museum, POP, merchandising, etc. The introduction of Synfograms is opening new applications for real life and virtual 4D displays. In this paper we will analyse the 3D market, the properties of the Synfograms and specific applications, the problems we encounter, solutions we find, discuss about customers demand and need for new product development.

  11. Spin dynamics in polarized neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchelt, R.J.

    2000-05-01

    Since its first implementation in 1974, perfect crystal neutron interferometry has become an extremely successful method applicable to a variety of research fields. Moreover, it proved as an illustrative and didactically valuable experiment for the demonstration of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the neutron being an almost ideal probe for the detection of various effects, as it interacts by all four forces of nature. For instance, the first experimental verification of the 4-pi-periodicity of spinor wave functions was performed with perfect crystal neutron interferometry, and it remains the only method known which demonstrates the quantum mechanical wave-particle-duality of massive particles at a macroscopic separation of the coherent matter waves of several centimeters. A particular position is taken herein by polarized neutron interferometry, which as a collective term comprises all techniques and experiments which not only aim at the coherent splitting and macroscopic separation of neutron beams in the interferometer with the purpose of their separate treatment, but which aim to do so with explicit employment of the spin-magnetic properties of the neutron as a fermion. Remarkable aspects may arise, for example, if nuclear and magnetic potentials are concurrently applied to a partial beam of the interferometer: among other results, it is found that - in perfect agreement to the theoretical predictions - the neutron beam leaving the interferometer features non-zero polarization, even if the incident neutron beam, and hence either of the partial beams, is unpolarized. The main emphasis of the present work lies on the development of an appropriate formalism that describes the effect of simultaneous occurrence of nuclear and magnetic interaction on the emerging intensity and polarization for an arbitrary number of sequential magnetic regions, so-called domains. The confrontation with subtle theoretical problems was inevitable during the experimental

  12. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part I. Transmission Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2001-02-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE s). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE s recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE s.

  13. Holographic complexity for time-dependent backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we will analyze the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyze the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically AdS geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such time-dependent geometries.

  14. Resolution enhancement of holographic printer using a hogel overlapping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keehoon; Park, Soon-gi; Yeom, Jiwoon; Kim, Jonghyun; Chen, Ni; Pyun, Kyungsuk; Choi, Chilsung; Kim, Sunil; An, Jungkwuen; Lee, Hong-Seok; Chung, U-in; Lee, Byoungho

    2013-06-17

    We propose a hogel overlapping method for the holographic printer to enhance the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms. The hogel size is directly related to the lateral resolution of the holographic stereogram. Our analysis by computer simulation shows that there is a limit to decreasing the hogel size while printing holographic stereograms. Instead of reducing the size of hogel, the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms can be enhanced by printing overlapped hogels, which makes it possible to take advantage of multiplexing property of the volume hologram. We built a holographic printer, and recorded two holographic stereograms using the conventional and proposed overlapping methods. The images and movies of the holographic stereograms experimentally captured were compared between the conventional and proposed methods. The experimental results confirm that the proposed hogel overlapping method improves the lateral resolution of holographic stereograms compared to the conventional holographic printing method.

  15. Complete positivity and neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of neutron beams in interferometry experiments using quantum dynamical semigroups. We show that these experiments could provide stringent limits on the non-standard, dissipative terms appearing in the extended evolution equations. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  17. HoloHands: games console interface for controlling holographic optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, C.; McPherson, M.; McDougall, C.; McGloin, D.

    2013-03-01

    The increasing number of applications for holographic manipulation techniques has sparked the development of more accessible control interfaces. Here, we describe a holographic optical tweezers experiment which is controlled by gestures that are detected by a Microsoft Kinect. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to calibrate the tweezers using the Stokes drag method and compare this to automated calibrations. We also show that multiple particle manipulation can be handled. This is a promising new line of research for gesture-based control which could find applications in a wide variety of experimental situations.

  18. HoloHands: games console interface for controlling holographic optical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C; McPherson, M; McDougall, C; McGloin, D

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of applications for holographic manipulation techniques has sparked the development of more accessible control interfaces. Here, we describe a holographic optical tweezers experiment which is controlled by gestures that are detected by a Microsoft Kinect. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to calibrate the tweezers using the Stokes drag method and compare this to automated calibrations. We also show that multiple particle manipulation can be handled. This is a promising new line of research for gesture-based control which could find applications in a wide variety of experimental situations. (paper)

  19. Acoustical holographic recording with coherent optical read-out and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. K.

    1980-10-01

    New acoustic holographic wave memory devices have been designed for real-time in-situ recording applications. The basic operating principles of these devices and experimental results through the use of some of the prototypes of the devices are presented. Recording media used in the device include thermoplastic resin, Crisco vegetable oil, and Wilson corn oil. In addition, nonlinear coherent optical image processing techniques including equidensitometry, A-D conversion, and pseudo-color, all based on the new contact screen technique, are discussed with regard to the enhancement of the normally poor-resolved acoustical holographic images.

  20. MEGARA Optics: Sub-aperture Stitching Interferometry for Large Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, Daniel; Carrasco, Esperanza; Izazaga-Pérez, Rafael; Páez, Gonzalo; Granados-Agustín, Fermín; Percino-Zacarías, Elizabeth; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Villalobos-Mendoza, Brenda

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a detailed analysis of sub-aperture interferogram stitching software to test circular and elliptical clear apertures with diameters and long axes up to 272 and 180 mm, respectively, from the Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía (MEGARA). MEGARA is a new spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It offers a resolution between 6000 and 20000 via the use of volume phase holographic gratings. It has an integral field unit and a set of robots for multi-object spectroscopy at the telescope focal plane. The output end of the fibers forms the spectrograph pseudo-slit. The fixed geometry of the collimator and camera configuration requires prisms in addition to the flat windows of the volume phase holographic gratings. There are 73 optical elements of large aperture and high precision manufactured in Mexico at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica (CIO). The principle of stitching interferometry is to divide the surface being tested into overlapping small sections, which allows an easier analysis (Kim & Wyant 1981). This capability is ideal for non-contact tests for unique and large optics as required by astronomical instruments. We show that the results obtained with our sub-aperture stitching algorithm were consistent with other methods that analyze the entire aperture. We used this method to analyze the 24 MEGARA prisms that could not be tested otherwise. The instrument has been successfully commissioned at GTC in all the spectral configurations. The fulfillment of the irregularity specifications was one of the necessary conditions to comply with the spectral requirements.

  1. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  2. Holographic conductivity of holographic superconductors with higher-order corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazanfari, Afsoon; Dehyadegari, Amin [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    We analytically and numerically disclose the effects of the higher-order correction terms in the gravity and in the gauge field on the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors. On the gravity side, we consider the higher curvature Gauss-Bonnet corrections and on the gauge field side, we add a quadratic correction term to the Maxwell Lagrangian. We show that, for this system, one can still obtain an analytical relation between the critical temperature and the charge density. We also calculate the critical exponent and the condensation value both analytically and numerically. We use a variational method, based on the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem for our analytical study, as well as a numerical shooting method in order to compare with our analytical results. For a fixed value of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, we observe that the critical temperature decreases with increasing the nonlinearity of the gauge field. This implies that the nonlinear correction term to the Maxwell electrodynamics makes the condensation harder. We also study the holographic conductivity of the system and disclose the effects of the Gauss-Bonnet and nonlinear parameters α and b on the superconducting gap. We observe that, for various values of α and b, the real part of the conductivity is proportional to the frequency per temperature, ω/T, as the frequency is large enough. Besides, the conductivity has a minimum in the imaginary part which is shifted toward greater frequency with decreasing temperature. (orig.)

  3. Holographic non-Gaussianities in general single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Noumi, Toshifumi [Department of Physics and Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Department of Physics,Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Shiu, Gary [Department of Physics and Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wong, Sam S.C.; Zhou, Siyi [Department of Physics and Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2016-12-07

    We use holographic techniques to compute inflationary non-Gaussianities for general single-field inflation, including models with a non-trivial sound speed. In this holographic approach, the inflationary dynamics is captured by a relevant deformation of the dual conformal field theory (CFT) in the UV, while the inflationary correlators are computed by conformal perturbation theory. In this paper, we discuss the effects of higher derivative operators, such as (∂{sub μ}ϕ∂{sup μ}ϕ){sup m}, which are known to induce a non-trivial sound speed and source potentially large non-Gaussianities. We compute the full inflationary bispectra from the deformed CFT correlators. We also discuss the squeezed limit of the bispectra from the viewpoint of operator product expansions. As is generic in the holographic description of inflation, our power spectrum is blue tilted in the UV region. We extend our bispectrum computation to the IR region by resumming the conformal perturbations to all orders. We provide a self-consistent setup which reproduces a red tilted power spectrum, as well as all possible bispectrum shapes in the slow-roll regime.

  4. Overview of fast algorithm in 3D dynamic holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jia, Jia; Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-08-01

    3D dynamic holographic display is one of the most attractive techniques for achieving real 3D vision with full depth cue without any extra devices. However, huge 3D information and data should be preceded and be computed in real time for generating the hologram in 3D dynamic holographic display, and it is a challenge even for the most advanced computer. Many fast algorithms are proposed for speeding the calculation and reducing the memory usage, such as:look-up table (LUT), compressed look-up table (C-LUT), split look-up table (S-LUT), and novel look-up table (N-LUT) based on the point-based method, and full analytical polygon-based methods, one-step polygon-based method based on the polygon-based method. In this presentation, we overview various fast algorithms based on the point-based method and the polygon-based method, and focus on the fast algorithm with low memory usage, the C-LUT, and one-step polygon-based method by the 2D Fourier analysis of the 3D affine transformation. The numerical simulations and the optical experiments are presented, and several other algorithms are compared. The results show that the C-LUT algorithm and the one-step polygon-based method are efficient methods for saving calculation time. It is believed that those methods could be used in the real-time 3D holographic display in future.

  5. Very long baseline interferometry applied to polar motion, relativity, and geodesy. Ph.D. thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The causes and effects of diurnal polar motion are described. An algorithm was developed for modeling the effects on very long baseline interferometry observables. A selection was made between two three-station networks for monitoring polar motion. The effects of scheduling and the number of sources observed on estimated baseline errors are discussed. New hardware and software techniques in very long baseline interferometry are described

  6. Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P-A; Bablumian, A; Voorakaranam, R; Christenson, C; Lin, W; Gu, T; Flores, D; Wang, P; Hsieh, W-Y; Kathaperumal, M; Rachwal, B; Siddiqui, O; Thomas, J; Norwood, R A; Yamamoto, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-11-04

    Holography is a technique that is used to display objects or scenes in three dimensions. Such three-dimensional (3D) images, or holograms, can be seen with the unassisted eye and are very similar to how humans see the actual environment surrounding them. The concept of 3D telepresence, a real-time dynamic hologram depicting a scene occurring in a different location, has attracted considerable public interest since it was depicted in the original Star Wars film in 1977. However, the lack of sufficient computational power to produce realistic computer-generated holograms and the absence of large-area and dynamically updatable holographic recording media have prevented realization of the concept. Here we use a holographic stereographic technique and a photorefractive polymer material as the recording medium to demonstrate a holographic display that can refresh images every two seconds. A 50 Hz nanosecond pulsed laser is used to write the holographic pixels. Multicoloured holographic 3D images are produced by using angular multiplexing, and the full parallax display employs spatial multiplexing. 3D telepresence is demonstrated by taking multiple images from one location and transmitting the information via Ethernet to another location where the hologram is printed with the quasi-real-time dynamic 3D display. Further improvements could bring applications in telemedicine, prototyping, advertising, updatable 3D maps and entertainment.

  7. Digital holographic reconstruction detection of localized corrosion arising from scratches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electrochemical methods and the digital holographic reconstruction technique were combined to detect the localized scratch-induced corrosion process of Alloy 690 in 0.50 mol dm-3 H2SO4 containing 0.10 mol dm-3 NaCl. The numerical reconstruction method has been proved to be an effective technique to detect changes of solution concentration. One can obtain direct information from the reconstructed images and capture subtle more revealing changes. It provides a method to detect localized corrosion arising from scratches.

  8. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  9. Application of DuPont photopolymer films to automotive holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Norihito; Ono, Motoshi; Takeuchi, Shoichi; Sakurai, Hiromi; Hirano, Masahiro

    1998-03-01

    Automotive holographic head-up display (HUD) systems employing DuPont holographic photopolymer films are presented. Holographic materials for automotive application are exposed to severe environmental conditions and are required high performance. This paper describes the improvement of DuPont photopolymer films for the automotive use, critical technical issues such as optical design, external color and stray light. The holographic HUD combiner embedded in a windshield of an automobile has peculiar problems called external color. Diffraction light from holographic combiner makes its external color tone stimulative. We have introduced RGB three color recording and color simulation in order to improve the external color. A moderate external color tone was realized by the optimization in terms of wavelengths and diffraction efficiencies of the combiner hologram. The stray light called flare arises from a reflection by glass surface of windshield. We have developed two techniques to avoid the flare. First is a diffuser type trap beam guard hologram which reduces the intensity of the flare. Second is the optimization of the design of hologram so that the incident direction of flare is lower than the horizon line. As an example of automotive display a stand-alone type holographic HUD system attached on the dashboard of an automobile is demonstrated, which provides useful driving information such as route guidance. The display has a very simple optical system that consists of only a holographic combiner and a vacuum fluorescent display. Its thin body is only 35 mm high and does not obstruct driver's view. The display gives high contrast and wide image.

  10. Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croon, Djuna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,BN1 9QH Brighton (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON (Canada); Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,BN1 9QH Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-13

    Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM{sub 5}, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of “colours” N, thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a ‘Little Randall-Sundrum Model’, which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM{sub 5} with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.

  11. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-10

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  12. Precision Geodesy via Radio Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinteregger, H F; Shapiro, I I; Robertson, D S; Knight, C A; Ergas, R A; Whitney, A R; Rogers, A E; Moran, J M; Clark, T A; Burke, B F

    1972-10-27

    Very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, involving observations of extragalactic radio sources, were performed in 1969 to determine the vector separations between antenna sites in Massachusetts and West Virginia. The 845.130-kilometer baseline was estimated from two separate experiments. The results agreed with each other to within 2 meters in all three components and with a special geodetic survey to within 2 meters in length; the differences in baseline direction as determined by the survey and by interferometry corresponded to discrepancies of about 5 meters. The experiments also yielded positions for nine extragalactic radio sources, most to within 1 arc second, and allowed the hydrogen maser clocks at the two sites to be synchronized a posteriori with an uncertainty of only a few nanoseconds.

  13. Origin of holographic dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Seo, Min-Gyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the origin of holographic dark energy models which were recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. For this purpose, we introduce the spacetime foam uncertainty of δl≥l p α l α-1 . It was argued that the case of α=2/3 could describe the dark energy with infinite statistics, while the case of α=1/2 can describe the ordinary matter with Bose-Fermi statistics. However, two cases may lead to the holographic energy density if the latter recovers from the geometric mean of UV and IR scales. Hence the dark energy with infinite statistics based on the entropy bound is not an ingredient for deriving the holographic dark energy model. Furthermore, it is shown that the agegraphic dark energy models are the holographic dark energy model with different IR length scales

  14. Holographic equipartition from first order action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbo

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the idea that gravity is emergent has attract many people's attention. The "Emergent Gravity Paradigm" is a program that develop this idea from the thermodynamical point of view. It expresses the Einstein equation in the language of thermodynamics. A key equation in this paradigm is the holographic equipartition which says that, in all static spacetimes, the degrees of freedom on the boundary equal those in the bulk. And the time evolution of spacetime is drove by the departure from the holographic equipartition. In this paper, we get the holographic equipartition and its generalization from the first order formalism, that is, the connection and its conjugate momentum are considered to be the canonical variables. The final results have similar structure as those from the metric formalism. It gives another proof of holographic equipartition.

  15. Very long baseline interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckart, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few years the resolution of the instruments used in radioastronomy could be enhanced by a factor of 10 000 compared with the human eye. As this method is relatively young and not very well known, the principles of the technique are presented in combination with the most important results. (orig.) [de

  16. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Holographic memory system based on projection recording of computer-generated 1D Fourier holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Donchenko, S S; Odinokov, S B; Evtikhiev, N N; Starikov, R S; Starikov, S N; Zlokazov, E Yu

    2014-10-01

    Utilization of computer generation of holographic structures significantly simplifies the optical scheme that is used to record the microholograms in a holographic memory record system. Also digital holographic synthesis allows to account the nonlinear errors of the record system to improve the microholograms quality. The multiplexed record of holograms is a widespread technique to increase the data record density. In this article we represent the holographic memory system based on digital synthesis of amplitude one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform holograms and the multiplexed record of these holograms onto the holographic carrier using optical projection scheme. 1D Fourier transform holograms are very sensitive to orientation of the anamorphic optical element (cylindrical lens) that is required for encoded data object reconstruction. The multiplex record of several holograms with different orientation in an optical projection scheme allowed reconstruction of the data object from each hologram by rotating the cylindrical lens on the corresponding angle. Also, we discuss two optical schemes for the recorded holograms readout: a full-page readout system and line-by-line readout system. We consider the benefits of both systems and present the results of experimental modeling of 1D Fourier holograms nonmultiplex and multiplex record and reconstruction.

  18. Entanglement entropy and complexity for one-dimensional holographic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi; Ong, Yen Chin; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Holographic superconductor is an important arena for holography, as it allows concrete calculations to further understand the dictionary between bulk physics and boundary physics. An important quantity of recent interest is the holographic complexity. Conflicting claims had been made in the literature concerning the behavior of holographic complexity during phase transition. We clarify this issue by performing a numerical study on one-dimensional holographic superconductor. Our investigation shows that holographic complexity does not behave in the same way as holographic entanglement entropy. Nevertheless, the universal terms of both quantities are finite and reflect the phase transition at the same critical temperature.

  19. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  20. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  1. Carbazole Containing Copolymers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Reversible Holographic Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Mailhot-Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbazolic copolymers have been developed to be used in reversible holographic recording. This paper describes a complete analysis, from synthesis of the material to its applications, together with the corresponding characterizations. The investigated materials were photosensitive copolymers obtained from carbazolylalkylmethacrylates (CEM and octylmethacrylate (OMA. A detailed investigation was undertaken involving infrared spectroscopy and NMR techniques, 1H, 13C, COSY, and HSQC, in order to establish the chemical structure and the composition of the copolymers. Holographic recording characteristics were investigated with one- and two-layer photothermoplastic carriers. The two-layer carrier contains separate photosensitive and thermoplastic layers and gives the best holographic response. The surface of microstructured samples has been characterized by atomic force microscopy analysis. It is shown that via a photothermoplastic recording process, it is possible to record and read holograms practically in real time (~3 s with a diffraction efficiency of 10% and a spatial resolution higher than 1000 mm−1.

  2. All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Chunxiu; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-01-01

    Metasurfaces are unique subwavelength geometries capable of engineering electromagnetic waves at will, delivering new opportunities for holography. Most previous meta-holograms, so-called phase-only meta-holograms, modulate only the amplitude distribution of a virtual object, and require optimizing techniques to improve the image quality. However, the phase distribution of the reconstructed image is usually overlooked in previous studies, leading to inevitable information loss. Here, we demonstrate all-dielectric meta-holograms that allow tailoring of both the phase and amplitude distributions of virtual objects. Several longitudinal manipulations of the holographic images are theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, including shifting, stretching, and rotating, enabling a large depth of focus. Furthermore, a new meta-hologram with a three-dimensional holographic design method is demonstrated with an even enhanced depth of focus. The proposed meta-holograms offer more freedom in holographic design and open new avenues for designing complex three-dimensional holography.

  3. All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2017-11-22

    Metasurfaces are unique subwavelength geometries capable of engineering electromagnetic waves at will, delivering new opportunities for holography. Most previous meta-holograms, so-called phase-only meta-holograms, modulate only the amplitude distribution of a virtual object, and require optimizing techniques to improve the image quality. However, the phase distribution of the reconstructed image is usually overlooked in previous studies, leading to inevitable information loss. Here, we demonstrate all-dielectric meta-holograms that allow tailoring of both the phase and amplitude distributions of virtual objects. Several longitudinal manipulations of the holographic images are theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, including shifting, stretching, and rotating, enabling a large depth of focus. Furthermore, a new meta-hologram with a three-dimensional holographic design method is demonstrated with an even enhanced depth of focus. The proposed meta-holograms offer more freedom in holographic design and open new avenues for designing complex three-dimensional holography.

  4. Developments in holographic-based scanner designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic-based scanning systems have been used for years in the high resolution prepress markets where monochromatic lasers are generally utilized. However, until recently, due to the dispersive properties of holographic optical elements (HOEs), along with the high cost associated with recording 'master' HOEs, holographic scanners have not been able to penetrate major scanning markets such as the laser printer and digital copier markets, low to mid-range imagesetter markets, and the non-contact inspection scanner market. Each of these markets has developed cost effective laser diode based solutions using conventional scanning approaches such as polygon/f-theta lens combinations. In order to penetrate these markets, holographic-based systems must exhibit low cost and immunity to wavelength shifts associated with laser diodes. This paper describes recent developments in the design of holographic scanners in which multiple HOEs, each possessing optical power, are used in conjunction with one curved mirror to passively correct focal plane position errors and spot size changes caused by the wavelength instability of laser diodes. This paper also describes recent advancements in low cost production of high quality HOEs and curved mirrors. Together these developments allow holographic scanners to be economically competitive alternatives to conventional devices in every segment of the laser scanning industry.

  5. Generalized interferometry - I: theory for interstation correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Stehly, Laurent; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian

    2017-02-01

    We develop a general theory for interferometry by correlation that (i) properly accounts for heterogeneously distributed sources of continuous or transient nature, (ii) fully incorporates any type of linear and nonlinear processing, such as one-bit normalization, spectral whitening and phase-weighted stacking, (iii) operates for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media, (iv) enables the exploitation of complete correlation waveforms, including seemingly unphysical arrivals, and (v) unifies the earthquake-based two-station method and ambient noise correlations. Our central theme is not to equate interferometry with Green function retrieval, and to extract information directly from processed interstation correlations, regardless of their relation to the Green function. We demonstrate that processing transforms the actual wavefield sources and actual wave propagation physics into effective sources and effective wave propagation. This transformation is uniquely determined by the processing applied to the observed data, and can be easily computed. The effective forward model, that links effective sources and propagation to synthetic interstation correlations, may not be perfect. A forward modelling error, induced by processing, describes the extent to which processed correlations can actually be interpreted as proper correlations, that is, as resulting from some effective source and some effective wave propagation. The magnitude of the forward modelling error is controlled by the processing scheme and the temporal variability of the sources. Applying adjoint techniques to the effective forward model, we derive finite-frequency Fréchet kernels for the sources of the wavefield and Earth structure, that should be inverted jointly. The structure kernels depend on the sources of the wavefield and the processing scheme applied to the raw data. Therefore, both must be taken into account correctly in order to make accurate inferences on

  6. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  7. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu, E-mail: bfiol@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  8. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, Bartomeu

    2010-01-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS 4 × S 7 , and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory

  9. Emergent Spacetime and Holographic CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    El-Showk, Sheer

    2012-01-01

    We discuss universal properties of conformal field theories with holographic duals. A central feature of these theories is the existence of a low-lying sector of operators whose correlators factorize. We demonstrate that factorization can only hold in the large central charge limit. Using conformal invariance and factorization we argue that these operators are naturally represented as fields in AdS as this makes the underlying linearity of the system manifest. In this class of CFTs the solution of the conformal bootstrap conditions can be naturally organized in structures which coincide with Witten diagrams in the bulk. The large value of the central charge suggests that the theory must include a large number of new operators not captured by the factorized sector. Consequently we may think of the AdS hologram as an effective representation of a small sector of the CFT, which is embedded inside a much larger Hilbert space corresponding to the black hole microstates.

  10. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    First Light for the PRIMA instrument The PRIMA instrument [1] of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) recently saw "first light" at its new home atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. When fully operational, PRIMA will boost the capabilities of the VLTI to see sources much fainter than any previous interferometers, and enable astrometric precision unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility. PRIMA will be a unique tool for the detection of exoplanets. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 29a/08 Preparing for PRIMA "PRIMA is specifically designed to see if one star 'wobbles' to and fro because it is has unseen planetary companions", says instrument scientist Gerard van Belle. "This allows us to not only detect exoplanets, but to measure their mass." PRIMA's expected astrometric precision of tens of micro-arcseconds is unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility, whether on the ground or in orbit [2]. In addition to taking astrometric measurements PRIMA will be the key to the imaging of faint sources with the VLTI using the science instruments AMBER and MIDI. Interferometry combines the light received by two or more telescopes, concentrating on tiny differences between the signals to measure angles with exquisite precision. Using this technique PRIMA can pick out details as sharply as a single telescope with a diameter equivalent to the largest distance between the telescopes. For the VLTI, the distance between the two telescope elements is about 200 metres. The PRIMA instrument is unique amongst the VLTI instruments, in that it is effectively two interferometers in one. PRIMA will take data from two sources on the sky simultaneously: the brighter source can be used for tracking, allowing the interferometer to "stare" at the fainter source for longer than is now possible with conventional interferometers. Although there have been earlier pathfinder experiments to test this technique, PRIMA represents the first facility

  11. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  12. PVA with nopal dye as holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Pinto-Iguanero, B.

    2011-09-01

    Cactus nopal dye is introduced into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix achieving a like brown appearance thick film, such that they can be used as a recording medium. This dye material provides excellent property as photosensitizer, i.e., easy handling, low cost and can be used in real time holographic recording applications. The experimental results show the diffraction efficiencies obtained by recording grating patterns induced by a He-Cd laser (442nm). For the samples, a thick film of polyvinyl alcohol and dye from cactus nopal was deposited by the gravity technique on a glass substrate. This mixture dries to form a photosensitive emulsion.

  13. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  14. Holographic interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology for 3D deformations in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Kemper, Björn; Kröger, Elke; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical loading of dental restorations and hard tissue is often investigated numerically. For validation and optimization of such simulations, comparisons with measured deformations are essential. We combine digital holographic interferometry and digital speckle photography for the determination of microscopic deformations with a photogrammetric method that is based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. This multimodal workstation allows the simultaneous acquisition of the specimen's macroscopic 3D shape and thus a quantitative comparison of measured deformations with simulation data. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our system, two applications are presented: the quantitative determination of (1) the deformation of a mandible model due to mechanical loading of an inserted dental implant and of (2) the deformation of a (dental) bridge model under mechanical loading. The results were compared with data from finite element analyses of the investigated applications. The experimental results showed close agreement with those of the simulations.

  15. Correction of phase-shifting error in wavelength scanning digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is a promising method for measuring complex micro-structures with high slopes. A quasi-common path interferometric apparatus is adopted to overcome environmental disturbances, and an acousto-optic tunable filter is used to obtain multi-wavelength holograms. However, the phase shifting error caused by the acousto-optic tunable filter reduces the measurement accuracy and, in turn, the reconstructed topographies are erroneous. In this paper, an accurate reconstruction approach is proposed. It corrects the phase-shifting errors by minimizing the difference between the ideal interferograms and the recorded ones. The restriction on the step number and uniformity of the phase shifting is relaxed in the interferometry, and the measurement accuracy for complex surfaces can also be improved. The universality and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by practical experiments and comparison to other measurement methods.

  16. A recent history of science cases for optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrère, Denis; Aerts, Conny; Kishimoto, Makoto; Léna, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Optical long-baseline interferometry is a unique and powerful technique for astronomical research. Since the 1980's (with I2T, GI2T, Mark I to III, SUSI, ...), optical interferometers have produced an increasing number of scientific papers covering various fields of astrophysics. As current interferometric facilities are reaching their maturity, we take the opportunity in this paper to summarize the conclusions of a few key meetings, workshops, and conferences dedicated to interferometry. We present the most persistent recommendations related to science cases and discuss some key technological developments required to address them. In the era of extremely large telescopes, optical long-baseline interferometers will remain crucial to probe the smallest spatial scales and make breakthrough discoveries.

  17. X-ray Talbot interferometry with capillary plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    An X-ray Talbot interferometer consisting of two capillary plates, which were used as X-ray amplitude gratings, was evaluated for X-ray phase imaging. A theoretical aspect of capillary X-ray Talbot interferometry is presented with a preliminary operation result using synchrotron radiation. A two-dimensional X-ray Talbot effect, or self-imaging effect, which was the basis of Talbot interferometry, was observed with the capillary plate, and moire images formed by the X-ray Talbot interferometer exhibited contrasts corresponding to the differential phase shift caused by phase objects placed in front of the interferometer. Finally, the possibility of quantitative phase measurement with a fringe scanning technique is discussed. (author)

  18. MAGIA - using atom interferometry to determine the Newtonian gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhler, J; Fattori, M; Petelski, T; Tino, G M

    2003-01-01

    We describe our experiment MAGIA (misura accurata di G mediante interferometria atomica), in which we will use atom interferometry to perform a high precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Free-falling laser-cooled atoms in a vertical atomic fountain will be accelerated due to the gravitational potential of nearby source masses (SMs). Detecting this acceleration with techniques of Raman atom interferometry will enable us to assign a value to G. To suppress systematic effects we will implement a double-differential measurement. This includes launching two atom clouds in a gradiometer configuration and moving the SMs to different vertical positions. We briefly summarize the general idea of the MAGIA experiment and put it in the context of other high precision G-measurements. We present the current status of the experiment and report on analyses of the expected measurement accuracy

  19. Comparing holographic dark energy models with statefinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Jing-Lei; Zhang, Jing-Fei

    2014-01-01

    We apply the statefinder diagnostic to the holographic dark energy models, including the original holographic dark energy (HDE) model, the new holographic dark energy model, the new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model, and the Ricci dark energy model. In the low-redshift region the holographic dark energy models are degenerate with each other and with the ΛCDM model in the H(z) and q(z) evolutions. In particular, the HDE model is highly degenerate with the ΛCDM model, and in the HDE model the cases with different parameter values are also in strong degeneracy. Since the observational data are mainly within the low-redshift region, it is very important to break this lowredshift degeneracy in the H(z) and q(z) diagnostics by using some quantities with higher order derivatives of the scale factor. It is shown that the statefinder diagnostic r(z) is very useful in breaking the low-redshift degeneracies. By employing the statefinder diagnostic the holographic dark energy models can be differentiated efficiently in the low-redshift region. The degeneracy between the holographic dark energy models and the ΛCDM model can also be broken by this method. Especially for the HDE model, all the previous strong degeneracies appearing in the H(z) and q(z) diagnostics are broken effectively. But for the NADE model, the degeneracy between the cases with different parameter values cannot be broken, even though the statefinder diagnostic is used. A direct comparison of the holographic dark energy models in the r-s plane is also made, in which the separations between the models (including the ΛCDM model) can be directly measured in the light of the current values {r 0 , s 0 } of the models. (orig.)

  20. CO2 interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    When a machined surface is strained, double-exposure visible holography can be used to detect the change or difference in a profile. However, this technique cannot be used to compare the surface profiles of a master and a production line object, because the unique microstructure of the surfaces is so large that the speckle patterns are uncorrelated. If the radiation wavelength was much larger than the microstructure, then an interferometric comparison between the master and the production object's profiles would be possible. This is the condition for the object surface to behave as a specular reflector and one would only expecct to see the highlights from any single viewing direction. If a suitable diffuser was introduced into the object illumination system, then the whole specular surface could be seen simultaneously. The speckle pattern in the image plane is generated by the unique microstructure of the diffuser. Replacing one specular reflector by a very similar one, will not alter the image plane speckle pattern. A 10.6--μm speckle interferometer has been built with a diffuser placed in the object illumination system. Experimentally, it has been shown that a profile comparison is possible provided the surface roughness of the objects is less than 20/25 μin. (CLA). Unfortunately the spatial resolution of the detector was worse than expected. This is a major problem which has not been solved

  1. Holographic and time-resolving ability of pulse-pair two-dimensional velocity interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, David J.; Smith, R. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Bolme, C. A.; Ali, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous velocity interferometers used at research laboratories for shock physics experiments measured target motion at a point or many points on a line on the target. Recently, a two-dimensional (2d) version (2d-velocity interferometer system for any reflector) has been demonstrated using a pair of ultrashort (3 ps) pulses for illumination, separated by 268 ps. We have discovered new abilities for this instrument, by treating the complex output image as a hologram. For data taken in an out of focus configuration, we can Fourier process to bring narrow features such as cracks into sharp focus, which are otherwise completely blurred. This solves a practical problem when using high numerical aperture optics having narrow depth of field to observe moving surface features such as cracks. Furthermore, theory predicts that the target appearance (position and reflectivity) at two separate moments in time are recorded by the main and conjugate images of the same hologram, and are partially separable during analysis for narrow features. Hence, for the cracks we bring into refocus, we can make a two-frame movie with a subnanosecond frame period. Longer and shorter frame periods are possible with different interferometer delays. Since the megapixel optical detectors we use have superior spatial resolution over electronic beam based framing cameras, this technology could be of great use in studying microscopic three-dimensional-behavior of targets at ultrafast times scales. Demonstrations on shocked silicon are shown

  2. Holographic and time-resolving ability of pulse-pair two-dimensional velocity interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, David J., E-mail: erskine1@llnl.gov; Smith, R. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bolme, C. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ali, S. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Previous velocity interferometers used at research laboratories for shock physics experiments measured target motion at a point or many points on a line on the target. Recently, a two-dimensional (2d) version (2d-velocity interferometer system for any reflector) has been demonstrated using a pair of ultrashort (3 ps) pulses for illumination, separated by 268 ps. We have discovered new abilities for this instrument, by treating the complex output image as a hologram. For data taken in an out of focus configuration, we can Fourier process to bring narrow features such as cracks into sharp focus, which are otherwise completely blurred. This solves a practical problem when using high numerical aperture optics having narrow depth of field to observe moving surface features such as cracks. Furthermore, theory predicts that the target appearance (position and reflectivity) at two separate moments in time are recorded by the main and conjugate images of the same hologram, and are partially separable during analysis for narrow features. Hence, for the cracks we bring into refocus, we can make a two-frame movie with a subnanosecond frame period. Longer and shorter frame periods are possible with different interferometer delays. Since the megapixel optical detectors we use have superior spatial resolution over electronic beam based framing cameras, this technology could be of great use in studying microscopic three-dimensional-behavior of targets at ultrafast times scales. Demonstrations on shocked silicon are shown.

  3. Time Dependent Holographic Interferometry and Finite-Element Analysis of Heat Transfer Within a Rectangular Enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    CO toCO to «/)t/^t/)CO</)</></) cot/)«/)«/)«/)</)</? wot/) to COlO t/)tOt/)tOt/lt/)tOCOt/)COt/)COt/)COCOCOCOt/»CO</)COCOCOCOt/)tO U. U. U. U. LL U... tOCO </)t/»tO«/)V)CO«/) i/)«/)«/)ooco»/)to</)tot/5t/)«/)cococr.i/>i/>t/)t/>toto</>u>t/)cococoiooot/>coi/) OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO CM tNi (M roro ro rom rO en...fO fOm >t N^ (/) u) to </«/)</>«/) l/>CO t/) toCO CO </) t/) «/^ cr>totototo (/>CO </)CO COto COtoCO li.U

  4. Single-shot full resolution region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar

    2018-05-01

    We describe a numerical processing technique that allows single-shot region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction in image plane digital holographic microscopy with full pixel resolution. The ROI reconstruction is modelled as an optimization problem where the cost function to be minimized consists of an L2-norm squared data fitting term and a modified Huber penalty term that are minimized alternately in an adaptive fashion. The technique can provide full pixel resolution complex-valued images of the selected ROI which is not possible to achieve with the commonly used Fourier transform method. The technique can facilitate holographic reconstruction of individual cells of interest from a large field-of-view digital holographic microscopy data. The complementary phase information in addition to the usual absorption information already available in the form of bright field microscopy can make the methodology attractive to the biomedical user community.

  5. Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remetter, T.; Ruchon, T.; Johnsson, P.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The well controlled generation and characterization of attosecond XUV light pulses provide an unprecedented tool to study electron wave packets (EWPs). Here a train of attosecond pulses is used to create and study the phase of an EWP in momentum space. There is a clear analogy between electronic wave functions and optical fields. In optics, methods like SPIDER or wave front shearing interferometry, allow to measure the spectral or spatial phase of a light wave. These two methods are based on the same principle: an interferogram is produced when recombining two sheared replica of a light pulse, spectrally (SPIDER) or spatially (wave front shearing interferometry). This enables the comparison of two neighbouring different spectral or spatial slices of the original wave packet. In the experiment, a train of attosecond pulses is focused in an Argon atomic gas jet. EWPs are produced from the single XUV photon ionization of Argon atoms. If an IR beam is synchronized to the EWPs, it is possible to introduce a shear in momentum space between two consecutive s wave packets. A Velocity Map Imaging Spectrometer (VMIS) enables us to detect the interference pattern. An analysis of the interferograms will be presented leading to a conclusion about the symmetry of the studied wave packet.

  6. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, A.; Bivol, V.; Iovu, M

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  7. Mapping small elevation changes over large areas - Differential radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Andrew K.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, which uses SAR images for measuring very small (1 cm or less) surface motions with good resolution (10 m) over swaths of up to 50 km. The method was applied to a Seasat data set of an imaging site in Imperial Valley, California, where motion effects were observed that were identified with movements due to the expansion of water-absorbing clays. The technique can be used for accurate measurements of many geophysical phenomena, including swelling and buckling in fault zones, residual displacements from seismic events, and prevolcanic swelling.

  8. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  9. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  10. On effective holographic Mott insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology,Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-12-20

    We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.

  11. An automatic holographic adaptive phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsolaimani, Babak; Peyghambarian, N.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Bablumyan, Arkady; Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam

    2017-08-01

    Phoropters are the most common instrument used to detect refractive errors. During a refractive exam, lenses are flipped in front of the patient who looks at the eye chart and tries to read the symbols. The procedure is fully dependent on the cooperation of the patient to read the eye chart, provides only a subjective measurement of visual acuity, and can at best provide a rough estimate of the patient's vision. Phoropters are difficult to use for mass screenings requiring a skilled examiner, and it is hard to screen young children and the elderly etc. We have developed a simplified, lightweight automatic phoropter that can measure the optical error of the eye objectively without requiring the patient's input. The automatic holographic adaptive phoropter is based on a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor and three computercontrolled fluidic lenses. The fluidic lens system is designed to be able to provide power and astigmatic corrections over a large range of corrections without the need for verbal feedback from the patient in less than 20 seconds.

  12. On effective holographic Mott insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.

  13. Theta dependence in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bolognesi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' , Università di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Manenti, Andrea [Institute of Physics, EPFL,Rte de la Sorge, BSP 728, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-02-07

    We study the effects of the CP-breaking topological θ-term in the large N{sub c} QCD model by Witten, Sakai and Sugimoto with N{sub f} degenerate light flavors. We first compute the ground state energy density, the topological susceptibility and the masses of the lowest lying mesons, finding agreement with expectations from the QCD chiral effective action. Then, focusing on the N{sub f}=2 case, we consider the baryonic sector and determine, to leading order in the small θ regime, the related holographic instantonic soliton solutions. We find that while the baryon spectrum does not receive O(θ) corrections, this is not the case for observables like the electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons. In particular, it exhibits a dipole term, which turns out to be vector-meson dominated. The resulting neutron electric dipole moment, which is exactly the opposite as that of the proton, is of the same order of magnitude of previous estimates in the literature. Finally, we compute the CP-violating pion-nucleon coupling constant ḡ{sub πNN}, finding that it is zero to leading order in the large N{sub c} limit.

  14. Holographic cutoff on inflationary universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Fabio M. de N.; Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Cosmological Inflation has been widely accepted as the standard explanation of the onset of Big-Bang Cosmology. However, many critiques have been made about the lack of an account of quantum gravity degrees of freedom in cosmology. There is no definite consensus in the literature if we should consider the influence of pre-Plackian modes, for example, in inflationary models. We propose here a general approach to take quantum gravity into account by imposing a holographic cutoff on the number of states of cosmological theories. We apply the method to inflationary scalar field models coupled to a generic potential V (φ). This thermodynamic cutoff allow us to assess the relative volume of phase space which inflates for the particular model where V (φ) = m 2 φ 2 /2. The density of states of the model is defined by taking the coincidence limit of the Hadamard Green function G (1) and we use the point-splitting method to regulate the expression. Our conclusion is that inflation has probability very close to one. (author)

  15. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-02-14

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  16. Neutron Interferometry at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M. G.; Sarenac, D.; Nsofini, J.; Pushin, D. A.; Arif, M.; Wood, C. J.; Cory, D. G.; Shahi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron interferometry has proved to be a very precise technique for measuring the quantum mechanical phase of a neutron caused by a potential energy difference between two spatially separated neutron paths inside interferometer. The path length inside the interferometer can be many centimeters (and many centimeters apart) making it very practical to study a variety of samples, fields, potentials, and other macroscopic medium and quantum effects. The precision of neutron interferometry comes at a cost; neutron interferometers are very susceptible to environmental noise that is typically mitigated with large, active isolated enclosures. With recent advances in quantum information processing especially quantum error correction (QEC) codes we were able to demonstrate a neutron interferometer that is insensitive to vibrational noise. A facility at NIST’s Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) has just been commissioned with higher neutron flux than the NCNR’s older interferometer setup. This new facility is based on QEC neutron interferometer, thus improving the accessibility of neutron interferometry to the greater scientific community and expanding its applications to quantum computing, gravity, and material research

  17. Experimental demonstration of deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Schwarze, Thomas S; Mehmet, Moritz; Heinzel, Gerhard; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2016-01-25

    Experiments for space and ground-based gravitational wave detectors often require a large dynamic range interferometric position readout of test masses with 1 pm/√Hz precision over long time scales. Heterodyne interferometer schemes that achieve such precisions are available, but they require complex optical set-ups, limiting their scalability for multiple channels. This article presents the first experimental results on deep frequency modulation interferometry, a new technique that combines sinusoidal laser frequency modulation in unequal arm length interferometers with a non-linear fit algorithm. We have tested the technique in a Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer topology, respectively, demonstrated continuous phase tracking of a moving mirror and achieved a performance equivalent to a displacement sensitivity of 250 pm/Hz at 1 mHz between the phase measurements of two photodetectors monitoring the same optical signal. By performing time series fitting of the extracted interference signals, we measured that the linearity of the laser frequency modulation is on the order of 2% for the laser source used.

  18. Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Boschung, B.; Tango, W.J.; Davis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer

  19. The holographic Weyl semi-metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Landsteiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show the evidences that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a sharp crossover at small temperature from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE and we find that it is very strongly suppressed above a critical value of the mass parameter. This can be taken as a hint for an underlying topological quantum phase transition. We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no fermionic quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the presence of an anomalous Hall effect cannot be bound to notions of topology in momentum spaces.

  20. The holographic Weyl semi-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsteiner, Karl, E-mail: karl.landsteiner@csic.es; Liu, Yan, E-mail: yan.liu@csic.es

    2016-02-10

    We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show the evidences that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a sharp crossover at small temperature from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and we find that it is very strongly suppressed above a critical value of the mass parameter. This can be taken as a hint for an underlying topological quantum phase transition. We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no fermionic quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the presence of an anomalous Hall effect cannot be bound to notions of topology in momentum spaces.

  1. Holographic correlation functions in Critical Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Giorgos; Olea, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    We compute the holographic stress tensor and the logarithmic energy-momentum tensor of Einstein-Weyl gravity at the critical point. This computation is carried out performing a holographic expansion in a bulk action supplemented by the Gauss-Bonnet term with a fixed coupling. The renormalization scheme defined by the addition of this topological term has the remarkable feature that all Einstein modes are identically cancelled both from the action and its variation. Thus, what remains comes from a nonvanishing Bach tensor, which accounts for non-Einstein modes associated to logarithmic terms which appear in the expansion of the metric. In particular, we compute the holographic 1-point functions for a generic boundary geometric source.

  2. Collapse and revival in holographic quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Emilia da; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  3. Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco; Avelino, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: ε=±1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)

  4. Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: {epsilon}={+-}1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)

  5. Holographic subregion complexity for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshaei, Elaheh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollabashi, Ali [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recently holographic prescriptions were proposed to compute the quantum complexity of a given state in the boundary theory. A specific proposal known as 'holographic subregion complexity' is supposed to calculate the complexity of a reduced density matrix corresponding to a static subregion. We study different families of singular subregions in the dual field theory and find the divergence structure and universal terms of holographic subregion complexity for these singular surfaces. We find that there are new universal terms, logarithmic in the UV cut-off, due to the singularities of a family of surfaces including a kink in (2 + 1) dimensions and cones in even dimensional field theories. We also find examples of new divergent terms such as squared logarithm and negative powers times the logarithm of the UV cut-off parameter. (orig.)

  6. Anomalous transport and holographic momentum relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Christian; Fernández-Pendás, Jorge; Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio

    2017-09-01

    The chiral magnetic and vortical effects denote the generation of dissipationless currents due to magnetic fields or rotation. They can be studied in holographic models with Chern-Simons couplings dual to anomalies in field theory. We study a holographic model with translation symmetry breaking based on linear massless scalar field backgrounds. We compute the electric DC conductivity and find that it can vanish for certain values of the translation symmetry breaking couplings. Then we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities. They are completely independent of the holographic disorder couplings and take the usual values in terms of chemical potential and temperature. To arrive at this result we suggest a new definition of energy-momentum tensor in presence of the gravitational Chern-Simons coupling.

  7. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part 2. Reflection Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2002-03-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  8. Using Seismic Interferometry to Investigate Seismic Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, E.; Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity provides a direct means of measuring the physical characteristics of active tectonic features such as fault zones. Hundreds of small earthquakes often occur along a fault during a seismic swarm. This seismicity helps define the tectonically active region. When processed using novel geophysical techniques, we can isolate the energy sensitive to the fault, itself. Here we focus on two methods of seismic interferometry, ambient noise correlation (ANC) and the virtual seismometer method (VSM). ANC is based on the observation that the Earth's background noise includes coherent energy, which can be recovered by observing over long time periods and allowing the incoherent energy to cancel out. The cross correlation of ambient noise between a pair of stations results in a waveform that is identical to the seismogram that would result if an impulsive source located at one of the stations was recorded at the other, the Green function (GF). The calculation of the GF is often stable after a few weeks of continuous data correlation, any perturbations to the GF after that point are directly related to changes in the subsurface and can be used for 4D monitoring.VSM is a style of seismic interferometry that provides fast, precise, high frequency estimates of the Green's function (GF) between earthquakes. VSM illuminates the subsurface precisely where the pressures are changing and has the potential to image the evolution of seismicity over time, including changes in the style of faulting. With hundreds of earthquakes, we can calculate thousands of waveforms. At the same time, VSM collapses the computational domain, often by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This allows us to do high frequency 3D modeling in the fault region. Using data from a swarm of earthquakes near the Salton Sea, we demonstrate the power of these techniques, illustrating our ability to scale from the far field, where sources are well separated, to the near field where their locations fall within each other

  9. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  10. Numerical processing of ultrasonic holographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, K.J.; Kiefer, R.; Wosnitza, M.; Schmitz, V.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Saarbruecken

    1980-01-01

    Reconstructing ultrasonic holographic data numerically, the well-known Fresnel approximation is a first step in evaluating the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula, that is to say, a one- or two-dimensional Fourier-transform of the holographic data multiplied by a complex phase factor has to be computed. The present contribution investigates the relation between flaw depth and aperture size yielding the more advantageous use of the spatial frequency approach where the advantage is in terms of the number of samples and hence computation time in evaluating Fourier transforms numerically. (orig.) [de

  11. Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail: 746616@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-06-15

    We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.

  12. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  13. Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.

  14. Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar

    2010-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy

  15. Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao

    2009-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is now an interesting candidate of dark energy, which has been studied extensively in the literature. In the derivation of HDE, the black hole entropy plays an important role. In fact, the entropy-area relation can be modified due to loop quantum gravity or other reasons. With the modified entropy-area relation, we propose the so-called 'entropy-corrected holographic dark energy' (ECHDE) in the present work. We consider many aspects of ECHDE and find some interesting results. In addition, we briefly consider the so-called 'entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy' (ECADE). (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  16. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  17. Error-free holographic frames encryption with CA pixel-permutation encoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The security of video data is necessary in network security transmission hence cryptography is technique to make video data secure and unreadable to unauthorized users. In this paper, we propose a holographic frames encryption technique based on the cellular automata (CA) pixel-permutation encoding algorithm. The concise pixel-permutation algorithm is used to address the drawbacks of the traditional CA encoding methods. The effectiveness of the proposed video encoding method is demonstrated by simulation examples.

  18. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  19. Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Mechanical Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Stubbs, D.; Kroening, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission, planned for launch in 2006, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4x10 to the power of negative six arc (about 1 billionth of a degree).

  20. Interferometry of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The interferometry is used for determining large space time dimensions of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed in high energy nuclear collisions or in high multiplicity fluctuations in p-barp collisions. (M.C.K.)

  1. Analytic approximations for inside-outside interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.)

    1990-07-30

    Analytical expressions for pion interferometry are derived illustrating the competing effects of various non-ideal aspects of inside-outside cascade dynamics at energies {proportional to}200 AGeV. (orig.).

  2. Analysis of higher order harmonics with holographic reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Abellan, P.; Madrigal, R.; Fimia, A.

    2017-05-01

    Silver halide emulsions have been considered one of the most energetic sensitive materials for holographic applications. Nonlinear recording effects on holographic reflection gratings recorded on silver halide emulsions have been studied by different authors obtaining excellent experimental results. In this communication specifically we focused our investigation on the effects of refractive index modulation, trying to get high levels of overmodulation that will produce high order harmonics. We studied the influence of the overmodulation and its effects on the transmission spectra for a wide exposure range by use of 9 μm thickness films of ultrafine grain emulsion BB640, exposed to single collimated beams using a red He-Ne laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) with Denisyuk configuration obtaining a spatial frequency of 4990 l/mm recorded on the emulsion. The experimental results show that high overmodulation levels of refractive index produce second order harmonics with high diffraction efficiency (higher than 75%) and a narrow grating bandwidth (12.5 nm). Results also show that overmodulation produce diffraction spectra deformation of the second order harmonic, transforming the spectrum from sinusoidal to approximation of square shape due to very high overmodulation. Increasing the levels of overmodulation of refractive index, we have obtained higher order harmonics, obtaining third order harmonic with diffraction efficiency (up to 23%) and narrowing grating bandwidth (5 nm). This study is the first step to develop a new easy technique to obtain narrow spectral filters based on the use of high index modulation reflection gratings.

  3. Digital holographic-based cancellable biometric for personal authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new digital holographic-based cancellable biometric scheme for personal authentication and verification. The realization of cancellable biometric is presented by using an optoelectronic experimental approach, in which an optically recorded hologram of the fingerprint of a person is numerically reconstructed. Each reconstructed feature has its own perspective, which is utilized to generate user-specific fingerprint features by using a feature-extraction process. New representations of the user-specific fingerprint features can be obtained from the same hologram, by changing the reconstruction distance (d) by an amount Δd between the recording plane and the reconstruction plane. This parameter is the key to make the cancellable user-specific fingerprint features using a digital holographic technique, which allows us to choose different reconstruction distances when reissuing the user-specific fingerprint features in the event of compromise. We have shown theoretically that each user-specific fingerprint feature has a unique identity with a high discrimination ability, and the chances of a match between them are minimal. In this aspect, a recognition system has also been demonstrated using the fingerprint biometric of the enrolled person at a particular reconstruction distance. For the performance evaluation of a fingerprint recognition system—the false acceptance ratio, the false rejection ratio and the equal error rate are calculated using correlation. The obtained results show good discrimination ability between the genuine and the impostor populations with the highest recognition rate of 98.23%. (paper)

  4. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM using giant magneto-resistance (GMR structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  5. Wide field of view common-path lateral-shearing digital holographic interference microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Trivedi, Vismay; Mahajan, Swapnil; Patel, Nimit; Joglekar, Mugdha; Chhaniwal, Vani; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of living cells provides important information about the cell morphology and its time variation. Off-axis, digital holographic interference microscopy is an ideal tool for 3-D imaging, parameter extraction, and classification of living cells. Two-beam digital holographic microscopes, which are usually employed, provide high-quality 3-D images of micro-objects, albeit with lower temporal stability. Common-path digital holographic geometries, in which the reference beam is derived from the object beam, provide higher temporal stability along with high-quality 3-D images. Self-referencing geometry is the simplest of the common-path techniques, in which a portion of the object beam itself acts as the reference, leading to compact setups using fewer optical elements. However, it has reduced field of view, and the reference may contain object information. Here, we describe the development of a common-path digital holographic microscope, employing a shearing plate and converting one of the beams into a separate reference by employing a pin-hole. The setup is as compact as self-referencing geometry, while providing field of view as wide as that of a two-beam microscope. The microscope is tested by imaging and quantifying the morphology and dynamics of human erythrocytes. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  7. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.

  8. Monopole correlations in holographically flavored liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, N.

    2015-01-01

    Many-body systems with a conserved U(1) current in (2+1) dimensions may be probed by weakly gauging this current and studying correlation functions of magnetic monopole operators in the resulting dynamical gauge theory. We study such monopole correlations in holographic liquids with fundamental

  9. Electronic holographic moire in the micron range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Sciammarella, Federico M.

    2001-06-01

    The basic theory behind microscopic electronic holographic moire is presented. Conditions of observation are discussed, and optimal parameters are established. An application is presented as an example where experimental result are statistically analyzed and successfully correlated with an independent method of measurement of the same quantity.

  10. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, David A. [Physics Department, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Thorlacius, Larus [University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107, Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics,Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-07

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. We propose a dictionary where the evolution with respect to the bulk effective Hamiltonian corresponds to mean field evolution in the holographic theory. In a particular model for the holographic theory, which exhibits fast scrambling, the decoherence time coincides with the scrambling time. The results support the hypothesis that decoherence of the infalling holographic state and disruptive bulk effects near the curvature singularity are complementary descriptions of the same physics, which is an important step toward resolving the black hole information paradox.

  11. Gravitation from entanglement in holographic CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, Thomas [Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Guica, Monica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania,209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Hartman, Thomas [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street N., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Raamsdonk, Mark Van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W9 (Canada)

    2014-03-11

    Entanglement entropy obeys a ‘first law’, an exact quantum generalization of the ordinary first law of thermodynamics. In any CFT with a semiclassical holographic dual, this first law has an interpretation in the dual gravitational theory as a constraint on the spacetimes dual to CFT states. For small perturbations around the CFT vacuum state, we show that the set of such constraints for all ball-shaped spatial regions in the CFT is exactly equivalent to the requirement that the dual geometry satisfy the gravitational equations of motion, linearized about pure AdS. For theories with entanglement entropy computed by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula S=A/(4G{sub N}), we obtain the linearized Einstein equations. For theories in which the vacuum entanglement entropy for a ball is computed by more general Wald functionals, we obtain the linearized equations for the associated higher-curvature theories. Using the first law, we also derive the holographic dictionary for the stress tensor, given the holographic formula for entanglement entropy. This method provides a simple alternative to holographic renormalization for computing the stress tensor expectation value in arbitrary higher derivative gravitational theories.

  12. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Gertz, F.; Khitun, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed

  13. Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Detournay, S.; Iqbal, N.; Perlmutter, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal

  14. Generalized exact holographic mapping with wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching Hua

    2017-12-01

    The idea of renormalization and scale invariance is pervasive across disciplines. It has not only drawn numerous surprising connections between physical systems under the guise of holographic duality, but has also inspired the development of wavelet theory now widely used in signal processing. Synergizing on these two developments, we describe in this paper a generalized exact holographic mapping that maps a generic N -dimensional lattice system to a (N +1 )-dimensional holographic dual, with the emergent dimension representing scale. In previous works, this was achieved via the iterations of the simplest of all unitary mappings, the Haar mapping, which fails to preserve the form of most Hamiltonians. By taking advantage of the full generality of biorthogonal wavelets, our new generalized holographic mapping framework is able to preserve the form of a large class of lattice Hamiltonians. By explicitly separating features that are fundamentally associated with the physical system from those that are basis specific, we also obtain a clearer understanding of how the resultant bulk geometry arises. For instance, the number of nonvanishing moments of the high-pass wavelet filter is revealed to be proportional to the radius of the dual anti-de Sitter space geometry. We conclude by proposing modifications to the mapping for systems with generic Fermi pockets.

  15. On new proposal for holographic BCFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Miao, Rong-Xin [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences,National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wu-Zhong [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences,National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-14

    This paper is an extended version of our short letter on a new proposal for holographic boundary conformal field, i.e., BCFT. By using the Penrose-Brown-Henneaux (PBH) transformation, we successfully obtain the expected boundary Weyl anomaly. The obtained boundary central charges satisfy naturally a c-like theorem holographically. We then develop an approach of holographic renormalization for BCFT, and reproduce the correct boundary Weyl anomaly. This provides a non-trivial check of our proposal. We also investigate the holographic entanglement entropy of BCFT and find that our proposal gives the expected orthogonal condition that the minimal surface must be normal to the spacetime boundaries if they intersect. This is another support for our proposal. We also find that the entanglement entropy depends on the boundary conditions of BCFT and the distance to the boundary; and that the entanglement wedge behaves a phase transition, which is important for the self-consistency of AdS/BCFT. Finally, we show that the proposal of https://arxiv.org/abs/1105.5165 is too restrictive that it always make vanishing some of the boundary central charges.

  16. Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.

    2013-01-01

    We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in

  17. Holographic Lovelock gravities and black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Kulaxizi, M.; Parnachev, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study holographic implications of Lovelock gravities in AdS spacetimes. For a generic Lovelock gravity in arbitrary spacetime dimensions we formulate the existence condition of asymptotically AdS black holes. We consider small fluctuations around these black holes and determine the constraint on

  18. Scalar Condensation of Holographic Superconductors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study holographic superconductors analytically by using the Ginzburg–Landau action with the γ-quartic term | |4. Our results show that γ-term plays a role in the scalar condensation. It is found that the system displays two kinds of critical temperatures. One is independent of γ. But the other increases with ...

  19. Dynamic Time Multiplexing Fabrication of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals for Increased Wavelength Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K. (Inventor); Rai, Kashma (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically-switchable beam steering capability is disclosed. XXXX Described herein is a new holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) medium with broadband reflective properties, and a new technique for fabrication of broadband 10 HPDLC mediums. The new technique involves dynamic variation of the holography setup during HPDLC formation, enabling the broadening of the HPDLC medium's wavelength response. Dynamic variation of the holography setup may include the rotation and/or translation of one or more 15 motorized stages, allowing for time and spatial, or angular, multiplexing through variation of the incident angles of one or more laser beams on a pre-polymer mixture during manufacture. An HPDLC medium manufactured using these techniques exhibits improved optical response by reflecting 20 a broadband spectrum of wavelengths. A new broadband holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film polymeric mirror stack with electrically switchable beam steering capability is disclosed.

  20. 2. Interferometry and polarimetry. 2.1. Principle of interferometry and polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Kazuo; Okajima, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Laser interferometry and polarimetry are useful diagnostics for measuring electron density and the internal magnetic field distribution in the plasma. In this section, principles of interferometry and polarimetry and their applications to plasma diagnostics on LHD (section 2.2) and JT-60 (section 2.3) are descried. (author)

  1. IMAP: Interferometry for Material Property Measurement in MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.D.; Miller, S.L.; de Boer, M.P.

    1999-03-10

    An interferometric technique has been developed for non-destructive, high-confidence, in-situ determination of material properties in MEMS. By using interferometry to measure the full deflection curves of beams pulled toward the substrate under electrostatic loads, the actual behavior of the beams has been modeled. No other method for determining material properties allows such detailed knowledge of device behavior to be gathered. Values for material properties and non-idealities (such as support post compliance) have then been extracted which minimize the error between the measured and modeled deflections. High accuracy and resolution have been demonstrated, allowing the measurements to be used to enhance process control.

  2. Model-based multi-fringe interferometry using Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Song, Weihong; Wu, Gaofeng; Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Yongqian; Zhao, Wenchuan

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a general phase retrieval method is proposed, which is based on one single interferogram with a small amount of fringes (either tilt or power). Zernike polynomials are used to characterize the phase to be measured; the phase distribution is reconstructed by a non-linear least squares method. Experiments show that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory results compared to the standard phase-shifting interferometry technique. Additionally, the retrace errors of proposed method can be neglected because of the few fringes; it does not need any auxiliary phase shifting facilities (low cost) and it is easy to implement without the process of phase unwrapping.

  3. From linear optical quantum computing to Heisenberg-limited interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2004-01-01

    The working principles of linear optical quantum computing are based on photodetection, namely, projective measurements. The use of photodetection can provide efficient nonlinear interactions between photons at the single-photon level, which is technically problematic otherwise. We report an application of such a technique to prepare quantum correlations as an important resource for Heisenberg-limited optical interferometry, where the sensitivity of phase measurements can be improved beyond the usual shot-noise limit. Furthermore, using such nonlinearities, optical quantum non-demolition measurements can now be carried out easily at the single-photon level

  4. Electronic speckle pattern interferometry observation of brick–mortar interface behaviour under compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Martens, D.R.W; Zijl, van G.P.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The brick–mortar interaction is important in the mechanical behaviour of masonry. It affects the load transfer considerably, as shown by detailed deformation measurements taken using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a laser speckle interference technique. A companion paper [Canadian

  5. Monitoring Line-Infrastructure With Multisensor SAR Interferometry : Products and Performance Assessment Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is an emerging technique to monitor the stability and health of line-infrastructure assets, such as railways, dams, and pipelines. However, InSAR is an opportunistic approach as the location and occurrence of its measurements (coherent scatterers) cannot be

  6. A portable magneto-optical trap with prospects for atom interferometry in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Winch, J.; Briggs, J.; Freer, S.; Moustoukas, D.; Powell-Gill, S.; Squire, C.; Lamb, A.; Rammeloo, C.; Stray, B.; Voulazeris, G.; Zhu, L.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Rodgers, A.; Stabrawa, A.; Boddice, D.; Plant, S. R.; Tuckwell, G. W.; Bongs, K.; Metje, N.; Holynski, M.

    2017-06-01

    The high precision and scalable technology offered by atom interferometry has the opportunity to profoundly affect gravity surveys, enabling the detection of features of either smaller size or greater depth. While such systems are already starting to enter into the commercial market, significant reductions are required in order to reach the size, weight and power of conventional devices. In this article, the potential for atom interferometry based gravimetry is assessed, suggesting that the key opportunity resides within the development of gravity gradiometry sensors to enable drastic improvements in measurement time. To push forward in realizing more compact systems, techniques have been pursued to realize a highly portable magneto-optical trap system, which represents the core package of an atom interferometry system. This can create clouds of 107 atoms within a system package of 20 l and 10 kg, consuming 80 W of power. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  7. Theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Schuster, Gerard T.; Mallinson, Ian; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution by refraction traveltime tomography is a well-accepted imaging method by both the exploration and earthquake seismology communities. A significant drawback, however, is that the recorded traces become noisier with increasing offset from the source position, and so accurate picking of traveltimes in far-offset traces is often prevented. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the far-offset traces, we present the theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry where the SNR of far-offset head-wave arrivals can be theoretically increased by a factor proportional to; here, N is the number of receiver or source positions associated with the recording and generation of the head-wave arrival. There are two steps to this methodology: correlation and summation of the data to generate traces with virtual head-wave arrivals, followed by the convolution of the data with the virtual traces to create traces with supervirtual head-wave arrivals. This method is valid for any medium that generates head-wave arrivals recorded by the geophones. Results with both synthetic traces and field data demonstrate the feasibility of this method. There are at least four significant benefits of supervirtual interferometry: (1) an enhanced SNR of far-offset traces so the first-arrival traveltimes of the noisy far-offset traces can be more reliably picked to extend the useful aperture of the data, (2) the SNR of head waves in a trace that arrive later than the first arrival can be enhanced for accurate traveltime picking and subsequent inversion by later-arrival traveltime tomography, (3) common receiver-pair gathers can be analysed to detect the presence of diving waves in the first arrivals, which can be used to assess the nature of the refracting boundary, and (4) the source statics term is eliminated in the correlation operations so that the timing of the virtual traces is independent of the source excitation time. This suggests the

  8. Vegetation Parameter Extraction Using Dual Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Tang, Y.

    2009-04-01

    For vegetation parameter inversion, the single baseline polarimetric SAR interferometry (POLinSAR) technique, such as the three-stage method and the ESPRIT algorithm, is limited by the observed data with the minimum ground to volume amplitude ration, which effects the estimation of the effective phase center for the vegetation canopy or the surface, and thus results in the underestimated vegetation height. In order to remove this effect of the single baseline inversion techniques in some extend, another baseline POLinSAR data is added on vegetation parameter estimation in this paper, and a dual baseline POLinSAR technique for the extraction of the vegetation parameter is investigated and improved to reduce the dynamic bias for the vegetation parameter estimation. Finally, the simulated data and real data are used to validate this dual baseline technique.

  9. Algorithms and Array Design Criteria for Robust Imaging in Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Binoy George

    Optical interferometry is a technique for obtaining high-resolution imagery of a distant target by interfering light from multiple telescopes. Image restoration from interferometric measurements poses a unique set of challenges. The first challenge is that the measurement set provides only a sparse-sampling of the object's Fourier Transform and hence image formation from these measurements is an inherently ill-posed inverse problem. Secondly, atmospheric turbulence causes severe distortion of the phase of the Fourier samples. We develop array design conditions for unique Fourier phase recovery, as well as a comprehensive algorithmic framework based on the notion of redundant-spaced-calibration (RSC), which together achieve reliable image reconstruction in spite of these challenges. Within this framework, we see that classical interferometric observables such as the bispectrum and closure phase can limit sensitivity, and that generalized notions of these observables can improve both theoretical and empirical performance. Our framework leverages techniques from lattice theory to resolve integer phase ambiguities in the interferometric phase measurements, and from graph theory, to select a reliable set of generalized observables. We analyze the expected shot-noise-limited performance of our algorithm for both pairwise and Fizeau interferometric architectures and corroborate this analysis with simulation results. We apply techniques from the field of compressed sensing to perform image reconstruction from the estimates of the object's Fourier coefficients. The end result is a comprehensive strategy to achieve well-posed and easily-predictable reconstruction performance in optical interferometry.

  10. IR sensitive photorefractive polymers, the first updateable holographic three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Savas

    This work presents recent advances in the development of infra-red sensitive photorefractive polymers, and updateable near real-time holographic 3D displays based on photorefractive polymers. Theoretical and experimental techniques used for design, fabrication and characterization of photorefractive polymers are outlined. Materials development and technical advances that made possible the use of photorefractive polymers for infra-red free-space optical communications, and 3D holographic displays are presented. Photorefractive polymers are dynamic holographic materials that allow recording of highly efficient reversible holograms. The longest operation wavelength for a photorefractive polymer before this study has been 950nm, far shorter than 1550nm, the wavelength of choice for optical communications and medical imaging. The polymers shown here were sensitized using two-photon absorption, a third order nonlinear effect, beyond the linear absorption spectrum of organic dyes, and reach 40% diffraction efficiency with a 35ms response time at this wavelength. As a consequence of two-photon absorption sensitization they exhibit non-destructive readout, which is an important advantage for applications that require high signal-to-noise ratios. Holographic 3D displays provide highly realistic images without the need for special eyewear, making them valuable tools for applications that require "situational awareness" such as medical, industrial and military imaging. Current commercially available holographic 3D displays employ photopolymers that lack image updating capability, resulting in their restricted use and high cost per 3D image. The holographic 3D display shown here employs photorefractive polymers with nearly 100% diffraction efficiency and fast writing time, hours of image persistence, rapid erasure and large area, a combination of properties that has not been shown before. The 3D display is based on stereography and utilizes world's largest photorefractive

  11. Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-02-04

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves, and a pair of reciprocal shot gathers and several infill shot gathers are recorded over the line of interest. Refraction traveltimes from these shot gathers are picked and spawned into O(N2) virtual refraction traveltimes generated by N virtual sources, where N is the number of geophones in the 2D survey. The virtual traveltimes can be inverted to give the velocity tomogram. This enormous increase in the number of traveltime picks and associated rays, compared to the many fewer traveltimes from the reciprocal and infill shot gathers, allows for increased model resolution and a better condition number with the system of normal equations. A significant benefit is that the parsimonious survey and the associated traveltime picking is far less time consuming than that for a standard refraction survey with a dense distribution of sources.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of one- and two-dimensional regular patterns produced employing multiple exposure holographic lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, S.; Jurkevičiute, A.; Armakavičius, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe fabrication and characterization methods of two-dimensional periodic microstructures in photoresist with pitch of 1.2 urn and lattice constant 1.2-4.8 μm, formed using two-beam multiple exposure holographic lithography technique. The regular structures were recorded empl...

  13. Electrically switchable holographic liquid crystal/polymer Fresnel lens using a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Nemati, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Alidokht, Isa Ahmad

    2011-06-10

    A holographic technique for fabricating an electrically switchable liquid crystal/polymer composite Fresnel lens is reported. A Michelson interferometer is used to produce the required Fresnel pattern, by placing a convex lens into one path of the interferometer. Simplicity of the method and the possibility of fabricating different focal length lenses in a single arrangement are advantages of the method. The performance of the fabricated lens was demonstrated and its electro-optical properties were investigated for its primary focal length.

  14. Higher order corrections to holographic black hole chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the holographic Smarr relation beyond the large N limit. By making use of the holographic dictionary, we find that the bulk correlates of subleading 1 /N corrections to this relation are related to the couplings in Lovelock gravity theories. We likewise obtain a holographic equation of state and check its validity for a variety of interesting and nontrivial black holes, including rotating planar black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld gravity, and nonextremal rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity. We provide an explanation of the N -dependence of the holographic Smarr relation in terms of contributions due to planar and nonplanar diagrams in the dual theory.

  15. Biophotopol: A Sustainable Photopolymer for Holographic Data Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Photopolymers have proved to be useful for different holographic applications such as holographic data storage or holographic optical elements. However, most photopolymers have certain undesirable features, such as the toxicity of some of their components or their low environmental compatibility. For this reason, the Holography and Optical Processing Group at the University of Alicante developed a new dry photopolymer with low toxicity and high thickness called biophotopol, which is very adequate for holographic data storage applications. In this paper we describe our recent studies on biophotopol and the main characteristics of this material.

  16. Shift-Peristrophic Multiplexing for High Density Holographic Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenta Ushiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data storage is a promising technology that provides very large data storage capacity, and the multiplexing method plays a significant role in increasing this capacity. Various multiplexing methods have been previously researched. In the present study, we propose a shift-peristrophic multiplexing technique that uses spherical reference waves, and experimentally verify that this method efficiently increases the data capacity. In the proposed method, a series of holograms is recorded with shift multiplexing, in which the recording material is rotated with its axis perpendicular to the material’s surface. By iterating this procedure, multiplicity is shown to improve. This method achieves more than 1 Tbits/inch2 data density recording. Furthermore, a capacity increase of several TB per disk is expected by maximizing the recording medium performance.

  17. Characterization of the Micro-shell Surface Using Holographic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandras, F.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Merillot, P.; Pin, G.; Jeannot, L. [CEA Valduc, Dept Rech Mat Nucl, Serv Microcibles, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-05-15

    To characterize the shape, the quality, and the roughness of micro-shells, typically used technologies are scanning electron microscopy, scanning interferometric microscopy, or atomic force microscopy. One of the drawbacks of these techniques is that they are generally slow because of their scanning process. Digital holographic microscopy technology is an innovation that can offer ability adapted to these studies. It captures holograms instead of intensity images, as done by conventional microscopes. The holograms are then digitally interpreted (10 per second) to reconstruct a double image, one for the intensity and another one for the phase. Using a rotation axis, the bump counting for the complete micro-shell surface is possible with a very high speed. Using an image stitching software, mapping can be done in a few minutes. Wavelets such as 'Mexican hat' are used to model the bumps. Each bump can then be characterized on the map by its position, diameter, and height. (authors)

  18. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  19. Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry and its Application in Engine Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, J M; Garner, C P; Alcock, R D; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV) as a means to make three-component velocity measurements throughout a three-dimensional flow-field of interest. A simplified treatment of three-dimensional scalar wave propagation is outlined and subsequently used to illustrate the principles of complex correlation analysis. It is shown that this type of analysis provides the three-dimensional correlation of the propagating, monochromatic fields recorded by the hologram. A similar approach is used to analyse the Object Conjugate Reconstruction (OCR) technique to resolve directional ambiguity by introducing an artificial image shift to the reconstructed particle images. An example of how these methods are used together to measure the instantaneous flow fields within a motored Diesel engine is then described

  20. Holographic associative memories in document retrieval systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.J.; Bolle, H.; Keller, A.; Kistner, W.; Riecke, W.D.; Wagner, U.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this work was the implementation of a holographic memory with associative readout for a document retrieval system. Taking advantage of the favourable properties of holography - associative readout of the memory, parallel processing in the response store - may give shorter response times than sequentially organized data memories. Such a system may also operate in the interactive mode including chain associations. In order to avoid technological difficulties, the experimental setup made use of commercially available components only. As a result an improved holographic structure is proposed which uses volume holograms in photorefractive crystals as storage device. In two chapters of appendix we give a review of the state of the art of electrooptic devices for coherent optical data processing and of competing technologies (semiconductor associative memories and associative program systems). (orig.) [de

  1. Holographic mutual information of two disjoint spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Li, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study quantum corrections to holographic mutual information for two disjoint spheres at a large separation by using the operator product expansion of the twist field. In the large separation limit, the holographic mutual information is vanishing at the semiclassical order, but receive quantum corrections from the fluctuations. We show that the leading contributions from the quantum fluctuations take universal forms as suggested from the boundary CFT. We find the universal behavior for the scalar, the vector, the tensor and the fermionic fields by treating these fields as free fields propagating in the fixed background and by using the 1 /n prescription. In particular, for the fields with gauge symmetries, including the massless vector boson and massless graviton, we find that the gauge parts in the propagators play an indispensable role in reading the leading order corrections to the bulk mutual information.

  2. Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)

  3. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative β-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the β-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  4. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke.kawai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Nakayama, Yu [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  5. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kawai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  6. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Loganayagam, R.; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-01-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS 2k+1 . This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong’s derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions (k=1,2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k≥3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS 7 and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  7. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo [Département de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS,24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Loganayagam, R. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Ng, Gim Seng [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS{sub 2k+1}. This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong’s derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions (k=1,2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k≥3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS{sub 7} and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  8. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Loganayagam, R.; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-02-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS2 k+1. This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong's derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions ( k = 1 , 2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k ≥ 3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS7 and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  9. Towards understanding Regge trajectories in holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cata, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    We reassess a work done by Migdal on the spectrum of low-energy vector mesons in QCD in the light of the anti-de Sitter (AdS)-QCD correspondence. Recently, a tantalizing parallelism was suggested between Migdal's work and a family of holographic duals of QCD. Despite the intriguing similarities, both approaches face a major drawback: the spectrum is in conflict with well-tested Regge scaling. However, it has recently been shown that holographic duals can be modified to accommodate Regge behavior. Therefore, it is interesting to understand whether Regge behavior can also be achieved in Migdal's approach. In this paper we investigate this issue. We find that Migdal's approach, which is based on a modified Pade approximant, is closely related to the issue of quark-hadron duality breakdown in QCD

  10. The Lindley paradox in optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, Camillo; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Lindley paradox is a counterintuitive statistical effect where the Bayesian and frequentist approaches to hypothesis testing give radically different answers, depending on the choice of the prior distribution. In this paper we address the occurrence of the Lindley paradox in optical interferometry and discuss its implications for high-precision measurements. In particular, we focus on phase estimation by Mach–Zehnder interferometers and show how to mitigate the conflict between the two approaches by using suitable priors. - Highlights: • We address the occurence of Lindley paradox in interferometry and discuss its implications for high-precision measurements. • We show how to mitigate the conflict between Bayesian and frequentist approach to interferometry using suitable priors. • Our results apply to calibration of homodyne detectors for quantum tomography.

  11. Samuel A. Werner Pioneer of Neutron Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In 1975, Sam Werner and his collaborators on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. The Interferometry and Coherence session at this conference has been organized in his honour and the collected papers presented by his friends, collaborators and former students form his Festschrift. (author)

  12. Optical studies in the holographic ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The Holographic Group System (HGS) Facility in rooms 22 & 123, Building 4708 has been developed to provide for ground based research in determining pre-flight parameters and analyzing the results from space experiments. The University of Alabama, Huntsville (UAH) has researched the analysis aspects of the HGS and reports their findings here. Some of the results presented here also occur in the Facility Operating Procedure (FOP), which contains instructions for power up, operation, and powerdown of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) Holographic Ground System (HGS) Test Facility for the purpose of optically recording fluid and/or crystal behavior in a test article during ground based testing through the construction of holograms and recording of videotape. The alignment of the optical bench components, holographic reconstruction and and microscopy alignment sections were also included in the document for continuity even though they are not used until after optical recording of the test article) setup of support subsystems and the Automated Holography System (AHS) computer. The HGS provides optical recording and monitoring during GCEL runs or development testing of potential FES flight hardware or software. This recording/monitoring can be via 70mm holographic film, standard videotape, or digitized images on computer disk. All optical bench functions necessary to construct holograms will be under the control of the AHS personal computer (PC). These include type of exposure, time intervals between exposures, exposure length, film frame identification, film advancement, film platen evacuation and repressurization, light source diffuser introduction, and control of realtime video monitoring. The completed sequence of hologram types (single exposure, diffuse double exposure, etc.) and their time of occurrence can be displayed, printed, or stored on floppy disk posttest for the user.

  13. Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar

    2010-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is originally motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Using this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of s...

  14. A holographic waveguide based eye tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Pazzucconi, Beatrice; Liu, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye. The vector connecting the pupil center (PC) and the corneal reflex (CR) of the eye was used to compute eye position in the socket. An eye model, made of a high quality prosthetic eye, was used prototype validation. The benchtop prototype demonstrated a linear relationship between the angular eye position and the PC/CR vector over a range of 60 horizontal degrees and 30 vertical degrees at a resolution of 0.64-0.69 degrees/pixel by simple pixel count. The uncertainties of the measurements at different angular positions were within 1.2 pixels, which indicated that the prototype exhibited a high level of repeatability. These results confirmed that the holographic waveguide technology could be a feasible platform for developing a wearable eye tracker. Further development can lead to a compact, see-through eye tracker, which allows continuous monitoring of eye movement during real life tasks, and thus benefits diagnosis of oculomotor disorders.

  15. Holographic nondestructive testing in bone biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Nygren, Kaarlo; Karna, Markku

    1992-08-01

    Holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT) is used to investigate the complex structures of bones of various shapes and sizes subjected to forces. During the course of the present study three antlered deer skulls of different species were investigated, and significant species- specific differences were observed. The HNDT method was also used to verify the advanced healing of an osteosynthetized sheep jawbone. Radioulnar bones of normal and orphaned moose calves were subjected to the bending test. Different bending dynamics were observed.

  16. Holographic Location of Distant Points (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    respects and the nonimaging systems have significant advantages. This paper shows how to use holograms to construct a flat, solid, small, accurate, small... nonimaging point location system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS imagery, holographic 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18...respects and the nonimaging systems we have discussed earlier (1, 2) have significant advantages. This paper shows how to use holograms to construct a

  17. Holographic processing of track chamber data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykovsky, Y A; Larkin, A I; Markilov, A A; Starikov, S N [Moskovskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    The holographic pattern recognition method was applied for processing of track chamber photographs. Experiments on detection of such events as a definitely directed track, an angle formed by two tracks, a three-pronged star, a definitely curved track were performed by using models. It is proposed to recognize these events in a filmshot by the shape of correlation signals. The experiment to recognize the event in a real bubble chamber filmshot was realized; requirements to the processing films were determined.

  18. Shrinkage measurement for holographic recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Francés, J.; Navarro Fuster, V.; Neipp, C.; Ortuño, M.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2017-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for new holographic recording materials. One of them are photopolymers, which are becoming a classic media in this field. Their versatility is well known and new possibilities are being created by including new components, such as nanoparticles or dispersed liquid crystal molecules in classical formulations, making them interesting for additional applications in which the thin film preparation and the structural modification have a fundamental importance. Prior to obtaining a wide commercialization of displays based on photopolymers, one of the key aspects is to achieve a complete characterization of them. In this sense, one of the main parameters to estimate and control is the shrinkage of these materials. The volume variations change the angular response of the hologram in two aspects, the angular selectivity and the maximum diffraction efficiency. One criteria for the recording material to be used in a holographic data storage application is the shrinkage, maximum of 0.5%. Along this work, we compare two different methods to measure the holographic recording material shrinkage. The first one is measuring the angle of propagation for both diffracted orders +/-1 when slanted gratings are recorded, so that an accurate value of the grating vector can be calculated. The second one is based on interference measurements at zero spatial frequency limit. We calculate the shrinkage for three different photopolymers: a polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer, one of the greenest photopolymers whose patent belongs to the Alicante University called Biophotopol and on the last place a holographic-dispersed liquid crystal photopolymer (H-PDLC).

  19. Holographic cosmological models on the braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: joel.saavedra@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)

    2009-01-26

    In this Letter we have studied a closed universe which a holographic energy on the brane whose energy density is described by {rho}(H)=3c{sup 2}H{sup 2} and we obtain an equation for the Hubble parameter. This equation gave us different physical behavior depending if c{sup 2}>1 or c{sup 2}<1 against of the sign of the brane tension.

  20. Holographic Superconductivity with Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    I review recent work on holographic superconductivity with Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and show how the critical temperature of the superconductor depends on both gravitational backreaction and the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, using both analytic and numerical arguments. I also review computations of the conductivity, finding the energy gap, and demonstrating that there is no universal gap ratio, $\\omega_g/T_c$, for these superconductors.

  1. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  2. Application of Phase Shifted, Laser Feedback Interferometry to Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovryn, Ben; Eppell, Steven J.; Andrews, James H.; Khaydarov, John

    1996-01-01

    We have combined the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce a new instrument that can measure both optical path length (OPL) changes and discern sample reflectivity variations. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. LFI can yield a high signal-to-noise ratio even for low reflectivity samples. By combining PSI and LFI, we have produced a robust instrument, based upon a HeNe laser, with high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static (dc) or oscillatory changes along the optical path. As with other forms of interferometry, large changes in OPL require phase unwrapping. Conversely, small phase changes are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured. We introduce the phase shifts with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and use either the Carre or Hariharan algorithms to determine the phase and visibility. We have determined the accuracy and precision of our technique by measuring both the bending of a cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph and linear ramps to the EOM. Using PSI, sub-nanometer displacements can be measured. We have combined our interferometer with a commercial microscope and scanning piezoelectric stage and have measured the variation in OPL and visibility for drops of PDMS (silicone oil) on coated single crystal silicon. Our measurement of the static contact angle agrees with the value of 68 deg stated in the literature.

  3. Waking and scrambling in holographic heating up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, D. S.; Aref'eva, I. Ya.

    2017-10-01

    Using holographic methods, we study the heating up process in quantum field theory. As a holographic dual of this process, we use absorption of a thin shell on a black brane. We find the explicit form of the time evolution of the quantum mutual information during heating up from the temperature Ti to the temperature T f in a system of two intervals in two-dimensional space-time. We determine the geometric characteristics of the system under which the time dependence of the mutual information has a bell shape: it is equal to zero at the initial instant, becomes positive at some subsequent instant, further attains its maximum, and again decreases to zero. Such a behavior of the mutual information occurs in the process of photosynthesis. We show that if the distance x between the intervals is less than log 2/2π T i, then the evolution of the holographic mutual information has a bell shape only for intervals whose lengths are bounded from above and below. For sufficiently large x, i.e., for x < log 2/2π T i, the bell-like shape of the time dependence of the quantum mutual information is present only for sufficiently large intervals. Moreover, the zone narrows as T i increases and widens as T f increases.

  4. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantcheff, M.B. [IFLP-CONICET CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadelha, Alexandre L. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Marchioro, Dafni F.Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciencias da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacuum state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017). (orig.)

  5. Drawing Lines with Light in Holographic Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamic and expressive possibilities of holographic art through a comparison of art history and technical media such as photography, film and holographic technologies. Examples of modern art and creative expression of time and motions are examined using the early 20th century art movement, Cubism, where subjects are portrayed to be seen simultaneously from different angles. Folding space is represented as subject matter as it can depict space from multiple points of time. The paper also investigates the way holographic art has explored time and space. The lenticular lens-based media reveal a more subjective poetic art in the form of the lyrical images and messages as spectators pass through time, or walk along with the piece of work through an interactive process. It is argued that photographic practice is another example of artistic representation in the form of aesthetic medium of time movement and as such shares a common ground with other dynamic expression that require time based interaction.

  6. Holographic complexity and noncommutative gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Josiah; Eccles, Stefan; Fischler, Willy; Xiao, Ming-Lei

    2018-03-01

    We study the holographic complexity of noncommutative field theories. The four-dimensional N=4 noncommutative super Yang-Mills theory with Moyal algebra along two of the spatial directions has a well known holographic dual as a type IIB supergravity theory with a stack of D3 branes and non-trivial NS-NS B fields. We start from this example and find that the late time holographic complexity growth rate, based on the "complexity equals action" conjecture, experiences an enhancement when the non-commutativity is turned on. This enhancement saturates a new limit which is exactly 1/4 larger than the commutative value. We then attempt to give a quantum mechanics explanation of the enhancement. Finite time behavior of the complexity growth rate is also studied. Inspired by the non-trivial result, we move on to more general setup in string theory where we have a stack of D p branes and also turn on the B field. Multiple noncommutative directions are considered in higher p cases.

  7. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2018-02-01

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacumm state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017).

  8. A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Henrique [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gryb, Sean [Utrecht University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Koslowski, Tim [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Mercati, Flavio; Smolin, Lee [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial conformal (Weyl) invariance. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to advertise the simple classical mechanism, trading off gauge symmetries, that underlies the bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics to readers interested in dualities of the type of AdS/conformal field theory (CFT); and (2) to highlight that this mechanism can be used to explain certain results of holographic renormalization, providing an alternative to the AdS/CFT conjecture for these cases. To make contact with the usual semiclassical AdS/CFT correspondence, we provide, in addition, a heuristic argument that makes it plausible that the classical equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics turns into a duality between radial evolution in gravity and the renormalization group flow of a CFT. We believe that Shape Dynamics provides a new perspective on gravity by giving conformal structure a primary role within the theory. It is hoped that this work provides the first steps toward understanding what this new perspective may be able to teach us about holographic dualities. (orig.)

  9. Holographic patterning of luminescent photopolymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Stumpe, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Volume phase gratings in the photopolymerisable composites, containing luminescent nanoparticles have been fabricated for the first time. Nanoparticles of LaPO 4 , doped by Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ ions (the trade name is REN-X-green) with high luminescence quantum yield were used as a luminescent inorganic additive. The holographic gratings in such materials are formed as a result of the diffusion distribution of the nanoparticles during exposure of photopolymerisable composites to interference pattern. The influence of the pre-polymer formulation and the holographic patterning parameters on the grating formation is comprehensively investigated. The use of the optimised pre-polymer syrup containing two monomers with sufficiently different polymerisation rates allows fabrication of gratings with diffraction efficiency up to 80% at low optical losses (< 5%) (20 μm film thickness). To obtain maximum diffraction efficiency the intensity and the period of the interference pattern were optimised for each formulation. In addition maximum diffraction efficiency was achieved with the nanocomposites containing 30-32 wt.% of nanoparticles. On the other hand the highest possible modulation of the nanoparticles' concentration was obtained for the concentration of about 20 wt.%. In this case maximum ordering of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix is achieved. The photoluminescence of the nanoparticles within the homogeneous polymer film and within the grating has been measured. The example application of the photopolymerisable composite containing luminescence inorganic nanoparticles in holographic security technology has been demonstrated

  10. Effect of quintessence on holographic fermionic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Wu, Jian-Pin [Bohai University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Jinzhou (China)

    2017-10-15

    In this letter, we investigate the holographic fermionic spectrum without/with dipole coupling dual to the Reissner-Nordstroem anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black brane surrounded by quintessence. We find that the low energy excitation of this fermionic system without dipole coupling behaves as a non-Fermi liquid. In particular, the introduction of quintessence aggravates the degree of deviation from a Fermi liquid. For the system with dipole coupling, the phase transition from (non-)Fermi liquid to Mott phase can be observed. The ratio between the width of gap and the critical temperature, beyond which the gap closes, is also worked out. We find that this ratio is larger than that of the holographic fermionic system dual to the RN-AdS black brane and even the material of V O{sub 2}. It means that our holographic system with quintessence can model new phenomena of the condensed matter system and provide some new insights in their regard. (orig.)

  11. Emergent Gauge Fields in Holographic Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Oriol; Pomarol, Alex; Salvio, Alberto; Silva, Pedro J

    2010-01-01

    Holographic superconductors have been studied so far in the absence of dynamical electromagnetic fields, namely in the limit in which they coincide with holographic superfluids. It is possible, however, to introduce dynamical gauge fields if a Neumann-type boundary condition is imposed on the AdS-boundary. In 3+1 dimensions, the dual theory is a 2+1 dimensional CFT whose spectrum contains a massless gauge field, signaling the emergence of a gauge symmetry. We study the impact of a dynamical gauge field in vortex configurations where it is known to significantly affect the energetics and phase transitions. We calculate the critical magnetic fields H_c1 and H_c2, obtaining that holographic superconductors are of Type II (H_c1 < H_c2). We extend the study to 4+1 dimensions where the gauge field does not appear as an emergent phenomena, but can be introduced, by a proper renormalization, as an external dynamical field. We also compare our predictions with those arising from a Ginzburg-Landau theory and identif...

  12. Holographic sensors for diagnostics of solution components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraiskii, A V; Suitanov, T T; Postnikov, V A; Khamidulin, A V

    2010-01-01

    The properties of holographic sensors of two types are studied. The sensors are based on a three-dimensional polymer-network matrix of copolymers of acrylamide, acrylic acid (which are sensitive to the medium acidity and bivalent metal ions) and aminophenylboronic acid (sensitive to glucose). It is found that a change in the ionic composition of a solution results in changes in the distance between layers and in the diffraction efficiency of holograms. Variations in the shape of spectral lines, which are attributed to the inhomogeneity of a sensitive layer, and nonmonotonic changes in the emulsion thickness and diffraction efficiency were observed during transient processes. The composition of the components of a hydrogel medium is selected for systems which can be used as a base for glucose sensors with the mean holographic response in the region of physiological glucose concentration in model solutions achieving 40 nm/(mmol L -1 ). It is shown that the developed holographic sensors can be used for the visual and instrumental determination of the medium acidity, alcohol content, ionic strength, bivalent metal salts and the quality of water, in particular, for drinking. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Atmospheric Phase Delay in Sentinel SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Crippa, B.

    2018-04-01

    The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth's surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere) are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR). To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation

  14. ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY IN SENTINEL SAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishnakumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR Interferometry (InSAR has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth’s surface, especially for mapping the Earth’s topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth’s atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR. To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate

  15. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  16. Applications of quantitative time lapse holographic imaging to the development of complex pharmaceutical nano formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Ed; Mendes, Livia; Pan, Jiayi; Costa, Daniel; Sarisozen, Can; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    We rely on in vitro cellular cultures to evaluate the effects of the components of multifunctional nano-based formulations under development. We employ an incubator-adapted, label-free holographic imaging cytometer HoloMonitor M4® (Phase Holographic Imaging, Lund, Sweden) to obtain multi-day time-lapse sequences at 5- minute intervals. An automated stage allows hand-free acquisition of multiple fields of view. Our system is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometry principle to create interference patterns which are deconvolved to produce images of the optical thickness of the field of view. These images are automatically segmented resulting in a full complement of quantitative morphological features, such as optical volume, thickness, and area amongst many others. Precise XY cell locations and the time of acquisition are also recorded. Visualization is best achieved by novel 4-Dimensional plots, where XY position is plotted overtime time (Z-directions) and cell-thickness is coded as color or gray scale brightness. Fundamental events of interest, i.e., cells undergoing mitosis or mitotic dysfunction, cell death, cell-to-cell interactions, motility are discernable. We use both 2D and 3D models of the tumor microenvironment. We report our new analysis method to track feature changes over time based on a 4-sample version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Feature A is compared to Control A, and Feature B is compared to Control B to give a 2D probability plot of the feature changes over time. As a result, we efficiently obtain vectors quantifying feature changes over time in various sample conditions, i.e., changing compound concentrations or multi-compound combinations.

  17. Characterization of hidden defects of an original XVI century painting on wood by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry survey on a wooden painting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, a non-contact and nondestructive optical diagnostic technique, was employed for evaluating the conservation state of a XVI century painting on wood. The whole structure alterations, induced by the laboratory temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Long-term analysis, by sequential recording and subsequent off-line processing of the fringes progression, was carried out. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which could not be recognized by traditional art-restorer survey methods, were also easily revealed. In such a case, a simple measurement approach was utilized, with the aim to get a user-friendly method for art conservators. The results demonstrate that the interferometry method can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  18. Comparative study of quantitative phase imaging techniques for refractometry of optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dorlodot, Bertrand; Bélanger, Erik; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Vallée, Réal; Marquet, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The refractive index difference profile of optical fibers is the key design parameter because it determines, among other properties, the insertion losses and propagating modes. Therefore, an accurate refractive index profiling method is of paramount importance to their development and optimization. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is one of the available tools to retrieve structural characteristics of optical fibers, including the refractive index difference profile. Having the advantage of being non-destructive, several different QPI methods have been developed over the last decades. Here, we present a comparative study of three different available QPI techniques, namely the transport-of-intensity equation, quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry and digital holographic microscopy. To assess the accuracy and precision of those QPI techniques, quantitative phase images of the core of a well-characterized optical fiber have been retrieved for each of them and a robust image processing procedure has been applied in order to retrieve their refractive index difference profiles. As a result, even if the raw images for all the three QPI methods were suffering from different shortcomings, our robust automated image-processing pipeline successfully corrected these. After this treatment, all three QPI techniques yielded accurate, reliable and mutually consistent refractive index difference profiles in agreement with the accuracy and precision of the refracted near-field benchmark measurement.

  19. Mechanical Strain Measurement from Coda Wave Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzola, J.; Schmittbuhl, J.; Zigone, D.; Masson, F.; Magnenet, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) aims at tracking small changes in solid materials like rocks where elastic waves are diffusing. They are intensively sampling the medium, making the technique much more sensitive than those relying on direct wave arrivals. Application of CWI to ambient seismic noise has found a large range of applications over the past years like for multiscale imaging but also for monitoring complex structures such as regional faults or reservoirs (Lehujeur et al., 2015). Physically, observed changes are typically interpreted as small variations of seismic velocities. However, this interpretation remains questionable. Here, a specific focus is put on the influence of the elastic deformation of the medium on CWI measurements. The goal of the present work is to show from a direct numerical and experimental modeling that deformation signal also exists in CWI measurements which might provide new outcomes for the technique.For this purpose, we model seismic wave propagation within a diffusive medium using a spectral element approach (SPECFEM2D) during an elastic deformation of the medium. The mechanical behavior is obtained from a finite element approach (Code ASTER) keeping the mesh grid of the sample constant during the whole procedure to limit numerical artifacts. The CWI of the late wave arrivals in the synthetic seismograms is performed using both a stretching technique in the time domain and a frequency cross-correlation method. Both show that the elastic deformation of the scatters is fully correlated with time shifts of the CWI differently from an acoustoelastic effect. As an illustration, the modeled sample is chosen as an effective medium aiming to mechanically and acoustically reproduce a typical granitic reservoir rock.Our numerical approach is compared to experimental results where multi-scattering of an acoustic wave through a perforated loaded Au4G (Dural) plate is performed at laboratory scale. Experimental and numerical results of the

  20. Multi Temporal Interferometry as Tool for Urban Landslide Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, A.; Colangelo, G.; Famiglietti, N.; Cecere, G.; Stramondo, S.; Viggiano, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Differential Interferometry (A-DInSAR) are Multi Temporal Interferometry(MTI) techniques suitable for the monitoring of deformation phenomena in slow kinematics. A-DInSAR methodologies include both Coherence-based type, as well as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Berardino et al., 2002, Lanari et al., 2004) and Persistent/Permanent Scatterers (PS), (Ferretti et al., 2001). Such techniques are capable to provide wide-area coverage (thousands of km2) and precise (mm-cm resolution), spatially dense information (from hundreds to thousands of measurementpoints/km2) on groundsurfacedeformations. SBAS and PShavebeenapplied to the town of Stigliano (MT) in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy), where the social center has been destroyed after the reactivation of a known landslide. The comparison of results has shown that these techniques are equivalent in terms of obtained coherent areas and displacement patterns, although lightly different velocity values for individual points (-5/-25 mm/y for PS vs. -5/-15 mm/y for SBAS) have been pointed out. Differences are probably due to scattering properties of the ground surface (e.g. Lauknes et al., 2010). Furthermore, on the crown of the landslide body, a Robotics Explorer Total Monitoring Station (Leica Nova TM50) that measures distance values with 0.6 mm of resolution has been installed. In particular, 20 different points corresponding to that identified through satellite techniques have been chosen, and a sampling time of 15 minutes has been fixed. The displacement values obtained are in agreement with the results of the MTI analysis, showing as these techniques could be a useful tool in the case of early - warning situations.

  1. Cold neutron interferometry and its application. 2. Coherency and cold neutron spin interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiwa, Norio; Ebisawa, Toru

    1998-03-01

    The second workshop entitled 'Interference studies and cold neutron spin interferometry' was held on 10 and 11 March 1998 at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori). Cold neutron spin interferometry is a new field. So it is very important for its development to learn the studies of X-ray and neutron optics which are rapidly developing with long history. In the workshop, the issues related to interference were reviewed such as experimental studies on cold neutron spin interferometry, theoretical and experimental approach on tunneling time, interference experiments by neutrons and its application, interference studies using synchrotron radiation, topics on silicon interferometry and quantum measurement problem and cold neutron interference experiment related to quantum measurement problem. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  3. Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Dierck; Franke, Gesa; Hinkel, Laura; Bonin, Tim; Koch, Peter; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a full-field swept-source OCT using an off-axis geometry of the reference illumination. By using holographic refocusing techniques, a uniform lateral resolution is achieved over the measurement depth of approximately 80 Rayleigh lengths. Compared to a standard on-axis setup, artifacts and autocorrelation signals are suppressed and the measurement depth is doubled by resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity. Holographic refocusing was done efficiently by Fourier-domain resampling as demonstrated before in inverse scattering and holoscopy. It allowed to reconstruct a complete volume with about 10μm resolution over the complete measurement depth of more than 10mm. Off-axis full-field swept-source OCT enables high measurement depths, spanning many Rayleigh lengths with reduced artifacts.

  4. Three-dimensional motion measurements of free-swimming microorganisms using digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Seo, Kyung Won; Choi, Yong Seok; Sohn, Myong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    A digital holographic microscope is employed to measure the 3D motion of free-swimming microorganisms. The focus function used to quantify image sharpness provides a better depth-directional accuracy with a smaller depth-of-focus compared with the intensity method in determining the depth-directional position of spherical particles of various diameters. The focus function is then applied to measure the 3D positions of free-swimming microorganisms, namely dinoflagellates C. polykrikoides and P. minimum. Both automatic segmentation and proper selection of a focus function for a selected segment are important processes in measuring the positional information of two free-swimming microorganisms of different shapes with various width-to-length ratios. The digital holographic microscopy technique improved in this work is useful for measuring 3D swimming trajectories, velocities and attitudes of hundreds of microorganisms simultaneously. It also exhibits exceptional depth-directional accuracy

  5. Examining live cell cultures during apoptosis by digital holographic phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmaladze, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Cellular apoptosis is a unique, organized series of events, leading to programmed cell death. In this work, we present a combined digital holography/Raman spectroscopy technique to study live cell cultures during apoptosis. Digital holographic microscopy measurements of live cell cultures yield information about cell shape and volume, changes to which are indicative of alterations in cell cycle and initiation of cell death mechanisms. Raman spectroscopic measurements provide complementary information about cells, such as protein, lipid and nucleic acid content, and the spectral signatures associated with structural changes in molecules. Our work indicates that the chemical changes in proteins, which were detected by Raman measurements, preceded morphological changes, which were seen with digital holographic microscopy.

  6. Demonstration of holographic smart card system using the optical memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JungHoi; Choi, JaeKwang; An, JunWon; Kim, Nam; Lee, KwonYeon; Jeon, SeckHee

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the holographic smart card system using digital holographic memory technique that uses reference beam encrypted by the random phase mask to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the stored digital page. The input data that include document data, a picture of face, and a fingerprint for identification is encoded digitally and then coupled with the reference beam modulated by a random phase mask. Therefore, this proposed system can execute recording in the order of MB~GB and readout all personal information from just one card without any additional database system. Also, recorded digital holograms can't be reconstructed without a phase key and can't be copied by using computers, scanners, or photography.

  7. Three-Dimensional Identification of Microorganisms Using a Digital Holographic Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a method for three-dimensional (3D analysis of shift-invariant pattern recognition and applies to holographic images digitally reconstructed from holographic microscopes. It is shown that the sequential application of a 2D filter to the plane-by-plane reconstruction of an optical field is exactly equivalent to the application of a more general filter with a 3D impulse response. We show that any 3D filters with arbitrary impulse response can be implemented in this way. This type of processing is applied to the two-class problem of distinguishing different types of bacteria. It is shown that the proposed technique can be easily implemented using a modified microscope to develop a powerful and cost-effective system with great potential for biological screening.

  8. Holographic representation of space-variant systems: system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks Ii, R J; Krile, T F

    1976-09-01

    System theory for holographic representation of linear space-variant systems is derived. The utility of the resulting piecewise isoplanatic approximation (PIA) is illustrated by example application to the invariant system, ideal magnifier, and Fourier transformer. A method previously employed to holographically represent a space-variant system, the discrete approximation, is shown to be a special case of the PIA.

  9. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating...

  10. Reusable holographic velocimetry system based on polarization multiplexing in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Chan, V.S.S.; Ooms, T.A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Westerweel, J.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system using a reversible holographic material as the recording medium. In HPIV the three-dimensional flow field throughout a volume is detected by adding small tracer particles to a normally transparent medium. By recording the

  11. Liquid polymers for using in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Some liquid polymeric systems for using in the holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter are presented. It is shown that the action of radiation on polymers leads to the destruction of the polymeric chains or to perform them, the both processes being applied in radiation dosimetry. Some advantages of the holographic dosimeter are outlined comparatively with those common used. (author)

  12. Use of holographic environment in business and educational application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.Q.K.; Shaikh, M.Z.; Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Holographic environment is based on high-equipped Multimedia information systems. These are based on the evolving powers of computers to handle huge volume of information. Holographic environment is a simulated environment that allows the user to touch and interact with projections, which are derived from the distant real environment. A new communications technology is being developed that will facilitate to interact inside a simulated environment, even if you are thousands of miles apart. This is done with enhancing the electro-holography, which is the computer based generation of diffraction fringes from 3D input data and the display of the reconstructed object in real-time. This research paper presents the design and development of holographic environment for reduction of distances in business and educational applications. The Holographic Environment development with the use of multimedia information systems is discussed. In Particular the characteristics of holographic data and the current research results in the area of real time holographic display systems are spanned. The Technical components of holographic system are also encountered. Finally, issues of improvement in efficiency of Holographic Environments by compression of data are presented along with its utilization for educational and business applications. (author)

  13. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is ...

  14. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Thus, in recent years much attention has been centred on ... as bit-format holographic data storage [7] and visual indication of ... The characteristics of holographic recording material have great effects on the success- ... widely for display applications, for cover pages of books, magazines, pop art display,.

  15. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Sorenson, D.S.; Frederickson, R.H.; Delanoy, A.D.; Malone, R.M.; Tunnel, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set

  16. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  17. Optical transition radiation interferometry for the A0 photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.; Novosibirsk, IYF; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Optical Transition Radiation Interferometry (OTRI) is a promising diagnostic technique and has been successfully developed and used for investigation of relativistic beams. For mid-energy accelerators the technique is traditionally based on thin polymer films (the first one is being transparent for visible light), which causes beam multiple scattering of about 1 mrad. A disadvantage of those films is unacceptable vacuum properties for photoinjectors and accelerators using superconducting cavities. We have studied the application of thin mica sheets for the OTRI diagnostics at the A0 Photoinjector in comparison with 2.5 (micro)m thick Mylar films. This diagnostic is also applicable for the ILCTA-NML accelerator test facility that is planned at Fermilab. This report discusses the experimental setups of the OTR interferometer for the A0 Photoinjector and presents comparisons of simulations and measurements obtained using Mylar and mica-based interferometers

  18. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  19. Green's function representations for seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Fokkema, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The term seismic interferometry refers to the principle of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelating seismic observations at different receiver locations. The first version of this principle was derived by Claerbout (1968), who showed that the reflection response of a horizontally layered

  20. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,