Sample records for holocene sandy contourites

  1. Controls on the global distribution of contourite drifts: Insights from an eddy-resolving ocean model (United States)

    Thran, Amanda C.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Spence, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar


    Contourite drifts are anomalously high sediment accumulations that form due to reworking by bottom currents. Due to the lack of a comprehensive contourite database, the link between vigorous bottom water activity and drift occurrence has yet to be demonstrated on a global scale. Using an eddy-resolving ocean model and a new georeferenced database of 267 contourites, we show that the global distribution of modern contourite drifts strongly depends on the configuration of the world's most powerful bottom currents, many of which are associated with global meridional overturning circulation. Bathymetric obstacles frequently modify flow direction and intensity, imposing additional finer-scale control on drift occurrence. Mean bottom current speed over contourite-covered areas is only slightly higher (2.2 cm/s) than the rest of the global ocean (1.1 cm/s), falling below proposed thresholds deemed necessary to re-suspend and redistribute sediments (10-15 cm/s). However, currents fluctuate more frequently and intensely over areas with drifts, highlighting the role of intermittent, high-energy bottom current events in sediment erosion, transport, and subsequent drift accumulation. We identify eddies as a major driver of these bottom current fluctuations, and we find that simulated bottom eddy kinetic energy is over three times higher in contourite-covered areas in comparison to the rest of the ocean. Our work supports previous hypotheses which suggest that contourite deposition predominantly occurs due to repeated acute events as opposed to continuous reworking under average-intensity background flow conditions. This suggests that the contourite record should be interpreted in terms of a bottom current's susceptibility to experiencing periodic, high-speed current events. Our results also highlight the potential role of upper ocean dynamics in contourite sedimentation through its direct influence on deep eddy circulation.

  2. Relationships between contourite deposition, climate and slope instability: new insights from the Demerara Plateau (French Guyana) (United States)

    Tallobre, C.; Bassetti, M. A.; Loncke, L.; Giresse, P.; Bayon, G.; Buscail, R.


    A Contourite Depositional System (CDS) has been described at the Demerara Plateau (DP) based on seismic investigations, but little is known about the mechanisms of associated sediment deposition and its interaction with past deep ocean circulation patterns (e.g. bottom current velocity) and bottom morphology related to ancient event of slope instability. The new seismic and bathymetric data recently acquired allow describing in details the CDS on the DP. Erosional and syn-sedimentary features on the seafloor (comet tail, « longitudinal waves », contourite drifts and moats) have been observed, helping to constrain the sedimentary processes at the origin of the CDS construction. Also, the recovery and multi-proxy analysis of sediment cores allows the characterization of sedimentary environments and possible relation with climate forcing. These sediment cores are characterized by the presence of several beds rich in glauconite grains. Glauconite can form at the sediment/water interface by winnowing effect that prevent sediment deposition and increase the residence time at the seafloor. Under strong winnowing conditions, glauconite grains can develop at several stages of maturity. We observed that the residence time and hence the maturity of glauconite is reflected by the color changes (light to dark green), the presence of crack on grains, the formation of (secondary) glauconite lamellae and decrease of grain porosity. A chronological framework (based on radiocarbon dates and δ18O variations) of contourite sequences at the studied location indicates correlation with grain-size parameters (sortable silt) and allows one to further constrain their dynamics through time. The combination of these proxies allows us to estimate and understand the evolution and the impact of the bottom current on sedimentation on the DP during the last 80 ky. These results show the potentiality of the glauconite study to estimate the relative variation of bottom current velocity at margins.

  3. Contourite drift off Madeira Island (Northeast Atlantic) and implications to Cenozoic bottom-current circulation (United States)

    Roque, Cristina; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Madureira, Pedro; Quartau, Rui; Magalhães, Vitor; Carrara, Gabriela; Santos de Campos, Aldino; Brandão, Filipe; Tomás Vázquez, Juan; Somoza, Luis


    During the last decades several works have been carried out on the morphosedimentary processes driven by bottom-currents in several continental margins and abyssal plains worldwide. However these processes still remain poorly understood on deep-water settings and particularly around oceanic islands. This study is focused on the offshore of Madeira Island (Portugal), which is located in the Northeast Atlantic at about 700 km west of NW Africa. The interpretation of a newly acquired dataset, composed of multibeam bathymetry, Parasound echosounder profiles and multichannel seismic reflection profiles, allowed to identify a giant (about 385 km long and over than 175 km wide) plastered contourite drift, called the "Madeira Drift", developing along the lower slope of the Madeira plateau. It formed on top of a major erosional unconformity that truncates the underlying pelagic deposits, which drape over faulted blocks of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The Madeira Drift is composed of three main regional seismic units showing a predominant aggradational stacking pattern, without evidence of major lateral migration thought time. Its internal configuration indicates that it was build-up by a northwards flowing deep bottom current. These characteristics suggests that an almost persistent and stable water mass has been responsible for its edification trough time. While the precise age of this contourite drift is undetermined, some chronostratigraphic constraints can be determined based upon published works regarding seafloor magnetic anomalies (e.g. Bird et al., 2007), DSDP Site 136drilling data (Hayes et al., 1978). Attending to this, we propose that the possible onset of Madeira Drift must have occurred after Late Cretaceous, within the tertiary period, and quite probably in the Late Eocene / Eocene-Oligocene transition. Based on them is commonly accepted that an enhanced proto-Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) started to circulate at that time we considered this water mass as the

  4. Microseisms from Superstorm Sandy (United States)

    Sufri, Oner; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; de Foy, Benjamin


    We analyzed and visualized the microseisms generated by Superstorm Sandy as recorded by the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) during late October through early November of 2012. We applied continuous, frequency-dependent polarization analysis to the data and were able to track the course of Sandy as it approached the Florida coastline and, later, the northeastern coast of the U.S. The energy level of Sandy was roughly comparable to the background microseism level generated by wave-wave interactions in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. The maximum microseismic power and degree of polarization were observed across the TA when Sandy sharply changed its direction to the west-northwest (specifically, towards Long Island, New York) on October 29. The westward turn also briefly changed the dominant microseism period from 5 s to 8 s. We identified three other microseismic source regions during the 18 day observation period. In particular, peak-splitting in the double frequency band and the orientation of the 5 s and 8 s polarization vectors revealed two contemporaneous microseism sources, one in the North Atlantic and one in the Northeast Pacific, for the dates of November 3-4. Predictions of microseismic excitation based on ocean wave models showed consistency with the observed microseismic energy generated by Sandy and other storms.

  5. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  6. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  7. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned (United States)

    Werner, K.


    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  8. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.


    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  9. Climate control on late Holocene high-energy sedimentation along coasts of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean


    Poirier , Clément; Tessier , Bernadette; Chaumillon , Eric


    International audience; Abundant sedimentological and geochronological data gathered on European sandy coasts highlight major phases of increased high-energy sedimentation in the North Atlantic Ocean during the late Holocene. Owing to an inconsistent use of the terminology, it is often difficult to determine whether studies have described storm-built or wave-built deposits. Both deposits can be identified by overall similar coarse-grained sedimentary facies, but may provide contradictory pale...

  10. Holocene aeolian activity in the Dinggye area (Southern Tibet, China) (United States)

    Pan, Meihui; Wu, Yongqiu; Zheng, Yinghua; Tan, Lihua


    The Dinggye area (Southern Tibet) contains numerous aeolian sediments, including modern and ancient aeolian sand deposition. In this study, we determined the chronological sequences of several profiles of Holocene paleo-aeolian deposits using Optically Stimulate Luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C and conventional 14C) dating. Using the grain size, magnetic susceptibility, organic content and chrome characteristics of the deposits, we reconstructed the Holocene aeolian processes in the Dinggye area. The results from the paleo-aeolian depositional record indicate multiple changes in the intensity of aeolian activity and soil fixing with alternations between cool-dry and warm-humid climate conditions in the Dinggye area during the Holocene. From 12.8 ka B.P. to the present, the climate has fluctuated frequently. From 12.8 to 11.6 ka B.P. and from 9.3 to 4.9 ka B.P., the climate was warm and humid with weak aeolian activity, and a sandy paleosol developed. The peak Holocene megathermal period and the main period of pedogenesis in the study area was from 6.6 to 4.9 ka B.P. Between 11.6 and 9.3 ka B.P. and since 2.0 ka B.P., the sandlot expanded due to a cool, dry and windy climate; aeolian activity was strong and caused the development of moving dunes. The period between 4.9 and 2.0 ka B.P. was relatively cool and dry with slightly strengthened aeolian activity that developed stationary and semi-stationary dunes. In general, the Holocene events recorded by the paleo-aeolian deposits correspond well with those interpreted by other methods, such as records from ice-cores, lacustrine deposits and tree rings, but there are minor discrepancies between the methods.

  11. Holocene coastal paleoenvironmental record, Bay of Brest (United States)

    Fernane, Assia; Gandouin, Emmanuel; Goslin, Jérôme; Penaud, Aurélie; Van Vliet lanoë, Brigitte


    Coastal areas are sensitive environments regarding the risk of submersion and the impact on biodiversity induced by salinity changes. These areas thus provide good palaeocecological archives to monitor palaeo sea level changes and the associated adaptation of different biological communities. The north-western coast of France has poorly been investigated regarding its Holocene palaeoecological signatures (Morzadec-Kerfourn, 1974; Naughton et al., 2007). Chironomids have been recognized to be an efficient tool for palaeoclimate and palaeosalinity reconstructions in lakes (Brooks, 2006), and more recently in river floodplains (Gandouin et al, 2006). In this study, environmental changes related to both climate processes and human disturbances, were reconstructed over the last 5000 years, based on pollen and chironomid assemblages from two coastal cores retrieved at Pors Milin (Brittany, NW France). The sedimentary sequences consist of terrestrial peaty layers interdigited with marine clastic deposits. The study area is composed by a sandy beach, truncating the peat, limited by a high sandy bar, and a back marsh developed at + 4 m NGF. Pollen and chironomid results reveal that anthropogenic factors would mainly control environmental changes that occurred in this sector. The disappearance of many chironomid taxa (inhabitants of main river channel) and the dramatic fall in diversity may have been induced by the development of the Merovingian forest clearance at Pors Milin. Indeed, we suggest that the development of agriculture, the river embankment and the draining of wetlands may explain the chironomid habitat loss and the subsequent fall of biodiversity. This change in faunal assemblages occurred synchronously with a decrease in the "arborean / non arborean" pollen ratio reflecting the land opening of the watershed. Several nitrophilous and anthropogenic pollen taxa reinforce our hypothesis concerning the development of agricultural and livestock farming activities at

  12. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  13. Holocene aridification of India (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.


    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang


    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  15. Holocene sea-level changes in the Falkland Islands (United States)

    Newton, Tom; Gehrels, Roland; Daley, Tim; Long, Antony; Bentley, Mike


    In many locations in the southern hemisphere, relative sea level (RSL) reached its maximum position during the middle Holocene. This highstand is used by models of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to constrain the melt histories of the large ice sheets, particularly Antarctica. In this paper we present the first Holocene sea-level record from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), an archipelago located on the Patagonian continental shelf about 500 km east of mainland South America at a latitude of ca. 52 degrees. Unlike coastal locations in southernmost South America, Holocene sea-level data from the Falklands are not influenced by tectonics, local ice loading effects and large tidal ranges such that GIA and ice-ocean mass flux are the dominant drivers of RSL change. Our study site is a salt marsh located in Swan Inlet in East Falkland, around 50 km southwest of Stanley. This is the largest and best developed salt marsh in the Falkland Islands. Cores were collected in 2005 and 2013. Lithostratigraphic analyses were complemented by analyses of foraminifera, testate amoebae and diatoms to infer palaeoenvironments. The bedrock, a Permian black shale, is overlain by grey-brown organic salt-marsh clay, up to 90 cm thick, which, in a landward direction, is replaced by freshwater organic sediments. Overlying these units are medium-coarse sands with occasional pebbles, up to 115 cm thick, containing tidal flat foraminifera. The sandy unit is erosively overlain by a grey-brown organic salt-marsh peat which extends up to the present surface. Further away from the sea this unit is predominantly of freshwater origin. Based on 13 radiocarbon dates we infer that prior to ~9.5 ka sea level was several metres below present. Under rising sea levels a salt marsh developed which was suddenly drowned around 8.4 ka, synchronous with a sea-level jump known from northern hemisphere locations. Following the drowning, RSL rose to its maximum position around 7 ka, less than 0.5 m above

  16. Sandy a změna klimatu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecho, Jozef


    Roč. 92, č. 7 (2013), s. 408-411 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hurricanes * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  17. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  18. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional .... counting the cells present in a sample of aged seawater and comparing this with .... This activity peaked at 71 % above the undisturbed level after 16 hours.

  19. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil


    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez


    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  20. Holocene RSL variation on southwestern Disko Island (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    We investigate RSL variations during the Holocene in Lakse Bugt by assessing topography, internal structure, and luminescence ages of fossil beach ridges and the modern beach. Lakse Bugt (Bay) lies on the southwestern coast of Disko Island in a mesotidal regime and a mild wave climate. Beach ridges...... are widespread over the marine terrace, extending from ~40 above sea level (m asl). The most recent ridges terminate either at the beach or at the coastal sandy cliffs ~8 m asl immediately behind the modern beach. These ridges are covered mainly by rounded boulders; the terrain surfaces of the swales have...... clearly been deformed by freezing and thawing processes, in contrast to those of the ridge crests, which are relatively smooth. High-resolution reflection GPR data and high resolution topographical data were collected along cross-shore transects using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a DGPS system...

  1. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.


    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  2. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele


    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Ground-Penetrating Radar Study of Fort Morgan Peninsula Holocene Beach Ridges as Sea-level Indicators (United States)

    Philbin, A.; Frederick, B.; Blum, M. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.


    Holocene sea-level change along the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) coast is controversial. One view interprets basal peats from the Mississippi Delta to indicate continual sea-level (SL) rise for the GoM as a whole. An alternate view proposes that data from the subsiding delta is primarily a subsidence signal, and that sandy non-deltaic shorelines indicate that regional SL reached present elevations by the middle Holocene, with minor oscillations since then. In fact, new regional long-term subsidence records from biostratigraphic indicators display significant subsidence in deltaic areas where basal-peat data were collected, and negligible rates along the GoM shoreline to the east. However, the use of sandy progradational shorelines, commonly known as "beach ridge systems", has been criticized for a lack of precise sea-level indicators, and therefore discounted. This research focuses on developing Holocene progradational sandy shorelines along the Alabama coast in the eastern GoM as SL indicators. Sandy shorelines in this area are ideal to examine SL change because they are well preserved, sufficiently distant from the subsiding delta, well mapped, and ages are known from previous work. Two-dimensional ground-penetrating radar imaging of well-dated beach-ridge successions is used here to examine and identify changes through time in the elevation of the shoreface clinoform topset-foreset break, which represents the transition between flat-lying foreshore and seaward-dipping shoreface facies, and forms in the intertidal zone. Beach-ridge successions with optical luminescence ages of ca. 5500-4800 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks at current mean sea-level elevation, whereas beach-ridge successions from ca. 3500-2400 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks that are 1 m above present mean SL and the elevation of modern topset-foreset breaks. These data support the view that current sea-level was reached by the middle Holocene, and was higher than present for at least

  4. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report (United States)



    Hurricane Sandy made US landfall near Atlantic City, NJ on 29 October 2012, causing 72 direct deaths, displacing thousands of individuals from damaged or destroyed dwellings, and leaving over 8.5 million homes without power across the northeast and mid-Atlantic. To coordinate federal rebuilding activities in the affected region, the President established the cabinet-level Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force was charged with identifying opportunities for achieving rebuilding success while supporting economic vitality, improving public health and safety, protecting and enhancing natural and manmade infrastructure, bolstering resilience, and ensuring appropriate accountability.

  5. Sandy Hook : alternative access concept plan and vehicle replacement study (United States)


    This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...

  6. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters such as beach profile, sand particle size, Eh and carbonate content, as well as abundance, composition, biomass and distribution of the macrofauna and ...

  7. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy for port resilience. (United States)


    New York Harbor was directly in the path of the most damaging part of Hurricane Sandy causing significant impact on many of the : facilities of the Port of New York and New Jersey. The U.S. Coast Guard closed the entire Port to all traffic before the...

  8. Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy. (United States)


    "Hurricane Sandy demonstrated the strengths and limits of the transportation infrastructure in New York City and the surrounding region. As a result of the timely and thorough preparations by New York City and the MTA, along with the actions of city ...

  9. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R


    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  10. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China (United States)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.


    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  11. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard


    Prescribed burning is advocated in Fennoscandia to promote regeneration and to encourage biodiversity. This method of forest management is based on the perception that fire was much more frequent in the recent past and over a century of active fire suppression has created a boreal forest ecosystem almost free of natural fire. The absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce) with the successive spruce dominated forest further reducing fire ignition potential. However, humans have altered the natural fire dynamics of Fennoscandia since the early- to mid-Holocene and disentangling the anthropogenic driven fire dynamics from the natural fire dynamics is challenging. Through palaeoecology and sedimentary charcoal deposits we are able to explore the Holocene spatial and temporal variability and changing drivers of fire and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia. At the local-scale, two forest hollow environments (history are compared to identify unique and mutual changes in disturbance history. Pollen derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at both the local- and regional-scale identifies local-scale disturbance dynamics and large-scale ecosystem response. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored throughout Fennoscandia and Denmark to identify the changing drives of fire dynamics throughout the Holocene. Palaeo-vegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Early-Holocene fire regimes in Fennoscandia are driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Norway spruce is driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. The expansion of spruce led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass

  12. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying


    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  13. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R


    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  14. Sediment Buffering and Transport in the Holocene Indus River System (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Henstock, T.; Tabrez, A. R.; Vanlaningham, S.; Alizai, A. H.; Limmer, D. R.; Danish, M.


    Submarine fans are the largest sediment bodies on Earth and potentially hold records of erosion that could be used to assess the response of continents to changing climate in terms of both physical erosion and chemical weathering. However, buffering between the mountain sources and the abyssal plain may make detailed correlation of climate and erosion records difficult. We investigated the nature of sediment transport in the Indus drainage in SW Asia. Through trenching in the flood plain, drilling in the delta and new seismic and coring data from the shelf and canyon we can now constrain sediment transport from source to sink since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The Indus was affected by intensification of the summer monsoon during the Early Holocene and subsequent weakening since ca. 8 ka. Sediment delivery to the delta was very rapid at 12-8 ka, but slowed along with the weakening monsoon. At the LGM erosion in the Karakoram dominated the supply of sandy material, while the proportion of Lesser Himalayan flux increased with strengthening summer rainfall after 12 ka. Total load also increased at that time. Since 5 ka incision of rivers into the upper parts of the flood plain has reworked Lower Holocene sediments, although the total flux slowed. Coring in the Indus canyon shows that sediment has not reached the lower canyon since ca. 7 ka, but that sedimentation has recently been very rapid in the head of the canyon. We conclude that variations in sealevel and terrestrial climate have introduced a lag of at least 7 k.y. into the deep sea fan record and that monsoon strength is a primary control on whether sediment is stored or released in the flood plain.

  15. Upper Holocene in a profile:tectonic depression of Conlara-Sierra de San Luis, San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, E.; Chiesa, J.


    The characteristics of three column profiles belonging to eolic sediments, assignated to Upper Holocene of the Depression of Conlara and oriental edge of San Luis range, comprising loessic materials and sandy loessoides, associated to aluvio-eolic and pedogenetic levels are texturally described. Lineal graphics of expression are used to visualize the textual variations according to the deph, those graphics are built according to the curve of frequency accumulated of the distribution of the size, using the parameters of rank in phi (Q) intervals and the half diameter expressed in microns. The interpretation of the succession in ecuatorial direction allows the inferences of the decrease of the size of grain from the planicie (on the east) towards the mountain region (on the west). The values of parameters of rank and statistiral parameters are presented, of all the succession although it is proposed that the Upper Holocene corresponds to the two upper meters [es

  16. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W


    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  17. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.


    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  18. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.


    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  19. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China. (United States)

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian


    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  20. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning


    of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...

  1. Modelling the morphology of sandy spits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The shape, dimensions and growth rate of an accumulating sandy spit is investigated by a theoretical and experimental study. The idealised case of a spit growing without change of form under a constant wave forcing is considered. The longshore wave-driven sediment transport is taken to be dominant...... that with this assumption the dimensions of the spit cannot be determined. The width and shape of a finite spit is therefore determined from simulations with an area model for the wave-driven current and sediment transport along the spit. In this case the curvature effects from the spit on the longshore sediment transport...... conducted in a wave tank an accumulating spit was formed at the down-drift end of a uniform stretch of coast exposed to waves approaching at an angle. The spit approached equilibrium dimensions when a constant wave climate was applied. The radius of curvature of the spit varied according to the height...

  2. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.


    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  3. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.


    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  4. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich


    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  5. Anthropogenic and geomorphic controls on peatland dynamics in contrasting floodplain environments during the Holocene and its impact on carbon storage (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan


    Peatlands are an important store of carbon in terrestrial environments, and scientific interest in peatlands has increased strongly in the light of the recent global climatic changes. Much attention has been paid to peatland dynamics in extensive arctic and boreal wetlands or to blanket peat in temperate regions. Nevertheless, long-term dynamics of peat in alluvial wetlands in temperate regions remains largely underresearched. In this study, data from three contrasting environments were used to provide more insights in the anthropogenic and geomorphic controls on peatland dynamics. The results show a high variability in alluvial peatland dynamics between the different study sites. In the central Belgian Loess Belt, alluvial peatlands developed during the early Holocene but gradually disappeared from the Mid-Holocene onwards due to the gradual intensification of agricultural activities in the catchment and consequent higher sedimentation rates in the floodplain system. The end of peat growth is shown to be diachronous at catchment scale, ranging between 6500 and 500 cal a BP. The disappearance of the alluvial peatlands has important implications since it potentially reduces the storage of locally produced C. Nevertheless, it was shown that this reduced production of local C but was outbalanced by the burial of hillslope derived C. Also within the sandy catchments of the Belgian Campine region alluvial peatlands initiated in the early Holocene but, here, they abruptly disappeared in the Mid-Holocene before the onset of intense agricultural activities in the catchment. This suggests that for the sandy regions, anthropogenic impact on peatland dynamics is less important compared to natural factors. For these regions, the disappearance of alluvial peatland formation resulted in a sharp decline in alluvial carbon storage as there is no compensation through hillslope derived C input. For the upper Dee catchment in NE Scotland, Holocene carbon floodplain storage varies

  6. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  7. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  8. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  9. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  10. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  11. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms. (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H


    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  12. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.


    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  13. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction. (United States)

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A; Leorri, Eduardo


    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid- to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through comparison with modern analogs and a chronology based on optically stimulated luminescence ages. Our reconstructions document a continuous but slow sea-level rise after 6.5 ka with an accumulated change in elevation of about 2 m. In the context of SW Europe, our results show good agreement with previous studies, including the Tagus isostatic model, with minor discrepancies that demand further improvement of regional models. This work reinforces the potential of barrier indicators to accurately reconstruct high-resolution mid- to late Holocene sea-level changes through simple approaches.

  14. Sedimentary facies and Holocene depositional processes of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll (United States)

    Yasukochi, Toru; Kayanne, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yamano, Hiroya


    The depositional processes that formed Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, were reconstructed based on a facies analysis of island sediments and spine ratios, and radiocarbon ages of foraminifera. Sedimentary facies were analyzed from trenches and drill cores excavated on the island and its adjacent reef flat. Depositional ages were obtained using benthic foraminifera (Calcarina) whose spines had not been abraded. The facies were classified into two types: gravelly and sandy. The initial sediments of these sites consisted of gravelly facies in the lower horizon and sandy facies in the upper horizon. Their ages were approximately 2000 cal BP and coincident with the onset of a 1.1-m decline in regional relative sea level, which enabled deposition of the gravelly facies. Half of the sand fraction of the sediment was composed of larger benthic foraminifera. The spine ratio showed that their supply source on the reef flat was located oceanside of the island. The supply source appears to have been caused by the relative sea-level fall. This indicates that the studied island was formed by a relative reduction in wave energy and enhanced foraminiferal supply, both of which were triggered by the late Holocene relative sea-level fall.

  15. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China (United States)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong


    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  16. Reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Yin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss shape, scale and superimposed types of sandy gravel bodies in sandy-gravel braided distributary channel. Lithofacies analysis, hierarchy bounding surface analysis and subsurface dense well pattern combining with outcrops method were used to examine reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel based on cores, well logging, and outcrops data, and the reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channels in different grades have been established. The study shows: (1 The main reservoir architecture elements for sandy gravel braided channel delta are distributary channel and overbank sand, while reservoir flow barrier elements are interchannel and lacustrine mudstone. (2 The compound sand bodies in the sandy gravel braided delta distributary channel take on three shapes: sheet-like distributary channel sand body, interweave strip distributary channel sand body, single strip distributary channel sand body. (3 Identification marks of single distributary channel include: elevation of sand body top, lateral overlaying, “thick-thin-thick” feature of sand bodies, interchannel mudstone and overbank sand between distributary channels and the differences in well log curve shape of sand bodies. (4 Nine lithofacies types were distinguished in distributary channel unit interior, different channel units have different lithofacies association sequence.

  17. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  18. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils. (United States)

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David


    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  19. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco


    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  20. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall


    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  1. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy. (United States)

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret


    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  2. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik


    soil; a number of nationally red-listed species showed a similar pattern. Plant species diversity and number of red-listed species increased with slope. Where the topsoil had been acidified, limestone was rarely present above a depth of 30 cm. The presence of limestone restricts the availability......Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits......). Environmental variables were recorded at each plot, and soil samples were analysed for exchangeable P and N, as well as limestone content and pH. Data were analysed with regression analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results: Plant species richness was highest on weakly acid to slightly alkaline...

  3. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms. (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela


    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  4. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model. (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A


    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat


    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  6. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  7. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  8. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris


    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  9. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mean weight diameter (MWD), water dispersible silt (WDSi), aggregate size distributions (> 2 mm, 1-0.5 mm and < 0.25 ... above sea level. ... and red to brownish red and derived from sandy ... where Q = steady state volume of outflow from the.

  10. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lives as a scavenger in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches on the west coast of South Africa. Individuals emerge with the receding tide leaving exit holes, then forage for about two hours before returning to the vicinity of the high-water mark where they aggregate to bury themselves, leaving behind cone-shaped mounds.

  11. effect of tractor forward speed on sandy loam soil physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Ilorin on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the effect of the imposition of different .... of the blade is 10.5cm. ... arranged in an inverted cone shape with ... replicates were taken for each speed run. The ..... Thakur, T. C; A. Yadav; B. P. Varshney and.

  12. Structural Stability and Hydraulic Conductivity Of Nkpologu Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in the runoff plots at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Resesarch Farm in 2010 and 2011 to monitor the changes in structural stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover management practices. The management practices were ...

  13. Can porosity affect the hyperspectral signature of sandy landscapes? (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Kimmel, Bradley W.


    Porosity is a fundamental property of sand deposits found in a wide range of landscapes, from beaches to dune fields. As a primary determinant of the density and permeability of sediments, it represents a central element in geophysical studies involving basin modeling and coastal erosion as well as geoaccoustics and geochemical investigations aiming at the understanding of sediment transport and water diffusion properties of sandy landscapes. These applications highlight the importance of obtaining reliable porosity estimations, which remains an elusive task, notably through remote sensing. In this work, we aim to contribute to the strengthening of the knowledge basis required for the development of new technologies for the remote monitoring of environmentally-triggered changes in sandy landscapes. Accordingly, we employ an in silico investigation approach to assess the effects of porosity variations on the reflectance of sandy landscapes in the visible and near-infrared spectral domains. More specifically, we perform predictive computer simulations using SPLITS, a hyperspectral light transport model for particulate materials that takes into account actual sand characterization data. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive investigation relating porosity to the reflectance responses of sandy landscapes. Our findings indicate that the putative dependence of these responses on porosity may be considerably less pronounced than its dependence on other properties such as grain size and shape. Hence, future initiatives for the remote quantification of porosity will likely require reflectance sensors with a high degree of sensitivity.

  14. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  15. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57: 134-136. BROWN, AC. & WEBB, S.c. 1994. Organisms associated \\.,.,ith burrowing whelks of the genus Bullia. S Afr. 1. Zool. 29: 144-151. BROWN, A.C., STENTON-DOZEY, J.~.E. & TRUEMAN, E.R.. 1989. Sandy-beach bivalves and gastropods; a comparison between Donax serra and Ruilia digitalis. Adv. mar. Bioi. 25:.

  16. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012. (United States)


    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  17. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M


    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  18. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.


    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  19. The sandy beach meiofauna and free-living nematodes from De Panne (Belgium)


    Gheskiere, T.; Hoste, E.; Kotwicki, L.; Degraer, S.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.


    Despite their rather barren and arid appearance, European sandy beaches harbour a highly diverse fauna and flora and some of them are even highly productive. In contrast to tropical sandy beaches little is known about the structural and functional diversity of the different benthic components. This study aims to investigate the structural diversity of the meiobenthos, emphasizing on free-living marine nematodes on a Belgian sandy beach.The samples were collected on the sandy beach of De Panne...

  20. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.


    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  1. Late Pleistocene to early Holocene environmental changes on Store Koldewey, coastal north-east Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klug


    Full Text Available A lake sediment sequence from southern Store Koldewey, north-east Greenland, has been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach, including geophysical, geochemical, biogeochemical, biological and sedimentological methods. Chronological constraints are provided by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment and complemented with published water moss ages. The record consists of three major sediment units. Their individual structural, textural, geophysical and geochemical characteristics indicate variable input of sediment and meltwater due to variable proximity of the ice margin and therefore reflect the growth and decay of a local glacier during the late Weichselian. Radiocarbon dating of bulk sediment samples from the lowermost unit gave ages of 42 to 34 calibrated thousand years (cal Ky B.P. and indicates that this material is redeposited in the lake basin during or after the ice advance at the end of the Pleistocene. Increased meltwater and sediment input from a retreating ice margin following the Younger Dryas is indicated by the occurrence of a sandy to gravely section. Fine-grained and laminated sediments were deposited during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition and indicate calm sedimentation conditions with an ice margin outside of the lake catchment. The reoccurrence of coarse sediments during the early Holocene may indicate increased meltwater input in response to the cold spell at about 9.3 Kya with increased snow accumulation rather than fluctuations of local glaciers. The dating results furthermore show that AMS 14C dating of bulk sediment samples deposited during glacier decay in High Arctic environments can give problematic ages.

  2. Land-Sea Correlation of Holocene Records in NW Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Gonzalez-Alvare, R.; Costas, S.; Bernardez, P.; Frances, G.; Alejo, I.


    Holocene climate fluctuations in the temperate region of the Northeast Atlantic have been established by comparing marine and terrestrial proxies. This work is based on suction-cores collected in the Cies Islands lagoon (NW Spain) and vibro-cores from the adjacent continental shelf. The lower Holocene marine record (9400-7000 yr BP) consists on sandy transgressive facies overlying fluvial Pleistocene deposits. During this time the continental shelf was dominated by high energy processes linked to the progressive and fast sea level rise. The rate of sea level rise sharply decelerated at 7000 yr BP and a high productive marine environment was fully established, as revealed by planktonic foraminifera assemblages and biogeochemical markers. In the terrestrial areas, peat deposits were formed beginning around 6000 yr BP in the deeper parts of the paleo-relief that was developed above the granitic basement. The peat was deposited in a fresh-water shallow coastal lake under warm and humid conditions that are brought about by prevailing SW winds. From 4800 yr BP, a progressive rainfall decrease provoked the lowering of the lake level and a weaker fluvial influence on the adjacent shelf. The prevailing eastern winds caused significantly drier conditions between 4000 and 3200 yr BP. During this period the coastal lake dried and the peat layer was covered by aeolian deposits. At the continental shelf a strong stratification of the water column induced a fall in the productivity. The end of this period is marked by the increase of storm regimes caused by a shift to prevailing SW winds. The last 3000 years are characterized by humid and warm conditions, and the enhancement of upwelling regime and terrestrial sediment supply. In Cies Islands, a sand barrier-lagoon complex was developed as a consequence of both the sea level rise and the inundation of the lower areas in the island.

  3. Migrating Seals on Shifting Sands: Testing Alternate Hypotheses for Holocene Ecological and Cultural Change on the California Coast (United States)

    Koch, P. L.; Newsome, S. D.; Gifford-Gonzalez, D.


    The coast of California presented Holocene humans with a diverse set of ecosystems and geomorphic features, from large islands off a semi-desert mainland in the south, to a mix of sandy and rocky beaches abutting grassland and oak forest in central California, to a rocky coast hugged by dense coniferous forest in the north. Theories explaining trends in human resource use, settlement patterns, and demography are equally diverse, but can be categorized as 1) driven by diffusion of technological innovations from outside the region, 2) driven by population growth leading to more intensive extraction of resources, or 3) driven by climatic factors that affect the resource base. With respect to climatic shifts, attention has focused on a possible regime shift ca. 5500 BP, following peak Holocene warming, and on evidence for massive droughts and a drop in marine productivity ca. 1000 BP. While evidence for a coincidence between climatic, cultural, and ecological change is present, albeit complex, in southern California, similar data are largely lacking from central and northern California. We are using isotopic and archaeofaunal analysis to test ideas for ecological and cultural change in central California. Three features of the archaeological record are relevant. First, overall use of marine resources by coastal communities declined after 1000 BP. Second, northern fur seals, which are common in earlier sites, drop in abundance relative to remaining marine animals. We have previously established that Holocene humans in central California were hunting gregariously-breeding northern fur seals from mainland rookeries. These seals breed exclusively on offshore islands today, typically at high latitudes. Their restriction to these isolated sites today may be a response to human overexploitation of their mainland rookeries prehistorically. Finally, collection of oxygen and carbon isotope data from mussels at the archaeological sites, while still in a preliminary phase, has

  4. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao


    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  5. Superstorm Sandy and the Verdant Power RITE Project (United States)

    Corren, D.; Colby, J.; Adonizio, M.


    On October 29, 2012 Superstorm Sandy (formerly Hurricane Sandy) made landfall in New Jersey. One of the deadliest, and second-costliest hurricane in US history, Sandy was the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, with a diameter of 1,800 km. It was this unprecedented size, extreme central low pressure, and full-moon timing that created a storm surge which inundated New York City with record-breaking water levels, resulting in tremendous destruction of buildings and infrastructure. At its RITE (Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy) Project in New York City's East River, Verdant Power has been installing demonstration and commercial turbine systems since 2005, along with performing related environmental monitoring and measurements. The RITE site is located in the East Channel of the East River, on the east side of Roosevelt Island. All along the East River, large areas of the adjacent boroughs were impacted by Sandy, including flooding of the subway tunnels under the river. When Sandy struck, Verdant had recently concluded a two-week in-water test at RITE of a new rotor for its Gen5 KHPS (Kinetic Hydropower System) turbine, with funding assistance by partners NYSERDA and the US Department of Energy. While the turbine had already been removed from its mounting in the river bottom in September, Verdant continued to operate two water measurement instruments in the river. These acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) measure the 3-D water velocity at various heights in the water column, and are also equipped to provide water level data. Verdant is interested in the effects such an extreme storm could have on turbines and other equipment installed in this river reach, as is planned by Verdant under a 10-year commercial pilot project licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for up to 30 turbines. Associated equipment includes navigational aids (buoys and signage), which Verdant is required to maintain to exclude vessels from the project boundaries. The East

  6. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene


    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive ``digital traces'' of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  7. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie


    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay <2 μm. They broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allowed identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprised clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars were examined. Considerable change was observed in the carbonate content that mimicked the bioclaste abundance and diluted the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurred in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction was made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile showed a sharp transition in the upper 2-5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical

  8. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan


    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (, to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.

  9. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan


    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold...... climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  10. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level. (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon


    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  11. How hydrological factors initiate instability in a model sandy slope


    Terajima, Tomomi; Miyahira, Ei-ichiro; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Hattori, Katsumi


    Knowledge of the mechanisms of rain-induced shallow landslides can improve the prediction of their occurrence and mitigate subsequent sediment disasters. Here, we examine an artificial slope's subsurface hydrology and propose a new slope stability analysis that includes seepage force and the down-slope transfer of excess shear forces. We measured pore water pressure and volumetric water content immediately prior to a shallow landslide on an artificial sandy slope of 32°: The direction of the ...

  12. Sandy lower Gotherivian reservoirs in the south central Turkmeniya. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavyyev, N.Ch.; Nedirov, B.R.


    Composition and capacitance-filtering properties of sandy rocks of the early Gotherivian age developed on the fields of Karadzhaulak and Cirili within the northeast slope of the Predkopetdag marginal trough and on areas of Dengli Bakharadok of the Bakharadok monocline are studied. These rocks are viewed as analogs of the gas-bearing Shatlyk level of the Murgabskiy Basin. They can be considered the main potential source of hydrocarbons on the studied territory. In the upper part of the lower Gotherivian, a level of sandy rocks is traced. Rocks represented by small-and average-grained red and light grey differences in sandstones of polymictic composition. The porosity of the sandstones is 20-22%, permeability is 200-500 mdarcy. Not only a similar stratigraphic position of the described sandstones in the lower Gotherivian was found, but also lithological common nature of the rocks. In the south central Turkmeniya one can isolate age analogs of the Shatlyk level, the main productive level of southeast Turkmeniya. The thickness of the sandy beds is from 17 to 45 m. The sandstones of the Karadzhaulak area have the best capacitance-filtering properties. Post sedimentation changes depend on the quantity and composition of the cement, influence of formation waters, and possibly thermobaric conditions of rock formation. The presence of sandy rocks with high collector properties in the cross section of the lower Gotherivian deposits in south central Turkmeniya should be considered in determining the objects for further prospecting and exploration. The areas of Kumbet and Karadzhaulak are primary.

  13. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beaches with rdkctive and dissip:1tive characteristics (sensu. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ay u n der licen ce gran ted by th e P u blish er (dated 2009). ... beach intertidal communities WaS reviewed, (b) location of len sam.!y beaches studied in south-central Chile, imd (c) location of two sandy beaches studied on the ...

  14. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  15. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  16. The Tsitsikamma coastal shelf, Agulhas Bank, South Africa: example of an isolated Holocene sediment trap (United States)

    Flemming, Burg W.; Keith Martin, A.


    Under certain geomorphological conditions, sandy sediments supplied to a coast may become trapped in nearshore sedimentary compartments because these are laterally confined by bedload boundaries or convergences. Where sediment supply is small or the shoreface very steep, and accommodation space as a consequence large, the trapping mechanism may be very efficient. The Tsitsikamma coast along the South African south coast is a case in point, the sediment supplied by local rivers over the past 12 ka having been trapped in a nearshore sediment wedge extending at least 5 km offshore. On the basis of high-resolution seismic surveys, the volume of the sediment wedge has been estimated at 1,354×106 m3. As 5% of this volume is considered to have been contributed by bioclastic material of marine origin, the terrestrial input would be 1,286×106 m3. This amounts to an average annual terrestrial sediment input of 0.1072×106 m3. Using a detailed sediment yield map, the modern mean annual sediment supply to the Tsitsikamma coast by local rivers has been estimated at 0.1028×106 m3. Unless coincidental, the remarkable similarity of the two values suggests that the current climatic conditions along the Tsitsikamma coast correspond to the Holocene mean. This conclusion is supported by the currently available climate data for the South African south coast.

  17. Fluvial Responses to Holocene sea Level Variations Along the Macdonald River, New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Rustomji, P.; Chappell, J.; Olley, J.


    The Macdonald River drains the rugged eastern flanks of Australia's Great Dividing Range. It has a catchment area of 2000km2, restricted alluvial lowlands confined by bedrock interfluves and flows into the Hawkesbury River, a larger estuarine valley. The Macdonald valley is presently tidal for 14km from the Hawkesbury. At about 8000 year before present (BP), rising sea level invaded the Macdonald Valley for at least 35km upstream of the Hawkesbury River. Rapid aggradation occurred between 8000 and 6000 years BP and a sand bed river was established in the Macdonald Valley, its mouth prograding rapidly towards the Hawkesbury. Little is known about the character of the sand bed river during the +2 meter sea level highstand occurring between 5000 and 4000 BP. However, from 3000 to 1500 BP when sea level was consistently at +1 to +1.5m, major floodplain and levee-like structures, now virtually inactive, were established. The bed is inferred to have been elevated above its present day level and consequently intersected mean sea level (MSL) downstream of its present location. This is consistent with reported sea levels at +1 to +2m above present levels for the New South Wales coast at this time. From 1500 years BP, local sea level fell rapidly to its present level. Aggradation of the levee crests ceased and sedimentation along the valley became restricted to aggradation of an inset floodplain, within the pre-1500 BP deposits. The channel contracted and the sandy river bed incised. An equivalent and synchronous change in sedimentation style is observed along the Tuross River 400km south of the Macdonald, lending support to sea level variations being the factor driving this change. By 1850 AD, the bed dipped below MSL about 10km upstream of its inferred position prior to 1500 years BP. A series of large floods between 1949 and 1955 eroded significant volumes of sandy sediment from the Holocene deposits. The channel bed widened from between 25 and 50m width to ˜100m along

  18. Preparation of Sandy Soil Stabilizer for Roads Based on Radiation Modified Polymer Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahas, H.H.


    Radiation modified polymer composite (RMPC) was studied to build an extremely durable sandy road, construct a trail or bath, or control dust and erosion. A dilute solution of composite binds sandy soil fines through a coagulation bonding process. The result is a dense soil structure that has superior resistance to cracks and water penetration and can also solve erosion control problems. In erosion control applications, diluted composite is merely sprayed into sandy soil without compaction, effectively sealing the surface to prevent air-born dust or deterioration from erosion. The prepared composite has an elastic and melt-able film formation that imparts thermal compacting to the stabilized sandy soil after full dryness for sandy road leveling, repairing and restoration processes. The prepared composite is environmentally economical when compared with traditional sandy soil stabilizing (SSS) or sealing methods.

  19. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments


    Chauhan, Apoorva


    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  20. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz


    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  1. Constraining Depositional Slope From Sedimentary Structures in Sandy Braided Streams (United States)

    Lynds, R. M.; Mohrig, D.; Heller, P. L.


    Determination of paleoslopes in ancient fluvial systems has potentially broad application to quantitatively constraining the history of tectonics and paleoclimate in continental sequences. Our method for calculating paleoslopes for sandy braided streams is based upon a simple physical model that establishes depositional skin-frictional shear stresses from assemblages of sedimentary structures and their associated grain size distributions. The addition of a skin-frictional shear stress, with a geometrically determined form-drag shear stress results in a total boundary shear stress which is directly related to water-surface slope averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. In order to apply this model to ancient fluvial systems, it is necessary to measure the following: coarsest suspended sediment size, finest grain size carried in bed load, flow depth, dune height, and dune length. In the rock record, suspended load and bed load can be accurately assessed by well-preserved suspended load deposits ("low-energy" ripples) and bed load deposits (dune foresets). This model predicts an average slope for the North Loup River near Taylor, Nebraska (modern case study) of 2.7 x 10-3. The measured reach-averaged water surface slope for the same reach of the river is 1.37 x 10-3. We suggest that it is possible to calculate the depositional slope of a sandy fluvial system by a factor of approximately two. Additionally, preliminary application of this model to the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation throughout the Colorado Plateau provides a promising and consistent evaluation of paleoslope in an ancient and well-preserved, sandy braided stream deposit.

  2. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients. (United States)

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar


    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  3. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.


    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  4. The effects of Hurricane Sandy on trauma center admissions. (United States)

    Curran, T; Bogdanovski, D A; Hicks, A S; Bilaniuk, J W; Adams, J M; Siegel, B K; DiFazio, L T; Durling-Grover, R; Nemeth, Z H


    Hurricane Sandy was a particularly unusual storm with regard to both size and location of landfall. The storm landed in New Jersey, which is unusual for a tropical storm of such scale, and created hazardous conditions which caused injury to residents during the storm and in the months following. This study aims to describe differences in trauma center admissions and patterns of injury during this time period when compared to a period with no such storm. Data were collected for this study from patients who were admitted to the trauma center at Morristown Medical Center during Hurricane Sandy or the ensuing cleanup efforts (patients admitted between 29 October 2012 and 27 December 2012) as well as a control group consisting of all patients admitted to the trauma center between 29 October 2013 and 27 December 2013. Patient information was collected to compare the admissions of the trauma center during the period of the storm and cleanup to the control period. A total of 419 cases were identified in the storm and cleanup period. 427 were identified for the control. Striking injuries were more common in the storm and cleanup group by 266.7% (p = 0.0107); cuts were more common by 650.8% (p = 0.0044). Medical records indicate that many of these injuries were caused by Hurricane Sandy. Self-inflicted injuries were more common by 301.3% (p = 0.0294). There were no significant differences in the total number of patients, mortality, or injury severity score between the two cohorts. The data we have collected show that the conditions caused by Hurricane Sandy and the following cleanup had a significant effect on injury patterns, with more patients having been injured by being struck by falling or thrown objects, cut while using tools, or causing self-inflicted injuries. These changes, particularly during the cleanup period, are indicative of environmental changes following the storm which increase these risks of injury.

  5. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam


    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  6. Uncertainties in sandy shorelines evolution under the Bruun rule assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri eLe Cozannet


    Full Text Available In the current practice of sandy shoreline change assessments, the local sedimentary budget is evaluated using the sediment balance equation, that is, by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore processes. The contribution of future sea-level-rise induced by climate change is usually obtained using the Bruun rule, which assumes that the shoreline retreat is equal to the change of sea-level divided by the slope of the upper shoreface. However, it remains unsure that this approach is appropriate to account for the impacts of future sea-level rise. This is due to the lack of relevant observations to validate the Bruun rule under the expected sea-level rise rates. To address this issue, this article estimates the coastal settings and period of time under which the use of the Bruun rule could be (invalidated, in the case of wave-exposed gently-sloping sandy beaches. Using the sedimentary budgets of Stive (2004 and probabilistic sea-level rise scenarios based on IPCC, we provide shoreline change projections that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting idealized coasts (impacts of sea-level rise, storms and other cross-shore and longshore processes. We evaluate the relative importance of each source of uncertainties in the sediment balance equation using a global sensitivity analysis. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defences, the model predicts a perceivable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. In contrast, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. Finally, the contribution of sea-level rise and climate change scenarios to sandy shoreline change projections uncertainties increases with time during the 21st century. Our results have three primary implications for coastal settings similar to those provided described in Stive (2004 : first, the validation of the Bruun rule will not necessarily be

  7. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy. (United States)


    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp.

  8. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  9. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  10. Quality Assurance After a Natural Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Dickerson, Collin; Hsu, Yanshen; Mendoza, Sandra; Osman, Iman; Ogilvie, Jennifer; Patel, Kepal; Moreira, Andre L


    Biospecimen quality can vary depending on many pre- and post-collection variables. In this study, we consider a natural disaster as a post-collection variable that may have compromised the quality of frozen tissue specimens. To investigate this possible link, we compared the quality of nucleic acids, the level of antigenicity, and the preservation of histology from frozen specimens collected before and after the power outage caused by Hurricane Sandy. To analyze nucleic acid quality, we extracted both DNA and RNA and performed capillary electrophoresis to compare the quality and concentrations of the nucleic acids. To compare antigenicity, frozen sections were cut and immunostained for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), a nuclear transcription protein commonly used as a diagnostic biomarker for multiple cancer types, including thyroid and lung cancers. Positive expression of TTF-1, as noted by homogenous nuclear staining, would demonstrate that the TTF-1 proteins could still bind antibodies and, therefore, that these proteins were not significantly degraded. Furthermore, representative frozen sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were also assessed qualitatively by a trained pathologist to examine any possible histologic aberrations. Due to the similar quality of the tissue samples collected before and after the storm, Hurricane Sandy had no discernable effect on the quality of frozen specimens, and these specimens exposed to the natural disaster are still valuable research tools.

  11. Measurement of earthquake-induced shear strain in sandy gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, I.; Futaki, M.; Yamanouchi, H.


    The nuclear power reactor buildings have been constructed on the hard rock ground formed in or before the Tertiary in Japan. This is mainly because the nuclear reactor building is much heavier than the common buildings and requires a large bearing capacity of the underlying soil deposit, and additionally the excessive deformation in soil deposit might cause damage in reactor building and subsequently cause the malfunction of the internal important facilities. Another reason is that the Quaternary soil deposit is not fully known with respect to its dynamic property. The gravel, and the sandy gravel, the representative soils of the Quaternary, have been believed to be suitable soil deposits to support the foundation of a common building, although the soils have rarely been investigated so closely on their physical properties quantitatively. In this paper, the dynamic deformability, i.e., the shear stress-strain relationship of the Quaternary diluvial soil deposit is examined through the earthquake ground motion measurement using accelerometers, pore-pressure meters, the specific devices developed in this research work. The objective soil deposit in this research is the sandy gravel of the diluvial and the alluvial

  12. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar


    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  13. Superstorm Sandy and the academic achievement of university students. (United States)

    Doyle, Matthew D; Lockwood, Brian; Comiskey, John G


    Much of the literature on the consequences of natural disasters has focused on their physical and psychological ramifications. Few researchers have considered how the impacts of a natural disaster can influence academic achievement. This study analyses data collected from nearly 300 students at a mid-sized, private university in the northeast United States to determine if the effects of Cyclone Sandy in 2012 are associated with measures of academic achievement. The findings reveal that experiencing headaches after the event resulted in a higher likelihood of students suffering a loss of academic motivation. In addition, experiencing headaches and a loss of academic motivation were correlated with a lower grade point average (GPA) during the semester in which Sandy made landfall. However, the more direct effects of the superstorm, including displacement and a loss of power, did not have a significant bearing on academic achievement. Lastly, the paper examines the implications for higher education policy and future research. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  14. Holocene vegetation history from fossil rodent middens near Arequipa, Peru (United States)

    Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay


    Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  15. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.


    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Durău


    Full Text Available Climatic conditions in the sandy soils of southern Oltenia encourage cultivation of tree species in terms of applying specific technologies. Possibility of poor sandy soils fertile capitalization, earliness in 7- 10 days of fruit ripening , high yields and quality are the main factors supporting the development of fruit growing in the sandy soils of southern Oltenia. The main objectives of the research were to CCDCPN Dăbuleni. Establish and improve stone fruit species assortment, adapted to the stress of the sandy soils, establishment and evaluation of the influence of stress on trees and their influence on the size and quality of production, development of technological links (planting distances, forms management, fertilization, getting high and consistent annual production of high quality, containing low as pesticide residues, to establish a integrated health control program of the trees with emphasis on biotechnical. Research has shown good stone species behavior, and their recommended proportion is 75% of all fruit trees (peach 36%, 14% apricot, plum15%, sweet and sour cherry fruit growing 10% of the total area. Results on peach varieties revealed: ’Redhaven’, ’Suncrest’, ’Loring’ with yields ranging from (24.8 t / ha to 29.0 t/ha with maturation period from July to August, and varieties ’NJ 244’, ’Fayette’, ’Flacara’ with productions ranging from (19.7 t / ha to 23.0 t/ha with maturation period from August to September. The sweet cherry varieties ’Van’, ’Rainier’, ’Stella’, with yields ranging from 17. 2 to 24.4 t / ha. In the range studied sour cherry were found ’Oblacinska’ varieties of 11.0 t / ha, ’Cernokaia’ with 10.5 t / ha, ’Schatten Morelle’ with 9.1 t / ha. Optimum planting density and shape of the peach crown found that the highest yields of fruit are produced in the form of vertical cordon crown, with values ranging from 15.9 t / ha at a distance of 2 m, 10.3 t / ha at a distance

  17. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.


    The fate of nitrogen from N-15-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to two soils was studied under field conditions. Labelled and stored urine equivalent to 204 kg N ha(-1) was either incorporated in soil or applied to the soil surface prior to sowing of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L...... and soil was not significantly different for incorporated urine and urea. Almost all the supplied labelled N was accounted for in soil and herbage in the sandy loam soil, whereas 33-34% of the labelled N was unaccounted for in the sandy soil. When the stored urine was applied to the soil surface, 20...... was applied to growing ryegrass at the sandy loam soil, the immobilization of urine-derived N was significantly reduced compared to application prior to sowing. The results indicated that the net mineralization of urine N was similar to that of urea in the sandy soil, but only about 75% of the urine N was net...

  18. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.


    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be

  19. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico


    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis...

  20. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  1. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy (United States)


    ... Client Update on Superstorm Sandy--Current and Ongoing Operations as Markets Re-Open; Physical.../downloads/legal/imp_notices/2012/dtcc/z0033.pdf ; ``DTCC Client Update on Superstorm Sandy--Physical...:// ; ``DTCC Client Update on Superstorm...

  2. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.


    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  3. Swashed away? Storm impacts on sandy beach macrofaunal communities (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Smale, Malcolm; Schoeman, David


    Storms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely

  4. Aridity of Central Asia through the Holocene (United States)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Zhou, H.; Rodda, C.; Joswiak, D.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.; Kurbatov, A.; Grigholm, B. O.


    The dynamics of aridity in Central Asia for over the past 12,000 years has been analyzed using deep ice core records recovered from the Siberian Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers. An analysis of aridity in the 20-21 centuries based on the long-term meteorological observations complements the paleo- climate reconstruction. The goal of our research is to examine an aridity (at low and high temperatures) in Central Asia as a complex of characteristics including air temperature-precipitation relationship (Koppen, 1918, Geiger, 1961, Mezencev, 1973), intensity of dust loading and biomass burning. The stable isotope ratio, soluble ionic and insoluble particulate geochemical components and oxalate preserved in ice were considered in relation to climatic and environmental changes; and to determine the main aerosol sources using ground- and upper-level meteorological data. Multivariate statistical methods were employed for examination of the main geo-chemical components responsible for the preserved aridity variability. Insoluble particle concentrations preserved in the ice core were affected mainly by precipitation regimes and wind speed. Concentration of all size particles was found to be negatively correlated with monthly temperatures indicating low temperatures during the dry particle deposition. Two abrupt depletions in stable isotope records, i.e., Younger Dryas and Centurial Sever Drought (CSD), occurred during cold, dry, windy periods of intensified dust storms in large desert areas. When climate became colder and drier, the Central Asian deserts extended, wind speeds increased loading mineral dust to atmosphere, which formed inversion while the convection processes and precipitation occurrence were limited. Warmer and wetter conditions are associated with less dust loading that occurred during the Holocene climate optimum, medieval warm and modern warm periods. The sudden climate transitions are accompanied by the most intensifying mineral dust loading. From the

  5. Looking Back to the Future: Insight on Anthropocene beaches from Holocene and Pleistocene barriers (United States)

    Dougherty, A. J.; Choi, J. H.; Turney, C. S.; Dosseto, A.


    `Super' storms and accelerated rates of sea-level rise are forecast in the Anthropocene, but how coasts will respond (or even if they have started to be impacted) remain uncertain. The onset of this new anthropogenic age is considered mid-1900s when multiple indices including sea level exceed previous Holocene measurements. Centuries of sea surface elevation data, used to project an increase of up to 2m by 2100, show that the current rise started 200 years ago. Similar records of storms or shoreline evolution over these centennial time-scales do not exist. With empirical studies of coastal morphodynamics concentrated during decades of accelerated sea-level rise, present-day beaches can be considered Anthropocene features. To determine the future of vulnerable sandy shorelines, climate change scenarios of increased sea level and storm intensity have been combined with computer models integrating short-term process data with large-scale coastal evolution. The uncertainty in these models can be reduced with longer sea level and storm records as well as filling the gap between detailed beach profile/wave buoy data and generalized barrier stratigraphy. High-resolution chronostratigraphic models necessary to achieve this can be constructed using Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Combined GPR, OSL and LiDAR (GOaL) on prograded barriers enables analysis of shorelines back through time, by comparing behaviour since the onset of anthropogenic global warming to that in the preceding millennia. Extracting a record of coastal evolution prior to and since seas began to rise two centuries ago offers the opportunity to detect any difference indicating if/how shorelines have responded. In double barrier systems with composite Holocene and Pleistocene components GOaL can extend the Anthropocene record back to when seas were known to have been higher than today. To demonstrate the potential of GOaL, data

  6. Constraining Holocene Evolution of Shelf Bayhead Delta Deposits Offshore Mississippi, USA (United States)

    Hollis, R. J.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.


    The slowly subsiding inner shelf of Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) has a complex network of Late Quaternary paleofluvial and deltaic deposits driven by fluctuating sea levels. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, sea-level rise (SLR) has lead to transgressive reworking of these lithosomes. In rare instances, typically when the rate of relative sea-level rise was particularly rapid or sediment supply was high, these deposits are preserved. Results from studies in Texas and Alabama suggest bayhead deltas (or upper-estuarine units) backstepped kilometers landward in response to periods of rapid sea-level rise (i.e. 9.8-9.5 ka, 8.9-8.5 ka, 8.4-8.0 ka, 7.9-7.5 ka, and 7.4-6.8 ka). Bayhead delta backstepping depends on relative SLR rates, accommodation space, shelf slope, wave climate and sediment supply. While at least one preserved bayhead delta deposit has been identified on the inner shelf of MS-AL, the flooding and abandonment chronology is currently unknown. The previously quantified sandy bayhead delta deposit (>100.4 x106 m3) is roughly twice the combined volume of the subaerial Petit Bois barrier island, located two miles to the north, and the three western offshore shelf sand shoals (55.9 x106 m3). The sediment supply needed for the shoal's genesis requires further exploration and likely has many contributors, but transgressive ravinement of the sandy bayhead delta seems like a logical source. This study builds on previous work that has extensively mapped the stratigraphy of the eastern MS-AL inner shelf using geophysical and core data by adding a robust number of radiocarbon ages and macro-/micro- faunal analysis from new cores as a proxy for depositional environments. This source-to-sink approach helps to detail the evolution of ancient Pascagoula/Escatawpa, La Batre and Fowl paleo rivers, and their roles in the formation of the large inner shelf, shore-oblique shoals as well as Petit Bois Island. Correlating the new ages with previously published high-resolution sea

  7. Holocene palaeoenvironmental history of the Amazonian mangrove belt (United States)

    Cohen, Marcelo Cancela Lisboa; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Behling, Hermann; de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; França, Marlon Carlos; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Friaes, Yuri; Smith, Clarisse Beltrão


    Wetland dynamic in the northern Brazilian Amazon region during the Holocene was reviewed using palynological, carbon and nitrogen isotopes records, and C/N ratio previously published. The integration of 72 radiocarbon dates recorded in 34 sediment cores sampled along the marine and fluvial littoral, and mainly influenced by the Amazon River, reveals that marine influence and mangrove vegetation were wider than today on the mouth of Amazon River between >8990-8690 and 2300-2230 cal yr BP, forming a continuous mangrove belt along the northern Brazilian Amazon littoral. The establishment of this mangrove strip is a direct consequence of the marine incursion caused by post-glacial sea-level rise possibly associated with tectonic subsidence during the Early and Middle Holocene. In the Late Holocene, in areas influenced by the Amazon River discharge, the mangroves were replaced by freshwater vegetation, and the coast morphology evolved from an estuarine dominated into a rectilinear coast due to coastal progradation. Nevertheless, the marine-influenced littoral, which is currently dominated by mangroves and salt-marsh vegetation, has persistently had brackish water vegetation over tidal mud flats throughout the entire Holocene. Likely, the fragmentation of this continuous mangrove line during the Late Holocene was caused by the increase of river freshwater discharge associated to the change from dry into wet climates in the Late Holocene. This caused a significant decrease of tidal water salinity in areas near the mouth of Amazon River. These changes in the Amazon discharge are probably associated with dry and wet periods in the northern Amazon region during the Holocene.

  8. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger


    from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...... of the experimental soils. The results indicate clearly that soils play a crucial role for water retention and therefore, in overland flow prevention. There is a need to have more awareness on the intimate link between the land use and soil properties and their possible effects on flooding.......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...

  9. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Kryvasheyeu

    Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  10. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure. (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin


    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  11. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel


    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  12. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.


    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  13. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  14. Holocene molluscan assemblages in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gordillo


    Full Text Available In the Magellan region, much of the shoreline of the Beagle Channel coast (54°53´S; 67° - 68°W is bordered by Holocene raised beaches, which contain a large number of molluscs and other shelled taxa. The purpose of this work is to document the presence of various molluscan assemblages deposited with little or no postmortem transportation. An epifaunal Chlamys patagonica palaeocommunity (ca. 8,000 - 7,000 BP and three infaunal (Tawera gayi, Ameghinomya antiqua - Hiatella solida and Ameghinomya antiqua - Ensis macha palaeocommunities (ca. 4,400 - 4,000 BP were recognized. All the assemblages studied represent shallow, subtidal, cold-temperate environments. Based on comparisons with modern benthic communities in this region, these associations show that no remarkable ecologic and climatic changes occurred during the period ca. 8,000 - 4,000 BP. Thus, an apparent stability of modern marine communities over a period of several thousand years is suggested.

  15. 78 FR 7780 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC Announces Further Details for the First Post-Superstorm Sandy Field... (United States)


    ... First Post-Superstorm Sandy Field Hearing, Tuesday, February 5, 2013 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Sunshine notice. SUMMARY: In the wake of Superstorm Sandy, Federal Communications... focusing on the impact of Superstorm Sandy, and help inform recommendations and actions to strengthen wired...

  16. Clinal variation of some mammals during the Holocene in Missouri (United States)

    Purdue, James R.


    Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus), fox squirrel ( Sciurus niger), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis) were examined for clinal variation during the Holocene. Modern samples of all three species displayed strong east-west patterns along the western edge of the eastern deciduous forest: S. floridanus and S. niger decrease and S. carolinensis increases in size. Archeological samples of S. carolinensis from Rodgers Shelter (23BE125), Benton County, Missouri, and Graham Cave (23MT2), Montgomery County, Missouri, indicated an increase in size from early to middle Holocene. Sylvilagus floridanus from Rodgers Shelter decreased in size from early to middle Holocene and then increased during the late Holocene to modern proportions. A literature survey reveals that clinal variation is a common phenomenon among modern homeotherms. In introduced species, clinal variation has developed after relatively few generations, indicating rapid adaptations to environmental conditions; often winter climatic variables are implicated. Morphological variation in the study species during the Holocene is interpreted as a response to changing climates. Studies of morphological clines may lead to another valuable data source for reconstructing past ecologies.

  17. Indicative value of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and palynofacies for palaeoreconstructions: Holocene Peat, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeanic, Svetlana; Silva, Maristela Bagatin


    The results of the palynological study of the samples from the core, performed in the Aguas Claras peatland, RS, Brazil (50 45'00''W, 30 00'15''S), focus on detailed taxonomic analysis of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and palynofacies from the Holocene peat and underline the Late Pleistocene mud and sandy mud that were represented. NPPs from the samples revealed taxonomic variety of fungal palynomorphs, presented by Brachysporium, Clastesporium, Dicellaesporites, Dicellaeporisporites, Gelasinospora, Glomus, Sordaria, Helicoon, and others. The habitats of above mentioned taxa are varied: aquatic, mycorrhizal, parasitic, organic matter decaying, and dung-coprophilous. Freshwater algal palynomorphs were composed of Botryococcus, Closterium, Debarya, Mougeotia, Pseudoschizaea, Spirogyra, and Zygnema. The percentage ratio between algal and fungal palynomorphs was changed from the different samples of the core, reflecting climatic oscillations (more humid-dryer). Prevalence of fungal palynomorphs was connected with dryer climate, and on the contrary, freshwater algal palynomorph predominance was related with increasing humidity. The six palynomorph zones that corresponded to the six principal phases of environmental and climatic changes were determined. The zone from the uppermost part of peat was characterized by relatively frequent dung-coprophilous and parasitic fungi, as a result of agricultural and domestic activities. Palynofacies analysis combined to NPPs was used for palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Palynofacies from the samples were characterized by evident changes in relationship (%) between the different types of organic matter, their quality, and quantity and fluorescence index. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the peat deposition. The combined use of NPPs and palynofacies analyses provided a valuable approach for the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. (author)

  18. Indicative value of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and palynofacies for palaeoreconstructions: Holocene Peat, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeanic, Svetlana; Silva, Maristela Bagatin [LOG, IO, FURG, Rio Grande (Brazil)


    The results of the palynological study of the samples from the core, performed in the Aguas Claras peatland, RS, Brazil (50 45'00''W, 30 00'15''S), focus on detailed taxonomic analysis of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and palynofacies from the Holocene peat and underline the Late Pleistocene mud and sandy mud that were represented. NPPs from the samples revealed taxonomic variety of fungal palynomorphs, presented by Brachysporium, Clastesporium, Dicellaesporites, Dicellaeporisporites, Gelasinospora, Glomus, Sordaria, Helicoon, and others. The habitats of above mentioned taxa are varied: aquatic, mycorrhizal, parasitic, organic matter decaying, and dung-coprophilous. Freshwater algal palynomorphs were composed of Botryococcus, Closterium, Debarya, Mougeotia, Pseudoschizaea, Spirogyra, and Zygnema. The percentage ratio between algal and fungal palynomorphs was changed from the different samples of the core, reflecting climatic oscillations (more humid-dryer). Prevalence of fungal palynomorphs was connected with dryer climate, and on the contrary, freshwater algal palynomorph predominance was related with increasing humidity. The six palynomorph zones that corresponded to the six principal phases of environmental and climatic changes were determined. The zone from the uppermost part of peat was characterized by relatively frequent dung-coprophilous and parasitic fungi, as a result of agricultural and domestic activities. Palynofacies analysis combined to NPPs was used for palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Palynofacies from the samples were characterized by evident changes in relationship (%) between the different types of organic matter, their quality, and quantity and fluorescence index. The obtained data contribute to the understanding of the peat deposition. The combined use of NPPs and palynofacies analyses provided a valuable approach for the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. (author)

  19. Evidence of Suess solar-cycle bursts in Holocene speleothem d18O records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, B. H.; Riisager, Peter


    Several studies indicate that changes in solar activity may have driven Holocene subtropical monsoon variability on decadal and centennial timescales, but the strength and nature of this link remains debated. In this study, we combine a recent mapping of the Holocene solar-cycle activity with four...... in driving centennial-scale changes in the hydrological cycle in the subtropics during the Holocene....

  20. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.


    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  1. [Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island]. (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Yu


    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas, and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance, fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control. alpha and beta species diversity indices, index of relative importance (IRI), relative catch rate, and dominance curve for abundance and biomass (ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition, diversity, and community pattern between the two habitats, and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to 11 orders, 38 families, and 56 genera were collected, of which, 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom, the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness, and the abundance catch rate (ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months, the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However, the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat, because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish (Paraplagusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat, and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the large

  2. Migration of cesium-137 through sandy soil layer effect of fine silt on migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Wadachi, Yoshiki


    The migration of 137 Cs through sandy soil layer was studied with consideration of the migration of fine silt by column method. It was found that a portion of fine silt migrated through the soil layer accompanying with 137 Cs. The mathematical migration model of 137 Cs involved the migration of fine silt through such soil layer was presented. This model gave a good accordance between calculated concentration distribution curve in sandy soil layer and effluent curve and observed those. So, this model seems to be advanced one for evaluating migration of 137 Cs in sandy soil layer with silt. (author)

  3. Early Holocene climate oscillations recorded in three Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink


    around 9.3 ka before present, and the Preboreal Oscillation during the first centuries of the Holocene. For each of these sections, we present a d18O anomaly curve and a common accumulation signal that represents regional changes in the accumulation rate over the Greenland ice cap....... and accumulation anomalies that are common to the three cores in the Early Holocene (7.9–11.7 ka before present). Three time periods with significant and synchronous anomalies in the d18O and accumulation signals stand out: the well-known 8.2 ka event, an event of shorter duration but of almost similar amplitude...

  4. Holocene climate variability and oceanographic changes off western South Africa (United States)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Dupont, Lydie; E Meadows, Michael; Schefuß, Enno; Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Wefer, Gerold


    South Africa is located at a critical transition zone between subtropical and warm-temperate climate zones influenced by the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Presently, the seasonal changes of atmospheric and oceanic systems induce a pronounced rainfall seasonality comprised of two different rainfall zones over South Africa. How did this seasonality develop during the Holocene? To obtain a better understanding of how South African climates have evolved during the Holocene, we conduct a comprehensive spatial-temporal approach including pollen and dinoflagellate cyst records from marine sediment samples retrieved from the Namaqualand mudbelt, a Holocene terrigenous mud deposit on the shelf of western South Africa. The representation of different vegetation communities in western South Africa is assessed through pollen analysis of surface sediments. This approach allows for climate reconstructions of the summer rainfall zone (SRZ) using Group 1 (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Phragmites-type and Typha) and winter rainfall zone (WRZ) using Group 2 (Restionaceae, Ericaceae, Anthospermum, Stoebe/Elytropappus-type, Cliffortia, Passerina, Artemisia-type and Pentzia-type) from a single marine archive. The fossil pollen data from gravity core GeoB8331-4 indicate contrasting climate patterns in the SRZ and WRZ especially during the early and middle Holocene. The rainfall amount in the SRZ is dominated by insolation forcing, while in the WRZ it is mainly attributed to the latitudinal position of the southern westerlies. Dinoflagellate cyst data show significantly different oceanographic conditions associated with climate changes on land. High percentages of autotrophic taxa like Operculodinium centrocarpum and Spiniferites spp. indicate warm and stratified conditions during the early Holocene, suggesting reduced upwelling. In contrast, the middle Holocene is characterized by a strong increase in heterotrophic taxa in particular Lejeunecysta paratenella and Echinidinium spp., indicating cool

  5. Zoonotic parasites associated with felines from the Patagonian Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Horacio Fugassa


    Full Text Available Feline coprolites were examined for parasites with the aim of studying ancient infections that occurred in the Patagonian region during the Holocene period. Eggs compatible to Trichuris sp., Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Nematodirus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. (Nematoda, Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda and Eimeria macusaniensis (Coccidia were recovered from faecal samples. The results obtained from the analysis provide evidence of consumption by felids of the viscera of both rodents and camelids. This knowledge allows for improved explanations as to the distribution of parasitism and its significance to the health of humans and animals inhabiting the area under study during the Middle Holocene.

  6. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.


    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  7. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.


    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  8. Early Dialysis and Adverse Outcomes After Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Finne, Kristen; Worrall, Chris; Jauregui, Maria; Thaweethai, Tanayott; Margolis, Gregg; Kelman, Jeffrey


    Hemodialysis patients have historically experienced diminished access to care and increased adverse outcomes after natural disasters. Although "early dialysis" in advance of a storm is promoted as a best practice, evidence for its effectiveness as a protective measure is lacking. Building on prior work, we examined the relationship between the receipt of dialysis ahead of schedule before the storm (also known as early dialysis) and adverse outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease in the areas most affected by Hurricane Sandy. Retrospective cohort analysis, using claims data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Datalink Project. Patients receiving long-term hemodialysis in New York City and the state of New Jersey, the areas most affected by Hurricane Sandy. Receipt of early dialysis compared to their usual treatment pattern in the week prior to the storm. Emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day mortality following the storm. Of 13,836 study patients, 8,256 (60%) received early dialysis. In unadjusted logistic regression models, patients who received early dialysis were found to have lower odds of ED visits (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P=0.001) and hospitalizations (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92; P=0.004) in the week of the storm and similar odds of 30-day mortality (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58-1.09; P=0.2). In adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, receipt of early dialysis was associated with lower odds of ED visits (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.96; P=0.01) and hospitalizations (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.94; P=0.01) in the week of the storm and 30-day mortality (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.997; P=0.048). Inability to determine which patients were offered early dialysis and declined and whether important unmeasured patient characteristics are associated with receipt of early dialysis. Patients who received early dialysis had significantly lower odds of having an ED visit and hospitalization in the week of the storm and of

  9. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Miller, Eric D


    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  10. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt


    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  11. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel


    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  12. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil (United States)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.


    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  13. Exploring the social dimension of sandy beaches through predictive modelling. (United States)

    Domínguez-Tejo, Elianny; Metternicht, Graciela; Johnston, Emma L; Hedge, Luke


    Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia. A proposed conceptual model was used to frame demographic models (using age, education, employment, household income and residence status) as predictors of these two community responses. All possible regression-model combinations were compared using Akaike's information criterion. Best models were then used to calculate quantitative likelihoods of the responses, presented as heat maps. Findings concur with international research indicating the relevance of social and restful activities as important social links between the community and the beach environment. Participant's age was a significant variable in the four predictive models. The use of predictive models informed by demographics could potentially increase our understanding of interactions between the social and ecological systems of the beach environment, as a prelude to integrated beach management approaches. The research represents a practical demonstration of how demographic predictive models could support proactive approaches to beach management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.


    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  15. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy. (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick


    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  16. Thermomechanical Behavior of Energy Pile Embedded in Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Huang


    Full Text Available The traditional energy pile (solid energy pile has been implemented for decades. However, the design of different kinds of energy piles is still not well understood. In this study, a series of model tests were performed on an aluminum pipe energy pile (PEP in dry sandy soil to investigate the thermal effects on the mechanical behaviors of pipe energy pile. The thermal responses of the PEP were also analyzed. Steady temperatures of the PEP under different working conditions were also compared with that of the solid energy pile. Different loading tests were carried out on four pipe energy piles under three different temperatures of 5, 35, and 50°C, respectively. The bearing capacity change can be interpreted through the load-displacement curves. Experiment results were also compared with the solid energy pile to evaluate bearing capacities of the PEP and the solid energy pile under different temperature conditions. The mobilized shaft resistance was also calculated and compared with the solid energy pile data and the results show that the PEP has a similar load transfer mechanism with the solid energy pile. It could also be found that, for PEPs under working load, plastic displacement would appear after a whole heating cycle.

  17. Evaluation of the Intel Sandy Bridge-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing an 8-core “Sandy Bridge-EP” processor with Intel’s previous microarchitecture, the “Westmere-EP”. The Intel marketing names for these processors are “Xeon E5-2600 processor series” and “Xeon 5600 processor series”, respectively. Both processors are produced in a 32nm process, and both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores ...

  18. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.


    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  19. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  20. 2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (New Jersey) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS New Jersey CMGP Sandy Lidar 0.7 Meter NPS LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No....

  1. Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    improving N, P, Ca and Mg content in sandy soils, and consequently support crop growth and yield. ... stress, soil moisture conservation, soil fertility management ... water many times its own weight. ... improves the productivity of degraded,.

  2. 2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  3. Expanded uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient (United States)

    Rusanova, A. D.; Malaja, L. D.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, A. V.; Shalaj, V. V.


    The combined standard uncertainty estimation methodology in determining the sandy soils filtration coefficient has been developed. The laboratory researches were carried out which resulted in filtration coefficient determination and combined uncertainty estimation obtaining.

  4. Will the future atmospheric circulation favor the landfall of Sandy-like superstorms? (Invited) (United States)

    Barnes, E. A.; Polvani, L. M.; Sobel, A. H.


    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the Eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here, we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  5. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  6. 2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  7. Volcanic influence on centennial to millennial Holocene Greenland temperature change. (United States)

    Kobashi, Takuro; Menviel, Laurie; Jeltsch-Thömmes, Aurich; Vinther, Bo M; Box, Jason E; Muscheler, Raimund; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Pfister, Patrik L; Döring, Michael; Leuenberger, Markus; Wanner, Heinz; Ohmura, Atsumu


    Solar variability has been hypothesized to be a major driver of North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations through the Holocene along with orbitally induced insolation change. However, another important climate driver, volcanic forcing has generally been underestimated prior to the past 2,500 years partly owing to the lack of proper proxy temperature records. Here, we reconstruct seasonally unbiased and physically constrained Greenland Summit temperatures over the Holocene using argon and nitrogen isotopes within trapped air in a Greenland ice core (GISP2). We show that a series of volcanic eruptions through the Holocene played an important role in driving centennial to millennial-scale temperature changes in Greenland. The reconstructed Greenland temperature exhibits significant millennial correlations with K + and Na + ions in the GISP2 ice core (proxies for atmospheric circulation patterns), and δ 18 O of Oman and Chinese Dongge cave stalagmites (proxies for monsoon activity), indicating that the reconstructed temperature contains hemispheric signals. Climate model simulations forced with the volcanic forcing further suggest that a series of large volcanic eruptions induced hemispheric-wide centennial to millennial-scale variability through ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. Therefore, we conclude that volcanic activity played a critical role in driving centennial to millennial-scale Holocene temperature variability in Greenland and likely beyond.

  8. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BP which is well-matched with the peak period of the Holocene climatic optimum. However, during ... Warm Period and Little Ice Age (LIA) in this ... The maximum temperature is 30.4 ..... V 2007 Climatic changes during the last 1800 yrs from.

  9. Diagenesis of Holocene reef and associated beachrock of certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ally exposed corals of Holocene and Last Inter- glacial age, which may be subjected to diagenesis, primarily in the ... During the period of low tide, spring reef flat is covered by ..... Kallankurichchi formation, Ariyalur group, South India and its ...

  10. NW Pacific mid-depth ventilation changes during the Holocene (United States)

    Rella, S.; Uchida, M.


    During the last 50 years the oxygen content of North Pacific Intermediate Water primarily originating in the Okhotsk Sea has declined suggesting decreased mid-depth water circulation, likely leading to changes in biological productivity in the NW Pacific realm and a decrease in CO2 drawdown. It is therefore of high interest to elucidate the climate-oceanic interconnections of the present interglacial period (Holocene) in the NW Pacific, in order to predict possible future climate and surface productivity changes associated with a decrease in mid-depth ventilation in this ecologically sensitive region. However, such efforts have been hampered so far by the lack of appropriate sediment cores with fast sedimentation rates during the Holocene. Core CK05-04 that was recovered in 2005 from off Shimokita peninsula, Japan, at ~1000 m depth shows sedimentation rates of ~80 cm/kyr during the Holocene and therefore presents an ideal opportunity to reconstruct for the first time the Holocene ventilation history of the NW Pacific Ocean. We employ Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (NIES-TERRA, Tsukuba) radiocarbon analysis of co-existing benthic and planktonic foraminifera to conclude on the ventilation age of the mid-depth water using benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences. At the conference we would like to present the results.

  11. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.


    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  12. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.


    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  13. North Atlantic-Fennoscandian Holocene climate trends and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sejrup, H.P.; Seppä, H.; McKay, N.; Kaufman, D.S.; Geirsdottir, A.; de Vernal, A.; Renssen, H.; Husum, K.; Jennings, A.; Andrews, J.T.


    To investigate the mechanisms behind Holocene regional climate trends from north of 58°N in the North Atlantic-Fennoscandian region Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed and a temperature anomaly stack produced from 81 proxy derived summer temperature time series from 74 sites. The PC

  14. The Holocene in the coastal zone of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, F.


    This book represents a compilation of several scientific Holocene paleoenvironmental aspects of the coastal zone in Uruguay. It includes information about geological, geomorphological, evolutionary genetics, paleontological, paleobotanic, paleoclimatological, paleolimnological, paleoceanographic and archeologic aspects. The chapters presented were arbitrated by national and foreign recognized scientists

  15. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.


    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  16. Migration characteristics of cobalt-60 through sandy soil in high pH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko


    Migration characteristics of 60 Co through sandy soil in high pH solution has been investigated by both column and batch techniques. The association of 60 Co with the sandy soil and its components were studied by sequential extraction techniques. The concentration profile of 60 Co in the sandy soil column was composed of two exponential curves showing that 60 Co would consist of immobile and mobile fractions. The immobile 60 Co was retained by the sandy soil and was distributed near the top. Though the mobile 60 Co was little sorbed by soil and migrated through the soil column, maximum concentration of 60 Co in the effluents decreased slightly with increasing path length of the soil column. The sequential extraction of 60 Co from the sandy soil and from its components showed that 60 Co was sorbed by both manganese oxide and clay minerals. And manganese oxide is one of the responsible soil components for the observed decrease in the maximum concentration of 60 Co in the effluents. Although the content of manganese oxide in the sandy soil was 0.13%, manganese oxide is the important component to prevent from the migration of 60 Co in the high pH solution. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Michael


    Full Text Available  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS, addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54

  18. Rates of Hospitalization for Dehydration Following Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey. (United States)

    Swerdel, Joel N; Rhoads, George G; Cosgrove, Nora M; Kostis, John B


    Hurricane Sandy, one of the most destructive natural disasters in New Jersey history, made landfall on October 29, 2012. Prolonged loss of electrical power and extensive infrastructure damage restricted access for many to food and water. We examined the rate of dehydration in New Jersey residents after Hurricane Sandy. We obtained data from 2008 to 2012 from the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), a repository of in-patient records from nonfederal New Jersey hospitals (N=517,355). Patients with dehydration had ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes for dehydration, volume depletion, and/or hypovolemia. We used log-linear modeling to estimate the change in in-patient hospitalizations for dehydration comparing 2 weeks after Sandy with the same period in the previous 4 years (2008-2011). In-patient hospitalizations for dehydration were 66% higher after Sandy than in 2008-2011 (rate ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50, 1.84). Hospitalizations for dehydration in patients over 65 years of age increased by nearly 80% after Sandy compared with 2008-2011 (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.58, 2.02). Sandy was associated with a marked increase in hospitalizations for dehydration. Reducing the rate of dehydration following extreme weather events is an important public health concern that needs to be addressed, especially in those over 65 years of age.

  19. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vannieuwenhuyse, M.; Comes, T.; Elmer, F.; Schröter, K.; Fohringer, J.; Münzberg, T.; Lucas, C.; Zschau, J.


    At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, The Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real-time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation) and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about USD 4.2 billion in the Caribbean and between USD 78 and 97 billion in the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of USD 16.3 billion. Modelling sector-specific dependencies quantifies total business interruption losses between USD 10.8 and 15.5 billion. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  20. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kunz


    Full Text Available At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, The Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real-time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about USD 4.2 billion in the Caribbean and between USD 78 and 97 billion in the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of USD 16.3 billion. Modelling sector-specific dependencies quantifies total business interruption losses between USD 10.8 and 15.5 billion. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  1. Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil. (United States)

    Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang


    In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter. (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy


    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  3. Holocene sea level, a semi-empirical contemplation (United States)

    Bittermann, K.; Kemp, A.; Vermeer, M.; Rahmstorf, S.


    Holocene eustatic sea level from approximately -10,000-1800 CE was characterized by an increase of about 60m, with the rate progressively slowing down until sea level almost stabilizes between 500-1800 CE. Global and northern-hemisphere temperatures rose from the last glacial termination until the `Holocene Optimum'. From ­­there, up to the start of the recent anthropogenic rise, they almost steadily decline. How are the sea-level and temperature evolutions linked? We investigate this with semi-empirical sea-level models. We found that, due to the nature of Milankovitch forcing, northern-hemisphere temperature (we used the Greenland temperature by Vinther et al., 2009) is a better model driver than global mean temperature because the evolving mass of northern-hemisphere land ice was the dominant cause of Holocene global sea-level trends. The adjustment timescale for this contribution is 1200 years (900-1500 years; 90% confidence interval). To fit the observed sea-level history, the model requires a small additional constant rate (Bittermann 2016). This rate turns out to be of the same order of magnitude as reconstructions of Antarctic sea-level contributions (Briggs et al. 2014, Golledge et al. 2014). In reality this contribution is unlikely to be constant but rather has a dominant timescale that is large compared to the time considered. We thus propose that Holocene sea level can be described by a linear combination of a temperature driven rate, which becomes negative in the late Holocene (as Northern Hemisphere ice masses are diminished), and a positive, approximately constant term (possibly from Antarctica), which starts to dominate from the middle of the Holocene until the start of industrialization. Bibliography: Bittermann, K. 2016. Semi-empirical sea-level modelling. PhD Thesis University of Potsdam. Briggs, R.D., et al. 2014. A data-constrained large ensemble analysis of Antarctic evolution since the Eemian. Quaternary science reviews, 103, 91

  4. Holocene reef accretion: southwest Molokai, Hawaii, U.S.A. (United States)

    Engels, Mary S.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Field, Michael E.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Grossman, Eric E.; Rooney, John J.B.; Conger, Christopher L.; Glenn, Craig


    Two reef systems off south Molokai, Hale O Lono and Hikauhi (separated by only 10 km), show strong and fundamental differences in modern ecosystem structure and Holocene accretion history that reflect the influence of wave-induced near-bed shear stresses on reef development in Hawaii. Both sites are exposed to similar impacts from south, Kona, and trade-wind swell. However, the Hale O Lono site is exposed to north swell and the Hikuahi site is not. As a result, the reef at Hale O Lono records no late Holocene net accretion while the reef at Hikauhi records consistent and robust accretion over late Holocene time. Analysis and dating of 24 cores from Hale O Lono and Hikauhi reveal the presence of five major lithofacies that reflect paleo-environmental conditions. In order of decreasing depositional energy they are: (1) coral-algal bindstone; (2) mixed skeletal rudstone; (3) massive coral framestone; (4) unconsolidated floatstone; and (5) branching coral framestone-bafflestone. At Hale O Lono, 10 cores document a backstepping reef ranging from ∼ 8,100 cal yr BP (offshore) to ∼ 4,800 cal yr BP (nearshore). A depauperate community of modern coral diminishes shoreward and seaward of ∼ 15 m depth due to wave energy, disrupted recruitment activities, and physical abrasion. Evidence suggests a change from conditions conducive to accretion during the early Holocene to conditions detrimental to accretion in the late Holocene. Reef structure at Hikauhi, reconstructed from 14 cores, reveals a thick, rapidly accreting and young reef (maximum age ∼ 900 cal yr BP). Living coral cover on this reef increases seaward with distance from the reef crest but terminates at a depth of ∼ 20 m where the reef ends in a large sand field. The primary limitation on vertical reef growth is accommodation space under wave base, not recruitment activities or energy conditions. Interpretations of cored lithofacies suggest that modern reef growth on the southwest corner of Molokai, and by

  5. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand (United States)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.


    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  6. Holocene Climate Variability on the Centennial and Millennial Time Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hee Lee


    Full Text Available There have been many suggestions and much debate about climate variability during the Holocene. However, their complex forcing factors and mechanisms have not yet been clearly identified. In this paper, we have examined the Holocene climate cycles and features based on the wavelet analyses of 14C, 10Be, and 18O records. The wavelet results of the 14C and 10Be data show that the cycles of ~2180-2310, ~970, ~500-520, ~350-360, and ~210-220 years are dominant, and the ~1720 and ~1500 year cycles are relatively weak and subdominant. In particular, the ~2180-2310 year periodicity corresponding to the Hallstatt cycle is constantly significant throughout the Holocene, while the ~970 year cycle corresponding to the Eddy cycle is mainly prominent in the early half of the Holocene. In addition, distinctive signals of the ~210-220 year period corresponding to the de Vries cycle appear recurrently in the wavelet distribution of 14C and 10Be, which coincide with the grand solar minima periods. These de Vries cycle events occurred every ~2270 years on average, implying a connection with the Hallstatt cycle. In contrast, the wavelet results of 18O data show that the cycles of ~1900-2000, ~900-1000, and ~550-560 years are dominant, while the ~2750 and ~2500 year cycles are subdominant. The periods of ~2750, ~2500, and ~1900 years being derived from the 18O records of NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 ice cores, respectively, are rather longer or shorter than the Hallstatt cycle derived from the 14C and 10Be records. The records of these three sites all show the ~900-1000 year periodicity corresponding to the Eddy cycle in the early half of the Holocene.

  7. Water management in sandy soil using neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.M.


    This study was carried out during 2008/2009 at the Experimental Field of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy soil. The aims of this work are,- determine soil moisture tension within the active root zone and - detecting the behavior of soil moisture within the active root zoon by defines the total hydraulic potential within the soil profile to predict both of actual evapotranspiration and rate of moisture depletion This work also is aimed to study soil water distribution under drip irrigation system.- reducing water deep percolation under the active root depth.This study included two factors, the first one is the irrigation intervals, and the second one is the application rate of organic manure. Irrigation intervals were 5, 10 and 15 days, besides three application rates of organic manure (0 m 3 /fed, 20 m 3 /fed. and 30 m 3 /fed.) in -three replicates under drip irrigation system, Onion was used as an indicator plant. Obtained data show, generally, that neutron scattering technique and soil moisture retention curve model helps more to study the water behavior in the soil profile.Application of organic manure and irrigation to field capacity is a good way to minimize evapotranspiration and deep percolation, which was zero mm/day in the treated treatments.The best irrigation interval for onion plant, in the studied soil, was 5 days with 30m 3 /fad. an application rate of organic manure.Parameter α of van Genuchent's 1980 model was affected by the additions of organic manure, which was decreased by addition of organic manure decreased it. Data also showed that n parameter was decreased by addition of organic manure Using surfer program is a good tool to describe the water distribution in two directions (vertical and horizontal) through soil profile.

  8. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.


    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  9. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.


    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  10. A Holocene temperature reconstruction from northern New Zealand: a test of North Atlantic Holocene climate patterns as a global template (United States)

    van den Bos, Valerie; Rees, Andrew; Newnham, Rewi; Augustinus, Paul


    Holocene climate variability has been well defined in the North Atlantic (Walker et al., 2012), but the global extent of this climate change stratigraphy is debatable. If the North Atlantic serves as a global template for Holocene climate, then New Zealand (NZ) is ideally positioned to test this assertion, as it is distal from the northern drivers. Additionally, it is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere that is influenced by both sub-tropical and extra-tropical climatic regimes, which may be more important controls in the southern mid-latitudes. Although much work has been done to characterise the Holocene in NZ using pollen, most of these records lack the resolution or sensitivity to determine whether abrupt or short-lived events occurred. The NZ-INTIMATE climate event stratigraphy lacks a type section for the Holocene (Alloway et al., 2007). Records from northern NZ typically show little change, other than a possible early Holocene warming. Here, we present a combined pollen and chironomid temperature reconstruction from Lake Pupuke (northern NZ), the first of its kind in NZ that covers the entire Holocene. By comparing mean annual temperatures reconstructed from fossil pollen and mean summer temperatures inferred from chironomid remains, we can assess changes in seasonality. Mean summer temperature was reconstructed from the chironomid record using a weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) model (n comp = 2, r2booth = 0.77, RMSEP = 1.4°C) developed from an expanded version of Dieffenbacher-Krall et al. (2007)'s chironomid training set. Preliminary results show evidence for cool summers during the early Holocene as well as around the period of the Little Ice Age as defined in the North Atlantic region. These and other climate patterns determined from the Pupuke chironomid and pollen records will be compared with other evidence from northern New Zealand and with the North Atlantic record of Holocene climate variability. References

  11. Vulnerable, But Why? Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Older Adults Exposed to Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Christman, Zachary; Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen


    Drawing on pre-disaster, peri-disaster, and post-disaster data, this study examined factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in older adults exposed to Hurricane Sandy. We used a sample of older participants matched by gender, exposure, and geographic region (N=88, mean age=59.83 years) in which one group reported clinically significant levels of PTSD symptoms and the other did not. We conducted t-tests, chi-square tests, and exact logistic regressions to examine differences in pre-disaster characteristics and peri-disaster experiences. Older adults who experienced PTSD symptoms reported lower levels of income, positive affect, subjective health, and social support and were less likely to be working 4 to 6 years before Hurricane Sandy than were people not experiencing PTSD symptoms. Those developing PTSD symptoms reported more depressive symptoms, negative affect, functional disability, chronic health conditions, and pain before Sandy and greater distress and feelings of danger during Hurricane Sandy. Exact logistic regression revealed independent effects of preexisting chronic health conditions and feelings of distress during Hurricane Sandy in predicting PTSD group status. Our findings indicated that because vulnerable adults can be identified before disaster strikes, the opportunity to mitigate disaster-related PTSD exists through identification and resource programs that target population subgroups. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:362-370).

  12. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.


    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  13. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the mental health of New York area residents. (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Sison, Cristina; Kerath, Samantha M; Murphy, Lisa; Breil, Trista; Sikavi, Daniel; Taioli, Emanuela


    To evaluate the long-term psychological impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York residents. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Community-based study. From October 2013 to February 2015, 669 adults in Long Island, Queens, and Staten Island completed a survey on their behavioral and psychological health, demographics, and hurricane impact (ie, exposure). Depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using multivariable logistic regression models, the relationships between Hurricane Sandy exposure and depression, anxiety, and PTSD were examined. Participants experienced an average of 3.9 exposures to Hurricane Sandy, most of which were related to property damage/loss. Probable depression was reported in 33.4 percent of participants, probable anxiety in 46 percent, and probable PTSD in 21.1 percent. Increased exposure to Hurricane Sandy was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.14), anxiety (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13), and probable PTSD (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.23-1.40), even after controlling for demographic factors known to increase susceptibility to mental health issues. Individuals affected by Hurricane Sandy reported high levels of mental health issues and were at an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and PTSD in the years following the storm. Recovery and prevention efforts should focus on mental health issues in affected populations.

  14. Holocene Faunal Trends in West Siberia and Their Causes (United States)

    Gashev, S. N.; Aleshina, A. O.; Zuban, I. A.; Lupinos, M. Y.; Mardonova, L. B.; Mitropolskiy, M. G.; Selyukov, A. G.; Sorokina, N. V.; Stolbov, V. A.; Shapovalov, S. I.


    Based on an analysis of the transformation of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna of West Siberia in the Holocene, the classification and periodization of the main faunal trends are presented. Against the background of changing environmental conditions, the key regularities of the faunal dynamics, and the ways some species penetrate into the territory of the region and others disappear from the beginning of the Holocene to the present time have been indicated. Three global and four fluctuating trends are identified. The anthropogenic trend is ascertained separately. A conclusion is made about the prevailing causes of these changes, associated primarily with periodic climatic processes of different levels, determined by planetary geological and cosmic cycles. It is emphasized that, in the historical period, anthropogenic factors play a significant role in the regional faunal dynamics.

  15. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad


    . The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site....... Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster......, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response...

  16. On the evolution of a holocene barrier coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel

    in a distinct stratal stacking pattern of each of the investigated coastal barrier systems. We conclude that the overall infilling of the barrier systems over the Holocene was mainly controlled by sea-level rise and sediment supply. However, major storms and tidal channel migration have greatly affected......This thesis investigates the sedimentary evolution of a Holocene barrier coast with special focus on how barrier system stratigraphy is affected by changes in sea-level and sediment supply. Coastal barrier systems comprise about 13% of the world’s coastlines and they are mportant components...... of the stratigraphic record of the Earth. Sea-level rise and sediment supply are the two most important factors controlling barrier system evolution. Detailed depositional reconstructions of a number of barrier systems from the Danish Wadden Sea area have been carried out in order to evaluate the sedimentary effects...

  17. Biotic turnover rates during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Soininen, Janne; Amon, Leeli; Fontana, Sonia L.; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heikkilä, Maija; Heiri, Oliver; Kisielienė, Dalia; Reitalu, Triin; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki


    The Northern Hemisphere is currently warming at the rate which is unprecedented during the Holocene. Quantitative palaeoclimatic records show that the most recent time in the geological history with comparable warming rates was during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (PHT) about 14,000 to 11,000 years ago. To better understand the biotic response to rapid temperature change, we explore the community turnover rates during the PHT by focusing on the Baltic region in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, where an exceptionally dense network on microfossil and macrofossil data that reflect the biotic community history are available. We further use a composite chironomid-based summer temperature reconstruction compiled specifically for our study region to calculate the rate of temperature change during the PHT. The fastest biotic turnover in the terrestrial and aquatic communities occurred during the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift at 11,700 years ago. This general shift in species composition was accompanied by regional extinctions, including disappearance of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many arctic-alpine plant taxa, such as Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris and Saxifraga aizoides, from the region. This rapid biotic turnover rate occurred when the rate of warming was 0.17 °C/decade, thus slightly lower than the current Northern Hemisphere warming of 0.2 °C/decade. We therefore conclude that the Younger Dryas-Holocene shift with its rapid turnover rates and associated regional extinctions represents an important palaeoanalogue to the current high latitude warming and gives insights about the probable future turnover rates and patterns of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem change.

  18. Tectonic controls of Holocene erosion in a glaciated orogen


    Adams, Byron A.; Ehlers, Todd A.


    Recent work has highlighted a strong, worldwide, glacial impact of orogen erosion rates over the last 2 Ma. While it may be assumed that glaciers increased erosion rates when active, the degree to which past glaciations influence Holocene erosion rates through the adjustment of topography is not known. In this study, we investigate the influence of long-term tectonic and post-glacial topographic controls on erosion in a glaciated orogen, the Olympic Mountains, USA. We present 14 new 10Be and ...

  19. The Holocene Sedimentation in Sandstone Rockshelters of Northern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav


    Roč. 11, - (2000), s. 66-69 ISSN 1210-9606. [International Conference on Past Global Changes Upper Pleistocene and Holocene Climatic Variations. Prague, 06.09.2000-09.09.2000] Grant - others:US(XC) National Geographic Society 6330-98 "The last foragers of the Northern Europe" Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.


    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  1. The Acridian plagues, a new Holocene and Pleistocene palaeoclimatic indicator (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Petit-Maire, Nicole; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan F.; Ramos, Antonio J. G.


    Five palaeosols, intercalated within the Quaternary dune beds of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands), off the Moroccan coast, mark wetter climatic episodes. In all of them, billions of calcified insect ootheca testify to past occurrences of Acridian plagues, such as those reaching the western Sahara following heavy rainfall events over the Sahel. The most massive infestation is in the Holocene, and should coincide with the climax of Saharo-Sahelian humidity at the peak of the present interglacial.

  2. Biomarker records of Holocene climate variations in Asian interior (United States)

    Song, M.; Liu, Z.; Liu, W.; Zhao, C.; Li, S.; He, Y.


    Understanding Holocene climate fluctuation may provide clues to projection of future climate change. Lake sediments in the arid central Asia (ACA), as an archive of past climate information, keep attracting considerable interest. We have retrieved several sediment cores from Lake Manas, an endorheic lake in Zunggar desert, Xinjiang Province, China. Biomarker proxies including alkenone Uk'37, %C37:4 and C37 concentration (C37 Conc), and physical proxies including density and magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been analyzed. We have found substantial climatic and environmental changes during the late Holocene. Density, MS and Uk'37 values are high during Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and C37 Conc is very low. During the Little Ice Age, density and MS decrease, Uk'37 values drop to near 0.1, C37 Conc is increased by 2 to 3 magnitude. Thus, warm and dry conditions dominated MWP while cold and wet conditions dominated LIA, a typical "Westerly" pattern which is opposite to the hydrological variation in Asian monsoonal regions. Biomarker records' correlation with solar irradiance (SI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the 1000year ACA Moisture Index (ACAM), and the North Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) suggests SI as one of the forcing factor on temperature fluctuation and cold and wet LIA possibly resulting from westerly-jet shift, negative NAO oscillation and the lower evaporation induced by the decrease of temperature. Biomarker records for the whole Holocene will be also presented.

  3. Holocene pollen and sediment record from the tangle lakes area, central Alaska (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Sims, John D.


    Pollen and sediments have been analyzed from a 5.5 meter‐length core of lacustrine sediments from Tangle Lakes, in the Gulkana Upland south of the Alaska Range (63 ° 01 ‘ 46”; N. latitude, 146° 03 ‘ 48 “ W. longitude). Radiocarbon ages indicate that the core spans the last 4700 years. The core sediments are sandy silt and silty clay; the core shows distinct rhythmic laminations in the lower 398 cm. The laminae appear to be normally graded; peat fibers and macerated plant debris are more abundant near the tops of the laminae. Six volcanic‐ash layers are present in the upper 110 cm of the core.Present‐day vegetation of the Tangle Lakes area is mesic shrub tundra and open spruce woodland, with scattered patches of shrub willow (Salix), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), spruce (Picea), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and alder (Alnus). Pollen analysis of 27 core samples suggests that this vegetation type has persisted throughout the past 4700 years, except for an apparently substantial increase in Picea beginning about 3500 years B.P. Percentages of Picea pollen are very low (generally 1–3 percent) in the lower 2 meters of core (ca. 4700 to 3500 years B.P.), but rise to 13–18 percent in the upper 3.4 meters (ca. 3500 years B.P. to present). Previously reported data from this area indicate that Picea trees initially arrived in the Tangle Lakes area about 9100 years B.P., at least 2.5 to 3 thousand years after deglaciation of the region. The present investigation suggests that Picea trees became locally scarce or died out sometime after about 9000 years B.P. but before 4700 years B.P., then reinvaded the area about 3500 years B.P. If this extrapolated age for the Picea reinvasion is accurate it suggests that local expansion of the Picea population coincides with the onset of a Neoglacial interval of cooler, moister climate. This is an unexpected result, because intervals of cooler climate generally coincide with lowering of the altitudinal limit of

  4. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil. (United States)

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao


    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%.

  5. A study on the aseismic safety of the experimental VHTR on the dense sandy layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigeki; Ito, Yoshio; Baba, Osamu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takewaki, Naonobu; Kondo, Tsukasa; Yoshimura, Takashi; Yamada, Hitoshi.


    A series of studies has been carried out in 1983 and 1985 for the purpose of confirming the aseismic safety of the Experimental VHTR on the dense sandy layer. In 1983, effect of some of soil properties on seismic responses of the reactor building was estimated by means of parametric survey, and soil properties were estimated by analyzing the obserbed earthquake record. In 1985, literature review, linear, nonlinear parametric analyses and nonlinear simulation analyses were carried to study and compare the analysis method. In addition, seismic response of proposed construction site was estimated with nonlinear analysis method. As a result of these studies, the seismic response of reactor building on the dense sandy layers and wave propagation characteristics of sandy layers are understood. Especially, by means of many parametric studies, the effect of input wave characteristics, soil stiffness, nonlinear characteristics of soil properties and nonlinear analysis method on the reactor building responses were evaluated. (author)

  6. Analysis of storm-tide impacts from Hurricane Sandy in New York (United States)

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Hearn, Paul P.; Rahav, Ami N.; Behrens, Riley; Finkelstein, Jason S.; Monti, Jack; Simonson, Amy E.


    The hybrid cyclone-nor’easter known as Hurricane Sandy affected the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States during October 28-30, 2012, causing extensive coastal flooding. Prior to storm landfall, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network from Virginia to Maine to record the storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. This sensor network augmented USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent monitoring sites that also documented storm surge. Continuous data from these networks were supplemented by an extensive post-storm high-water-mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign. The sensor deployment and HWM campaign were conducted under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The need for hydrologic interpretation of monitoring data to assist in flood-damage analysis and future flood mitigation prompted the current analysis of Hurricane Sandy by the USGS under this FEMA mission assignment.

  7. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean? (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.


    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  8. Superstorm Sandy: How the New York University Psychiatry Residency Training Program Weathered the Storm. (United States)

    Capasso, Rebecca; Adler, Laura


    The teaching hospitals of the New York University psychiatry residency program were evacuated and then closed for a minimum of 3 months in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. Faculty and residents were deployed to alternate clinical sites. The authors examine the consequences of Superstorm Sandy and its implications for the New York University psychiatry residency training program. A survey was administered to faculty and residents. The authors tabulated 98 surveys, for which 24 % of faculty and 84 % of residents responded. Among respondents, 61 % believed that being involved in the evacuation of the hospitals was a positive experience. During deployment, most (85 %) found being placed with peers and supervisors to be beneficial, but there were significant disruptions. Despite facing multiple challenges including closed facilities, deployment to nonaffiliated hospitals, and exhausted personal resources, the training program continued to provide accredited clinical experiences, a core curriculum, and supervision for psychiatry residents during and after Superstorm Sandy.

  9. Spatial patterns and natural recruitment of native shrubs in a semi-arid sandy land. (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Yang, Hongxiao


    Passive restoration depending on native shrubs is an attractive approach for restoring desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. We sought to understand the relationships between spatial patterns of native shrubs and their survival ability in sandy environments. Furthermore, we applied our results to better understand whether passive restoration is feasible for desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. The study was conducted in the semi-arid Mu Us sandy land of northern China with the native shrub Artemisia ordosica. We analyzed population structures and patterns of A. ordosica at the edges and centers of land patches where sand was stabilized by A. ordosica-dominated vegetation. Saplings were more aggregated than adults, and both were more aggregated at the patch edges than at the patch centers. At the patch edges, spatial association of the saplings with the adults was mostly positive at distances 0.3-6.6 m, and turned from positive to neutral, and even negative, at other distances. At the patch centers, the saplings were spaced almost randomly around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations. A greater number of A. ordosica individuals emerged at the patch edges than at the patch centers. Such patterns may have resulted from their integrative adjustment to specific conditions of soil water supply and sand drift intensity. These findings suggest that in semi-arid sandy regions, native shrubs that are well-adapted to local environments may serve as low-cost and competent ecological engineers that can promote the passive restoration of surrounding patches of mobile sandy land.

  10. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.


    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  11. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad


    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  12. Sediment biomarkers elucidate the Holocene ontogeny of a shallow lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T E Arnold

    Full Text Available We carried out geochemical analyses on a sediment core from Lake Harris, Florida (USA to identify sources of organic matter to the sediment throughout the Holocene, and relate changes in those sources to shifts in past climate and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that the sources of organic matter changed in response to regional hydrologic shifts following de-glaciation, and to human population expansion in the state during the 20th century. Hydroclimate shifts in Florida were related to: 1 a steady rise in relative sea level and the fresh water table that began in the early Holocene, 2 wetland formation and expansion ca. 5,000 cal yrs BP, and 3 the onset of the modern El Niño (ENSO cycle ~3,000 cal yrs BP. Stratigraphic changes in sediment variables from Lake Harris reflect each of these hydroclimate periods. Early in the Holocene, Lake Harris was a marsh-like system in a relatively dry, open-prairie environment. Organic sediments deposited at that time were derived largely from terrestrial sources, as inferred from high TOC/TN ratios, a dominance of longer-chain of n-alkanes (n-C29-31, relatively negative organic carbon isotope values (δ13CTOC, and low biogenic silica concentrations. In the middle Holocene, a positive shift in δ13CTOC coincided with the onset of wetter conditions in Florida. Submerged macrophyte biomarkers (n-C21-23 dominated, and during that period bulk organic carbon isotope values were most similar to δ13C values of mid-chain-length n-alkanes. In the late Holocene, δ13CTOC values declined, CaCO3 levels decreased to trace amounts, organic carbon concentrations increased and diatom biogenic silica concentrations increased from 10 to 120 mg g-1. Around 2,900 cal yrs BP, the effects of ENSO intensified and many Florida lakes deepened to their current limnetic state. Concentrations of algal and cyanobacterial biomarkers in the Lake Harris core increased by orders of magnitude after about AD 1940, in response to

  13. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland (United States)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Axford, Yarrow; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís


    Multiproxy climate records from Iceland document complex changes in terrestrial climate and glacier fluctuations through the Holocene, revealing some coherent patterns of change as well as significant spatial variability. Most studies on the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation reveal a dynamic Iceland Ice Sheet (IIS) that responded abruptly to changes in ocean currents and sea level. The IIS broke up catastrophically around 15 ka as the Polar Front migrated northward and sea level rose. Indications of regional advance or halt of the glaciers are seen in late Alleröd/early Younger Dryas time and again in PreBoreal time. Due to the apparent rise of relative sea level in Iceland during this time, most sites contain evidence for fluctuating, tidewater glacier termini occupying paleo fjords and bays. The time between the end of the Younger Dryas and the Preboreal was characterized by repeated jökulhlaups that eroded glacial deposits. By 10.3 ka, the main ice sheet was in rapid retreat across the highlands of Iceland. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM) was reached after 8 ka with land temperatures estimated to be 3 °C higher than the 1961-1990 reference, and net precipitation similar to modern. Such temperatures imply largely ice-free conditions across Iceland in the early to mid-Holocene. Several marine and lacustrine sediment climate proxies record substantial summer temperature depression between 8.5 and 8 ka, but no moraines have been detected from that time. Termination of the HTM and onset of Neoglacial cooling took place sometime after 6 ka with increased glacier activity between 4.5 and 4.0 ka, intensifying between 3.0 and 2.5 ka. Although a distinct warming during the Medieval Warm Period is not dramatically apparent in Icelandic records, the interval from ca AD 0 to 1200 is commonly characterized by relative stability with slow rates of change. The literature most commonly describes Little Ice Age moraines (ca AD 1250-1900) as representing the

  14. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in southernmost Patagonia (United States)

    Menounos, B.; Maurer, M.; Clague, J. J.; osborn, G.; Ponce, F.; Davis, P. T.; Rabassa, J.; Coronato, A.; Marr, R.


    Summer insolation has been proposed to explain long-term glacier fluctuations during the Holocene. If correct, the record of glacier fluctuations at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere should differ from that in the Northern Hemisphere. Testing this insolation hypothesis has been hampered by dating uncertainties of many Holocene glacier chronologies from Patagonia. We report on our ongoing research aimed at developing a regional glacier chronology at the southern end of the Andes north and west of Ushuaia, Argentina. We have found evidence for an advance of cirque glaciers at the end of the Pleistocene; one or locally two closely spaced moraines extend up to 2 km beyond Little Ice Age moraines. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial macrofossils recovered from basal sediments behind two of these moraines yielded ages of 10,320 ± 25 and 10,330 ± 30 14C yr BP. These moraines may record glacier advances coeval with the Antarctic Cold Reversal; surface exposure dating of these moraines is currently in progress to test this hypothesis. We find no evidence of Holocene moraines older than 6800 14C yr BP, based on the distribution of Hudson tephra of that age. At some sites, there is evidence for an early Neoglacial advance of glaciers slightly beyond (Peru. We have documented multiple wood mats with stumps in growth position separated by till units in a 100 m section of the northeast lateral moraine at Stoppani Glacier (54.78 S, 68.98 W), 50 km west of Ushuaia. Ten radiocarbon ages on these wood mats range in age from 3510 ± 15 to 135 ± 15 14C yr BP. The mats decrease in age up-section; many overlap with published age ranges for Neoglacial advances in western Canada. Taken together, these data: a) do not support the summer insolation hypothesis for Holocene glacier fluctuations in southernmost Patagonia; b) confirm paleobotanical evidence for a warm, dry early Holocene; and c) suggest that many Neoglacial advances in southernmost Patagonia and western North America

  15. Lacustrine Records of Holocene Mountain Glacier Fluctuations from Western Greenland (United States)

    Schweinsberg, A.; Briner, J. P.; Bennike, O.


    Recent studies have focused on documenting fluctuations of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin throughout the Holocene but few data exist that constrain past changes of local glaciers independent of the ice sheet. Our research combines proglacial lake sediment analysis with cosmogenic 10Be dating of Holocene moraines and radiocarbon dating of ice-cap-killed vegetation with an overall objective to use this multi-proxy approach to generate a detailed record of the coupled climate-glacier system through the Holocene. Here, we present lacustrine records of mountain glacier variability from continuous pro-glacial lake sediment sequences recovered from two glaciated catchments in northeastern Nuussuaq, western Greenland. We use radiocarbon-dated sediments from Sikuiui and Pauiaivik lakes to reconstruct the timing of advance and retreat of local glaciers. Sediments were characterized with magnetic susceptibility (MS), gamma density, Itrax XRF and visible reflectance spectroscopy at 0.2 cm intervals and sediment organic matter at 0.5 cm intervals. Basal radiocarbon ages provide minimum-age constraints on deglaciation from Sikuiui and Pauiaivik lakes of ~9.6 and 8.7 ka, respectively. Organic-rich gyttja from deglaciation until ~5.0 ka in Pauiaivik Lake suggests minimal glacial extent there while slightly elevated MS values from ~9.0 - 7.0 ka in Sikuiui Lake may reflect early Holocene glacial advances. Minerogenic sediment input gradually increases starting at ~5.0 ka in Pauiaivik Lake, which we interpret as the onset of Neoglaciation in the catchment. Furthermore, a distinct episode of enhanced glacial activity from ~4.0 - 2.2 ka in Sikuiui Lake may be correlative to a period of persistent snowline lowering evidenced by radiocarbon dates of ice-killed vegetation from nearby ice cap margins. Results from these lacustrine records and our ice-killed vegetation dataset suggest a middle Holocene onset of Neoglaciation ~5.0 - 4.0 ka in this region. We are supplementing these records

  16. Holocene Enviromental Changes in AN Amazonian Floodplain Lake (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R. C.


    The floodplains lakes are built due to the fluctuations in the level of the rivers, which causes the formation of bars and accumulation of sediment carried by the rivers and its tributaries. Thus, significant quantities of organic matter can accumulate within these lakes that might represent important carbon sinks. The organic sedimentation process in the floodplains remains unknown as well as very little is known about past conditions in the Amazonian floodplains. Because these gaps, the aim of this work is to provide, through sedimentological, mineralogical and organic geochemical analysis of a 124-cm long core collected in Lago Comprido (eastern Amazonia), evidences of paleoenviromental changes during the Holocene. The core COM1 was analysed using radiocarbon dates, organic carbon concentration, C/N ratio, delta 13C and diatoms. The core points out different sedimentary environments that occurs in the last 9900 years cal BP. The record is divided into three phases: - phase III (124-94 cm, 9900 to 3200 cal years BP): this interval is characterized by delta 13C values typical of graminea, suggesting dry conditions with longer low water levels of the Amazon River. Supporting evidence for driest conditions during this period comes from low organic carbon values due to oxidation and absence of diatoms in the sediment. The carbon flux was very low, reaching an average of 0.9 g C/m2/year. - phase II (93-46 cm, 3200 to 940 years cal BP): increasing lake level beginning in this phase. The delta 13C values ranged between -25% and -29%, which are thought to represent terrestrial plants. This may indicate the presence of a flooded vegetation in this site. The freshwater planktonic diatoms Aulacoseira sp start to increase in this phase, additional evidence that the period of the annual high water stands was probably longer than before. Carbon flux increases, reaching an average of 5 g C/m2/year. - phase I (45-0cm, < 940 years cal BP): the delta 13C values and CN ratios did

  17. Determination of diffusion coefficients in cohesive and sandy sediment from the area of Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.


    The cohesive and sandy sediments stem from shaft driving at the Gorleben salt done. For the cohesive materials, HTD was used as a tracer substance, while I-131 - was used for the sandy materials. Diffusion coefficients of HTD in cohesive materials in their natural texture are in the range of 2x10 -6 to 5x10 -6 cm 2 /s, those of I-131 - in the investigated uniform fine and middle sands are approximately 3x10 -6 cm 2 /s. (DG) [de

  18. Geochemical processes at a fresh/seawater interface in a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Postma, Diederik Jan


    Chemical processes in a natural fresh-/seawater mixing zone were studied in a shallow sandy aquifer. The dominant redox-processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methanogenesis produces CO2, which causes calcite dissolution. The produced calcium induces ion exchange with sodium. The fin...... result of these interactions between different types of geochemical processes is an anoxic groundwater enriched in bicarbonate and sodium.......Chemical processes in a natural fresh-/seawater mixing zone were studied in a shallow sandy aquifer. The dominant redox-processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methanogenesis produces CO2, which causes calcite dissolution. The produced calcium induces ion exchange with sodium. The final...

  19. Glaciation in the Andes during the Lateglacial and Holocene (United States)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Mark, Bryan G.


    This review updates the chronology of Andean glaciation during the Lateglacial and the Holocene from the numerous articles and reviews published over the past three decades. The Andes, which include some of the world's wettest and driest mountainous regions, offer an unparalleled opportunity to elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of glaciation along a continuous 68-degree meridional transect. The geographic and altitudinal extent of modern glaciers and the sensitivity of both modern and former glaciers to respond to changes in specific climatic variables reflect broad-scale atmospheric circulation and consequent regional moisture patterns. Glaciers in the tropical Andes and in the mid-latitude Andes are likely to have been far more sensitive to changes in temperature than glaciers in the dry subtropical Andes. Broad-scale temporal and spatial patterns of glaciation during the Lateglacial are apparent. In the southernmost Andes, the Lateglacial chronology appears to have a strong Antarctic signature with the best-dated moraines correlating closely with the Antarctic Cold Reversal. The southernmost Andes do not appear to have experienced a significant ice advance coeval with the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic reversal. At the other end of the Andes, from ˜0 to 9°N, a stronger YD connection may exist, but critical stratigraphic and geochronologic work is required before a YD ice advance can be fully demonstrated. In the central Andes of Peru, well-dated moraines record a significant ice readvance at the onset of the YD, but ice was retreating during much of the remaining YD interval. The spatial-temporal pattern of Holocene glaciation exhibits tantalizing but incomplete evidence for an Early to Mid-Holocene ice advance(s) in many regions, but not in the arid subtropical Andes, where moraines deposited during or slightly prior to the Little Ice Age (LIA) record the most extensive advance of the Holocene. In many regions, there is strong evidence for Neoglacial

  20. Replacement of Eocene white sandy limestone in historical buildings : over 100 years of practice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, W.J.; Nijland, T.G.; Hees, R.P.J. van


    This paper discusses the replacement of white sandy limestone (Gobertange and Lede or Balegem) in the Netherlands in (successive) restorations from the mid-19th century onwards. White sandy limestone, transported from the southern part of the Low Countries (now Belgium), was extensively used in the

  1. Sedimentary alkenone distributions reflect salinity changes in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.A.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Moros, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    The Baltic Sea has had a complex salinity history since the last deglaciation. Here we show how distributions of alkenones and their δD values varied with past fluctuations in salinity in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene by examining a Holocene record (11.2–0.1 cal kyr BP) from the Arkona Basin.

  2. Non-uniform and diachronous Holocene floodplain evolution: a case study from the Dijle catchment, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broothaerts, N.; Notebaert, B.; Verstraeten, G.; Kasse, C.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Vandenberghe, J.


    Fluvial architecture changed under the influence of increasing human impact throughout the Holocene in many north-west European catchments. Typically, peat formation - in a marshy environment during the Early and Middle Holocene - is replaced by clastic overbank deposition. In this study we show the

  3. Timing, cause and consequences of mid-Holocene climate transition in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Naik, Dinesh K.; Nigam, R.; Gaur, A.S.

    -50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 51, 1111-1150. Roberts, N., Brayshaw, D., Kuzucuoglu, C., Perez, R., Sadori, L., 2011. The mid-Holocene climatic transition in the Mediterranean: Causes and consequences. The Holocene 21, 3-13. Ruddiman, W.F., Ellis, E...

  4. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for middle and late holocene in Uruguay southeastern New contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Puerto, L.; Bracco, R.; Inda, H.; Garcia, F.; Panario, D.; Castineira, C.; Capdepont, I.


    This work is about the study carried out within the framework of the environmental evolution and the prehistoric human occupation on coastal lagoons in the east of Uruguay. The analysis of the sediments in the zone enable the reconstruction of the Holocene climate history as well as the construction of the Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental model belong to the middle and late Holocene

  5. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  6. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on crude oil degradation in a sandy soil. With poultry manure alone, optimal crude oil degradation was obtained at a concentration of 4.0% ...

  7. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.


    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h

  8. Transport of water and solutes in wettable and water repellent sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.


    The research yielded the following conclusions and results: preferential flow can be expected in recently deposited, loosely packed, wettable dune sands; preferential flow is common in most water-repellent sandy soils; distribution flow in topsoils isa process of major importance, resulting in a

  9. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    many regions of the world if the mechanics of tillage effects on soil physical properties is to be well understood. Thus, the ... tillage systems on water storage of a sandy loam soil after 22 years of ..... Soil infiltration ... and processes. Academy ...

  10. Limits to intensity of milk production in sandy areas in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Habekotté, B.; Keulen, van H.


    Agricultural land in sandy areas is mainly in use by dairy farms. As a result of intensive fertilisation and irrigation, environmental quality is threatened by lost nutrients and lowered groundwater levels. Therefore, Dutch government put decreasing limits to losses of nutrients, with lowest values

  11. An analysis of the synoptic and dynamical characteristics of hurricane Sandy (2012) (United States)

    Varlas, George; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros


    Hurricane Sandy affected the Caribbean Islands and the Northeastern United States in October 2012 and caused 233 fatalities, severe rainfalls, floods, electricity blackouts, and 75 billion U.S. dollars in damages. In this study, the synoptic and dynamical characteristics that led to the formation of the hurricane are investigated. The system was driven by the interaction between the polar jet displacement and the subtropical jet stream. In particular, Sandy was initially formed as a tropical depression system over the Caribbean Sea and the unusually warm sea drove its intensification. The interaction between a rapidly approaching trough from the northwest and the stagnant ridge over the Atlantic Ocean drove Sandy to the northeast coast of United States. To better understand the dynamical characteristics and the mechanisms that triggered Sandy, a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model has been used. Model results indicate that the surface heat fluxes and the moisture advection enhanced the convective available potential energy, increased the low-level convective instability, and finally deepened the hurricane. Moreover, the upper air conditions triggered the low-level frontogenesis and increased the asymmetry of the system which finally affected its trajectory.

  12. Effect of soil pH on sorption of salinomycin in clay and sandy soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The sorption of salinomycin to the sandy soil marginally increased as the pH decreased, while the sorption to the two .... plastic containers at room temperature for further analysis. ... The pH was adjusted eight times over 20 days to stabilize at.

  13. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil. (United States)

    Raddadi, Noura; Giacomucci, Lucia; Marasco, Ramona; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Fava, Fabio


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils. From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls. Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  14. Bacterial polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers from arid soils improve water retention capacity and humidity uptake in sandy soil

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura


    Water stress is a critical issue for plant growth in arid sandy soils. Here, we aimed to select bacteria producing polyextremotolerant surface-active compounds capable of improving water retention and humidity uptake in sandy soils.From Tunisian desert and saline systems, we selected eleven isolates able to highly emulsify different organic solvents. The bioemulsifying activities were stable with 30% NaCl, at 4 and 120 °C and in a pH range 4-12. Applications to a sandy soil of the partially purified surface-active compounds improved soil water retention up to 314.3% compared to untreated soil. Similarly, after 36 h of incubation, the humidity uptake rate of treated sandy soil was up to 607.7% higher than untreated controls.Overall, results revealed that polyextremotolerant bioemulsifiers of bacteria from arid and desert soils represent potential sources to develop new natural soil-wetting agents for improving water retention in arid soils.

  15. Efficacy of exclosures in conserving local shrub biodiversity in xeric sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Feng-Rui Li; Zhi-Yu Zhou; Li-Ya Zhao; Ai-Sheng Zhang; Ling-Fen Kang


    This study investigated the abundance and frequency of occurrence of all shrub species present in the standing vegetation at four sites, including a 5-year exclosure (protected grassland) and three adjacent unprotected grazing sites that had been subjected to different levels of degradation (light, moderate and severe), in xeric sandy grassland of Inner Mongolia for...

  16. Assessment of structural stability of a degraded sandy clay loam soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of bare, two legumes and four grasses cover treatments on the structural stability of a sandy clay loam Ultisol were studied within a two year period. The experiment was of a randomised complete block design with seven treatments. The legume treatments were Centrosema pubescens (Ce) and Pueraria ...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.


    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This

  18. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Virginia and Maryland (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK ORDER NAME: VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND LIDAR ACQUISITION FOR SANDY RESPONSE CONTRACT NUMBER: W912P9-10-D-0533 TASK ORDER NUMBER: W81C8X2314841 Woolpert Project...

  19. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Long Island, New York (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK ORDER NAME: EASTERN LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK LIDAR ACQUISITION FOR SANDY RESPONSE CONTRACT NUMBER: W912P9-10-D-0533 TASK ORDER NUMBER: W81C8X23208588 Woolpert...

  20. Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil moisture shortage is a major limiting factor to agricultural production in eastern Africa, in view of increased drought incidences and seasonal rainfall variability. This study evaluated the potential for Ca-bentonite (a 2:1 clay mineral) as a possible amendment for increased moisture retention by sandy soils in drought ...

  1. Fine natural aggregate replacement for sandy residue from itabirite exploitation in Portland cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, V.A.R.; Freire, C.B.; Pereira Junior, S.S.; Lameiras, F.S.; Tello, C.C.O.


    The fine natural aggregates are a material largely used by the civil construction for mortar and concrete production. Due to tightening legal restrictions imposed on their extraction, alternative materials are being considered. The use of sandy residue from BIF (banded iron formations) exploitation was investigated. It requires their grinding and flotation to concentrate iron oxides. Large amounts of sandy residue composed of quartz and iron oxides are generated in this process. The sandy residue was characterized relative to mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, presence of organic impurities, and particle shape. Mortar formulations were prepared by varying the type of cement, the cement to aggregate proportion and the water/cement ratio (a/c). The results of viscosity and density of fresh mortar, setting time, and compressive strength are presented. Compressive strength up to 19.5 MPa at 28 days were achieved with the use of cement CPV, a/c ratio of 0.80 and cement:aggregate proportion of 1:2. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of using sandy residue as fine aggregate. (author)

  2. A new method for measuring bioturbation rates in sandy tidal flat sediments based on luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni T.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank


    The rates of post-depositional mixing by bioturbation have been investigated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating in two sediment cores (BAL2 and BAL5), retrieved from a sandy tidal flat in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea. A high-resolution chronology, consisting of thirty-six OSL...

  3. Storm Impact and Depression Among Older Adults Living in Hurricane Sandy-Affected Areas. (United States)

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Halkett, Ashley; Giunta, Nancy; Kerrigan, Janice; Raeifar, Elmira; Artis, Amanda; Banerjee, Samprit; Raue, Patrick J


    Research on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health of older adults finds both vulnerabilities and resilience. We report on the rates of clinically significant depression among older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and the factors associated with mental health need. The Sandy Mobilization, Assessment, Referral and Treatment for Mental Health (SMART-MH) program integrates community outreach and needs assessments to identify older adults with mental health and aging service needs. Older adults with significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were offered short-term psychotherapy. Social service referrals were made directly to community agencies. All SMART-MH activities were offered in Spanish, Russian, Mandarin/Cantonese, and English. Across the full sample, 14% of participants screened positive for depression. Hurricane Sandy stressors predicted increased odds of depression, including storm injury, post-storm crime, and the total count of stressors. Outcomes varied significantly by age group, such that all Sandy-related variables remained significant for younger-old adults (aged 60-74 years), whereas only the loss of access to medical care was significant for older-old adults (aged ≥75 years). Storm-affected communities show higher rates of depressive symptoms than seen in the general population, with storm stressors affecting mental health needs differentially by age group. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:97-109).

  4. Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander (United States)


    18th tropical depression of the season formed over the southwestern Caribbean Sea and quickly strength- ened into Tropical Storm Sandy late that... Centennial , a combined Title 10 and 32 operation, during the Sep- tember 2013 response to the Colorado Floods. 117 APPENDIX I ACRONYMS AAR After Action

  5. Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resiliency after the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Crisis Management (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.


    On February 27 and 28, 2013, The Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resilience after the Sandy Hook Tragedy, was held in Danbury, Connecticut. The event was hosted by the United Way of Western Connecticut and Western Connecticut State University. Frank J. Zenere, school psychologist and crisis team member in the Division of Student Services of the…

  6. Groundwater chemistry of Al under Dutch sandy soils: Effects of land use and depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, E.P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Griffioen, J.; Grift, B. van der; Riemsdijk, W.H. van


    Aluminium has received great attention in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in the context of the acid rain problem mostly in forest soils. In this research the effect of land use and depth of the groundwater on Al, pH and DOC concentration in groundwater under Dutch sandy soils has been

  7. Enhanced benthic activity in sandy sublittoral sediments: Evidence from 13C tracer experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühring, S.I.; Ehrenhauss, S.; Kamp, A.; Moodley, L.; Prof. Witte, U.


    In situ and on-board pulse-chase experiments were carried out on a sublittoral fine sand in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate the hypothesis that sandy sediments are highly active and have fast turnover rates. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments where we

  8. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.C.; He, Z.L.; Stoffella, P.J.; Yang, X.E.; Yu, S.; Calvert, D.


    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils. - Fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil

  9. Importance of phytodetritus and microphytobenthos for heterotrophs in a shallow subtidal sandy sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evrard, V.; Huettel, M.; Cook, P.L.M.; Soetaert, K.; Heip, C.H.R.; Middelburg, J.J.


    The relative importance of allochthonous phytodetritus deposition and autochthonous microphytobenthos (MPB) production for benthic consumers in an organic carbon (C-org)-poor sandy sediment was assessed using a C-13-stable isotope natural abundance study combined with a dual C-13-tracer addition

  10. Carbon and nitrogen flows through the benthic food web of a photic subtidal sandy sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evrard, V.P.E.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Heip, C.H.R.; Huettel, M.; Xenopoulos, M.A.; Middelburg, J.J.


    Carbon and nitrogen flows within the food web of a subtidal sandy sediment were studied using stable isotope natural abundances and tracer addition. Natural abundances of 13C and 15N stable isotopes of the consumers and their potential benthic and pelagic resources were measured. δ13C data revealed

  11. Effect of Particle Size and Soil Compaction on Gas Transport Parameters in Variably Saturated, Sandy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken


    The soil gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) and air permeability (ka) and their dependency on soil air content ( ) control gas diffusion and advection in soils. This study investigated the effects of average particle size (D50) and dry bulk density ( b) on Dp and ka for six sandy soils under variably...

  12. Irrigation initiation timing in soybean grown on sandy soils in Northeast Arkansas (United States)

    Irrigation initiation timing was evaluated in furrow-irrigated soybean field with sandy soils in Mississippi County, AR. A major objective of this 2015 study was to validate and expand irrigation timing recommendations that pair plant growth measures with weather cues including use of local weather ...

  13. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point: "This Time Is Different". (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M


    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States.

  14. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy: a community response in Brooklyn, New York. (United States)

    Schmeltz, Michael T; González, Sonia K; Fuentes, Liza; Kwan, Amy; Ortega-Williams, Anna; Cowan, Lisa Pilar


    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have increased in recent decades; one example is Hurricane Sandy. If the frequency and severity continue or increase, adaptation and mitigation efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and improve daily life under changed weather conditions. This field report examines the devastation due to Hurricane Sandy experienced in Red Hook, Brooklyn, New York, a neighborhood consisting of geographically isolated low-lying commercial and residential units, with a concentration of low-income housing, and disproportionate rates of poverty and poor health outcomes largely experienced by Black and Latino residents. Multiple sources of data were reviewed, including street canvasses, governmental reports, community flyers, and meeting transcripts, as well as firsthand observations by a local nonprofit Red Hook Initiative (RHI) and community members, and social media accounts of the effects of Sandy and the response to daily needs. These data are considered within existing theory, evidence, and practice on protecting public health during extreme weather events. Firsthand observations show that a community-based organization in Red Hook, RHI, was at the center of the response to disaster relief, despite the lack of staff training in response to events such as Hurricane Sandy. Review of these data underscores that adaptation and response to climate change and likely resultant extreme weather is a dynamic process requiring an official coordinated governmental response along with on-the-ground volunteer community responders.

  15. Development and Application of Syndromic Surveillance for Severe Weather Events Following Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Tsai, Stella; Hamby, Teresa; Chu, Alvin; Gleason, Jessie A; Goodrow, Gabrielle M; Gu, Hui; Lifshitz, Edward; Fagliano, Jerald A


    Following Hurricane Superstorm Sandy, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) developed indicators to enhance syndromic surveillance for extreme weather events in EpiCenter, an online system that collects and analyzes real-time chief complaint emergency department (ED) data and classifies each visit by indicator or syndrome. These severe weather indicators were finalized by using 2 steps: (1) key word inclusion by review of chief complaints from cases where diagnostic codes met selection criteria and (2) key word exclusion by evaluating cases with key words of interest that lacked selected diagnostic codes. Graphs compared 1-month, 3-month, and 1-year periods of 8 Hurricane Sandy-related severe weather event indicators against the same period in the following year. Spikes in overall ED visits were observed immediately after the hurricane for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, the 3 disrupted outpatient medical care indicators, asthma, and methadone-related substance use. Zip code level scan statistics indicated clusters of CO poisoning and increased medicine refill needs during the 2 weeks after Hurricane Sandy. CO poisoning clusters were identified in areas with power outages of 4 days or longer. This endeavor gave the NJDOH a clearer picture of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and yielded valuable state preparation information to monitor the effects of future severe weather events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:463-471).

  16. Weathering the Superstorm: From Texts to Twitter--How Campus Communicators Overcame Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Towns, Gail


    By the time Superstorm Sandy struck New Jersey in late October 2012, Kathy Corbalis, executive director of communications and college relations at Atlantic Cape Community College, and her team were battle-tested. In the 15 months before the hurricane, the college experienced two bomb threats via Twitter, a lockdown due to gunfire, an on-campus…

  17. Vegetation impact on the hydrology of an aeolian sandy soil in a continental climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lichner, Ľ.; Hallett, P. D.; Orfánus, T.; Czachor, H.; Rajkai, K.; Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav


    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2010), s. 413-420 ISSN 1936-0584 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB0808114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sandy soil * water repellency * plant cover * sorptivity * hydraulic conductivity Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2010

  18. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.


    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the


    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  20. Factors affecting N immobilisation/mineralisation kinetics for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinten, A.J.A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Bloem, J.; Howard, R.; Wright, F.


    The kinetics of nitrogen immobilization/mineralization for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory incubations. Three Scottish soils expected to exhibit a range of biological activity were used: aloamy sand, intensively cropped horticultural

  1. Pore structure characteristics after two years biochar application to a sandy loam field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen


    the effects of birch wood biochar (20, 40, and 100 Mg ha−1) applied to a sandy loam on soil total porosity and pore structure indices. Bulk and intact soil samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and water retention and gas diffusivity measurements between pF 1.0 and pF 3.0. Biochar application...

  2. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.


    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  3. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil. (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa


    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  4. Holocene climatic fluctuations and periodic changes in the Asian southwest monsoon region (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Niu, Jie; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Lei, Guoliang; Huang, Linpei; Long, Xian'e.; Chang, Fengqin


    Climatic changes in the Asian southwest monsoon (ASWM) during the Holocene have become a topic of recent studies. It is important to understand the patterns and causes of Holocene climatic changes and their relationship with global changes. Based on the climate proxies and wavelet analysis of Lugu Lake in the ASWM region, the climatic fluctuations and periodic changes in the ASWM region during the Holocene have been reconstructed with a high-precision chronology. The results indicate the intensification of ASWM began to increase with Northern Hemisphere low-latitude solar insolation (LSI) and solar activity during the early Holocene, and gradually decreased during the late Holocene, exhibiting an apparent synchrony with numerous records of ASWM region. Meanwhile, an apparent 1000-a quasi-periodic signal is present in the environment proxies, and it demonstrates that the environmental change in the ASWM region has been driven mainly by LSI and solar activity.

  5. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew


    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Durau


    Full Text Available Technological factors with major implications in obtaining high yields and quality in peaches grown on sandy soils are planting row distance and shape of the crown, soil maintenance system, chemical, organic and foliar fertilzation. A smal size combined with the flatening of the crowns of the tres alows a dense planting, also ensure proper mechanization of work and easy penetration of light to the leaves and fruits. Crown form vertical belt proved to be suitable for al planting distances studied, easily made and maintained, having fruit production ranged betwen 15.9 t / ha at a distance of 2 m, 10.3 t / ha at a distance of 2.5 m and 7.9 t / ha at a distance of 3 m. The state of soil nutrient supply influence sucesful peach crop on sandy soils. The fertilzer dose of technology to N10 P80 K10 kg s.a / ha production was 34.9 t / ha. Organic fertilzation also contributes to obtaining high yields of peach. In sandy soil conditions most fruit production of 9.6 t / ha was obtained by fertilzation with organic manure 60t/ha. Besides fertilzation, soil maintenance system is one important link in the technology peach crop on sandy soils. The results found that the biggest peach fruit production was obtained from field maintenance system black-8,2t/ha. Using technology in foliar peaches culture on sandy soils, is an important means of providing nutrients that lead to improved proceses of growth and fructification. The best way is with foliar fertilzation Folibor in dose 5l/ha, the production obtained was 12.4 t /ha.

  7. Telehealth at the US Department of Veterans Affairs after Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Anne R; Chu, Karen; Dobalian, Aram


    Background Like other integrated health systems, the US Department of Veterans Affairs has widely implemented telehealth during the past decade to improve access to care for its patient population. During major crises, the US Department of Veterans Affairs has the potential to transition healthcare delivery from traditional care to telecare. This paper identifies the types of Veterans Affairs telehealth services used during Hurricane Sandy (2012), and examines the patient characteristics of those users. Methods This study conducted both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Veterans Affairs administrative and clinical data files were used to illustrate the use of telehealth services 12 months pre- and 12 months post- Hurricane Sandy. In-person interviews with 31 key informants at the Manhattan Veterans Affairs Medical Center three-months post- Hurricane Sandy were used to identify major themes related to telecare. Results During the seven-month period of hospital closure at the Manhattan Veterans Affairs Medical Center after Hurricane Sandy, in-person patient visits decreased dramatically while telehealth visits increased substantially, suggesting that telecare was used in lieu of in-person care for some vulnerable patients. The most commonly used types of Veterans Affairs telehealth services included primary care, triage, mental health, home health, and ancillary services. Using qualitative analyses, three themes emerged from the interviews regarding the use of Veterans Affairs telecare post- Hurricane Sandy: patient safety, provision of telecare, and patient outreach. Conclusion Telehealth offers the potential to improve post-disaster access to and coordination of care. More information is needed to better understand how telehealth can change the processes and outcomes during disasters. Future studies should also evaluate key elements, such as adequate resources, regulatory and technology issues, workflow integration, provider resistance, diagnostic fidelity and

  8. Mineralogical and Micro-fabric investigation of the Sandy Facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Dohrmann, Reiner; Graesle, Werner; Plischke, Ingo


    In the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock. For the understanding of the long-term behaviour of clay host rock, it is important to understand the interaction between mechanical behaviour, micro-fabric, and mineral composition. Previous publications showed that particularly the carbonate content and the arrangement of the carbonate grains (as cement in the matrix or as shells) determines the mechanical strength of Opalinus Clay and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay specimens, respectively. Klinkenberg et al. (2009) studied the shaly facies of Opalinus Clay, however, the actual deposit is planned to be built in the sandy facies of Opalinus Clay. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between micro-fabric, mineral composition, and mechanical properties of different samples derived from the sandy facies (BLT-A2). Image analysis showed that the carbonates in the sandy facies mainly occur as 1) matrix which in turn acts as cement. Carbonates also occur 2) in the fine sand fraction and 3) biogenic carbonates as traces. The carbonates of the sandy facies, therefore, appear to be similar to the carbonates of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay with respect to their possible influence on failure strength. The mechanical testing showed that the shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content. This phenomenon was also observed for the samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay, while the opposite relation was found for the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay. Preliminary results presented here, indicate that the sandy facies (drilling BLT-A2) and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay show similar mechanical properties - in detail: 1) Micro-fabric: carbonates predominate in the matrix, 2) Mineralogy: high carbonate content and 3) Mechanical testing: shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content, where the type of carbonates which controls the increase of strength has to be

  9. Palynological Investigation of the Holocene Thermal Optimum in New Zealand (United States)

    Newnham, R. M.; McGlone, M. S.; Wilmshurst, J. M.


    It has long been assumed in New Zealand (NZ) that the Holocene Thermal Optimum (HTO) occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Nearly 40 years ago, Hendy and Wilson pioneered the use of 18O/16O composition of calcite in NZ speleothems to reconstruct past climate and in so doing showed an HTO occurring earlier in NZ than in comparable Northern Hemisphere records (Hendy & Wilson,1968). More recent work on NZ speleothems (Williams et al., 2005) corroborates the concept of an early HTO dated between ca 11.7 and 10.6 ka, but there is no definitive description of the event as a NZ-wide phenomenon, no intensive dating of it, nor temperature quantification. Moreover, there is no firm conclusion as to whether it is registered consistently between different proxies and across NZ regions. Until recently, attempts to quantify past climate change from NZ pollen data have been hindered by failure to demonstrate robust relationships between modern pollen assemblages and climate due, it is thought, to strong anthropogenic modification of natural vegetation patterns and steep climatic gradients (Norton et al., 1986). However, as deforestation commenced only ca 700 years ago, and is unambiguously detected in pollen records from throughout NZ, an almost unique opportunity exists to develop pollen-climate transfer functions using pre-human pollen-vegetation sources. McGlone and Wilmshurst have assembled an extensive (138-site) `modern' pollen database, based on ca 700 yr BP pre-deforestation pollen assemblages from peat and lake cores. This now provides a basis for more secure pollen-climate reconstruction than hitherto has been possible. Statistical modelling of the environmental determinants of patterns in the pre-deforestation pollen database indicates the strongest relationship (r2 > 0.8) is with Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and suggests that this parameter can be reliably reconstructed, with error estimates, from Late Quaternary NZ pollen profiles. We use this database to

  10. Changes in Holocene relative sea-level and coastal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Sander, Lasse; Clemmensen, Lars B


    Changes in relative sea-level (RSL) during the Holocene are reconstructed based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected across a raised beach ridge system on the island of Samsø, Denmark. The internal architecture of the beach ridge and swale deposits is divided into characteristic radar...... ridge progradation through time. The vertical levels of identified downlap points are combined with an age model based on optically stimulated luminescence-dated samples to reconstruct RSL for the past c. 5000 years. Overall, the reconstruction shows that the period between c. 4800 and 3800 yr BP...

  11. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.


    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  12. Reconciling divergent trends and millennial variations in Holocene temperatures (United States)

    Marsicek, Jeremiah; Shuman, Bryan N.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Brewer, Simon


    Cooling during most of the past two millennia has been widely recognized and has been inferred to be the dominant global temperature trend of the past 11,700 years (the Holocene epoch). However, long-term cooling has been difficult to reconcile with global forcing, and climate models consistently simulate long-term warming. The divergence between simulations and reconstructions emerges primarily for northern mid-latitudes, for which pronounced cooling has been inferred from marine and coastal records using multiple approaches. Here we show that temperatures reconstructed from sub-fossil pollen from 642 sites across North America and Europe closely match simulations, and that long-term warming, not cooling, defined the Holocene until around 2,000 years ago. The reconstructions indicate that evidence of long-term cooling was limited to North Atlantic records. Early Holocene temperatures on the continents were more than two degrees Celsius below those of the past two millennia, consistent with the simulated effects of remnant ice sheets in the climate model Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3). CCSM3 simulates increases in ‘growing degree days’—a measure of the accumulated warmth above five degrees Celsius per year—of more than 300 kelvin days over the Holocene, consistent with inferences from the pollen data. It also simulates a decrease in mean summer temperatures of more than two degrees Celsius, which correlates with reconstructed marine trends and highlights the potential importance of the different subseasonal sensitivities of the records. Despite the differing trends, pollen- and marine-based reconstructions are correlated at millennial-to-centennial scales, probably in response to ice-sheet and meltwater dynamics, and to stochastic dynamics similar to the temperature variations produced by CCSM3. Although our results depend on a single source of palaeoclimatic data (pollen) and a single climate-model simulation, they reinforce the notion that

  13. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.


    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  14. New data for natural situation of Prebaikal region in holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, S.B.; Dan'ko, L.V.; Snytko, V.A.; Bezrukova, E.V.; Orlova, L.A.


    On the basis of the radiocarbon dating data one performed a comprehensive study of the paragenetic series of loose deposits of the layers located in the Baikal Lake western coast central part. The main changes of the natural situations of the Baikal Lake region in the holocene were revealed to take place in the early Subatlantic period (2290+-90 14 C years ago), in the latter half of the Medieval optimum (1410 - 1040+-60 14 C years ago) and in the Cryogenic period (885+-30 - 365+-30 14 C years ago) [ru

  15. Holocene tephra deposits in the northern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of sediments of Core CSH1, which was collected from the northern Okinawa Trough, indicate that large amounts of volcanic materials have deposited in the northern Okinawa Trough during the Holocene. On the basis of down-core variations in mineral and element contents of sediments, two layers in the uppermost section of Core CSH1 characterized by high quartz, Na2O, MnO, K2O, uranium contents and low contents of clay minerals, volatiles, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO and strontium, have been identified as the tephra deposits. Systematic grain-size measurements also suggest that sediments from the northern Okinawa Trough are made up of terrigenous materials and volcanic ashes with different proportion during the Holocene. The sediments of tephra layers in Core CSH1 show bi-modal patterns in grain-size distribution with modal grain-sizes of 74.3 and 7.81 μm,respectively. According to the radiocarbon dating on shells of zooplankton foraminifera, two tephra layers in Core CSH1, formed at 7 250 and 10 870 a BP (cal), approximately correspond to the K-Ah tephra [7 300 a BP (cal)] and the eruption of Kuju Volcano (12~10 ka BP), respectively.

  16. Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Kutzbach, J. [Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1225 W. Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harrison, S.P. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, P.O. Box 100164, 07701 Jena (Germany); Otto-Bliesner, B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)


    The response of the six major summer monsoon systems (the North American monsoon, the northern Africa monsoon, the Asia monsoon, the northern Australasian monsoon, the South America monsoon and the southern Africa monsoon) to mid-Holocene orbital forcing has been investigated using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (FOAM), with the focus on the distinct roles of the direct insolation forcing and oceanic feedback. The simulation result is also found to compare well with the NCAR CSM. The direct effects of the change in insolation produce an enhancement of the Northern Hemisphere monsoons and a reduction of the Southern Hemisphere monsoons. Ocean feedbacks produce a further enhancement of the northern Africa monsoon and the North American monsoon. However, ocean feedbacks appear to weaken the Asia monsoon, although the overall effect (direct insolation forcing plus ocean feedback) remains a strengthened monsoon. The impact of ocean feedbacks on the South American and southern African monsoons is relatively small, and therefore these regions, especially the South America, experienced a reduced monsoon regime compared to present. However, there is a strong ocean feedback on the northern Australian monsoon that negates the direct effects of orbital changes and results in a strengthening of austral summer monsoon precipitation in this region. A new synthesis is made for mid-Holocene paleoenvironmental records and is compared with the model simulations. Overall, model simulations produce changes in regional climates that are generally consistent with paleoenvironmental observations. (orig.)

  17. Holocene sea-level fluctuation in the southern hemisphere (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    If rising sea levels dominate in the northern hemisphere (NH), falling or fluctuating sea levels predominate in the southern hemisphere (SH). Endogenic processes (tectonics, isostasy or geoidal changes) could explain local or regional mean sea level (MSL) fluctuations but not an hemispherical one. Evidence from South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans suggest that the Holocene transgression rose above the present MSL, in higher latitudes before the tropics. By plotting latitude against the age of MSL arrival at present coasts, good correlation is observed. Oceanic salinity mixing has been already proposed to explain this mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Climate could be the only factor responsible for this hemisphere-wide behavior of MSL. It has been suggested previously that the climate of the SH precedes that of the NH by 3000 years. The climatic optimum, or maximum warmth, occurred predominantly about 6000 BP in the NH, but about 10-9000 BP in the SH. Short-term climatic effects on the sea level (monsoons, southern oscillation/El Niño phenomena) should have significant occurrences during the past in the windiest oceanic hemisphere. This latitudinal trend in former MSL should be considered when using shorelines as reference points for measuring vertical crustal movements.

  18. Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. LeGrande


    Full Text Available Variability in water isotopes has been captured in numerous archives and used to infer past climate changes. Here we examine water isotope variability over the course of the Holocene using the water-isotope enabled, coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, GISS ModelE-R. Eight Holocene time slices, ~1000 years apart are simulated and driven by estimated changes in orbital configuration, greenhouse gases, and ice sheet extent. We find that simulated water isotope archives match well with those seen in ice cores, ocean sediment cores, and speleothems. The climate changes associated with the water isotope changes, however, are more complex than simple modern spatial slope interpretations might suggest. In particular, water isotope variability in Asian speleothems is linked to alterations in landward water vapor transport, not local precipitation, and ice sheet changes over North America lead to the masking of temperature signals in Summit, Greenland. Salinity-seawater isotope variability is complicated by inter-ocean basin exchanges of water vapor. Water isotopes do reflect variability in the hydrology, but are better interpreted in terms of regional hydrological cycle changes rather than as indicators of local climate.

  19. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler


    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  20. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope


    A detailed analysis of the location and composition of Iberian vegetation types during the whole Pleistocene and Holocene periods shows a complex patched landscape with persistence of different types of ecosystems, even during glacial times. In addition, recent, high-resolution palaeoecological records are changing the traditional picture of post-glacial vegetation succession in the Iberian Peninsula. The main available charcoal and pollen sequences include, coniferous and deciduous forest, steppes, shrublands, savannahs and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene for Meso-thermophytes (phytodiversity reservoirs), in different proportions. This panorama suggests an environmental complexity that relates biotic responses to climate changes forced by Milankovitch cycles, suborbital forcings and by the latitudinal and physiographic particularities of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, many factors are critical in the course of vegetational developments and strong regional differences are observed since the Early Pleistocene. Currently, the flora of Iberia is located in two biogeographical/climatic regions: the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean. The first one includes northern and northwestern areas of the peninsula, where post-glacial responses of vegetation are very similar to Central Europe, although with some particularities due to its proximity to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean region. The second one comprises the main territory of Iberia and shows more complex patterns and singularities, now and in the past. Steppe landscapes dominated extensive areas over all the territory during the cold spells of the Quaternary, especially during the Late Pleistocene up to the Last Glacial Maximum, but differences in composition of the dominant taxa (Compositae versus Artemisia) are observed since the Early Pleistocene, probably related to moisture regional gradients. Coastal shelves and intramountainous valleys, even in continental areas, are spots of floristic

  1. Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen


    Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eduardo Freres Stipp


    Full Text Available The sandy lands are a process of scouring with sand forming a sandy area, which correspondsto a reworking of the sands due its constant mobility, involving the transformation of notsolids deposits is sandy areas. This work tried to establish the characterization of thisphenomenon of scouring with sand in a local level, occurring in arenaceous areas in theNortheast of the state of Paraná, specifically in the urban site of Paranavaí. It was also madean evaluation of the environmental degradation as well as different causes for what provokedthese sandy areas. Being an area with a high level of soil decomposition with the highwaysroutes crossing it, it was necessary, besides bibliographic data that allowed a theoretical basis,a research applied in order to supply subsides for future planning related to the spaceorganization. The evolution of the use and soil occupation in this area has been processedwithin an urban planning which considered by no account neither soil characteristic, thevegetation nor the predominant climate in that region. The mechanisms of region atmospherecirculation were analyzed, the alterations or attributes of the climate as well, aiming toidentify the genesis of the erosion sandy and possible time and space distribution. Initially, themain characteristics of the region were collected, components e processes working on the landmodel. It was observed how it worked and the use and occupation of the soil in past times andcurrently. During 2004, using the Environmental Fragility Letter, the areas of erosion wereidentified, ravines and strong erosion that compounds the first stages of the focused problem.The sandy land is a process that involves erosion, transport, e accumulation, meaning most oftimes the loosing of Biosphere productivity. For monitoring these risk areas some measuringcanes were made to measure the soil loss, which were used in several spots of erosion in theurban area in Paranavaí. The measurement happened in

  3. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy) (United States)

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy


    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco-Roman land use and fire. Ostracode valve geochemistry (Sr/Ca, δ18O) suggests significant changes in early vs. late Holocene hydrochemistry, either as changes in salinity or in the seasonality of precipitation. Harmonizing the autecological and geochemical data from Gorgo Basso suggests the latter was more likely, with relatively more late Holocene precipitation falling during the spring, summer, and fall, than winter compared to the early Holocene. Our ostracode-inferred paleosalinity data indicate that moisture availability did not decline during the late Holocene in the central Mediterranean region. Instead, moisture availability was lowest during the early Holocene, and most abundant during the late Holocene.

  4. Variability of East Asian summer monsoon precipitation during the Holocene and possible forcing mechanisms (United States)

    Lu, Fuzhi; Ma, Chunmei; Zhu, Cheng; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Huang, Kangyou; Guo, Tianhong; Li, Kaifeng; Li, Lan; Li, Bing; Zhang, Wenqing


    Projecting how the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall will change with global warming is essential for human sustainability. Reconstructing Holocene climate can provide critical insight into its forcing and future variability. However, quantitative reconstructions of Holocene summer precipitation are lacking for tropical and subtropical China, which is the core region of the EASM influence. Here we present high-resolution annual and summer rainfall reconstructions covering the whole Holocene based on the pollen record at Xinjie site from the lower Yangtze region. Summer rainfall was less seasonal and 30% higher than modern values at 10-6 cal kyr BP and gradually declined thereafter, which broadly followed the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Over the last two millennia, however, the summer rainfall has deviated from the downward trend of summer insolation. We argue that greenhouse gas forcing might have offset summer insolation forcing and contributed to the late Holocene rainfall anomaly, which is supported by the TraCE-21 ka transient simulation. Besides, tropical sea-surface temperatures could modulate summer rainfall by affecting evaporation of seawater. The rainfall pattern concurs with stalagmite and other proxy records from southern China but differs from mid-Holocene rainfall maximum recorded in arid/semiarid northern China. Summer rainfall in northern China was strongly suppressed by high-northern-latitude ice volume forcing during the early Holocene in spite of high summer insolation. In addition, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation might be responsible for droughts of northern China and floods of southern China during the late Holocene. Furthermore, quantitative rainfall reconstructions indicate that the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations underestimate the magnitude of Holocene precipitation changes. Our results highlight the spatial and temporal variability of the Holocene EASM precipitation and potential forcing

  5. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.


    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  6. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  7. The Use of Ionizing Radiation to Prepare Polymeric Agro-waste Composite for Sandy Soil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhady, M.A.; Elnahas, H.H.; Meligi, G.A.; Ammar, A.H.


    Super absorbent hydrogel composite (SHC) by radiation induced crosslinking of polyacrylamide (PAAM)/ rice straw (RS) composite and hydrophilic membrane system based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for possible applications in agricultural field of sandy soil was studied. The factors affecting the quick and capacity for retaining irrigated water of swelling behaviour of prepared hydrogel composite through hydrophilic membrane system and increasing foaming/ porosity of the SHC were studied. The mechanism for this is most likely a prevention of irrigated water to pass through sandy particles for a time ranged from 20 to 40 min for the fluid uptake capacity and swelling of the SHC to take and swelling place without almost any loss of irrigated water. Effect of acid/ alkalinity (PH) and salt concentration were investigation.

  8. Enhanced benthic activity in sandy sublittoral sediments: Evidence from 13C tracer experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühring, Solveig I.; Ehrenhauss, Sandra; Kamp, Anja


    In situ and on-board pulse-chase experiments were carried out on a sublittoral fine sand in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate the hypothesis that sandy sediments are highly active and have fast turnover rates. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments where we...... investigated the pathway of settling particulate organic carbon through the benthic food web. The diatom Ditylum brightwellii was labelled with the stable carbon isotope 13C and injected into incubation chambers. On-board incubations lasted 12, 30 and 132 h, while the in situ experiment was incubated for 32 h....... The study revealed a stepwise short-term processing of a phytoplankton bloom settling on a sandy sediment. After the 12 h incubation, the largest fraction of recovered carbon was in the bacteria (62%), but after longer incubation times (30 and 32 h in situ) the macrofauna gained more importance (15 and 48...

  9. Pore-size distribution and compressibility of coarse sandy subsoil with added biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.; Larsen, H. H.


    Sustainable agricultural production on coarse sandy soil is constrained by the restricted growth of roots, and poor water and nutrient retention. Amending the soil with biochar can reduce these problems, but the processes involved are not known in detail. We investigated in the laboratory...... the effects of two fine-grained gasification biochars made of straw (LTST) and other materials (LTSN) and of one fast pyrolysis straw biochar (FPST) on pore-size distribution and soil compressibility when added to coarse sandy subsoil. Water retention and therefore pore-size distribution were affected...... systematically. All biochars converted drainable pore space with pore diameters in the range 60–300 µm into water-retaining pores of size 0.2–60 µm, which was taken as an estimate of available water capacity (AWC). Effects were linear over the whole range of biochar (0–4% by mass). The effect of LTST and LTSN...

  10. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.


    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching from...... repacked sandy soil columns (length: 51 cm). Biochar (2 wt%), ammonium fertilizer (NH4+, amount corresponding to 300 kg N ha-1) and an inert tracer (bromide) were added to a 3-cm top layer of sandy loam, and the columns were then irrigated with constant rate (36 mm d-1) for 15 d. The total amount...... of leachate came to about 3.0 water filled pore volumes (WFPVs). Our study revealed a high mobility of labile C components originating from the fine particulate fast pyrolysis biochar. This finding highlights a potential risk of C leaching coupled with the use of fast pyrolysis biochars for soil amendment...

  11. Firearms and accidental deaths: Evidence from the aftermath of the Sandy Hook school shooting. (United States)

    Levine, Phillip B; McKnight, Robin


    Exposure to firearms increased substantially after the December 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, where 20 children and 6 adults were killed. Gun sales spiked by 3 million, on the basis of the increase in the number of background checks for firearm purchases. Google searches for buying and cleaning guns increased. We used Vital Statistics mortality data to examine whether a spike in accidental firearm deaths occurred at the same time as the greater exposure to firearms. We also assessed whether the increase in these deaths was larger in those states where the spike in gun sales per capita was larger. We find that an additional 60 deaths overall, including 20 children, resulted from unintentional shootings in the immediate aftermath of Sandy Hook. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Tropical to extratropical: Marine environmental changes associated with Superstorm Sandy prior to its landfall (United States)

    Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.


    Superstorm Sandy was a massive storm that impacted the U.S. East Coast on 22-31 October 2012, generating large waves, record storm surges, and major damage. The Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport modeling system was applied to hindcast this storm. Sensitivity experiments with increasing complexity of air-sea-wave coupling were used to depict characteristics of this immense storm as it underwent tropical to extratropical transition. Regardless of coupling complexity, model-simulated tracks were all similar to the observations, suggesting the storm track was largely determined by large-scale synoptic atmospheric circulation, rather than by local processes resolved through model coupling. Analyses of the sea surface temperature, ocean heat content, and upper atmospheric shear parameters showed that as a result of the extratropical transition and despite the storm encountering much cooler shelf water, its intensity and strength were not significantly impacted. Ocean coupling was not as important as originally thought for Sandy.

  13. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh


    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kamińska


    Full Text Available The paper aimed at the determination of the California Bearing Ratio of a stabilised and unstabilised fine-grained mineral soil. A clayey-sandy silt with the addition of 3, 6 and 10% of road stabilisers Solidex and Solidex A was used for the tests. The tests were carried out in the press Tritech 50 at the loading of 22 and 44 N. The stabilised samples were subjected to 7-days treatment, whereas unstabilised 4-days treatment. Stabilization with the applied road binders brought positive effects, there occurred a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the clayey-sandy silt. The better binder, which significantly increased the value of the CBR ratio, was Solidex A. The use of hydraulic binders is of a great importance in road building, because their addition improves the mechanical properties of weaker mineral soils.

  15. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposure (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.


    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  16. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife (United States)

    Campbell, Warren H.


    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  17. Fine organic particles in a sandy beach system (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kotwicki


    Full Text Available A total of over 550 samples of particulate organic matter (POM were obtained from swash and groundwater samples taken on a monthly basis from seven localities on the sandy shores of Puck Bay in 2002 and 2003. Sandy sediment cores from the swash zone were collected to assess the amount of POM in the pore waters. The mean annual concentrations of POM varied between localities from 20 to 500 mg in groundwater and from 6 to 200 mg dm-3 in swash water. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio in suspended matter was always higher in groundwater (annual mean 12 than in swash water (annual mean 7. The C/N ratio indicates a local, algal origin of POM in the shallow coastal zone.

  18. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten


    Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows

  19. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.


    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  20. Long-Term Observations of Dust Storms in Sandy Desert Environments (United States)

    Yun, Hye-Won; Kim, Jung-Rack; Choi, Yun-Soo


    Mineral dust occupies the largest portion of atmospheric aerosol. Considering the numerous risks that dust poses for socioeconomic and anthropogenic activities, it is crucial to understand sandy desert environments, which frequently generate dust storms and act as a primary source of atmospheric aerosol. To identify mineral aerosol mechanisms, it is essential to monitor desert environmental factors involving dust storm generation in the long term. In this study, we focused on two major environmental factors: local surface roughness and soil moisture. Since installments of ground observation networks in sandy deserts are unfeasible, remote sensing techniques for mining desert environmental factors were employed. The test area was established within the Badain Jaran and Kubuqi Deserts in Inner Mongolia, China, where significant seasonal aeolian processes emit mineral dust that influences all of East Asia. To trace local surface roughness, we employed a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) image sequence to extract multi-angle viewing (MAV) topographic parameters such as normalized difference angular index, which represents characteristics of the target desert topography. The backscattering coefficient from various space-borne SAR and stereotopography were compared with MAV observations to determine calibrated local surface roughness. Soil moisture extraction techniques from InSAR-phase coherence stacks were developed and compiled with advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture data. Combined with metrological information such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim, correlations between intensity of sand dune activity as a proxy of aeolian processes in desert environments, surface wind conditions, and surface soil moisture were traced. Overall, we have confirmed that tracking sandy desert aeolian environments for long-term observations is feasible with space-borne, multi-sensor observations when combined with

  1. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita


    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands


    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.


    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This project, conducted in cooperation between the TNO Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IGG-TNO) and !he Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO), is aimed at defin...



    Rasna Sharma*, Dr. M.K. Trivedi


    This paper presents the experimental determination of variability in permeability of sandy silt soil by blending with fly ash. The grain size, porosity, structure of the soil, specific gravity of the soil, viscosity and temperature are important factors in varying the permeability of the soil. Permeability is the flow conduction property of the soil. The void ratio with in the soil plays a vital role in varying the permeability. By blending with finer grains like fly ash in the soil with sand...

  4. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil


    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao


    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduc...

  5. The Influence of Shoreline Curvature on Rates of Shoreline Change on Sandy Coasts (United States)

    Murray, A. B.; Lauzon, R.; Cheng, S.; Liu, J.; Lazarus, E.


    The sandy, low-lying barrier islands which characterize much of the US East and Gulf coasts are popular spots to live and vacation, and are often heavily developed. However, sandy shorelines and barriers are also naturally mobile landforms, which are vulnerable to sea level rise and storms and can experience high rates of shoreline change. Many previous studies have attempted to understand and quantify the factors that contribute to those rates of shoreline change, such as grain size, underlying geology, sea level rise, and anthropogenic modification. Shoreline curvature has not been considered in such analyses, but previous research has demonstrated that subtle coastline curvature (and therefore alongshore variation in relative offshore wave angle) can result in gradients in net alongshore transport that cause significant shoreline erosion or accretion. Here we present the results of a spatially extensive analysis of the correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates for the sandy shorelines of the US East and Gulf coasts. We find that, for wave-dominated sandy coasts where nourishment and shoreline stabilization do not dominate the shoreline change signal (such as parts of Texas, North Carolina, and Florida), there is a significant negative correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates over 1 - 5 km and decadal to centurial space and time scales. This correlation indicates that a portion of the coastal erosion (and accretion) observed in these areas can be explained by the smoothing of subtle coastline curvature by gradients in alongshore transport, and suggests that shoreline curvature should be included in future attempts to understand historical and future rates of shoreline change. Shoreline stabilization, especially through beach nourishment, complicates the relationship between curvature and shoreline change. Beach construction during nourishment creates a seaward convex curvature in the part of the shoreline moves

  6. Physical Properties of Sandy Soil Affected by Soil Conditioner Under Wetting and Drying cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Choudhary


    Full Text Available Information on the effectiveness of soil conditioners over a prolonged period is scarce. A laboratory experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a polyacrylamide (Broadleaf P4 soil conditioner on the physical properties of sandy soil subjected to wetting and drying cycles. Four concentrations of Broadleaf P4 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% on dry weight basis were uniformly mixed with a calcareous sandy soil. Addition of Broadleaf P4 to sandy soil increased the water holding capacity, decreased the bulk density, and increased the porosity and void ratio at 0 and 16 wetting and drying cycles. The coefficient of linear extensibility increased considerably with increasing concentrations of the polymer. The addition of polymer at 0 and 16 cycles increased considerably the retention and availability of water in sandy soil. Saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased with increasing concentrations of Broadleaf P4 whereas unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at 0 and 16 cycles showed an increase with increasing soil moisture contents. After I6 wetting and drying cycles, the capacity of the soil to hold water was lost on average by 15.8% when compared to the 0 wetting and drying cycle. The effectiveness of the soil conditioner on bulk density, coefficient of linear extensibility, available water and saturated hydraulic conductivity was reduced on average by 14.1, 24.5, 21.l and 53.7% respectively. The significant changes in soil properties between 0 and 16 cycles suggested that the effectiveness of the conditioner decreased with the application of wetting and drying cycles. However, its effect was still considerable when compared to untreated soil under laboratory conditions.

  7. Effects of plant cover on soil N mineralization during the growing season in a sandy soil (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Shao, M.; Wei, X.; Fu, X.


    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem productivity and C cycling, particularly in semiarid and desertified ecosystems. To determine the effect of plant cover on N turnover in a sandy soil ecosystem, we measured soil N mineralization and inorganic N pools in soil solution during growing season in a sandy soil covered with various plant species (Artemisia desertorum, Salix psammophila, and Caragana korshinskii). A bare sandy soil without any plant was selected as control. Inorganic N pools and N mineralization rates decreased overtime during the growing season, and were not affected by soil depth in bare land soils, but were significantly higher at the 0-10 cm layer than those at the 10-20 cm soil layer under any plant species. Soil inorganic N pool was dominated by ammonium, and N mineralization was dominated by nitrification regardless of soil depth and plant cover. Soils under C. korshinskii have significant higher inorganic N pools and N mineralization rate than soils under bare land and A. desertorum and S. psammophila, and the effects of plant cover were greater at the 0-10 cm soil layer than at the 10-20 cm layer. The effects of C. korshinskii on soil inorganic N pools and mineralization rate varied with the stage of growing season, with greater effects on N pools in the middle growing season, and greater effects on mineralization rate at the last half of the growing season. The results from this study indicate that introduction of C. korshinskii has the potential to increase soil N turnover and availability in sandy soils, and thus to decrease N limitation. Caragana korshinskii is therefore recommend for the remediation of the desertified land.

  8. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients' Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments. (United States)

    Stryckman, Benoit; Walsh, Lauren; Carr, Brendan G; Hupert, Nathaniel; Lurie, Nicole


    National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy's 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ). This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED) and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116). Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers), average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF) increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional "surge" patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%). Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events.

  9. Characterization of microbial and metal contamination in flooded New York City neighborhoods following Superstorm Sandy (United States)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Sahajpal, R.


    Large scale flooding of waterfront neighborhoods occurred in New York City (NYC) during Superstorm Sandy. While NYC waterways commonly experience combined sewer overflow (CSO) and associated water quality degradation during rain storms, Superstorm Sandy was unique in that these potentially contaminated waters were transported over the banks and into city streets and buildings. Sampling of waterways, storm debris on city streets, and flood water trapped in building basements occurred in the days following Sandy, including in neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek, which are both Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria and metal contamination. Samples enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, suggest that well-flushed waterways recovered quickly from sewage contamination in the days following the storm, with Enterococci concentrations similar to background levels measured before flooding occurred. In contrast, storm debris on city streets and waters from flooded basements had much higher levels of sewage-associated bacteria days after flooding occurred. Analysis of 180,000 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from flood water samples and flood debris confirmed the presence of bacterial genera often associated with sewage impacted samples (e.g. Escherichia, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Trichococcus, Aeromonas) and a community composition similar to CSO discharge. Elemental analysis suggests low levels of metal contamination in most flood water, but much higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Cr were found in leach from some storm debris samples found adjacent to the Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal superfund sites. These data suggest a rapid recovery of water quality in local waterways after Superstorm Sandy, but that trapped flood water and debris samples in urban neighborhoods retained elevated levels of microbial sewage pollution, and in some cases metal pollution, days after that

  10. Micro- and mesozooplankton communities in the surf zone of a tropical sandy beach (Equatorial Southwestern Atlantic)


    Oliveira-Santos, Nivia Maria; Martins-Garcia, Tatiane; Oliveira-Soares, Marcelo de


    Sandy beaches constitute important ecosystems from both ecological and socioeconomic standpoints. The ecosystems of tropical zones present a high diversity and are sensible to global climatic changes, as well as to local impacts. Despite its relevance, researches on biodiversity and existing ecological processes, like size distribution of plankton communities, in these regions are often neglected. Here, the first results of a study on the structure of zooplankton communities in a tropical san...

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Water Use Strategy of Two Salix Shrubs in Alpine Sandy Land, Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Guojie; Li, Renqiang


    Water is a limiting factor for plant growth and vegetation dynamics in alpine sandy land of the Tibetan Plateau, especially with the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation events and drought caused by climate change. Therefore, a relatively stable water source from either deeper soil profiles or ground water is necessary for plant growth. Understanding the water use strategy of dominant species in the alpine sandy land ecosystem is important for vegetative rehabilitation and ecological restoration. The stable isotope methodology of δD, δ18O, and δ13C was used to determine main water source and long-term water use efficiency of Salix psammophila and S. cheilophila, two dominant shrubs on interdune of alpine sandy land in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The root systems of two Salix shrubs were investigated to determine their distribution pattern. The results showed that S. psammophila and S. cheilophila absorbed soil water at different soil depths or ground water in different seasons, depending on water availability and water use strategy. Salix psammophila used ground water during the growing season and relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in summer. Salix cheilophila used ground water in spring and summer, but relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in spring and deep soil water recharged by ground water in fall. The two shrubs had dimorphic root systems, which is coincident with their water use strategy. Higher biomass of fine roots in S. psammophila and longer fine roots in S. cheilophila facilitated to absorb water in deeper soil layers. The long-term water use efficiency of two Salix shrubs increased during the dry season in spring. The long-term water use efficiency was higher in S. psammophila than in S. cheilophila, as the former species is better adapted to semiarid climate of alpine sandy land.

  12. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil Lieberman-Cribbin

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231 following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9], depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2], and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4], while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12] and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]. Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8] or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2] were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  13. Three new records of Desmodorids (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) from sandy seabeds of the Canary islands


    Riera, Rodrigo; Núñez, Jorge; Brito, María del Carmen


    In an ecological study of meiofaunal assemblages in two locations (Los Abrigos and Los Cristianos) of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), several desmodorid species were found throughout the study period. Three species belonging to the family Desmodoridae were collected in intertidal and shallow subtidal sandy seabeds. These species were Desmodorella aff. tenuispiculum Allgen, 1928, Metachromadora sp. and Spirinia parasitifera Bastian, 1865. Descriptions, figures and tables with mer...

  14. The Method of Calculating the Settlement of Weak Ground Strengthened with the Reinforced Sandy Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva Tatyana


    Full Text Available The paper presents an engineering method for calculating the weak clay base, strengthened with sandy piles reinforced along the contour. The method is based on the principle of layer-by-layer summation, which is used when designing the bases and foundations. The novelty of the suggested method lies in the taking account of the soil reaction along the pile lateral surface and the impact of external vertical loads on the vertical displacement of the base.

  15. 2013-2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (New York City) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS New York CMGP Sandy Lidar 0.7 Meter NPS LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No....

  16. Role of environmental heterogeneity in structuring the macrobenthic community in a tropical sandy beach, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Ganesan, P.; Sautya, S.; Nanajkar, M.

    In most ecosystems, community structure emerges as a result of the complex interaction between biotic and environmental variables. Sandy beaches connected to adjacent ecosystem like estuaries/creeks provide an opportunity to understand the role...

  17. Sediment Chemistry and Toxicity in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey: Pre- and Post- Hurricane Sandy, 2012-2013. (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Timothy J.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.


    Hurricane Sandy made landfall in Barnegat Bay, October, 29, 2012, damaging shorelines and infrastructure. Estuarine sediment chemistry and toxicity were investigated before and after to evaluate potential environmental health impacts and to establish post-event baseline sediment-quality conditions. Trace element concentrations increased throughout Barnegat Bay up to two orders of magnitude, especially north of Barnegat Inlet, consistent with northward redistribution of silt. Loss of organic compounds, clay, and organic carbon is consistent with sediment winnowing and transport through the inlets and sediment transport modeling results. The number of sites exceeding sediment quality guidance levels for trace elements tripled post-Sandy. Sediment toxicity post-Sandy was mostly unaffected relative to pre-Sandy conditions, but at the site with the greatest relative increase for trace elements, survival rate of the test amphipod decreased (indicating degradation). This study would not have been possible without comprehensive baseline data enabling the evaluation of storm-derived changes in sediment quality.

  18. Characterization of Carbon Monoxide Exposure During Hurricane Sandy and Subsequent Nor'easter. (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Law, Royal; Heinzerling, Amy; Sircar, Kanta; Damon, Scott; Yip, Fuyuen; Schier, Josh; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy


    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures. This report combined data from 3 separate sources (health departments, poison centers via the National Poison Data System, and state and local public information officers). Results indicated that the number of CO exposures in the wake of Hurricane Sandy was significantly greater than in previous years. The persons affected were mostly females and those in younger age categories and, despite messaging, most CO exposures occurred from improper generator use. Our findings emphasize the continued importance of CO-related communication and ongoing surveillance of CO exposures to support public health response and prevention during and after disasters. Additionally, regional poison centers can be a critical resource for potential on-site management, public health promotion, and disaster-related CO exposure surveillance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:562-567).

  19. Hurricane Sandy Exposure Alters the Development of Neural Reactivity to Negative Stimuli in Children. (United States)

    Kessel, Ellen M; Nelson, Brady D; Kujawa, Autumn; Hajcak, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N


    This study examined whether exposure to Hurricane Sandy-related stressors altered children's brain response to emotional information. An average of 8 months (M age  = 9.19) before and 9 months after (M age  = 10.95) Hurricane Sandy, 77 children experiencing high (n = 37) and low (n = 40) levels of hurricane-related stress exposure completed a task in which the late positive potential, a neural index of emotional reactivity, was measured in response to pleasant and unpleasant, compared to neutral, images. From pre- to post-Hurricane Sandy, children with high stress exposure failed to show the same decrease in emotional reactivity to unpleasant versus neutral stimuli as those with low stress exposure. Results provide compelling evidence that exposure to natural disaster-related stressors alters neural emotional reactivity to negatively valenced information. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process]. (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei


    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization.

  1. Effect of pore-size distribution on the collapse behaviour of anthropogenic sandy soil deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke


    Full Text Available In the former open-pit mines of the Lusatian region in Germany, several liquefaction events have occurred during the recent years in the anthropogenic deposits made of very loose sandy soils. These events are related to the rising ground water table after the stop of controlled ground water lowering. The very loose state is due to the formation of sand aggregates (pseudo-grains during the deposition process. The pseudo-grains enclose larger voids of dimension greater than the single sand grain. Wetting induced collapse of the pseudo-grains is presumed to be one of the possible mechanisms triggering liquefaction. In the present study, the effect of larger voids on the wetting induced deformation behaviour of sandy soils is experimentally investigated by laboratory box tests. The deformation field in the sample during wetting was measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. The results show that the observed deformations are affected by the pore size distribution, thus the amount of voids between the pseudo-grains (macro-void ratio and the voids inside the pseudo-grains (matrix void ratio. The global void ratio of a sandy soil is not sufficient as single state parameter, but the pore size distribution has to be taken into account, experimentally as well as in modelling.

  2. [Introduction of upland rice cultivars to eastern Keerqin sandy land and their biological characteristics]. (United States)

    Zeng, Dehui; Zhang, Chunxing; Wang, Guirong; Fan, Zhiping


    Developing water-saving rice cultivation is one important strategy for food security in China. This paper reported the experimental results of introducing six upland rice cultivars to eastern Keerqin sandy land. The field experiment results showed that under the condition of 60% water-saving, the yield of cultivars XH 95-13 and XH 95-13-6 was 10.2% and 5.5% higher than the control, respectively, while other four cultivars decreased by 6.7%-18.6%. Economically, all the cultivars except JP 121 had a higher income than the control, and the profitability of cultivars XH 95-13 and XH 95-13-6 reached 24.0% and 19.3%, respectively. The water productivity of all the six cultivars was over 0.566 kg x m(-3), increased by 59.89%-116.38%. Pot experiment showed that 12.1%-16.3% of soil moisture in 0-15 cm layer was beneficial to the growth of upland rice. In eastern Keerqin sandy land, effective tillers occurred before July 18. In brief, upland rice production could be extensively applicable in eastern Keerqin sandy land to gradually alternate the traditional lowland rice cultivation with continuous flooding, and save much underground water.

  3. What Happened to Our Environment and Mental Health as a Result of Hurricane Sandy? (United States)

    Lin, Shao; Lu, Yi; Justino, John; Dong, Guanghui; Lauper, Ursula


    This study describes findings of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on environmental factors including power outages, air quality, water quality, and weather factors and how these affected mental health during the hurricane. An ecological study was conducted at the county level to describe changes in environmental factors-especially power outages-and their relationships to emergency department (ED) visits for mental health problems by use of a Poisson regression model. We found that many environmental hazards occurred as co-exposures during Hurricane Sandy in addition to flooding. Mental health ED visits corresponded with the peak of maximum daily power blackouts, with a 3-day lag, and were positively associated with power blackouts in Bronx (prevalence ratio [PR]: 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-61.42) and Queens (PR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.05-5.82) counties. A possible dose-response relationship was found between the quantile of maximum blackout percentage and the risk of mental health in the Bronx. We found that multiple co-environmental hazards occurred during Hurricane Sandy, especially power blackouts that mediated this disaster's impacts. The effects of power outage on mental health had large geographic variations and were substantial, especially in communities with low sociodemographic status. These findings may provide new insights for future disaster response and preparedness efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:314-319).

  4. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil. (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias


    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  6. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy. (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J


    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  7. Validation of regression models for nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Brus, D.J.; Roelsma, J.


    For Dutch sandy regions, linear regression models have been developed that predict nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater on the basis of residual nitrate contents in the soil in autumn. The objective of our study was to validate these regression models for one particular sandy region dominated by dairy farming. No data from this area were used for calibrating the regression models. The model was validated by additional probability sampling. This sample was used to estimate errors in 1) the predicted areal fractions where the EU standard of 50 mg l -1 is exceeded for farms with low N surpluses (ALT) and farms with higher N surpluses (REF); 2) predicted cumulative frequency distributions of nitrate concentration for both groups of farms. Both the errors in the predicted areal fractions as well as the errors in the predicted cumulative frequency distributions indicate that the regression models are invalid for the sandy soils of this study area. - This study indicates that linear regression models that predict nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater using residual soil N contents should be applied with care.

  8. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil


    Weijing Yao; Jianyong Pang; Yushan Liu


    Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry inject...

  9. Precision radiocarbon dating of a Late Holocene vegetation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.A.; Chester, P.I.


    The purpose of this research is to precisely date vegetation changes associated with early human presence in the Hawkes Bay region. A sequence of AMS radiocarbon ages was obtained using a new technique developed at Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory. A density separation method was used to concentrate pollen and spores extracted from unconsolidated lake sediments from a small-enclosed lake in coastal foothills of southern Hawkes Bay. Radiocarbon measurements were made on fractions of concentrated pollen, separated from associated organic debris. These ages directly date vegetation communities used to reconstruct the vegetation history of the region. This technique results in more accurate dating of Late Holocene vegetation changes interpreted from palynological analyses than techniques formerly used. Precision dating of palynological studies of New Zealand prehistory and history is necessary for correlation of vegetation changes to cultural changes because of the short time span of human occupation of New Zealand. (author). 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Geologic records of Pleistocene, Holocene and Anthropocene beach profiles? (United States)

    Dougherty, Amy; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Dosseto, Anthony


    The Anthropocene Working Group recently concluded that we have entered a new Epoch; starting during the last century when carbon dioxide, temperatures, and sea level all exceeding previous Holocene measurements. Climate change models predict a 1m rise in sea-level by 2100 coupled with increased storm intensity. Determining how vulnerable coasts will respond to global warming in the future, requires past records of sea-level and storm impacts to be deciphered. Paying specific attention to any changes prior to, and since, the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Coastal change over centennial time-scales has long fallen within a knowledge gap that exists between our understanding of shoreline behaviour measured over decades and that inferred from the landscape over millennia. Insight on shoreline behaviour across spatial and temporal scales is gained using computers to integrate models of short-term morphodynamics along beaches with longer-term coastal landscape evolution models. However, limitations exist as process-based engineering models depend on wave climate and beach profile data that is restricted to regional/historical records, while large-scale coastal behaviour models are based on general chronostratographic data from topographic profiles, interpolated cores, and isochrons extrapolated from deep radiocarbon ages. Here we demonstrate a unique methodology combining state-of-the-art geophysics, luminescence, and remote sensing techniques on prograded barriers to extract comprehensive chronostratigraphic records. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data document beach and dune stratigraphy at decimetre resolution. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) directly date the formation of paleo-beachfaces and dunes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) image the lateral extent of strandplain ridge morphology. The resulting record of paleo-beach profiles spanning from the present-day beach through Holocene and Pleistocene barriers, enables our in-depth understanding of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.


    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  12. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin


    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  13. Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of EPICA LGM and Holocene ice samples (United States)

    Bulat, S.; Alekhina, I.; Marie, D.; Wagenbach, D.; Raynaud, D.; Petit, J. R.


    We are investigating the biological content (biomass and microbial diversity of Aeolian origin) of EPICA ice core within the frame of EPICA Microbiology consortium*. Two ice core sections were selected from EPICA Dome C and Droning Maud Land, both from LGM and Holocene. Preliminary measurements of DOC (dissolved organic content) and microbial cell concentrations have been performed. Both analyses showed the very low biomass and ultra low DOC content. Trace DNA analyses are in a progress. The ice sections were decontaminated in LGGE cold and clean room facilities benefiting the protocol developed for Vostok ice core studies. The melt water was then shared between two party laboratories for a complementary approach in studying microbial content. Prior to biology the melt water was tested for chemical contaminant ions and organic acids, DOC and dust contents. The biological methods included all the spectra of appropriate molecular techniques (gDNA extraction, PCR, clone libraries and sequencing). As preliminary results, both LGM (well identified by dust fallout) and Holocene ice samples (EDC99 and EDML) proved to be extremely clear (i.e. pristine) in terms of biomass (less then 4 cells per ml) and DOC contents (less then 5 ppbC). There was no obvious difference between LGM and Holocene in cell counts, while LGM showed a bit high organic carbon content. The latter in terms of biology means ultra-oligotrophic conditions (i.e., no possibility for heterotrophic life style). In fact no metabolizing microbial cells or propagating populations are expected at these depths at temperature -38oC and lower (limiting life temperature threshold is -20°C). Nevertheless some life seeds brought in Antarctica with precipitation could be well preserved because the age is rather young (21 kyr and less). Trying to identify these aliens and document their distribution during last climate cycle the meltwater was concentrated about 1000 times down. The genomic DNA was extracted and very

  14. Reconstruction of the solar modulation parameter during the Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Klaudia; Heber, Bernd [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Beer, Juerg [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    On their way through the interplanetary space the intensity of galactic cosmic rays is modulated by the solar activity. In the Earth's atmosphere, however, the intensities of these primary cosmic rays but also of secondary particles produced in the atmosphere are anti-correlated to the solar activity. Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by spallation reactions of primary and secondary hadrons with atmospheric nuclei are mixed and transported into natural archives like ice sheets, tree rings or sediments. We compute the local and global production rates of {sup 10}Be, {sup 7}Be, {sup 3}H, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 26}Al and {sup 14}C on shorter time-scales, showing a clear anti-correlation to the solar activity. For {sup 14}C we present, moreover, production rates for the entire Holocene and investigate their correlation to the solar modulation parameter.

  15. Holocene Lake and Shallow Water Sediments at Mograt Island, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittrich Annett


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of stratigraphic excavation and soil studies carried out at Mograt Island, the largest of the Nilotic islands in Sudan. Due to its restricted insular environments, Holocene alluvial deposits were observed to be interlocked with archaeological remains of different periods, allowing for a combined chronostratigraphic approach to study both cultural and climatic events. To better understand the environmental context through soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale, soil block samples were accordingly collected and studied by the application of soil micromorphology. This approach provides insights into the history of Nile terrace aggradation through the suspension of Nile sediment loads under stillwater conditions as well as of the periodical establishment of shallow water pools at the islands′ plateaus by the surface run-off from local rains. Since these patterns vary significantly from the present situation, they offer a key to the scenario in which specific early agricultural and animal herding practices evolved.

  16. Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Champion, Duane E.; Grove, Timothy L.


    Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake volcano in the southern Cascades arc exhibited widespread and compositionally diverse magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Nine well-characterized eruptions have taken place at this very large rear-arc volcano since 5,200 years ago, an eruptive frequency greater than nearly all other Cascade volcanoes. The lavas are widely distributed, scattered over an area of ~300 km2 across the >2,000-km2 volcano. The eruptions are radiocarbon dated and the ages are also constrained by paleomagnetic data that provide strong evidence that the volcanic activity occurred in three distinct episodes at ~1 ka, ~3 ka, and ~5 ka. The ~1-ka final episode produced a variety of compositions including west- and north-flank mafic flows interspersed in time with fissure rhyolites erupted tangential to the volcano’s central caldera, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flow at the volcano, the ~950-yr-old compositionally zoned Glass Mountain flow. At ~3 ka, a north-flank basalt eruption was followed by an andesite eruption 27 km farther south that contains quenched basalt inclusions. The ~5-ka episode produced two caldera-focused dacitic eruptions. Quenched magmatic inclusions record evidence of intrusions that did not independently reach the surface. The inclusions are present in five andesitic, dacitic, and rhyolitic host lavas, and were erupted in each of the three episodes. Compositional and mineralogic evidence from mafic lavas and inclusions indicate that both tholeiitic (dry) and calcalkaline (wet) parental magmas were present. Petrologic evidence records the operation of complex, multi-stage processes including fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing. Experimental evidence suggests that magmas were stored at 3 to 6 km depth prior to eruption, and that both wet and dry parental magmas were involved in generating the more silicic magmas. The broad distribution of eruptive events and the relative

  17. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))


    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  18. The Holocene Great Belt connection to the southern Kattegat, Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Boldreel, Lars Ole


    Late- and postglacial geological evolution of the southern Kattegat connection to the Great Belt was investigated from high-resolution seismic data and radiocarbon-dated sediment cores in order to elucidate the Ancylus Lake drainage/Littorina Sea transgression. It was found that glacial deposits...... form the acoustic basement and are covered by Lateglacial (LG) marine sediments and postglacial (PG; Holocene) material. The LG deposits form a highstand systems tract, whereas the PG deposits cover a full depositional sequence, consisting of a lowstand systems tract (PG I), transgressive systems tract...... (PG II; subdivided into three parasequences) and finally a highstand systems tract (PG III). PG I sand deposits (11.7–10.8 cal. ka BP) are found in a major western channel and in a secondary eastern channel. PG II (10.8–9.8 cal. ka BP) consists of estuarine and coastal deposits linked to an estuary...

  19. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.


    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  20. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.


    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  1. Holocene Dynamics of Temperate Rainforests in West-Central Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias


    Full Text Available Analyses of long-term ecosystem dynamics offer insights into the conditions that have led to stability vs. rapid change in the past and the importance of disturbance in regulating community composition. In this study, we (1 used lithology, pollen, and charcoal data from Mallín Casanova (47°S to reconstruct the wetland, vegetation, and fire history of west-central Patagonia; and (2 compared the records with independent paleoenvironmental and archeological information to assess the effects of past climate and human activity on ecosystem dynamics. Pollen data indicate that Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron forests were established by 9,000 cal yr BP. Although the biodiversity of the understory increased between 8,480 and 5,630 cal yr BP, forests remained relatively unchanged from 9,000 to 2,000 cal yr BP. The charcoal record registers high fire-episode frequency in the early Holocene followed by low biomass burning between 6,500 and 2,000 cal yr BP. Covarying trends in charcoal, bog development, and Neoglacial advances suggest that climate was the primary driver of these changes. After 2,000 cal yr BP, the proxy data indicate (a increased fire-episode frequency; (b centennial-scale shifts in bog and forest composition; (c the emergence of vegetation-fire linkages not recorded in previous times; and (d paludification in the last 500 years possibly associated with forest loss. Our results therefore suggest that Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron dominance was maintained through much of the Holocene despite long-term changes in climate and fire. Unparalleled fluctuations in local ecosystems during the last two millennia were governed by disturbance-vegetation-hydrology feedbacks likely triggered by greater climate variability and deforestation.

  2. Transient coupling relationships of the Holocene Australian monsoon (United States)

    McRobie, F. H.; Stemler, T.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.


    The northwest Australian summer monsoon owes a notable degree of its interannual variability to interactions with other regional monsoon systems. Therefore, changes in the nature of these relationships may contribute to variability in monsoon strength over longer time scales. Previous attempts to evaluate how proxy records from the Indonesian-Australian monsoon region correspond to other records from the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions, as well as to El Niño-related proxy records, have been qualitative, relying on 'curve-fitting' methods. Here, we seek a quantitative approach for identifying coupling relationships between paleoclimate proxy records, employing statistical techniques to compute the interdependence of two paleoclimate time series. We verify the use of complex networks to identify coupling relationships between modern climate indices. This method is then extended to a set of paleoclimate proxy records from the Asian, Australasian and South American regions spanning the past 9000 years. The resulting networks demonstrate the existence of coupling relationships between regional monsoon systems on millennial time scales, but also highlight the transient nature of teleconnections during this period. In the context of the northwest Australian summer monsoon, we recognise a shift in coupling relationships from strong interhemispheric links with East Asian and ITCZ-related proxy records in the mid-Holocene to significantly weaker coupling in the later Holocene. Although the identified links cannot explain the underlying physical processes leading to coupling between regional monsoon systems, this method provides a step towards understanding the role that changes in teleconnections play in millennial-to orbital-scale climate variability.

  3. Challenges in estimating the health impact of Hurricane Sandy using macro-level flood data. (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Liu, B.; Schneider, S.; Schwartz, R.; Taioli, E.


    Background: Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage but the long-term health impacts are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. This study assesses concordance in Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) and self-reported flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy to elucidate discrepancies in flood exposure assessments. Methods: Three meter resolution New York State flood data was obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. FEMA data was compared to self-reported flood data obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents following Sandy. Flooding was defined as both dichotomous and continuous variables and analyses were performed in SAS v9.4 and ArcGIS 10.3.1. Results: There was a moderate agreement between FEMA and self-reported flooding (Kappa statistic 0.46) and continuous (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.50) measures of flood exposure. Flooding was self-reported and recorded by FEMA in 23.6% of cases, while agreement between the two measures on no flooding was 51.1%. Flooding was self-reported but not recorded by FEMA in 8.5% of cases, while flooding was not self-reported but indicated by FEMA in 16.8% of cases. In this last instance, 84% of people (173/207; 83.6%) resided in an apartment (no flooding reported). Spatially, the most concordance resided in the interior of New York City / Long Island, while the greatest areas of discordance were concentrated in the Rockaway Peninsula and Long Beach, especially among those living in apartments. Conclusions: There were significant discrepancies between FEMA and self-reported flood data. While macro-level FEMA flood data is a relatively less expensive and faster way to provide exposure estimates spanning larger geographic areas affected by Hurricane Sandy than micro-level estimates from cohort studies, macro

  4. Mid- to late-Holocene coastal environmental changes in southwest Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soelen, E.E. van; Brooks, G.R.; Larson, R.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Reichart, G.-J.


    During the Holocene, Florida experienced major changes in precipitation and runoff. To better understand these processes, shallow marine sediment cores from Charlotte Harbor (southwest Florida) were studied, covering approximately the past 9000 years. Whole core XRF scanning was applied to

  5. Oleistocene mammals in the late-early Holocene in Santa Lucia river basin (Uruguay southern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.; Perea, D.; Corona, A.; Rinderknecht, A.; Sanchez, A.


    This work is about the fossileferous outcrops belongs to the late Pleistocene - early Holocene in Santa Lucia River. It enable to analyse the last records of megafauna vertebrate extinctions (olistecene mammals) with the climate conditions / environment

  6. Holocene sea level fluctuations on western Indian continental margin: An update

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nigam, R.; Nair, R.R.; Rajagopalan, G.

    A new Holocene curve is generated for the western Indian continental margin. While constructing this curve careful selection of the dates were made by giving due considerations to the genetic characteristics of the dated material. This new curve...

  7. Holocene evolution of the Tabasco delta – Mexico : impact of climate, volcanism and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, C.A.M.


    This research revealed the impact of climate, volcanism and humans on the late Holocene evolution of a tropical delta in southern Mexico. Palynological, tephrochronological, limnological, geomorphological and sedimentological techniques have been applied to reconstruct the evolution of the

  8. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.


    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  9. The Department of the Interior Strategic Sciences Group and its Response to Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Machlis, G. E.; Applegate, D.


    This presentation will describe the history, mission, and current activities of the newly formed Department of the Interior (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG), with a focus on its response to Hurricane Sandy and lessons learned from using scenario building to support decision making. There have been several environmental crises of national significance in recent years, including Hurricane Katrina (2005), large-scale California wildfires (2007-2008), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). Such events are complex because of their impacts on the ecology, economy, and people of the affected locations. In these and other environmental disasters, the DOI has had significant responsibilities to protect people and resources and to engage in emergency response, recovery, and restoration efforts. In recognition of the increasingly critical role of strategic science in responding to such complex events, the DOI established the SSG by Secretarial Order in 2012. Its purpose is to provide the DOI with science-based assessments and interdisciplinary scenarios of environmental crises affecting Departmental resources; rapidly assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists from government, academia, and non-governmental organizations to conduct such work; and provide results to DOI leadership as usable knowledge to support decision making. March 2013 was the SSG's first deployment since its formation. The SSG's charge was to support DOI's participation on the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force by developing scenarios of Hurricane Sandy's environmental, economic, and social consequences in the New York/New Jersey area and potential interventions that could improve regional resilience to future major storms. Over the course of one week, the SSG Sandy team (Operational Group Sandy) identified 13 first-tier consequences and 17 interventions. The SSG briefed DOI leadership, Task Force representatives, and other policy makers in both Washington, DC and

  10. Contrasting pollen histories of MIS 5e and the Holocene from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) (United States)

    Hanselman, Jennifer A.; Gosling, William D.; Paduano, Gina M.; Bush, Mark B.


    Two long sediment records (cores LTO1-2B and LT01-3B) from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru, are compared with a previously analysed Holocene record from this lake (core NE98-1PC). The Holocene records of LT01-2B and NE98-1PC are similar. There are striking differences, however, between the MIS 5e sections of the long cores and the Holocene records. In these records, temperature is probably the dominant parameter that determines the total fossil pollen concentration and is used to time the onset and termination of deglaciation. In contrast, the relative and absolute abundance of specific taxa (e.g. Polylepis/Acaena, Chenopodiaceae) are indicators of relative moisture availability. Although the Holocene contains a period of aridity between ca. 8000 cal. yr BP and 4300 cal. yr BP, it is a minor event compared with the more extreme aridity of MIS 5e. Core LT01-3B showed similar trends during MIS 5e when compared to LT01-2B, as did NE98-1PC when comparing Holocene records. MIS 5e and the Holocene are markedly different interglacials, depicted by shifts in pollen concentration and taxa representation over time.

  11. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution. (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S


    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  12. Holocene estuarine sediments as a source of arsenic in Pleistocene groundwater in suburbs of Hanoi, Vietnam (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Funabiki, Ayako; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Takizawa, Satoshi


    Groundwater pollution by arsenic is a major health threat in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. The present study evaluates the effect of the sedimentary environments of the Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, and the recharge systems, on the groundwater arsenic pollution in Hanoi suburbs distant from the Red River. At two study sites (Linh Dam and Tai Mo communes), undisturbed soil cores identified a Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) and Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) as major aquifers, and Holocene estuarine and deltaic sediments as an aquitard layer between the two aquifers. The Holocene estuarine sediments (approximately 25-40 m depth, 9.6-4.8 cal ka BP) contained notably high concentrations of arsenic and organic matter, both likely to have been accumulated by mangroves during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The pore waters in these particular sediments exhibited elevated levels of arsenic and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenic in groundwater was higher in the PCA (25-94 μg/L) than in the HUA (5.2-42 μg/L), in both the monitoring wells and neighboring household tubewells. Elevated arsenic concentration in the PCA groundwater was likely due to vertical infiltration through the arsenic-rich and organic-matter-rich overlying Holocene estuarine sediments, caused by massive groundwater abstraction from the PCA. Countermeasures to prevent arsenic pollution of the PCA groundwater may include seeking alternative water resources, reducing water consumption, and/or appropriate choice of aquifers for groundwater supply.

  13. Early-Holocene decoupled summer temperature and monsoon precipitation in southwest China (United States)

    Wu, D.; Chen, F.; Chen, X.; Lv, F.; Zhou, A.; Chen, J.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.


    Proxy based reconstructions of Holocene temperature have shown that both the timing and magnitude of the thermal maximum vary substantially between different regions; the simulations results from climate models also show that summers were substantially cooler over regions directly influenced by the presence of the Laurentide ice sheet during the early Holocene, whereas other regions of the Northern Hemisphere were dominated by orbital forcing. However, for lack of summer temperature reconstruction in the low latitude regions like southwestern China dominated by the Indian summer monsoon, the Holocene summer temperature variations and it underlying forcing mechanism are ambiguous. Here we present a well-dated record of pollen-based quantitative summer temperature (mean July; MJT) over the last 14000 years from Xingyun Lake, Yunnan Province, southwest China. It was found that MJT decreased during the YD event, then increased slowly until 7400 yr BP, and decreased thereafter. The MJT shows a pattern with middle Holocene maximum of MJT, indicating a different changing pattern with the carbonate oxygen isotope record (d18O) from the same core during the early Holocene (11500-7400 yr BP), which has the similar variation with speleothem d18O record from Dongge cave, both indicate the variation of monsoon precipitation with the highest precipitation occurred during the early Holocene. Therefore, we propose that the variation of summer temperature and precipitation in southwest China was decoupled during the early Holocene. However, both MJT and monsoon precipitation decreased after the middle Holocene following the boreal summer insolation. We suggest that the high precipitation with strong summer monsoon and hence higher cloud cover may depress the temperature increasing forced by increasing summer insolation during the early Holocene; while melting ice-sheet in the high latitude regions had strongly influenced the summer temperature increase during the deglacial period

  14. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.


    two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give......We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other...

  15. Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.


    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  16. 15N Isotopic Study on Decomposition of Organic Residues Incorporated into Alluvial and Sandy Saline Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kholi, A. F.; Galal, Y. G. M.


    Incubation experiment was conducted to study the effect of the nitrogenous fertilizer on the decomposition and mineralization of organic residues (soybean powdered forage) as well as the release of the soil inorganic nitrogen. This technique was carried out using two types of soils, one is alluvial and the other is saline sandy soil collected from Fayoum governorate. Soybean forage has an organic carbon 23.1%, total N 1.6% and C/N ratio 14.4. Regarding the effect of incubation period on the two soil samples, the evolved NH 4 -N was generally reached its highest peak after 30-45 days, in the presence of either the added 15 No3-fertilizer solely or in combination with soybean forage. Reversible trend was occurred with regard to the evolved No3-N. The highest peak of evolved No3-N recorded in unfertilized control, as compared to 15 No3-N treatment, at 30 day incubation period indicated that the addition of labeled mineral fertilizer had appreciably enhanced the immobilization process. Net nitrification revealed that it was the highest in unfertilized control soil where it was significantly decreased in the treated two soil samples. Gross mineralization as affected by the addition of soybean forage in combination with labeled mineral fertilizer had been promoted by 75% in the alluvial soil and by 18% in the sandy saline soil, as compared with the soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer only. Gross immobilization, in soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer plus soybean forage had surpassed those received 15 No3-fertilizer only by 16% in the alluvial soil and by 25% in the sandy saline soil. (Authors)

  17. The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry V. Wang


    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.

  18. Effect of Irrigation Water Type on Infiltration Rates of Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.M.; Al-Matrood, S.M.; Choudhary, M.I.


    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the effect of three water types (tap water, well water and sewage water) on the infiltration rate of three soils varying in texture (sand. loamy sand and sandy loam). A stationary rainfall simulator dispensing water at a rate of 45 mm h-1, connected to the different sources of water, was used to measure the infiltration rates. A total of 5 runs were carried out using each water quality. The volume of runoff against the time was recorded at each 5 minute interval. The infiltration rate was calculated as the difference between the water applied and the excesses water measured as surface runoff. Infiltration rate at first run were rapid in all the three soils and then progressively declined as the number of runs increased. The same trend was observed for each water quality tested. The reduction in infiltration rate with increasing number of runs for prewetted surface than for the initial dry surface was attributed to break down and settling of fine particles that took place earlier during prewetting. The infiltration curves for all the three soils when irrigared with different qualities of water was not distinguishable. The relationship between infiltration rate as function of time for the treatments applied were tested using Kostiakov equation I=bt-n. The infiltration data gave a coefficient of determination R2 >0.90 for all the treatments. The infiltration parameters B, and n varied strongly with respect to soil texture. Values of B decreased with changing soil textures, being highest for the sandy soil, and lowest for the sandy loamy soil, whereas n values showed the opposite trend. It was concluded that effect of soil texture on the infiltration rate was very pronounced while water qualities showed a little effect. (author)

  19. "Managed Retreat" in Response to Superstorm Sandy: The Oakwood Beach Story (United States)

    Tirone, J.


    This presentation shares lessons learned from firsthand experience of the home buyout process in New York City after Superstorm Sandy. Many have described Sandy as "the perfect storm" from a meteorological perspective, but it was also the perfect storm from a government-buyout perspective. For a buyout to work in New York City, with its high property values and dense housing and population, many conditions had to be in place before the storm. Before Sandy hit, Oakwood Beach on Staten Island had already had enough. Hurricane Isaac flooded streets and basements in 2010, followed by Hurricane Irene in 2011. Many residents of this multi-generational neighborhood had just finished fixing their homes. A few years before, a brush fire spread through the invasive and highly flammable Phragmites reeds, destroying a protective berm installed by the Army Corps of Engineers in 2000 and threatening to damage many homes. An aerial view would show how these homes incredulously sat in the middle of a marsh, a marsh designated as part of the Bluebelt wetlands storm water management system by New York City's Department of Environmental Protection. Even more incredulously, while New York City was buying up unimproved lots to expand the Bluebelt to improve drainage for inland homes, the City was also issuing building permits to developers - sometimes for lots directly in the Bluebelt's path. Welcome to Staten Island, where the political influence of developers made any effort to retreat from the waterfront especially difficult and contentious. Before the storm, no one knew what a buyout was, never mind how to go about seeking one. For the most part, this included local officials. Managed retreat is typically understood as a top-down directive, but in this case the buyout plan was initiated from the bottom up by eight ordinary citizens who used research, trust, and networking to get their voices heard and, against all odds, to drive a highly successful State-supported buyout program.

  20. Study of Maowusu Sandy Land Vegetation Coverage Change Based on Modis Ndvi (United States)

    Ye, Q.; Liu, H.; Lin, Y.; Han, R.


    This paper selected 2006-2016 MODIS NDVI data with a spatial resolution of 500m and time resolution of 16d, got the 11 years' time series NDVI data of Maowusu sandy land through mosaicking, projection transformation, cutting process in batch. Analysed the spatial and temporal distribution and variation characteristics of vegetation cover in year, season and month time scales by maximum value composite, and unary linear regression analysis. Then, we combined the meteorological data of 33 sites around the sandy area, analysed the response characteristics of vegetation cover change to temperature and precipitation through Pearson correlation coefficient. Studies have shown that: (1) The NDVI value has a stable increase trend, which rate is 0.0075 / a. (2) The vegetation growth have significantly difference in four seasons, the NDVI value of summer > autumn > spring > winter. (3) The NDVI value change trend is conformed to the gauss normal distribution in a year, and it comes to be largest in August, its green season is in April, and yellow season is in the middle of November, the growth period is about 220 d. (4) The vegetation has a decreasing trend from the southeast to the northwest, most part is slightly improved, and Etuokeqianqi improved significantly. (5) The correlation indexes of annual NDVI with temperature and precipitation are -0.2178 and 0.6309, the vegetation growth is mainly affected by precipitation. In this study, a complete vegetation cover analysis and evaluation model for sandy land is established. It has important guiding significance for the sand ecological environment protection.

  1. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils? (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert


    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  2. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients’ Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments

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    Benoit Stryckman


    Full Text Available Introduction: National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy’s 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116. Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers, average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. Results: In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional “surge” patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%. Conclusion: Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events.

  3. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients’ Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments (United States)

    Stryckman, Benoit; Walsh, Lauren; Carr, Brendan G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Lurie, Nicole


    Introduction National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy’s 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ). Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED) and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116). Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers), average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. Results In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF) increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional “surge” patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%). Conclusion Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events. PMID:29085534

  4. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Nielsen, Tara; Weston, Michael A.


    Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds, on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along 200 km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island. Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1) birds encountered motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, buses etc.) during 80% of focal bird observation bouts, 2) birds were flushed in over half (up to 86% in individual species) of all bouts, and 3) individuals spent, on average, one-third of their time on disturbance-related behaviours; this was particularly prevalent for Crested Terns (Thalasseus bergii) which were alert 42% of the time and spent 12% of their time escaping from human stimuli. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a) encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b) creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c) investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

  5. Evolution of coastal and marine environments during the Holocene transgression. Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). (United States)

    Clemente, F.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.; Méndez, G.; Francés, G.; Alejo, I.; González, D.; Nombela, M.


    Coastal deposits are not prominent in the Ria de Vigo, high cliffs dominate the coast line, but several well-preserved sedimentary areas are observed. Beach and aeolian sand dunes are preserved in protected bays along margins between low cliffs, as Playa America, Patos and Samil. Several rivers form prominent estuaries such as the Verdugo-Oitaven, the Minor and the Lagares. Tidal flats are well preserved in the San Simon embayment and small areas of tidal flats and marshes can be found elsewhere associated with estuaries and protected by sandy spits as the Ramallosa tidal Complex, Moaña and San Simón. Four sedimentary areas were selected to study vertical sediment distribution. 6 cores were obtained. Sediment thicknesses range between 4.0m and 26.0 m. Vertical sediment distributions show 6 different lithologic units from basal fluvial (A), estuarine (B), tidal flat and peat fens (C), muddy subtidal bay (D), estuarine (E) and beach barrier (F). 10 14C age determinations were obtained from the longest core (Ladeira N) located at the Ramallosa beach barrier-lagoon complex. The oldest sample located at 22 m yields an age of 8177 y. BP in unit (B) allowing to constrain most of sediment evolution in the holocene transgressive context. The lower unit (A) composed mainly of fluvial gravels, and deposited in a palaeovalley, is attributed to the Younger Dryas although the LST could be also represented in these deposits. Units B, C and D configure the TST showing an initial rapid increase in water depth at 8177 y. BP and subsequent shallowing conditions due to progressive aggradation until 4809 y BP. Units E and F mark the HST eustatic stage being characterised by progradational shallow marine conditions and beach barrier progressive enclosing of the complex. Sedimentation rates were calculated at 7 intervals. An upward decrease is observed from 8177 y BP to 2001 y. BP, followed by a strong sudden increase, mostly in the last 500 years. Hydrology and geomorphology of river

  6. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.


    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  7. On the Holocene evolution of the Ayeyawady megadelta

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    L. Giosan


    Full Text Available The Ayeyawady delta is the last Asian megadelta whose evolution has remained essentially unexplored so far. Unlike most other deltas across the world, the Ayeyawady has not yet been affected by dam construction, providing a unique view on largely natural deltaic processes benefiting from abundant sediment loads affected by tectonics and monsoon hydroclimate. To alleviate the information gap and provide a baseline for future work, here we provide a first model for the Holocene development of this megadelta based on drill core sediments collected in 2016 and 2017, dated with radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence, together with a reevaluation of published maps, charts and scientific literature. Altogether, these data indicate that Ayeyawady is a mud-dominated delta with tidal and wave influences. The sediment-rich Ayeyawady River built meander belt alluvial ridges with avulsive characters. A more advanced coast in the western half of the delta (i.e., the Pathein lobe was probably favored by the more western location of the early course of the river. Radiogenic isotopic fingerprinting of the sediment suggests that the Pathein lobe coast does not receive significant sediment from neighboring rivers. However, the eastern region of the delta (i.e., Yangon lobe is offset inland and extends east into the mudflats of the Sittaung estuary. Wave-built beach ridge construction during the late Holocene, similar to several other deltas across the Indian monsoon domain, suggests a common climatic control on monsoonal delta morphodynamics through variability in discharge, changes in wave climate or both. Correlation of the delta morphological and stratigraphic architecture information on land with the shelf bathymetry, as well as its tectonic, sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics, provides insight on the peculiar growth style of the Ayeyawady delta. The offset between the western Pathein lobe and the eastern deltaic coast appears to be driven

  8. Late Holocene sea ice conditions in Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea (United States)

    Pearce, C.; O'Regan, M.; Rattray, J. E.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Barrientos, N.; Coxall, H.; Smittenberg, R.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.


    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has been in steady decline in recent decades and, based on satellite data, the retreat is most pronounced in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Historical observations suggest that the recent changes were unprecedented during the last 150 years, but for a longer time perspective, we rely on the geological record. For this study, we analyzed sediment samples from two piston cores from Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea, collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean Expedition. The Herald Canyon is a local depression across the Chukchi Shelf, and acts as one of the main pathways for Pacific Water to the Arctic Ocean after entering through the narrow and shallow Bering Strait. The study site lies at the modern-day seasonal sea ice minimum edge, and is thus an ideal location for the reconstruction of past sea ice variability. Both sediment cores contain late Holocene deposits characterized by high sediment accumulation rates (100-300 cm/kyr). Core 2-PC1 from the shallow canyon flank (57 m water depth) is 8 meter long and extends back to 4200 cal yrs BP, while the upper 3 meters of Core 4-PC1 from the central canyon (120 mwd) cover the last 3000 years. The chronologies of the cores are based on radiocarbon dates and the 3.6 ka Aniakchak CFE II tephra, which is used as an absolute age marker to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age. Analysis of biomarkers for sea ice and surface water productivity indicate stable sea ice conditions throughout the entire late Holocene, ending with an abrupt increase of phytoplankton sterols in the very top of both sediment sequences. The shift is accompanied by a sudden increase in coarse sediments (> 125 µm) and a minor change in δ13Corg. We interpret this transition in the top sediments as a community turnover in primary producers from sea ice to open water biota. Most importantly, our results indicate that the ongoing rapid ice retreat in the Chukchi Sea of recent decades was unprecedented during the

  9. Advances in Holocene mountain geomorphology inspired by sediment budget methodology (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Souch, Catherine; Menounos, Brian; Filippelli, Gabriel


    The sediment budget, which links sediment sources to sediment sinks with hydroclimatic and weathering processes mediating the response, is applied to the analysis of sediments in three alpine lakes in British Columbia. We provide two ways of using the sediment budget as an integrating device in the interpretation of mountain geomorphology. These approaches differ in their resolution and ability to budget the major components of the fine-sediment cascade in glaciated environments. Taken together, they provide an integrated index of landscape change over the Holocene. The first example compares the hydroclimatic controls of lake sedimentation for the last 600 years (A.D. 1370-1998) preserved in varved sediments from two of the lake basins. This hydroclimatological approach incorporates contemporary monitoring, air photo analysis, and detailed stratigraphy of sedimentation events within a single varve to infer the timing, sources, and preferred pathways of fine-grained sediments reaching the lake basins. The results indicate that glaciers, hillslope, and channel instability within the major subbasins are the principal sediment sources to the lake basins. Transitory sediment storage of glacially derived sediments within the channels is believed to modulate the episodic and more frequent delivery of sediments from adjacent hillslope and fluvial storage sites and direct routing of glacial rock flour during years of prolonged glacial melt. The second example, relying on the phosphorus geochemistry of sediments in an alpine lake basin, considers the evolution of phosphorus forms (from mineral to occluded and organic fractions) as a function of the soil development, inherent slope instability, and repeated cycles of glaciation and neoglaciation over the Holocene. This geochemical approach demonstrates that both neoglaciation and full glaciation have essentially zeroed the system in such a way that a high proportion of mineral phosphorus remains in the present lake sediments

  10. Influence of manganese fertilizer on efficiency of grapes on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic

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    Batukaev A.A.


    Full Text Available As a result of the studies, there has been obtained new information about the manganese influence on productivity of grape plantations, on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic. Manganese fertilizing of 4 kg active ingredient per 1 ha, against the background of nitrogen 90 kg, phosphorus 90 kg and potassium 90 kg/ha, made it into a phase of grape sap flow, which contributes to higher yields, increase of the sugar content of the berries and a significant decrease in juice acidity, in comparison with other options.

  11. Study of sandy soil grain-size distribution on its deformation properties (United States)

    Antropova, L. B.; Gruzin, A. V.; Gildebrandt, M. I.; Malaya, L. D.; Nikulina, V. B.


    As a rule, new oil and gas fields' development faces the challenges of providing construction objects with material and mineral resources, for example, medium sand soil for buildings and facilities footings of the technological infrastructure under construction. This problem solution seems to lie in a rational usage of the existing environmental resources, soils included. The study was made of a medium sand soil grain-size distribution impact on its deformation properties. Based on the performed investigations, a technique for controlling sandy soil deformation properties was developed.

  12. Superstorm Sandy's forgotten patient: a lesson in emergency preparedness in severe obesity. (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Vira, Shaleen; McLaurin, Toni M


    Superstorm Sandy gained national attention in late 2012 after its impact on the Northeastern US. In New York City, thousands of residents lost power, and multiple hospitals were forced to evacuate. Bellevue Hospital Center (BHC), the nation's oldest public hospital, was forced to close for the first time in over 275 years. Two patients remained in BHC three days after the primary evacuation without water service and minimal power. Herein, we describe the challenges associated with evacuating a severely obese patient. Obesity management is challenging and at an institutional level must be addressed in emergency preparedness plans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them? (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin


    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The chemistry and meiofauna of some unpolluted sandy beaches in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orren, M.J.; Eagle, G.A.; Fricke, A.H.; Gledhill, W.J.; Greenwood, P.J.; Hennig, H.F-K.O.


    Chemical and meiofaunal studies have been carried out on ten sandy beaches along the south and west coasts of South Africa with the aim of establishing base line levels of some parameters, including trace metals, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, oxygen absorbed from alkaline permanganate (OA), temperature and salinity and the diversity and size of meiofaunal populations. Guidelines for the normal levels of the various parameters have been set out and some reasons for their variability have been suggested. The various sites share similarities with regard to exposure, granulometry and hydrology

  15. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot....... The geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  16. Quantitative Holocene climatic reconstructions for the lower Yangtze region of China (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Dodson, John; Yan, Hong; Wang, Weiming; Innes, James B.; Zong, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xu, Qinghai; Ni, Jian; Lu, Fengyan


    Quantitative proxy-based and high-resolution palaeoclimatic datasets are scarce for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River (LYR) basin. This region is in a transitional vegetation zone which is climatologically sensitive; and as a birthplace for prehistorical civilization in China, it is important to understand how palaeoclimatic dynamics played a role in affecting cultural development in the region. We present a pollen-based and regionally-averaged Holocene climatic twin-dataset for mean total annual precipitation (PANN) and mean annual temperature (TANN) covering the last 10,000 years for the LYR region. This is based on the technique of weighted averaging-partial least squares regression to establish robust calibration models for obtaining reliable climatic inferences. The pollen-based reconstructions generally show an early Holocene climatic optimum with both abundant monsoonal rainfall and warm thermal conditions, and a declining pattern of both PANN and TANN values in the middle to late Holocene. The main driving forces behind the Holocene climatic changes in the LYR area are likely summer solar insolation associated with tropical or subtropical macro-scale climatic circulations such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Regional multi-proxy comparisons indicate that the Holocene variations in precipitation and temperature for the LYR region display an in-phase relationship with other related proxy records from southern monsoonal China and the Indian monsoon-influenced regions, but are inconsistent with the Holocene moisture or temperature records from northern monsoonal China and the westerly-dominated region in northwestern China. Overall, our comprehensive palaeoclimatic dataset and models may be significant tools for understanding the Holocene Asian monsoonal evolution and for anticipating its future dynamics in eastern Asia.

  17. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

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    Weijing Yao


    Full Text Available Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry injected into sand and sandy soil were explored. The investigated parameters were the dry density, wet density, moisture content, internal friction angle, and cohesion force. The results show that the consolidation effect of superfine cement is better than that of Portland cement due to the small size of superfine cement particles. The superfine cement can diffuse into the sand by infiltration, extrusion, and splitting. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is less than 2:1 grouting into loose sand, the dry and wet density decrease with the increase in the water–cement ratio, while the moisture content and cohesive force gradually increase. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is 1:1 grouting into loose sand and sandy soil, the dry density, wet density, and cohesive force of loose sand are larger than those of sandy soil. The results of the experiment may be relevant for engineering applications.

  18. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea) (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven


    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  19. Holocene geologic and climatic history around the Gulf of Alaska (United States)

    Mann, D.H.; Crowell, A.L.; Hamilton, T.D.; Finney, B.P.


    Though not as dramatic as during the last Ice Age, pronounced climatic changes occurred in the northeastern Pacific over the last 10,000 years. Summers warmer and drier than today's accompanied a Hypsithermal interval between 9 and 6 ka. Subsequent Neoglaciation was marked by glacier expansion after 5-6 ka and the assembly of modern-type plant communities by 3-4 ka. The Neoglacial interval contained alternating cold and warm intervals, each lasting several hundred years to one millennium, and including both the Medieval Warm Period (ca. AD 900-1350) and the Little Ice Age (ca. AD 1350-1900). Salmon abundance fluctuated during the Little Ice Age in response to local glaciation and probably also to changes in the intensity of the Aleutian Low. Although poorly understood at present, climate fluctuations at all time scales were intimately connected with oceanographic changes in the North Pacific Ocean. The Gulf of Alaska region is tectonically highly active, resulting in a history of frequent geological catastrophes during the Holocene. Twelve to 14 major volcanic eruptions occurred since 12 ka. At intervals of 20-100 years, large earthquakes have raised and lowered sea level instantaneously by meters and generated destructive tsunamis. Sea level has often varied markedly between sites only 50-100 km apart due to tectonism and the isostatic effects of glacier fluctuations.

  20. Radiation dates of holocene shorelines in Peninsula Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjia, H.D.; Kigoshi, K.


    Fifteen newly determined radiocarbon dates indicate the presence of former shorelines up to 3 meters above present high tide level in the tectonically stable Peninsula of Malaysia. The sea level indicators consist of oysters in growth position (9 samples), molluscs in beach deposits (2), corals in growth position (3), and beachrock (1). In the Peninsula living oysters occur up to or slightly above high tide, modern beach deposits may occur as high as 1.5 meters above high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that high tide, and corals live up to low tide level. The literature shows that beachrock marks intertidal zones. Combined with seven previously published ages of raised shorelines in the region, strong evidence is presented for one or more high Holocene, eustatic sea level stands in the continental part of Southeast Asia. Periods of high sea levels occur between 2500 and 2900 yr BP, and between 4200 and 5700 yr BP. There is also some indication of high sea level between 8300 and 9500 yr BP. (author)

  1. Holocene emergence in the Cook Islands, South Pacific (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Stoddart, D. R.; Spencer, T.; Scoffin, T. P.; Tudhope, A. W.


    There is evidence of Holocene emergence on several of the Cook Islands. On Suwarrow Atoll there are extensive outcrops of emergent, but truncated, reef on the northern atoll rim, radiocarbon-dated 4680 4310 years B. P., overlain by younger cemented boulder conglomerates. On the northeast of the atoll there are fossil algal ridges indicating up to 1 m of emergence; the landwardmost has been dated 4220 years B. P., the intermediate one 3420 years B. P. and the present one 1250 years B. P. On Mitiaro, a makatea island in the Southern Cooks, there are emergent reefal deposits in the centre of the reef flat dated 5140 3620 years B. P. Similar thought poorly preserved deposits occur on Mauke, and an erosional bench and notch occurs on Atiu. Emergence on all islands appears synchronous with that reported on Mangaia, where a relative fall of sea level of at least 1.7 m in the last 3400 years has been reported. The evidence for emergence is broadly similar to that described from French Polynesia, though timing of emergence appears to differ.

  2. Colonizing Dynamic Alluvial and Coastal Landscapes in the Holocene (United States)

    Kidder, T.; Liu, X.; Ervin, K.


    Throughout the Holocene humans have had to adapt to dynamic, rapidly changing alluvial and coastal landscapes. Understanding when people inhabit a given environment is an important starting point for exploring human adaptations, but increasingly we need to consider how, and especially why certain environments are used—or not used— so we can understand the consequences of these human actions. Using four case studies—one from the Yellow River Valley, China, one from coastal Jiangsu, China, one from the Mississippi River Valley (Mississippi, USA) and one from the Mississippi River delta (Louisiana , USA)—we develop a model of how humans at various stages of cultural development colonize new environments. Using archaeological data and ecological modeling we investigate the relationship between the timing of landscape colonization and the ecological richness and predictability of any given environment. As new landscapes emerge and mature humans adopt different strategies for exploiting these novel environments that begins with episodic use and increasingly shifts to stable, long-term habitation. The early phase of landscape colonization appears to be the most significant period because it shapes human environmental practices and sets each culture on a trajectory of socio-cultural development. Thus, human-environment interaction is a critical part of the emergence of cultural patterns that shapes the past, present, and even the future.

  3. Lake Baikal isotope records of Holocene Central Asian precipitation (United States)

    Swann, George E. A.; Mackay, Anson W.; Vologina, Elena; Jones, Matthew D.; Panizzo, Virginia N.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Snelling, Andrea M.; Sturm, Michael


    Climate models currently provide conflicting predictions of future climate change across Central Asia. With concern over the potential for a change in water availability to impact communities and ecosystems across the region, an understanding of historical trends in precipitation is required to aid model development and assess the vulnerability of the region to future changes in the hydroclimate. Here we present a record from Lake Baikal, located in the southern Siberian region of central Asia close to the Mongolian border, which demonstrates a relationship between the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom) and precipitation to the region over the 20th and 21st Century. From this, we suggest that annual rates of precipitation in recent times are at their lowest for the past 10,000 years and identify significant long-term variations in precipitation throughout the early to late Holocene interval. Based on comparisons to other regional records, these trends are suggested to reflect conditions across the wider Central Asian region around Lake Baikal and highlight the potential for further changes in precipitation with future climate change.

  4. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra


    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  5. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL


    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  6. Late Holocene environmental reconstruction using cave sediments from Belize (United States)

    Polk, Jason S.; van Beynen, Philip E.; Reeder, Philip P.


    Cave sediments collected from Reflection Cave on the Vaca Plateau, Belize show variations in the δ13C values of their fulvic acids (FAs), which indicate periods of vegetation change caused by climatic and Maya influences during the late Holocene. The δ13C values range from - 27.11‰ to - 21.52‰, a shift of ˜ 5.59‰, which suggests fluctuating contributions of C 3 and C 4 plants throughout the last 2.5 ka, with C 4 plant input reflecting periods of Maya agriculture. Maya activity in the study area occurred at different intensities from ˜ 2600 cal yr BP until ˜ 1500 cal yr BP, after which agricultural practices waned as the Maya depopulated the area. These changes in plant assemblages were in response to changes in available water resources, with increased aridity leading to the eventual abandonment of agricultural areas. The Ix Chel archaeological site, located in the study area, is a highland site that would have been among the first agricultural settlements to be affected during periods of aridity. During these periods, minimal water resources would have been available in this highly karstified, well-drained area, and supplemental groundwater extraction would have been difficult due to the extreme depth of the water table.

  7. The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments (United States)

    Giesecke, Thomas; Bennett, K. D.; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Bozilova, Elisaveta; Feurdean, Angelica; Finsinger, Walter; Froyd, Cynthia; Pokorný, Petr; Rösch, Manfred; Seppä, Heikki; Tonkov, Spasimir; Valsecchi, Verushka; Wolters, Steffen


    Mid to high latitude forest ecosystems have undergone several major compositional changes during the Holocene. The temporal and spatial patterns of these vegetation changes hold potential information to their causes and triggers. Here we test the hypothesis that the timing of vegetation change was synchronous on a sub-continental scale, which implies a common trigger or a step-like change in climate parameters. Pollen diagrams from selected European regions were statistically divided into assemblage zones and the temporal pattern of the zone boundaries analysed. The results show that the temporal pattern of vegetation change was significantly different from random. Times of change cluster around 8.2, 4.8, 3.7, and 1.2 ka, while times of higher than average stability were found around 2.1 and 5.1 ka. Compositional changes linked to the expansion of Corylus avellana and Alnus glutinosa centre around 10.6 and 9.5 ka, respectively. A climatic trigger initiating these changes may have occurred 0.5 to 1 ka earlier, respectively. The synchronous expansion of C. avellana and A. glutinosa exemplify that dispersal is not necessarily followed by population expansion. The partly synchronous, partly random expansion of A. glutinosa in adjacent European regions exemplifies that sudden synchronous population expansions are not species specific traits but vary regionally.

  8. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

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    Vera Warmuth


    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  9. 1300 km long late Pleistocene-Holocene shelf edge barrier reef system along the western continental shelf of India: Occurrence and significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.; Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    . It is surmised that coral/algal reef growth commenced with the advent of the Holocene trangression and favorable antecedent topography, and continued until early Holocene. Subsequently, rapid sea level rise drowned the reefs. The shelf edge reefs, therefore...

  10. Holocene seasonal variability inferred from multiple proxy records from Crevice Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA (United States)

    Whitlock, Cathy; Dean, Walter E.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Stevens, Lora R.; Stone, Jeffery R.; Power, Mitchell J.; Rosenbaum, Joseph R.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Bracht-Flyr, Brandi B.


    A 9400-yr-old record from Crevice Lake, a semi-closed alkaline lake in northern Yellowstone National Park, was analyzed for pollen, charcoal, geochemistry, mineralogy, diatoms, and stable isotopes to develop a nuanced understanding of Holocene environmental history in a region of northern Rocky Mountains that receives both summer and winter precipitation. The limited surface area, conical bathymetry, and deep water (> 31 m) of Crevice Lake create oxygen-deficient conditions in the hypolimnion and preserve annually laminated sediment (varves) for much of the record. Pollen data indicate that the watershed supported a closed Pinus-dominated forest and low fire frequency prior to 8200 cal yr BP, followed by open parkland until 2600 cal yr BP, and open mixed-conifer forest thereafter. Fire activity shifted from infrequent stand-replacing fires initially to frequent surface fires in the middle Holocene and stand-replacing events in recent centuries. Low values of δ18O suggest high winter precipitation in the early Holocene, followed by steadily drier conditions after 8500 cal yr BP. Carbonate-rich sediments before 5000 cal yr BP imply warmer summer conditions than after 5000 cal yr BP. High values of molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and sulfur (S) indicate anoxic bottom-waters before 8000 cal yr BP, between 4400 and 3900 cal yr BP, and after 2400 cal yr BP. The diatom record indicates extensive water-column mixing in spring and early summer through much of the Holocene, but a period between 2200 and 800 cal yr BP had strong summer stratification, phosphate limitation, and oxygen-deficient bottom waters. Together, the proxy data suggest wet winters, protracted springs, and warm effectively wet summers in the early Holocene and less snowpack, cool springs, warm dry summers in the middle Holocene. In the late Holocene, the region and lake experienced extreme changes in winter, spring, and summer conditions, with particularly short springs and dry summers and winters during

  11. Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of holocene population and environmental change.

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    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately two hundred human burials were discovered on the edge of a paleolake in Niger that provide a uniquely preserved record of human occupation in the Sahara during the Holocene ( approximately 8000 B.C.E. to the present. Called Gobero, this suite of closely spaced sites chronicles the rapid pace of biosocial change in the southern Sahara in response to severe climatic fluctuation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main occupational phases are identified that correspond with humid intervals in the early and mid-Holocene, based on 78 direct AMS radiocarbon dates on human remains, fauna and artifacts, as well as 9 OSL dates on paleodune sand. The older occupants have craniofacial dimensions that demonstrate similarities with mid-Holocene occupants of the southern Sahara and Late Pleistocene to early Holocene inhabitants of the Maghreb. Their hyperflexed burials compose the earliest cemetery in the Sahara dating to approximately 7500 B.C.E. These early occupants abandon the area under arid conditions and, when humid conditions return approximately 4600 B.C.E., are replaced by a more gracile people with elaborated grave goods including animal bone and ivory ornaments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The principal significance of Gobero lies in its extraordinary human, faunal, and archaeological record, from which we conclude the following: The early Holocene occupants at Gobero (7700-6200 B.C.E. were largely sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers with lakeside funerary sites that include the earliest recorded cemetery in the Sahara.Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero with a skeletally robust, trans-Saharan assemblage of Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene human populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.Gobero was abandoned during a period of severe aridification possibly as long as one millennium (6200-5200 B.C.E.More gracile humans arrived in the mid-Holocene

  12. Millennial Scale Variability of the AMOC and its Link to Climate During the Holocene (United States)

    Thornalley, D. J.; Oppo, D.; Keigwin, L. D.; Hall, I. R.; Moffa Sanchez, P.


    Several proxy and modelling studies suggest that there may have been considerable change in the operation the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the Holocene. Yet despite its importance for regional and global climate, the Holocene history of the AMOC is poorly constrained. Improving our knowledge of past AMOC variability will contribute to our general understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation and the role it may play in causing or amplifying climate variability on millennial timescales. We present Holocene grain-size records in depth transects from Blake Outer Ridge and Cape Hatteras, sampling the full-depth range of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC), the lower limb of the AMOC. These records will complement a depth-transect of grain-size records sampling the Iceland-Scotland (I-S) overflow, showing Holocene variations that reflect deglacial meltwater forcing in the early Holocene and insolation-forced trends from the middle-to-late Holocene (Thornalley et al., 2013, Climate of the Past). We will also present detailed grain-size records for the last 2,000 years, both in a depth transect of cores off Cape Hatteras, and from cores in the Iceland Basin, sampling the I-S overflow. Our extensive datasets enable us to provide a coherent synthesis of changes in the flow strength of key components of the AMOC on centennial-millennial and orbital timescales, which we can use to develop our understanding of past millennial-scale climate variability. Specific questions to be addressed include: How well coupled are Holocene trends in Iceland-Scotland overflow and the DWBC? How did I-S overflow and the AMOC vary during the last millennia, including the last ~150 years since the end of the Little Ice Age? Initial results suggest a long-term anti-phasing of the Nordic overflows, wherein mid-late Holocene weakening of the I-S overflow has been compensated for by a strengthening of Denmark Strait overflow. We will also report on pronounced

  13. Hurricane Sandy and Adaptation Pathways in New York: Lessons from a First-Responder City (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William


    Two central issues of climate change have become increasingly evident: Climate change will significantly affect cities; and rapid global urbanization will increase dramatically the number of individuals, amount of critical infrastructure, and means of economic production that are exposed and vulnerable to dynamic climate risks. Simultaneously, cities in many settings have begun to emerge as early adopters of climate change action strategies including greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation. The objective of this paper is to examine and analyze how officials of one city - the City of New York - have integrated a flexible adaptation pathways approach into the municipality's climate action strategy. This approach has been connected with the City's ongoing response to Hurricane Sandy, which struck in the October 2012 and resulted in damages worth more than US$19 billion. A case study narrative methodology utilizing the Wise et al. conceptual framework (see this volume) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the flexible adaptation pathways approach in New York City. The paper finds that Hurricane Sandy serves as a ''tipping point'' leading to transformative adaptation due to the explicit inclusion of increasing climate change risks in the rebuilding effort. The potential for transferability of the approach to cities varying in size and development stage is discussed, with elements useful across cities including the overall concept of flexible adaptation pathways, the inclusion of the full metropolitan region in the planning process, and the co-generation of climate-risk information by stakeholders and scientists.

  14. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin


    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  15. Analysis of Water Resources in Horqin Sandy Land Using Multisource Data from 2003 to 2010

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    Zhenzhen Zhao


    Full Text Available Over the past four decades, land use/land cover (LU/LC change, coupled with persistent drought, has resulted in the decline of groundwater levels in Horqin Sandy Land. Accordingly, this study quantifies changes in LU/LC and groundwater storage (GWS. Furthermore, it investigates the effects of LU/LC changes on GWS. GWS changes are estimated using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data and ground-based measurements obtained from July 2003 to December 2010. Soil moisture and snow water equivalent data derived from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS are used to isolate GWS changes from GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage changes. The result shows that the groundwater depletion rate in Horqin Sandy Land is 13.5 ± 1.9 mm·year−1 in 2003–2010, which is consistent with the results of monitoring well stations. LU/LC changes are detected using bitemporal imageries (2003 and 2010 from Landsat Thematic Mapper through the post-classification comparison method. The result shows that LU/LC significantly changed during the aforementioned period. Bare soil and built-up land have increased by 76.6% and 82.2%, respectively, while cropland, vegetation, and water bodies have decreased by 14.1%, 74.5%, and 82.6%, respectively. The analysis of GWS and LU/LC changes shows that LU/LC changes and persistent drought are the main factors that affect groundwater resources.

  16. Utilization of Sandy Soil as the Primary Raw Material in Production of Unfired Bricks

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    Guilan Tao


    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to use sandy soil as the main raw material in making unfired bricks. The sprayed-cured brick specimens were tested for compressive and flexural strength, rate of water absorption, percentage of voids, bulk density, freezing/thawing, and water immersion resistance. In addition, the microstructures of the specimens were also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. The test results show that unfired brick specimens with the addition of ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS tend to achieve better mechanical properties when compared with the specimens that added cement alone, with GGBS correcting particle size distribution and contributing to the pozzolanic reactions and the pore-filling effects. The test specimens with the appropriate addition of cement, GGBS, quicklime, and gypsum are dense and show a low water absorption rate, a low percentage of voids, and an excellent freezing/thawing and water immersion resistance. The SEM observation and XRD analysis verify the formation of hydrate products C–S–H and ettringite, providing a better explanation of the mechanical and physical behavior and durability of the derived unfired bricks. The results obtained suggest that there is a technical approach for the high-efficient comprehensive utilization of sandy soil and provide increased economic and environmental benefits.

  17. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile. (United States)

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio


    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

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    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  19. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and development of sandy everlasting Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench.

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    Anna K. Sawilska


    Full Text Available The significance of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi for the growth and development of Helichrysum arenarium was investigated in two independent experiments. In the first experiment the association of root colonization level with the pluviothermal conditions within the growing season and the age of a natural plant population was analyzed. In the second one, under controlled conditions, the influence of artificial inoculation with the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices on the features of plants raised from achenes was studied. It was shown that hydrothermal conditions during blooming period had a greater influence on reproduction processes of sandy everlasting than both the population age (the secondary succession progress and the level of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. High amount of precipitation at plant generative development phase positively influences the potential and actual fertility of ramets. The presence of arbuscular fungus in the soil favors the growth and development of sandy everlasting specimens at their early growing stages: they have a better-developed root system and a greater photosynthetic area.

  20. Improvement of Shear Strength of Sandy Soil by Cement Grout with Fly Ash

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    Haifaa Abdulrasool Ali


    Full Text Available The effects of the permeation cement grout with fly ash on the sandy soil skeleton were studied in the present work in two phase; first phase the shear strength parameters, and the second phase effect of these grouted materials on volume grouted zone by injection (51 cm³ of slurry in sandy soil placed in steel cylinder model with dimension 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height. The soil sample was obtained from Karbala city and it is classified as poorly graded sand (SP according to USCS. The soil samples were improved by cement grout with three percentages weight of water cement ratio (w:c; (0.1w:0.9c, 0.8w:0.2c, and 0.7w:0.3c, while the soil samples were dehydrated for one day curing time. Fly ash class (F was used with cement grout as filler material; it was added to the mixture as a replacement material for cement in weight percentages; 10%, 25% and 40%. According to the results of tests, both shear strength and approximate volume of the effective grouted zone for treated samples soil with cement grout was increased when the water cement ratio decreased. Fly ash with cement grout needs to increase the water demand for the grout mixing to give best results in both shear strength and filling the soil voids.

  1. Estimating water retention curves and strength properties of unsaturated sandy soils from basic soil gradation parameters (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Hu, Nian; François, Bertrand; Lambert, Pierre


    This study proposed two pedotransfer functions (PTFs) to estimate sandy soil water retention curves. It is based on the van Genuchten's water retention model and from a semiphysical and semistatistical approach. Basic gradation parameters of d60 as particle size at 60% passing and the coefficient of uniformity Cu are employed in the PTFs with two idealized conditions, the monosized scenario and the extremely polydisperse condition, satisfied. Water retention tests are carried out on eight granular materials with narrow particle size distributions as supplementary data of the UNSODA database. The air entry value is expressed as inversely proportional to d60 and the parameter n, which is related to slope of water retention curve, is a function of Cu. The proposed PTFs, although have fewer parameters, have better fitness than previous PTFs for sandy soils. Furthermore, by incorporating with the suction stress definition, the proposed pedotransfer functions are imbedded in shear strength equations which provide a way to estimate capillary induced tensile strength or cohesion at a certain suction or degree of saturation from basic soil gradation parameters. The estimation shows quantitative agreement with experimental data in literature, and it also explains that the capillary-induced cohesion is generally higher for materials with finer mean particle size or higher polydispersity.

  2. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China. (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin


    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire.

  3. A Quality Control study of the distribution of NOAA MIRS Cloudy retrievals during Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Fletcher, S. J.


    Cloudy radiance present a difficult challenge to data assimilation (DA) systems, through both the radiative transfer system as well the hydrometers required to resolve the cloud and precipitation. In most DA systems the hydrometers are not control variables due to many limitations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is producing products from the NPP-ATMS satellite where the scene is cloud and precipitation affected. The test case that we present here is the life time of Hurricane and then Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. As a quality control study we shall compare the retrieved water vapor content during the lifetime of Sandy with the first guess and the analysis from the NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. The assessment involves the gross error check system against the first guess with different values for the observational error's variance to see if the difference is within three standard deviations. We shall also compare against the final analysis at the relevant cycles to see if the products which have been retrieved through a cloudy radiance are similar, given that the DA system does not assimilate cloudy radiances yet.

  4. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact. (United States)

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P


    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources.

  5. Evolution of a search: the use of dynamic twitter searches during superstorm sandy. (United States)

    Harris Smith, Sara; Bennett, Kelly J; Livinski, Alicia A


    Twitter has emerged as a critical source of free and openly available information during emergency response operations, providing an unmatched level of on-the-ground situational awareness in real-time. Responders and survivors turn to Twitter to share information and resources within communities, conduct rumor control, and provide a "boots on the ground" understanding of the disaster. However, the ability to tune out background "noise" is essential to effectively utilizing Twitter to identify important and useful information during an emergency response. This article highlights a two-prong strategy in which the use of a Twitter list paired with subject specific Boolean searches provided increased situational awareness and early event detection during the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) response to Superstorm Sandy in 2012. To maximize the amount of relevant information that was retrieved, the Twitter list and Boolean searches were dynamic and responsive to real-time developments, evolving health threats, and the informational needs of decision-makers. The use of a Twitter list combined with Boolean searches led to enhanced situational awareness throughout the HHS response. The incorporation of a dynamic search strategy over the course of the HHS Sandy response, allowed for the ability to account for over-tweeted information, changes in event related conversation, and decreases in the return of relevant information.

  6. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches? (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.


    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  7. Methane accumulation and forming high saturations of methane hydrate in sandy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A. [JAPEX Research Center, Chiba (Japan); Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Upstream Technology Unit


    Methane supplies for marine gas hydrates are commonly attributed to the microbial conversion of organic materials. This study hypothesized that methane supplies were related to pore water flow behaviours and microscopic migration in intergranular pore systems. Sedimentology and geochemistry analyses were performed on sandy core samples taken from the Nankai trough and the Mallik gas hydrate test site in the Mackenzie Delta. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of geologic and sedimentolic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrates. Grain size distribution curves indicated that gas hydrate saturations of up to 80 per cent in pore volume occurred throughout the hydrate-dominant sand layers in the Nankai trough and Mallik areas. Water permeability measurements showed that the highly gas hydrate-saturated sands have a permeability of a few millidarcies. Pore-space gas hydrates occurred primarily in fine and medium-grained sands. Core temperature depression, core observations, and laboratory analyses of the hydrates confirmed the pore-spaces as intergranular pore fillings. Results of the study suggested that concentrations of gas hydrates may require a pore space large enough to occur within a host sediments, and that the distribution of porous and coarser-grained sandy sediments is an important factor in controlling the occurrence of gas hydrates. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  8. [Soil moisture dynamics of artificial Caragana microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in Horqin sandy land]. (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xue-yong; Huang, Ying-xin; Su, Yan-gui


    Based on the investigation data of vegetation and soil moisture regime of Caragana microphylla shrubs widely distributed in Horqin sandy land, the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture regime and soil water storage of artificial sand-fixing C. microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in the sandy land were studied, and the evapotranspiration was measured by water balance method. The results showed that the soil moisture content of the shrubs was the highest in the lowland of dunes, followed by in the middle, and in the crest of the dunes, and increased with increasing depth. No water stress occurred during the growth season of the shrubs. Soil moisture content of the shrubs was highly related to precipitation event, and the relationship of soil moisture content with precipitation was higher in deep soil layer (50-180 cm) than in shallow soil layer (0-50 cm). The variation coefficient of soil moisture content was also higher in deep layer than in shallow layer. Soil water storage was increasing in the whole growth season of the shrubs, which meant that the accumulation of soil water occurred in this area. The evapotranspiriation of the shrubs occupied above 64% of the precipitation.

  9. Response of sesame to population densities and nitrogen fertilization on newly reclaimed sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorka, I.R.; Hafiz, S.I.


    Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University at Ismailia during 2008 and 2009 seasons to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and planting density on growth , yield, its attributes as well as seed quality of new sesame variety (Taka 2 cv.). On newly reclaimed sandy soils of Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, experimental design in split plots form with four replications was used. Four levels of nitrogen fertilization 55, 105, 155 and 205 Kg/ha were arranged randomly in the main plots and three planting distances between hills (10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively) were distributed at random in the sub plots. Increasing N fertilizer level up to 205 Kg/ha significantly increased plant height, fruiting zone length, height of the first fruiting branch, number of branches and capsules/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed weight/plant, seed oil content (%) and seed and oil yields /ha. Decreasing planting distance from 20 to 15 and 10 cm consistently and significantly increased plant height, height of the first fruiting branch and seed and oil yields /ha. The reverse was true regarding the yield components. These results were expected, since experiment soil was newly reclaimed sandy soil and very poor in the nutrients and organic matter. (author)

  10. Distribution of transformed organic matter in structural units of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil (United States)

    Kogut, B. M.; Yashin, M. A.; Semenov, V. M.; Avdeeva, T. N.; Markina, L. G.; Lukin, S. M.; Tarasov, S. I.


    The effect of land use types and fertilizing systems on the structural and aggregate composition of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil and the quantitative parameters of soil organic matter has been studied. The contribution of soil aggregates 2-1 mm in size to the total Corg reserve in the humus horizon is higher than the contributions of other aggregates by 1.3-4.2 times. Reliable correlations have been revealed between the contents of total (Corg), labile (Clab), and active (C0) organic matter in the soil. The proportion of C0 is 44-70% of Clab extractable by neutral sodium pyrophosphate solution. The contributions of each of the 2-1, 0.5-0.25, and fractions to the total C0 reserve are 14-21%; the contributions of each of the other fractions are 4-12%. The chemically labile and biologically active components of humic substances reflect the quality changes of soil organic matter under agrogenic impacts. A conceptual scheme has been proposed for the subdivision of soil organic matter into the active, slow (intermediate), and passive pools. In the humus horizon of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil, the active, slow, and passive pools contain 6-11, 34-65, and 26-94% of the total Corg, respectively.

  11. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.


    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  12. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.


    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  13. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate. (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C


    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko


    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  15. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs


    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy...... the finding that some groups of clones were shared between the metal-impacted sandy sediment and the harbor control, comparative analyses showed that the two sediments were significantly different in community composition. Consequences of redeposition of metal-polluted sediment were primarily underlined...... with cultivation-dependent techniques. Toxicity tests showed that the percentage of Cd- and Cu-tolerant aerobic heterotrophs was highest among isolates from the sandy sediment with metal-polluted mud on top....

  16. Holocene environmental change and archaeology, Yangtze River Valley, China: Review and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu


    Full Text Available Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology are important components of an international project studying the human-earth interaction system. This paper reviews the progress of Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology research in the Yangtze River Valley over the last three decades, that includes the evolution of large freshwater lakes, Holocene transgression and sea-level changes, Holocene climate change and East Asian monsoon variation, relationship between the rise and fall of primitive civilizations and environmental changes, cultural interruptions and palaeoflood events, as well as relationship between the origin of agriculture and climate change. These research components are underpinned by the dating of lacustrine sediments, stalagmites and peat to establish a chronology of regional environmental and cultural evolution. Interdisciplinary and other environment proxy indicators need to be used in comparative studies of archaeological site formation and natural sedimentary environment in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. Modern technology such as remote sensing, molecular bioarchaeology, and virtual reality, should be integrated with currently used dating, geochemical, sedimentological, and palaeobotanical methods of analysis in environmental archaeology macro- and micro-studies, so as to provide a greater comprehensive insight into Holocene environmental and cultural interaction and change in the Yangtze River Valley area.

  17. Late Holocene higher sea level and its radiocarbon dates in Okierabu-jima, Ryukyus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Motoharu; Omoto, Kunio; Takahashi, Tatsuo.


    Okierabu-jima of the Ryukyu Islands, which is a poly-terraced Pleistocene raised coral reef island, doesn't have a Holocene raised coral reef, but coastal erosional features showing higher sea levels in Holocene. The authors obtained some data indicating the period of one of the Holocene higher sea levels. All radiocarbon dates concerning Okierabu-jima's Holocene sea-level changes are plotted on the date-height coordinates. The paleo sea level between 5000 and 2000 y. B. P. lies above the broken line drawn from 6 m below to 2.18 m above the present sea level. The period of the highest sea level in Holocene seems to be about 3000 to 2000 y. B. P. in this island. Its height is presumably 2.4 m a. s. l. derived on an average from heights of stacks and coastal benches in the almost all coasts of the island (Koba, 1974). Beach rocks were already formed at the landward extremity of the reef flat corresponding to the almost present sea level about 1300 y. B. P. (author)

  18. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska (United States)

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott


    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  19. A Stalagmite record of Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon variability from the Australian tropics (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Polyak, Victor J.; Brown, Josephine R.; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan D.; LaPointe, Zachary; Ellerbroek, Rebecca; Barthelmes, Michael; Cleary, Daniel; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William F.


    Oxygen isotopic data from a suite of calcite and aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51, located in the eastern Kimberley region of tropical Western Australia, represent the first absolute-dated, high-resolution speleothem record of the Holocene Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) from the Australian tropics. Stalagmite oxygen isotopic values track monsoon intensity via amount effects in precipitation and reveal a dynamic Holocene IASM which strengthened in the early Holocene, decreased in strength by 4 ka, with a further decrease from ˜2 to 1 ka, before strengthening again at 1 ka to years to levels similar to those between 4 and 2 ka. The relationships between the KNI-51 IASM reconstruction and those from published speleothem time series from Flores and Borneo, in combination with other data sets, appear largely inconsistent with changes in the position and/or organization of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Instead, we argue that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have played a dominant role in driving IASM variability since at least the middle Holocene. Given the muted modern monsoon rainfall responses to most El Niño events in the Kimberley, an impact of ENSO on regional monsoon precipitation over northwestern Australia would suggest non-stationarity in the long-term relationship between ENSO forcing and IASM rainfall, possibly due to changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific over the Holocene.

  20. Holocene Millennial-scale Surface and Bottom Water Variability, Feni Drift, NE Atlantic Ocean: Foraminiferal Assemblages (United States)

    Lassen, S. J.; Richter, T. O.; de Stigter, H. C.; van Weering, T. C. E.; de Haas, H.

    A high-resolution sediment core from Feni Drift (ENAM9606, 56N 14W, 2543 m wa- ter depth) was investigated for planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages dur- ing the last 12,000 years. During the Preboreal, peak abundances of T.quinqueloba indicate the passage of the Arctic front over the core site. Holocene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual warming trend of surface water masses punctuated by a major cooling (8,200ky event s.l.), and possibly a slight cooling dur- ing the last 3,000 years. The interval from 10 to 5kyrs shows higher and fluctuating abundances of T.quinqueloba and G.bulloides, which suggest proximity of the subarc- tic front and enhanced spring blooms compared to the upper Holocene. Abundance peaks of N.pachyderma(s) and/or T.quinqueloba indicate a series of millennial-scale cooling events during the entire Holocene, which can be correlated to similar episodes previously described from other locations in the North Atlantic and Norwegian- Greenland Sea. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual transition from seasonal, spring-bloom related food supply in the Lower Holocene (dominance of the phytodetritus species E.exigua) to possibly lower, but more sustained food supply in the Upper Holocene (dominance of C.obtusa and C.laevigata).

  1. Holocene deposition and megathrust splay fault geometries within Prince William Sound, Alaska (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pratt, T. L.


    New high resolution sparker seismic reflection data, in conjunction with reprocessed legacy seismic data, provide the basis for a new fault, fold, and Holocene sediment thickness database for Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, legacy airgun seismic data in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska tie features on these new sparker data to deeper portions of megathrust splay faults. We correlate regionally extensive bathymetric lineaments within Prince William Sound to megathrust splay faults, such as the ones that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Lastly, we estimate Holocene sediment thickness within Prince William Sound to better constrain the Holocene fault history throughout the region. We identify three seismic facies related to Holocene, Quaternary, and Tertiary strata that are crosscut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of the megathrust splay faults. The crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A change in exhumation rates, slip rates, and fault orientation appears near Hinchinbrook that we attribute to differences in subducted slab geometry. Based on our slip rate analysis, we calculate average Holocene displacements of 20 m and 100 m in eastern and western Prince William Sound, respectively. Landward of two splay faults exposed on Montague Island, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes.

  2. Sedimentary environments in the south-western Barents Sea during the last deglaciation and the Holocene: a case study outside the Ingøydjupet trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pau


    Full Text Available A lithological and foraminiferal study of newly acquired sediment cores outside the Ingøydjupet (Ingøy Deep trough has been carried out to improve constraints on the last deglacial history in the south-western Barents Sea. Three lithofacies and three foraminiferal facies were identified. The lowermost lithological unit is a diamicton interpreted as glacial till. It contains a low-abundance, ecologically mixed foraminiferal assemblage, presumably resulting from glacial reworking. Above the diamicton, a layer of ice-rafted debris (IRD, likely associated with intensive iceberg production, marks the initial destabilization of the marine-based ice sheet. At this time, ca. 15.6–15.0 Ky B.P., opportunistic foraminiferal species Nonionellina labradorica and Stainforthia spp. reached peak abundance. During the south-western Barents Sea ice-margin retreat, presumably corresponding to the Bølling interstadial, a sequence of glaciomarine laminations was deposited conformably on the layer of IRD. Sedimentation rates were apparently high (estimated about 0.4 cm per year and the foraminiferal fauna was dominated by Elphidium spp. and Cassidulina reniforme, species common for glacier-proximal environments. A hiatus at the top of the deglacial unit is likely linked to the high bottom-current activity associated with a strengthened inflow of Atlantic water masses into the Barents Sea. The uppermost lithological unit is represented by the Holocene marine sandy mud. It contains a high-abundance, high-diversity foraminiferal fauna with common cassidulinids, Cibicides spp., Epistominella pusilla and planktic species.

  3. Vertical small scale variations of sorption and mineralization of three herbicides in subsurface limestone and sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Mouvet, C.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    , France. From two intact core drills, four heterogenic limestone sections were collected from 4.50-26.40 m below surface (mbs) and divided into 12 sub-samples of 8-25 cm length, and one sandy aquifer section from 19.20-19.53 m depth divided into 7 sub-samples of 4-5 cm length. In the sandy aquifer section...... showed that a 30 cm active layer with the measured sorption and mineralization values hardly impacted the fate of the investigated herbicides, whereas a total thickness of layers of 1 m would substantially increase natural attenuation....

  4. Toward explaining the Holocene carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records: Results from transient ocean carbon cycle-climate simulations (United States)

    Menviel, L.; Joos, F.


    The Bern3D model was applied to quantify the mechanisms of carbon cycle changes during the Holocene (last 11,000 years). We rely on scenarios from the literature to prescribe the evolution of shallow water carbonate deposition and of land carbon inventory changes over the glacial termination (18,000 to 11,000 years ago) and the Holocene and modify these scenarios within uncertainties. Model results are consistent with Holocene records of atmospheric CO2 and δ13C as well as the spatiotemporal evolution of δ13C and carbonate ion concentration in the deep sea. Deposition of shallow water carbonate, carbonate compensation of land uptake during the glacial termination, land carbon uptake and release during the Holocene, and the response of the ocean-sediment system to marine changes during the termination contribute roughly equally to the reconstructed late Holocene pCO2 rise of 20 ppmv. The 5 ppmv early Holocene pCO2 decrease reflects terrestrial uptake largely compensated by carbonate deposition and ocean sediment responses. Additional small contributions arise from Holocene changes in sea surface temperature, ocean circulation, and export productivity. The Holocene pCO2 variations result from the subtle balance of forcings and processes acting on different timescales and partly in opposite direction as well as from memory effects associated with changes occurring during the termination. Different interglacial periods with different forcing histories are thus expected to yield different pCO2 evolutions as documented by ice cores.

  5. Holocene climate and fjord glaciations in Northeast Greenland: implications for IRD deposition in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels


    been released by intensive sub-glacial melting during the long stay of the ice-islands in coastal waters. The Holocene glacial geological record from Northeast Greenland is compared to the record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from North Atlantic deep-sea sediment cores. The comparison shows that transport...... by icebergs in the form of basal debris is unlikely to be the dominant transport mechanism of IRD to deposition sites in the North Atlantic during the Holocene. The ice rafted debris is more likely to be carried at the surface of sea- (or glacier) ice. This supports the result of previous studies by other...... workers that changes of atmospheric and ocean-surface circulation and temperature are the likely causes of Holocene cycles in IRD concentration in North Atlantic deep-sea sediments....

  6. Drainage system inversion in the Guadalentin Depression during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene (Murcia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmel-Avila, M.; Silva, P. G.; Bardaji, T.; Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.


    This article presents the results of studies conducted in the central sector of Guadalentin depression (Murcia) for the abnormal accumulation (more than 17 m) of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits upstream of Romeral tectonic threshold (Librilla). {sup 1}4C dating. ruins and archaeological sites, together with its stratigraphic analysis show that the three sequences that constitute the Holocene detrital filling of the Depression, prograded are superimposed on the upper Pleistocene travertine upstream from the confluence of the River Guadalentin the Rambla de Librilla. Between Librilla and threshold Romeral Holocene deposits only appear along the left bank (15-17m). By contrast the right side shows significant lifting of the Pleistocene travertine up area Romeral threshold, where the substrate allora Neogene. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. Holocene emerged coral reef in Takarajima and Kodakarajima, Ryukyu islands, Southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Takashi; Omoto, Kunio; Koba, Motoharu


    Due to the recent development of radiometric dating, coral reefs emerged in Holocene epoch are studied intensively worldwidely in relation to sea level change and coral reef formation. Attempt was made to determine the age, pattern and growth rate of coral reefs in the marginal area of coral sea in the Northwest Pacific. Field observation was made in the emerged coral reefs in Takarajima and Kodakarajima islands and the samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from geological sections across the emerged reefs. These islands are located at about 29 deg 10 min N, 129 deg 15 min E, where warm Kuroshio current pushes the margin of coral sea northward, and furnished with flourishing development of coral reefs emerged in both pleistocence and Holocene epochs. Though without earthquake records, it is assumed that Holocene reefs have been terraced due to sudden uplift associated with major earthquakes. (Mori, K.)

  8. Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate. (United States)

    Bevan, Andrew; Colledge, Sue; Fuller, Dorian; Fyfe, Ralph; Shennan, Stephen; Stevens, Chris


    We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources. For the Neolithic, this evidence questions existing models of wholly endogenous demographic boom-bust. For the wider Holocene, it demonstrates that climate-related disruptions have been quasi-periodic drivers of societal and subsistence change. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. A humid early Holocene in Yemen interpreted from palaeoecology and taxonomy of freshwater ostracods (United States)

    Mohammed, Munef; Frenzel, Peter; Keyser, Dietmar; Hussain, Fadhl; Abood, Abdulkareem; Sha'af, Abdulmajed; Alzara'e, Sadham; Alammari, Sakher


    Lake or marsh sediments in the Qa'a Jahran-Dhamār area indicate a period of higher moisture availability in the early Holocene of the highlands of Yemen. Forty-two marl-peat sediment samples from eight stratigraphic sections of that area have been collected and are examined for the first time for their ostracod associations. Eight species belonging to seven genera and four families are reported. Their ecological tolerances and preferences are used to investigate the climatic and environmental changes in the early to mid-Holocene. Our data are compared and correlated with previous archaeological results, particularly from the region of Qa'a Jahran (Dhamār) in the vicinity of the village of Beyt Nahmi. We conclude that the wettest period of the Holocene was from about 7900 to 7400 cal yr BP, when northwards incursion of the Indian Ocean Monsoon caused intensified monsoon precipitation over southern Arabia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brugiapaglia


    Full Text Available The pollen record from Trifoglietti lake (Calabria region provides new information about the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes occurred during the LateGlacial and Holocene period. The LateGlacial part of the record, for which only preliminary data is available, is a new and original sequence from southern Italy. The Holocene sequence, with 11 AMS radiocarbon dates shows a stable Fagus forest for the entire period. Apart from sporadic pastoralism activities and the selective exploitation of Abies, only a weak human impact is recognized in the pollen records. Lake level oscillations have been reconstructed and annual precipitations quantified using the Modern Analogue Technique. The reconstruction was effectuated both at millennial and centennial scale: the first shows an increasing of moisture from 11000 to 9400 cal BP and a maximum of humidity from 9400 to 6200 cal BP. Moreover, several climatic oscillations punctuated the Holocene and therefore superimposed the millennial trend.

  11. Holocene emerged coral reef in Takarajima and Kodakarajima, Ryukyu islands, Southwest Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T; Omoto, K; Koba, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science


    Due to the recent development of radiometric dating, coral reefs emerged in Holocene epoch are studied intensively worldwidely in relation to sea level change and coral reef formation. Attempt was made to determine the age, pattern and growth rate of coral reefs in the marginal area of coral sea in the Northwest Pacific. Field observation was made in the emerged coral reefs in Takarajima and Kodakarajima islands and the samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from geological sections across the emerged reefs. These islands are located at about 29 deg 10 min N, 129 deg 15 min E, where warm Kuroshio current pushes the margin of coral sea northward, and furnished with flourishing development of coral reefs emerged in both pleistocence and Holocene epochs. Though without earthquake records, it is assumed that Holocene reefs have been terraced due to sudden uplift associated with major earthquakes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert


    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic

  13. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.


    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  14. The Holocene Geomagnetic Field: Spikes, Low Field Anomalies, and Asymmetries (United States)

    Constable, C.


    Our understanding of the Holocene magnetic field is constrained by individual paleomagnetic records of variable quality and resolution, composite regional secular variation curves, and low resolution global time-varying geomagnetic field models. Although spatial and temporal data coverages have greatly improved in recent years, typical views of millennial-scale secular variation and the underlying physical processes continue to be heavily influenced by more detailed field structure and short term variability inferred from the historical record and modern observations. Recent models of gyre driven decay of the geomagnetic dipole on centennial time scales, and studies of the evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly provide one prominent example. Since 1840 dipole decay has largely been driven by meridional flux advection, with generally smaller fairly steady contributions from magnetic diffusion. The decay is dominantly associated with geomagnetic activity in the Southern Hemisphere. In contrast to the present decay, dipole strength generally grew between 1500 and 1000 BC, sustaining high but fluctuating values around 90-100 ZAm2 until after 1500 AD. Thus high dipole moments appear to have been present shortly after 1000 AD at the time of the Levantine spikes, which represent extreme variations in regional geomagnetic field strength. It has been speculated that the growth in dipole moment originated from a strong flux patch near the equatorial region at the core-mantle boundary that migrated north and west to augment the dipole strength, suggesting the presence of a large-scale anticyclonic gyre in the northern hemisphere, not totally unlike the southern hemisphere flow that dominates present day dipole decay. The later brief episodes of high field strength in the Levant may have contributed to prolonged values of high dipole strength until the onset of dipole decay in the late second millennium AD. This could support the concept of a large-scale stable flow

  15. A late Holocene tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands, Central America (United States)

    Nooren, K.; Huizinga, A.; Hoek, W.; Bergen, M. V.; Middelkoop, H.


    The Maya Lowlands in southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize were densely populated for thousands of years, and have been the subject of intensive studies on the interaction between humans and their environment. Accurate radiocarbon dating of proxy records and disrupting events has proved to be difficult due to the lack of organic material in many deposits and the 'old carbon effect' related to the calcareous geology of the Yucatan Peninsula. So far, tephrostratigraphy has hardly been used to define time markers for palynological, limnological and archaeological studies in this region, despite the frequent occurrence of tephra fall. With the objective to fill this gap, we developed a tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands using sediment cores from a flood basin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in southern Mexico. Tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating were used to estimate the timing of past volcanic eruptions, and chemical compositions of glass shards were used to identify potential sources. At least six tephralayers were deposited since 2000 BC, the most notable representing eruptions of El Chichón volcano in the 5th and 15th century AD. The high sulphur emissions accompanying El Chichón's eruptions allowed testing of our age-depth model through a correlation with volcanic sulphate peaks in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. We demonstrate the applicability of the established tephrochronological framework in a detailed chronological reconstruction of the formation of the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain in southern Mexico. This plain with over 500 beach ridges is a highly sensitive recorder of combined sea level rise, subsidence, storm activity and changes in climate and upstream land use since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures circa 5000 years ago.

  16. Quantifying the synergistic effect of the precipitation and land use on sandy desertification at county level: a case study in Naiman Banner, Northern China. (United States)

    Xiaodong, Ge; Jinren, Ni; Zhenshan, Li; Ronggui, Hu; Xin, Ming; Qing, Ye


    Assessing the driving forces of sandy desertification is fundamental and important for its control. It has been widely accepted that both climatic conditions and land use have great impact on sandy desertification in northern China. However, the relative role and synergistic effect of each driving force of sandy desertification are still not clear. In this paper, an indicator named as SI was defined to represent the integrated probability of sandy desertification caused by land use. A quantitative method was developed for characterizing the relative roles of annual precipitation and land use to sandy desertification in both spatial and temporal dimensions at county level. Results showed that, at county level, land use was the main cause of sandy desertification for Naiman Banner since 1987-2009. In the case of spatial dimension, the different combination of land use types decided the distribution of sandy desertification probability and finally decided the spatial pattern of bared sand land. In the case of temporal dimension, the synergistic effect of land use and precipitation highly influenced the spatial distribution of sandy desertification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Onset and Multiple Fluctuations of Holocene Glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Bowerman, N. D.; Clark, D. H.


    Multiple sediment cores from two paternoster tarns (First and Second lakes) in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the range; they indicate that the glacier was absent during the early Holocene, reformed in the late Holocene, and experienced several expansions and contractions, culminating with the Matthes maximum during the last ˜200 years. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest ( ˜1.3 km2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the Sierra Nevada, and capture essentially all of the rock flour produced by the glacier. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. Thus, the lakes have received continuous sedimentation since the retreat of the Tioga glacier ( ˜15,000 yr B.P.), and therefore capture rock flour related to all subsequent advances. First and Second lakes occupy relatively deep bedrock basins at 3036 m and 3066 m asl., respectively. Third Lake, a shallow (rock flour (outwash) from the upstream Palisade Glacier, most likely related to formation and expansions of the glacier in the late Holocene. The maximum peak at the top of the cores confirms the moraine record, which indicates that the maximum Holocene advance of Sierran glaciers occurred during the late Little Ice Age (last ˜200 yr) At least one tephra layer, possibly related to the Mono/Inyo dome complexes, occurs in the middle depths of the First Lake cores. Other narrow peaks in MS may also be associated with tephra deposits. Ongoing detailed analyses of the sediments, including AMS radiocarbon dating, visual and x-ray imaging, particle size analysis, organic content, tephrochronology, diatom assemblages, and palynology will constrain the timing and character of the environmental fluctuations related to the rock-flour flux. We will present results of these analyses at the meeting.

  18. A Holocene record of ocean productivity and upwelling from the northern California continental slope (United States)

    Addison, Jason A.; Barron, John A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Kusler, Jennifer E.; Bukry, David; Heusser, Linda E.; Alexander, Clark R.


    The Holocene upwelling history of the northern California continental slope is examined using the high-resolution record of TN062-O550 (40.9°N, 124.6°W, 550 m water depth). This 7-m-long marine sediment core spans the last ∼7500 years, and we use it to test the hypothesis that marine productivity in the California Current System (CCS) driven by coastal upwelling has co-varied with Holocene millennial-scale warm intervals. A combination of biogenic sediment concentrations (opal, total organic C, and total N), stable isotopes (organic matter δ13C and bulk sedimentary δ15N), and key microfossil indicators of upwelling were used to test this hypothesis. The record of biogenic accumulation in TN062-O550 shows considerable Holocene variability despite being located within 50 km of the mouth of the Eel River, which is one of the largest sources of terrigenous sediment to the Northeast Pacific Ocean margin. A key time interval beginning at ∼2900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) indicates the onset of modern upwelling in the CCS, and this period also corresponds to the most intense period of upwelling in the last 7500 years. When these results are placed into a regional CCS context during the Holocene, it was found that the timing of upwelling intensification at TN062-O550 corresponds closely to that seen at nearby ODP Site 1019, as well as in the Santa Barbara Basin of southern California. Other CCS records with less refined age control show similar results, which suggest late Holocene upwelling intensification may be synchronous throughout the CCS. Based on the strong correspondence between the alkenone sea surface temperature record at ODP Site 1019 and the onset of late Holocene upwelling in northern California, we suggest that CCS warming may be conducive to upwelling intensification, though future changes are unclear as the mechanisms forcing SST variability may differ.

  19. Exploring the Causes of Mid-Holocene Drought in the Rocky Mountains Using Hydrologic Forward Models (United States)

    Meador, E.; Morrill, C.


    We present a quantitative model-data comparison for mid-Holocene (6 ka) lake levels in the Rocky Mountains, with the goals of assessing the skill coupled climate models and hydrologic forward models in simulating climate change and improving our understanding of the factors causing past changes in water resources. The mid-Holocene climate in this area may in some ways be similar to expected future climate, thus improved understanding of the factors causing past changes in water resources have the potential to aid in the process of water allocation for large areas that share a relatively small water source. This project focuses on Little Windy Hill Pond in the Medicine Bow Forest in the Rocky Mountains in southern Wyoming. We first calibrated the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) catchment hydrologic model and the one-dimensional Hostetler Bartlein lake energy-balance model to modern observations, using U.S. Geological Survey stream discharge data and Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) data to ensure appropriate selection of model parameters. Once the models were calibrated to modern conditions, we forced them with output from eight mid-Holocene coupled climate model simulations completed as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5. Forcing from nearly all of the CMIP5 models generates intense, short-lived droughts for the mid-Holocene that are more severe than any we modeled for the past six decades. The severity of the mid-Holocene droughts could be sufficient, depending on sediment processes in the lake, to account for low lake levels recorded by loss-on-ignition in sediment cores. Our preliminary analysis of model output indicates that the combined effects of decreased snowmelt runoff and increased summer lake evaporation cause low mid-Holocene lake levels. These factors are also expected to be important in the future under anthropogenic climate change.

  20. Alkenone-based reconstructions reveal four-phase Holocene temperature evolution for High Arctic Svalbard (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Bakke, Jostein; Balascio, Nicholas L.; Werner, Johannes P.; Gjerde, Marthe; Bradley, Raymond S.


    Situated at the crossroads of major oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns, the Arctic is a key component of Earth's climate system. Compounded by sea-ice feedbacks, even modest shifts in the region's heat budget drive large climate responses. This is highlighted by the observed amplified response of the Arctic to global warming. Assessing the imprint and signature of underlying forcing mechanisms require paleoclimate records, allowing us to expand our knowledge beyond the short instrumental period and contextualize ongoing warming. However, such datasets are scarce and sparse in the Arctic, limiting our ability to address these issues. Here, we present two quantitative Holocene-length paleotemperature records from the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago, situated in the climatically sensitive Arctic North Atlantic. Temperature estimates are based on U37K unsaturation ratios from sediment cores of two lakes. Our data reveal a dynamic Holocene temperature evolution, with reconstructed summer lake water temperatures spanning a range of ∼6-8 °C, and characterized by four phases. The Early Holocene was marked by an early onset (∼10.5 ka cal. BP) of insolation-driven Hypsithermal conditions, likely compounded by strengthening oceanic heat transport. This warm interval was interrupted by cooling between ∼10.5-8.3 ka cal. BP that we attribute to cooling effects from the melting Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Temperatures declined throughout the Middle Holocene, following a gradual trend that was accentuated by two cooling steps between ∼7.8-7 ka cal. BP and around ∼4.4-4.3 ka cal. BP. These transitions coincide with a strengthening influence of Arctic water and sea-ice in the adjacent Fram Strait. During the Late Holocene (past 4 ka), temperature change decoupled from the still-declining insolation, and fluctuated around comparatively cold mean conditions. By showing that Holocene Svalbard temperatures were governed by an alternation of forcings, this study

  1. [Effects of desertification on C and N storages in grassland ecosystem on Horqin sandy land]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ha-lin; Li, Yu-qiang; Zhou, Rui-lian


    Sandy grassland is widespread in northern China, where desertification is very common because of overgrazing and estrepement. However, little is known about the effects of desertification on grassland C and N storages in this region. A field survey was conducted on Horqin sandy grassland, and desertification gradients were established to evaluate the effects of desertification on C and N storages in soil, plant, and litter. The results showed that desertification had deep effects on the contents and storages of grassland C and N. The C and N contents and storages in the grassland decreased significantly with increasing desertification degree. Comparing with those in un-desertified grassland, the C and N contents in lightly, moderately, heavily, and severely desertified grasslands decreased by 56.06% and 48.72%, 78.43% and 74.36%, 88.95% and 84.62%, and 91.64% and 84.62% in 0-100 cm soil layer, and by 8.61% and 6.43%, 0.05% and 25.71%, 2.58% and 27.14%, and 8. 61% and 27. 86% in plant components, respectively. Relevantly, the C and N storages decreased by 50.95% and 43.38%, 75.19% and 71.04%, 86.76% and 81.48%, and 91.17% and 83.17% in plant underground components in 0-100 cm soil layer, and by 25.08% and 27.62%, 30.90% and 46.55%, 73.84% and 80.62%, and 90.89% and 87.31% in plant aboveground components, respectively. In 2000, the total area of desertified grassland in Horqin sandy land was 30152. 7 km2, and the C and N loss via desertification reached up to 107.53 and 9.97 Mt, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that the decrease of soil C and N contents was mainly come from the decreased soil fine particles caused by wind erosion in the process of desertification, and the degradation of soil texture- and nutrient status led finally to the rapid decrease of C and N storages in plant biomass and litter.

  2. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration : Annual Report, January 2008 - March 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Robin [USDA Forest Service, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area


    During the period 2008-2009, there were 2 contracts with BPA. One (38539) was dealing with the restoration work for 2007 and the other (26198) was an extension on the 2006 contract including the NEPA for Dam removal on the old channel of the Sandy River. For contract 38539, the Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration project continued its focus on riparian hardwood reforestation with less emphasis on wetlands restoration. Emphasis was placed on Sundial Island again due to the potential removal of the dike and the loss of access in the near future. AshCreek Forest Management was able to leverage additional funding from grants to help finance the restoration effort; this required a mid year revision of work funded by BPA. The revised work not only continued the maintenance of restored hardwood forests, but was aimed to commence the restoration of the Columbia River Banks, an area all along the Columbia River. This would be the final restoration for Sundial Island. The grant funding would help achieve this. Thus by 2011, all major work will have been completed on Sundial Island and the need for access with vehicles would no longer be required. The restored forests continued to show excellent growth and development towards true riparian gallery forests. Final inter-planting was commenced, and will continue through 2010 before the area is considered fully restored. No new wetland work was completed. The wetlands were filled by pumping in early summer to augment the water levels but due to better rainfall, no new fuel was required to augment existing. Monitoring results continued to show very good growth of the trees and the restoration at large was performing beyond expectations. Weed problems continue to be the most difficult issue. The $100,000 from BPA planned for forest restoration in 2008, was augmented by $25,000 from USFS, $120,000 from OR150 grant, $18,000 from LCREP, and the COE continued to add $250,000 for their portion. Summary of the use of these funds are

  3. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.


    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  4. Restructuring of the Aquatic Bacterial Community by Hydric Dynamics Associated with Superstorm Sandy. (United States)

    Ulrich, Nikea; Rosenberger, Abigail; Brislawn, Colin; Wright, Justin; Kessler, Collin; Toole, David; Solomon, Caroline; Strutt, Steven; McClure, Erin; Lamendella, Regina


    Bacterial community composition and longitudinal fluctuations were monitored in a riverine system during and after Superstorm Sandy to better characterize inter- and intracommunity responses associated with the disturbance associated with a 100-year storm event. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess microbial community structure within water samples from Muddy Creek Run, a second-order stream in Huntingdon, PA, at 12 different time points during the storm event (29 October to 3 November 2012) and under seasonally matched baseline conditions. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to track changes in bacterial community structure and divergence during and after Superstorm Sandy. Bacterial community dynamics were correlated to measured physicochemical parameters and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. Bioinformatics analyses of 2.1 million 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant increase in bacterial diversity in samples taken during peak discharge of the storm. Beta-diversity analyses revealed longitudinal shifts in the bacterial community structure. Successional changes were observed, in which Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased in 16S rRNA gene relative abundance, while the relative abundance of members of the Firmicutes increased. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequences matching pathogenic bacteria, including strains of Legionella, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter, as well as bacteria of fecal origin (e.g., Bacteroides), exhibited an increase in abundance after peak discharge of the storm. This study revealed a significant restructuring of in-stream bacterial community structure associated with hydric dynamics of a storm event. In order to better understand the microbial risks associated with freshwater environments during a storm event, a more comprehensive understanding of the variations in aquatic bacterial diversity is warranted. This study investigated the bacterial

  5. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel Plants in Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo El-Seoud, M. A.


    Irradiated sewage sludge (SS) has proved to be a useful organic fertilizer particularly for sandy soil. The objective of this study is to compare the response of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) plants growing in sandy soil to different fertilizer regimes, organic vs. mineral. In a field experiment four levels (20, 40, 60, 80 t/ha) of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge were incorporated into sandy soil, in addition to the control treatment (mineral fertilizer). Samples analysis included the biomass production at the vegetative and flowering stages, chlorophyll content, total and reducing sugars and heavy metals content of the shoots. The data indicate that the biomass production has dramatically increased as the sludge application rate increased in both irradiated and non-irradiated plots. However, the increase was significantly higher under all irradiated treatments than the corresponding rates of non-irradiated treatments at both the vegetative and flowering stages. Also, the biomass production at all levels of application was higher than the control, receiving mineral fertilizer. At the vegetative stage, the biomass values ranged from 3.1 g/plant for the control to 10.2 and 34.1 g/plant at 80 t/ha for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge, respectively. Whereas, at the flowering stage the values ranged from 9.8 g/plant for the control to 23.9 and 65.1 g/plant at 80 t/ha for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge, respectively. Total sugars, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, and chlorophyll content has increased as the sludge application rate increased. At 80t/ha application rate of irradiated sludge, the reducing sugars content was 29.39 mg/g DW at the vegetative stage and 37.85 mg/g DW at the flowering stage. Reducing sugars recorded lower values in the control plants, 14.54 mg/g DW at the vegetative stage and 18.78 mg/g DW at the flowering stage. Heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) of the shoots was also determined. Sewage sludge was a good

  6. Anthropogenic Origin of Siliceous Scoria Droplets from Pleistocene and Holocene Archeaological Sites in Northern Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry


    Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The !ndi......Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event...

  7. Heat export from the tropics drives mid to late Holocene palaeoceanographic changes offshore southern Australia (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Wacker, Lukas; Telford, Richard; Siegel, Herbert; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein


    The Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transports tropical waters from the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) towards southern latitudes and modulates oceanic conditions offshore southern Australia. New, high-resolution planktic foraminifer assemblage data and alkenone-derived sea surface temperatures (SST) provide an in-depth view on LC variability and mechanisms driving the current's properties during the mid to late Holocene (last c. 7.4 ka BP). Our marine reconstructions highlight a longer-term mid to late Holocene reduction of tropical heat export from the IPWP area into the LC. Mid Holocene (c. 7.4 to 3.5 ka BP) occurrence of high SSTs (>19.5 °C), tropical planktic foraminifera and a well-stratified water column document an enhanced heat export from the tropics. From c. 3.5 ka BP onwards, a weaker LC and a notably reduced tropical heat export cause oceanic cooling offshore southern Australia. The observed mid to late Holocene trends likely result from large-scale changes in the IPWP's heat storage linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We propose that a strong and warm LC occurs in response to a La Niña-like state of ENSO during the mid Holocene. The late Holocene LC cooling, however, results from a shift towards an El Niño-like state and a more variable ENSO system that causes cooling of the IPWP. Superimposed on these longer-term trends we find evidence of distinct late Holocene millennial-scale phases of enhanced El Niño/La Niña development, which appear synchronous with northern hemispheric climatic variability. Phases of dominant El Niño-like states occur parallel to North Atlantic cold phases: the '2800 years BP cooling event', the 'Dark Ages' and the 'Little Ice Age', whereas the 'Roman Warm Period' and the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' parallel periods of a predominant La Niña-like state. Our findings provide further evidence of coherent interhemispheric climatic and oceanic conditions during the mid to late

  8. Mid-Holocene to Present Climate Transition in Tropical South America (United States)

    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.; Sifeddine, A.; Braconnot, P.; Dias, P. S.; Costa, R.; Jorgetti, T.


    The classical illustration of Holocene climate changes in tropical South America is the huge rising of Titicaca lake level from 4400 to 4000 cal BP. Because the Amazon basin is the source of Andean rainfalls we have explored Amazonian data of climate changes during the Holocene to better understand the cause of this abrupt transition. Amazonian data confirm the existence of mid-Holocene dryness: (1) lacustrine level studies show a lower precipitation/evaporation budget than present, with the lowest lake levels between 8500 and 6800 cal BP; (2) although the dominant Holocene vegetation has always been the rainforest in the heart of Amazonia, this forest expanded towards the northwestern and southwestern regions from 6800 to 1550 cal BP, moreover, pioneer elements of the rainforest developed during the mid-Holocene and the best example is those of Cecropia, between 9000 and 5000 cal BP. (3) soil d13C indicates a forest expansion over savannas areas in Roraima (north), Mato Grosso and Rondonia (southwest), during the Holocene. (4) the mid-Holocene (8000- 4000 cal BP) is characterized by repeated occurrences of forest fires, marked by the presence of charcoals in soils and lacustrine sediments. However these different records are not characterized by abrupt transitions at the end of the Middle Holocene in Amazonia. In the Andean records there is a clear north-south shift in the timing of the transition. Analysis of coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model simulations suggest that convection in Amazon basin is directly controlled by insolation leading to an almost linear response of local climate to the global forcing. Differently, in the eastern and south-western regions where the rain is brought by the South American Monsoon, the climate transition appears more abrupt. It may be because the involved climate mechanisms are more complex and depend on Ocean/Atmosphere/Vegetation coupled process (ITCZ position, ZCAS formation, etc.). Tectonic movements or threshold links to

  9. Pacific southwest United States Holocene summer paleoclimate inferred from sediment calcite oxygen isotopes (Lake Elsinore, CA) (United States)

    Kirby, M.; Patterson, W. P.; Lachniet, M. S.; Anderson, M.; Noblet, J. A.


    Records of past climate inform on the natural range and mechanisms of climate change. In the arid Pacific southwest United States (pswUS), there exist a variety of Holocene records that infer past winter conditions (moisture and/or temperature). Holocene records of summer climate, however, are rare excepting short-lived (zone (Kirby et al. 2004) shows similar changes providing confidence in our longer record. Various forcing mechanisms are examined to explain the Elsinore summer record including insolation, Pacific SSTs, and trace gas radiative forcing.

  10. Deep-Sea Turbidites as Guides to Holocene Earthquake History at the Cascadia Subduction Zone—Alternative Views for a Seismic-Hazard Workshop (United States)

    Atwater, Brian F.; Griggs, Gary B.


    This report reviews the geological basis for some recent estimates of earthquake hazards in the Cascadia region between southern British Columbia and northern California. The largest earthquakes to which the region is prone are in the range of magnitude 8-9. The source of these great earthquakes is the fault down which the oceanic Juan de Fuca Plate is being subducted or thrust beneath the North American Plate. Geologic evidence for their occurrence includes sedimentary deposits that have been observed in cores from deep-sea channels and fans. Earthquakes can initiate subaqueous slumps or slides that generate turbidity currents and which produce the sedimentary deposits known as turbidites. The hazard estimates reviewed in this report are derived mainly from deep-sea turbidites that have been interpreted as proxy records of great Cascadia earthquakes. The estimates were first published in 2008. Most of the evidence for them is contained in a monograph now in press. We have reviewed a small part of this evidence, chiefly from Cascadia Channel and its tributaries, all of which head offshore the Pacific coast of Washington State. According to the recent estimates, the Cascadia plate boundary ruptured along its full length in 19 or 20 earthquakes of magnitude 9 in the past 10,000 years; its northern third broke during these giant earthquakes only, and southern segments produced at least 20 additional, lesser earthquakes of Holocene age. The turbidite case for full-length ruptures depends on stratigraphic evidence for simultaneous shaking at the heads of multiple submarine canyons. The simultaneity has been inferred primarily from turbidite counts above a stratigraphic datum, sandy beds likened to strong-motion records, and radiocarbon ages adjusted for turbidity-current erosion. In alternatives proposed here, this turbidite evidence for simultaneous shaking is less sensitive to earthquake size and frequency than previously thought. Turbidites far below a channel

  11. Palynological evidence of human activity on the gulf of Gdansk coast during the late holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Miotk-Szpiganowicz


    Full Text Available The Gulf of Gdansk is located in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The shores of the Gulf are dominated by the sandy barriers which have developed in front of the Vistula Lagoon and the Vistula Delta Plain to the south-east and south and in front of the Puck Lagoon in the north-west such as the Hel Peninsula. Cliffs occur on the western coast of the Gulf. Neolithic settlements around the coast of the Gulf of Gdansk are mainly located at the foot of the upland slope and on the Vistula Spit and the Vistula Delta and are closely related to the rise and displacement of the shoreline during the Late Holocene. Pollen analyses of the sediment cores from the Vistula Delta, the Vistula Lagoon and the coast of the Puck Lagoon allow four anthropogenic phases to be distinguished in the area of the Gulf of Gdansk. It has been shown that the first indicators of an early husbandry economy in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gdansk appeared in the Atlantic Period. Pollen grains of plants related to this kind of human activity those of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae, motherwort (Artemisia, sorrel (Rumex are present and the first pollen grains of the plantain (Plantago lanceolata also appear. The second anthropogenic phase of Neolithic settlement is one of the best investigated cultures. This is the Rzucewo Culture. Pollen analyses indicate increasing human activity at the beginning of the Subboreal Period. The preserved traces of fauna show that the seal hunting and fishing economy was preferred. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological artifacts indicates the beginning of the settlement at ca. 2 400 B.C. (ca. 4 400 years B.P. (Król 1997. The altitude of peat and marine mollusks shells and their radiocarbon age shows that during the Early Subboreal Period the water level rose from ca. 2.8 m to 1.1 m below the present-day sea level. The date of the beginning of the seal hunters settlement correlates well with the period when the shores of the Puck Lagoon

  12. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart


    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi...... prograding spit on the south-eastern Baltic shores of Zealand, Denmark. The modern, sandy beach at this location consists of a beachface with a shallow incipient berm, a mature berm, and a dune-covered beach ridge. It borders a beach-ridge plain to the west, where more than 20 N–S oriented beach ridges...... and swales are present. Measured water-level data from 1991 to 2012 and topographical observations, carried out during fair weather period and during a storm event, provided the basis for a conceptual model exhibiting berm formation and transformation into the local beach-ridge system. The character...

  13. Fish communities in sandy pool of Magela Creek, Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodland, D.J.; Ward, P.J.


    Physico-chemical conditions, changes in fish communities and characteristics of species populations of eight permanent sandy pools along Magela Creek during the 1981 Dry season are described. Causes of mortality in each species, especially Craterocephalus marianae, were investigated. It is emphasised that in using baseline data to assess the impact of mining and animal communities, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate natural mortality from mortality resulting from pollution. The aim of this study was to distinguish the most important environmental factors responsible for fish mortality. The study indicates that the mortality was low (<50% of the original population) in most pools. In populations that did suffer high mortality, anoxic conditions may have been an important cause. 67 refs., 36 tabs., 21 figs., ills


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith J. Aziz


    Full Text Available This research describes the seepage characteristics of experimental model test of dam with cutoff located at different region (at dam heel, at mid floor of dam, and at dam toe. It is resting on sandy soil with cavity at different locations in X and Y directions (such as in Al-Najaf soil city. Thirty three model tests are performed in laboratory by using steel box to estimate the quantity of the seepage and flow lines direction. It was concluded that the best location of the cutoff wall is at the dam toe for model test with cavity ( Xc B = 0 and 0.5, but for model test with cavity ( Xc B ≥1, the best location of the sheet pile wall becomes at the dam heel. For negative location of the cavity, the best location of the sheet pile wall is at the middle of the floor dam.

  15. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  16. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting. (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon


    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  17. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction. (United States)

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina


    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground Water Modelling for the Restoration of Carex Communities on a Sandy River Terrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brandyk


    Full Text Available Management for sustainable river valleys requires balancing their natural values against the need for agricultural and recreational development on surrounding lands. The Southern Całowanie Peatland near the city of Warsaw sits on a sandy terrace and has well preserved Carex and Molinia stands existing in part of the area, especially where water tables are less than 1.5 m below the surface. The existing drainage network in this southern part has been poorly maintained and could be reestablished to help raise water levels for restoration of the peatland. Modflow was used to look at influence of drainage channel water levels on the overall water table height in the area. By raising water levels in the drainage system by 0.5 m it was found that 29% of the area would become suitable for increasing Carex and Molinia communities.

  19. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  20. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther


    Organic carbon mineralization was studied in a shallow-water (4 m), sandy sediment and 2 comparatively deep-water (150 and 300 m), soft sediments in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Benthic microalgae inhabiting the shallow-water locality significantly affected diurnal O-2 conditions within the surface...... is regulated primarily by the availability of organic matter and not by temperature. The shallow-water sediment contained a larger meiofauna population than the deep-water muddy sediments. Crustacean nauplia dominated the upper 9 mm while nematodes dominated below. A typical interstitial fauna of species...... layers of the sediment. Algal photosynthetic activity and nitrogen uptake reduced nitrogen effluxes and denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction was the most important pathway for carbon mineralization in the sediments of the shallow-water station. In contrast, high bottom-water NO3- concentrations...

  1. Barrier-island and estuarine-wetland physical-change assessment after Hurricane Sandy (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Passeri, Davina L.; Smith, Christopher G.; Bernier, Julie C.


    IntroductionThe Nation’s eastern coast is fringed by beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and bluffs. These natural coastal barriers provide critical benefits and services, and can mitigate the impact of storms, erosion, and sea-level rise on our coastal communities. Waves and storm surge resulting from Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall along the New Jersey coast on October 29, 2012, impacted the U.S. coastline from North Carolina to Massachusetts, including Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia, and the Delmarva coastal system. The storm impacts included changes in topography, coastal morphology, geology, hydrology, environmental quality, and ecosystems.In the immediate aftermath of the storm, light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys from North Carolina to New York documented storm impacts to coastal barriers, providing a baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The focus of much of the existing coastal change assessment is along the ocean-facing coastline; however, much of the coastline affected by Hurricane Sandy includes the estuarine-facing coastlines of barrier-island systems. Specifically, the wetland and back-barrier shorelines experienced substantial change as a result of wave action and storm surge that occurred during Hurricane Sandy (see also USGS photograph, Assessing physical shoreline and wetland change (land loss as well as land gains) can help to determine the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat, shorelines, and communities.To address storm impacts to wetlands, a vulnerability assessment should describe both long-term (for example, several decades) and short-term (for example, Sandy’s landfall) extent and character of the interior wetlands and the back-barrier-shoreline changes. The objective of this report is to describe several new wetland vulnerability assessments based on the detailed physical changes

  2. Documentation and hydrologic analysis of Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey, October 29–30, 2012 (United States)

    Suro, Thomas P.; Deetz, Anna; Hearn, Paul


    In 2012, a late season tropical depression developed into a tropical storm and later a hurricane. The hurricane, named “Hurricane Sandy,” gained strength to a Category 3 storm on October 25, 2012, and underwent several transitions on its approach to the mid-Atlantic region of the eastern coast of the United States. By October 28, 2012, Hurricane Sandy had strengthened into the largest hurricane ever recorded in the North Atlantic and was tracking parallel to the east coast of United States, heading toward New Jersey. On October 29, 2012, the storm turned west-northwest and made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. The high winds and wind-driven storm surge caused massive damage along the entire coastline of New Jersey. Millions of people were left without power or communication networks. Many homes were completely destroyed. Sand dunes were eroded, and the barrier island at Mantoloking was breached, connecting the ocean with Barnegat Bay.Several days before the storm made landfall in New Jersey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made a decision to deploy a temporary network of storm-tide sensors and barometric pressure sensors from Virginia to Maine to supplement the existing USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent tide monitoring stations. After the storm made landfall, the USGS conducted a sensor data recovery and high-water-mark collection campaign in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Peak storm-tide elevations documented at USGS tide gages, tidal crest-stage gages, temporary storm sensor locations, and high-water-mark sites indicate the area from southern Monmouth County, N.J., north through Raritan Bay, N.J., had the highest peak storm-tide elevations during this storm. The USGS tide gages at Raritan River at South Amboy and Raritan Bay at Keansburg, part of the New Jersey Tide Telemetry System, each recorded peak storm-tide elevations of greater than 13 feet (ft)—more than 5 ft

  3. Ripples and ripples: from sandy deserts to ion-sputtered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, T; Valbusa, U


    We study the morphological evolution of surfaces during ion sputtering and we compare their dynamical corrugation with aeolian ripple formation in sandy deserts. We show that, although the two phenomena are physically different, they must obey similar geometrical constraints and therefore they can be described within the same theoretical framework. The present theory distinguishes between atoms that stay bounded in the bulk and others that are mobile on the surface. We describe the excavation mechanisms, the adsorption and the surface mobility by means of a continuous equation derived from the study of dune formation on sand. We explore the spontaneous development of ordered nanostructures and explain the different dynamical behaviours experimentally observed in metals or in semiconductors or in amorphous systems. We also show that this novel approach can describe the occurrence of rotation in the ripple direction and the formation of other kinds of self-organized patterns induced by changes in the sputtering incidence angle

  4. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Bruun, Esben; Arthur, Emmanuel


    Biochar added to agricultural soils may sequester carbon and improve physico-chemical conditions for crop growth, due to effects such as increased water and nutrient retention in the root zone. The effects of biochar on soil microbiological properties are less certain. We addressed the effects...... of wood-based biochar on soil respiration, water contents, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), and crop yields at two temperate sandy loam soils under realistic field conditions. In situ soil respiration, PAO, and ASA were not significantly different in quadruplicate field...... plots with or without biochar (20 Mg ha−1); however, in the same plots, volumetric water contents increased by 7.5 % due to biochar (P = 0.007). Crop yields (oat) were not significantly different in the first year after biochar application, but in the second year, total yields of spring barley increased...

  5. Spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer determined by a mini slug test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Hinsby, Klaus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    The spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity in a sandy aquifer has been determined by a mini slug test method. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the aquifer has a geometric mean of 5.05 × 10−4 m s−1, and an overall variance of 1n K equal to 0.37 which corresponds quite well to the results...... obtained by two large scale tracer experiments performed in the aquifer. A geological model of the aquifer based on 31 sediment cores, proposed three hydrogeological layers in the aquifer concurrent with the vertical variations observed with respect to hydraulic conductivity. The horizontal correlation......, to be in the range of 0.3–0.5 m compared with a value of 0.42 m obtained in one of the tracer tests performed....

  6. Allocating Resources to Enhance Resilience, with Application to Superstorm Sandy and an Electric Utility. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Cameron A; Zobel, Christopher W


    This article constructs a framework to help a decisionmaker allocate resources to increase his or her organization's resilience to a system disruption, where resilience is measured as a function of the average loss per unit time and the time needed to recover full functionality. Enhancing resilience prior to a disruption involves allocating resources from a fixed budget to reduce the value of one or both of these characteristics. We first look at characterizing the optimal resource allocations associated with several standard allocation functions. Because the resources are being allocated before the disruption, however, the initial loss and recovery time may not be known with certainty. We thus also apply the optimal resource allocation model for resilience to three models of uncertain disruptions: (1) independent probabilities, (2) dependent probabilities, and (3) unknown probabilities. The optimization model is applied to an example of increasing the resilience of an electric power network following Superstorm Sandy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Environmental consequences of the flooding of the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant during Superstorm Sandy. (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Wilson, Robert; Brownawell, Bruce; Willig, Kaitlin


    Failure of the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) during Superstorm Sandy led to adverse effects in the waters of Hempstead Bay, Long Island, NY. These appear to be related to large discharges of partially treated sewage through its primary and auxiliary outfalls. Modeled dilution discharges indicate that sewage infiltrated the bay, remaining up to 10days. Water column impacts included salinity and dissolved oxygen declines, and biological oxygen demand and nitrogen concentration increases. While the STP does not appear to have released fecal coliform, there were elevated levels of enterococci within the bay for a considerable period following the storm, probably from multiple sources. The STP's reduced functioning and associated environmental impacts, even with resilience upgrades, are not conducive to removing the bay from the list of Impaired Water Bodies. The results reinforce the need to transfer the discharge from the existing outfall to the ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tomato nitrogen accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.


    Tomato production systems in Florida are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation and on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities; potential nutrient leaching losses undermine the sustainability of such systems. The objectives of this

  9. Garlic mustard and its effects on soil microbial communities in a sandy pine forest in central Illinois (United States)

    Alexander B. Faulkner; Brittany E. Pham; Truc-Quynh D. Nguyen; Kenneth E. Kitchell; Daniel S. O' Keefe; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris


    This study evaluated the impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an invasive species, on soil microbial community dynamics in a pine plantation on sandy soils in central Illinois. In situ soil carbon dioxide efflux was significantly greater in invaded sites. Similarly, in vitro carbon mineralization was significantly greater for soils...

  10. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams (United States)


    ... Infrastructure Planning Program; TU Delft; Project Projects; RFA Investments; IMG Rebel; Center for Urban...; Hargreaves Associates; Alamo Architects; Urban Green Council; Ironstate Development; New City America. SCAPE... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5727-N-02] Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding...

  11. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.


    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  12. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  13. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.


    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  14. Estimating water retention curves for sandy soils at the Doñana National Park, SW Spain (United States)

    The determination of soil water retention curves (SWRC) in the laboratory is a slow and tedious task, which is especially challenging for sandy soils due to their low water retention capacity and large water content changes for small pressure head differences. Due to spatial variability within larg...

  15. Volatilization of tri-allate, ethoprophos and parathion measured with four methods after spraying on a sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, G.; Berg, van den F.; Smelt, J.H.; Smidt, R.A.; Peppel-Groen, van de A.E.; Leistra, M.


    At about eleven times after application of tri-allate, ethoprophos and parathion to a sandy soil, their rates of volatilization were determined by the aerodynamic method (AD), the Bowen-ratio method (BR), the theoretical-profile method (TP) and the Box method. The volatilization was highest for

  16. 2013-2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (MA, NH, RI) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: New England CMGP Sandy Lidar LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00796 Woolpert Order...

  17. "Stronger than the Storm": Keeping Infants and Young Children in Mind During the Response to Superstorm Sandy (United States)

    Costa, Gerard; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Spinazzola, Nicci


    Superstorm Sandy hit the coast of New Jersey with deadly force causing hundreds of miles of coastline damage, loss of homes, property and road damage, and power outages throughout the region. despite the state's strong disaster response network, most programs and responders have little background in supporting the needs of infants and very young…

  18. Subsidence estimation of breakwater built on loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation: Elastic model or elasto-plastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Shen


    Full Text Available In offshore area, newly deposited Quaternary loose seabed soils are widely distributed. There are a great number of offshore structures has been built on them in the past, or will be built on them in the future due to the fact that there would be no very dense seabed soil foundation could be chosen at planed sites sometimes. However, loosely deposited seabed foundation would bring great risk to the service ability of offshore structures after construction. Currently, the understanding on wave-induced liquefaction mechanism in loose seabed foundation has been greatly improved; however, the recognition on the consolidation characteristics and settlement estimation of loose seabed foundation under offshore structures is still limited. In this study, taking a semi-coupled numerical model FSSI-CAS 2D as the tool, the consolidation and settlement of loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation under an offshore breakwater is investigated. The advanced soil constitutive model Pastor-Zienkiewics Mark III (PZIII is used to describe the quasi-static behavior of loose sandy seabed soil. The computational results show that PZIII model is capable of being used for settlement estimation problem of loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation. For loose sandy seabed foundation, elastic deformation is the dominant component in consolidation process. It is suggested that general elastic model is acceptable for subsidence estimation of offshore structures on loose seabed foundation; however, Young's modulus E must be dependent on the confining effective stress, rather than a constant in computation.

  19. Lasting effects of soil health improvements with management changes in cotton-based cropping systems in a sandy soil (United States)

    The soil microbial component is essential for sustainable agricultural systems and soil health. This study evaluated the lasting impacts of 5 years of soil health improvements from alternative cropping systems compared to intensively tilled continuous cotton (Cont. Ctn) in a low organic matter sandy...

  20. Correlation between Hurricane Sandy damage along the New Jersey coast with land use, dunes and other local attributes. (United States)


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sand dunes along New Jerseys Coast in reducing damage during Sandy. The study area included eight selected zones with different damage levels from Ocean County. A model to independently p...

  1. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts. (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.


    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  2. Dynamics of aeolian desertification and its driving forces in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. (United States)

    Duan, Han-chen; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Liu, Shu-lin; Guo, Jian


    Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of desertification from 1975 to 2010 in the Horqin Sandy Land, dynamic changes of aeolian desertification were detected using the human-machine interactive interpretation method. The driving factors of local desertification were analyzed based on natural and socioeconomic data. The results show that aeolian desertified land in the study area covered 30,199 km(2) in 2010, accounting for 24.1% of the study area. The total area of aeolian desertified land obviously expanded from 30,884 km(2) in 1975 to 32,071 km(2) in 1990, and gradually decreased to 30,199 km(2) in 2010; aeolian desertified land represented an increasing trend firstly and then decreased. During the past 35 years, the gravity centers of desertified lands that are classified as extremely severe and severe generally migrated to the northeast, whereas those that are moderate and slight migrated to the northwest. The migration distance of severely desertified land was the largest, which indicated the southern desertified lands were improved during the last few decades. In addition, the climatic variation in the past 35 years has been favorable to desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land. Aeolian desertified land rapidly expanded from 1975 to 1990 under the combined effects of climate changes and unreasonable human activities. After the 1990s, the main driving factors responsible for the decrease in desertification were positive human activities, such as the series of antidesertification and ecological restoration projects.

  3. Morphosedimentary evolution of carbonate sandy beaches at decadal scale : case study in Reunion Island , Indian Ocean (United States)

    Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe


    Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics

  4. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Walsh, M.M.; Overton, E.B.; Portier, R.J.


    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m -2 . Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  5. Snapshot from Superstorm Sandy: American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance in lower New York State. (United States)

    Schreiber, Merritt D; Yin, Rob; Omaish, Mostafa; Broderick, Joan E


    Disasters often cause psychological injury, as well as dramatic physical damage. Epidemiologic research has identified a set of disaster experiences and predisposing characteristics that place survivors at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Rapid triage of at-risk survivors could have benefits for individual and population-level outcomes. We examine American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance data collected from October 29 to November 20, 2012, immediately after Hurricane Sandy in 8 lower New York State counties to evaluate the feasibility and utility of collecting these data. PsySTART, an evidence-based disaster mental health triage tool, was used to record survivor-reported risk factors after each survivor contact. Red Cross disaster mental health volunteers interfaced with survivors at disaster operation sites, including shelters, emergency aid stations, and mobile feeding and community outreach centers. Risk data were called into the operations center each day and reported by county. PsySTART risk surveillance data for 18,823 disaster mental health contacts are presented for adults and children. A total of 17,979 risk factors were reported. Overall levels of risk per contact were statistically different (χ(2)(1, N=6,045)=248.1; PSuperstorm Sandy indicate substantial population-level impact suggestive of risk for disorders that may persist chronically without treatment. Mental health triage has the potential to improve care of individual disaster survivors, as well as inform disaster management, local health providers, and public health officials. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.


    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  7. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan


    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  8. Mobilization And Characterization Of Colloids Generated From Cement Leachates Moving Through A SRS Sandy Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.


    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  9. Assessment of grass root effects on soil piping in sandy soils using the pinhole test (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Vannoppen, Wouter; Poesen, Jean


    Soil piping is an important land degradation process that occurs in a wide range of environments. Despite an increasing number of studies on this type of subsurface erosion, the impact of vegetation on piping erosion is still unclear. It can be hypothesized that vegetation, and in particular plant roots, may reduce piping susceptibility of soils because roots of vegetation also control concentrated flow erosion rates or shallow mass movements. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the impact of grass roots on piping erosion susceptibility of a sandy soil. The pinhole test was used as it provides quantitative data on pipeflow discharge, sediment concentration and sediment discharge. Tests were conducted at different hydraulic heads (i.e., 50 mm, 180 mm, 380 mm and 1020 mm). Results showed that the hydraulic head was positively correlated with pipeflow discharge, sediment concentration and sediment discharge, while the presence of grass roots (expressed as root density) was negatively correlated with these pipeflow characteristics. Smaller sediment concentrations and sediment discharges were observed in root-permeated samples compared to root-free samples. When root density exceeds 0.5 kg m- 3, piping erosion rates decreased by 50% compared to root-free soil samples. Moreover, if grass roots are present, the positive correlation between hydraulic head and both sediment discharge and sediment concentration is less pronounced, demonstrating that grass roots become more effective in reducing piping erosion rates at larger hydraulic heads. Overall, this study demonstrates that grass roots are quite efficient in reducing piping erosion rates in sandy soils, even at high hydraulic head (> 1 m). As such, grass roots may therefore be used to efficiently control piping erosion rates in topsoils.

  10. A Community Checklist for Health Sector Resilience Informed by Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Toner, Eric S; McGinty, Meghan; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Rose, Dale A; Watson, Matthew; Echols, Erin; Carbone, Eric G

    This is a checklist of actions for healthcare, public health, nongovernmental organizations, and private entities to use to strengthen the resilience of their community's health sector to disasters. It is informed by the experience of Hurricane Sandy in New York and New Jersey and analyzed in the context of findings from other recent natural disasters in the United States. The health sector is defined very broadly, including-in addition to hospitals, emergency medical services (EMS), and public health agencies-healthcare providers, outpatient clinics, long-term care facilities, home health providers, behavioral health providers, and correctional health services. It also includes community-based organizations that support these entities and represent patients. We define health sector resilience very broadly, including all factors that preserve public health and healthcare delivery under extreme stress and contribute to the rapid restoration of normal or improved health sector functioning after a disaster. We present the key findings organized into 8 themes. We then describe a conceptual map of health sector resilience that ties these themes together. Lastly, we provide a series of recommended actions for improving health sector resilience at the local level. The recommended actions emphasize those items that individuals who experienced Hurricane Sandy deemed to be most important. The recommendations are presented as a checklist that can be used by a variety of interested parties who have some role to play in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery in their own communities. Following a general checklist are supplemental checklists that apply to specific parts of the larger health sector.

  11. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy, neighborhood collective efficacy, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in older adults. (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen


    Older adults exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative psychological outcomes such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neighborhood social capital can act as a resource that supports individual-level coping with stressors. This study explores the ability of perceived neighborhood collective efficacy, a form of social capital, to moderate the association between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and PTSD symptoms in older adults. Data from 2205 older individuals aged 54-80 residing in New Jersey who self-reported exposure to Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 were identified and extracted from the ORANJ BOWL™ research panel. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and individual-level characteristics in 2006-2008 and follow-up assessments about storm exposure, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and social control), and PTSD symptoms 8-33 months following the storm. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were tested to examine the association between exposure, neighborhood collective efficacy, and PTSD symptoms. After accounting for known demographic and individual-level covariates, greater storm exposure was linked to higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Social cohesion, but not social control, was linked to lower reports of PTSD symptoms and moderated the association between exposure and PTSD. The impact of storm exposure on PTSD symptoms was less for individuals reporting higher levels of social cohesion. Mental health service providers and disaster preparedness and response teams should consider the larger social network of individuals served. Building social connections in older adults' neighborhoods that promote cohesion can reduce the negative psychological impact of a disaster.

  12. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil. (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner


    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Negative emotionality and its facets moderate the effects of exposure to Hurricane Sandy on children's postdisaster depression and anxiety symptoms. (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Danzig, Allison P; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Olino, Thomas M; Bhatia, Vickie; Black, Sarah R; Klein, Daniel N


    According to diathesis-stress models, temperament traits such as negative emotionality (NE) may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of symptoms of psychopathology, although little research has tested such models in children. Moreover, there are few data on whether specific facets of NE (sadness, fear, or anger) may specifically moderate the effects of stress on depression versus anxiety. Finally, there is a paucity of research examining whether childhood temperament moderates the effect of disaster exposure on depressive or anxiety symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, which affected many thousands of people in New York State and the surrounding regions in October 2012, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Seven to eight years prior to Hurricane Sandy, 332 children 3 years old completed lab-based measures of NE and its facets. Six years later, when they were 9 years old, each mother rated her child's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Approximately 8 weeks post-Sandy (an average of 1 year after the age 9 assessment), mothers again rated their child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as a measure of exposure to stress from Hurricane Sandy. Adjusting for symptom levels at age 9, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms only in participants with high levels of temperamental sadness and predicted elevated levels of anxiety symptoms only in participants high in temperamental fearfulness. These findings support the role of early childhood temperament as a diathesis for psychopathology and highlight the importance of considering facets of temperament when examining their relationship to psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David


    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137

  15. The role of sediment compaction and groundwater withdrawal in local sea-level rise, Sandy Hook, New Jersey, USA (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Browning, James V.; Kopp, Robert E.; Khan, Nicole S.; Fan, Ying; Stanford, Scott D.; Horton, Benjamin P.


    The rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise at Sandy Hook, NJ (4.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) was higher than The Battery, NY (3.0 ± 0.3 mm/yr) from 1900 to 2012 despite being separated by just 26 km. The difference cannot be explained by differential glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA; 1.4 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 mm/yr RSL rise, respectively) alone. We estimate the contribution of sediment compaction to subsidence at Sandy Hook using high-resolution grain size, percent organic matter, and porosity data from three upper Quaternary (≤13,350 cal yr) cores. The organic matter content (indicates that compaction of deglacial silts likely reduced the column thickness by 10-20% over the past 13,350 cal yrs. While compaction rates were high immediately after the main silt deposition (13,350-13,150 cal yrs BP), rates decreased exponentially after deposition to an average 20th century rate of 0.16 mm/yr (90% Confidence Interval (C.I.), 0.06-0.32 mm/yr). The remaining ∼0.7 mm/yr (90% C.I. 0.3-1.2 mm/yr) difference in subsidence between Sandy Hook and The Battery is likely due to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal. Historical data from Fort Hancock wells (2 km to the southeast of the Sandy Hook tide gauge) and previous regional work show that local and regional water extraction lowered the water levels in the aquifers underlying Sandy Hook. We suggest that the modern order of contribution to subsidence (highest to lowest) appears to be GIA, local/regional groundwater extraction, and compaction of thick Quaternary silts.

  16. Relationships between holocene vegetation and the spreading out of civilizations and languages in Southwestern-Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.


    A pluridisciplinary approach is proposed, which deals with the reconstitution of holocene environments and estimation of the human impact. This effects varies in time and space, as in the case of South Eastern Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran), where advanced civilization appeared very early. Special attention is paid to palynology, archaeology and linguistic

  17. Results of radiocarbon dating of Holocene fluvial sediments from Northeastern Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.; Zeman, A.


    Samples of wood and charcoal from the latest Holocene fluvial sediments under the lowest surface of alluvial plains were dated by radiocarbon in order to check paleomagnetic data at four sites in northeastern Bohemia. The results are presented as funcorrected 14 C ages and dendrochronologically corrected ages. Two samples were recent. 4 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  18. A stable-isotope tree-ring timescale of the Late Glacial/Holocene boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Bernd; Kromer, Bernd; Trimborn, Peter


    Late Glacial and Holocene tree-ring chronologies, like deep-sea sediments or polar ice cores, contain information about past environments. Changes in tree-ring growth rates can be related to past climate anomalies and changes in the isotope composition of tree-ring cellulose reflect changes in the composition of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. We have established a 9,928-year absolutely dated dendrochronological record of Holocene oak (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea)-and a 1,604-year floating Late Glacial and Early Holocene chronology of pine (Pinus sylvestris) from subfossil tree remnants deposited in alluvial terraces of south central European rivers. The pine sequence provides records of dendro-dated 14 C, 13 C and 2 H patterns for the late Younger Dryas and the entire Preboreal (10,100-9,000 yr BP). Through the use of dendrochronology, radiocarbon age calibration and stable isotope analysis, we suggest that the Late Glacial/Holocene transition may be identified and dated by 13 C and 2 H tree-ring chronologies. (author)

  19. Surface water dynamics in the Reykjanes Ridge area during the Holocene as revealed by coccolith assemblages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balestra, B.; Ziveri, P.; Baumann, K. H.; Troelstra, S.R.; Monechi, S.


    The calcareous nannofossil assemblages from sediment core DS97-2P from the Reykjanes Ridge have been investigated to document oceanographic changes in surface water during the Holocene. The recorded variations in coccolithophore species assemblages and accumulation rates indicate that the region was

  20. Valley evolution of the Lower Rhine in LGM, Lateglacial and Early Holocene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.; Stouthamer, E.; Geurts, A.H.; Janssens, M.; Kasse, C.; Busschers, F.S.; Hijma, M.P.; Erkens, G.


    The impact of transient climate change, for example at glacial-interglacial transitions, on the alluvial valley of the lower reaches of larger river systems has become a classic topic of fluvial geomorphology and quaternary geological study. The process of contraction of Holocene river activity into