WorldWideScience

Sample records for holocaust volumes 1-6

  1. Families and the prospect of nuclear attack/holocaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, T.; Sussman, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    This volume addresses the issues attending the continuing threat of a nuclear holocaust and the effect this threat has on the behavior of families. It examines topics such as denial, involvement in community program social movements and other political actions.

  2. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end…

  3. The European Holocaust Research Infrastructure Portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanke, Tobias; Bryant, Michael; Frankl, Michael; Kristel, Conny; Speck, Reto; Daelen, Veerle Vanden; van Horik, M.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the last century there have been significant changes in the practices of archives driven by the massive increase in the volume of records for archiving, a larger and more diverse user base and the digital turn. This paper analyses work undertaken by the European Holocaust Research

  4. Disremembering the holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannai, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The essay describes an elderly Holocaust survivor, who re-experiences the horrors of the Holocaust through his senile hallucinations. Although he is demented, telling and re-telling the story to a therapist helps him regain a sense of control and feel less frightened. He is finally able to revise the nightmarish story into a narrative that enables him to find strength and meaning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Holocaust Cartoons as Ideographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Meidani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holocaust cartoon competition of 2006 in Iran as an instance of social controversy has the potential to raise social and political arguments over various international and global issues. Through using McGee’s theory of ideograph and Edwards and Winkler’s theory of representative form, I identify the ideographs used in these cartoons and argue that the Holocaust cartoons function ideographically to portray Jews, Judaism, Palestine, Israel, Zionism, and the Holocaust. I explain how these controversial images function as representative characters and representative anecdotes and create different ideological interpretations of the Holocaust and associated issues, such as Israel–Palestine conflicts and Western freedom of speech. I argue that the cartoons suggest a connection between Nazism and Zionism, or the Nazi and Israeli regimes, by juxtaposing various elements and situations. I explain that the cartoons anecdotally refer to the Holocaust and represent it as myth or hoax used by Jews/Zionists to justify creation of the nation of Israel.

  6. My Holocaust Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    An education professor whose father was a Holocaust survivor recounts a journey to visit World War II concentration camps in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Germany. He realized that Nazis were systematic exterminators, and cities had been sanitized to banish unseemly memories. Today vigilance and character education are essential. (MLH)

  7. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  8. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Hvad betyder Holocaust i dag?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust er del af europæernes fælles arv, men hvilken betydning har folkedrabet i dag? Hvorfor bliver Holocaust stadig mindet, og er der andre dele af historiens skyggesider, som også bør blive mindet?......Holocaust er del af europæernes fælles arv, men hvilken betydning har folkedrabet i dag? Hvorfor bliver Holocaust stadig mindet, og er der andre dele af historiens skyggesider, som også bør blive mindet?...

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Chapters 1--6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE's Environmental Management Program. Chapters 1--6 include an introduction, background information, description of the proposed action and alternatives, description of the affected environments, environmental impacts, and consultations and permits

  11. Menneskerettighederne og Holocaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Menneskerettighederne er i dag et centralt element i de fleste demokratiske staters opbygning, og de er afgørende for staternes forståelse af sig selv. Holocaust og menneskerettighederne bliver ofte set som forbundne, men er de det? Hvor står menneskerettighederne i dag? Og hvad gør man for at fo......Menneskerettighederne er i dag et centralt element i de fleste demokratiske staters opbygning, og de er afgørende for staternes forståelse af sig selv. Holocaust og menneskerettighederne bliver ofte set som forbundne, men er de det? Hvor står menneskerettighederne i dag? Og hvad gør man...

  12. Holodomor, the Ukrainian Holocaust?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The Holocaust and the Great Famine in Ukraine are two man made catastrophes set in the XXth century. While the first is the most documented genocide in history, the latter tends to be dismissed by the international community as an "ineffective policy" of the Soviet Union. Having managed to exclude political killings from the UN's definition of genocide, Russia continues to deny the Ukrainian people access to information about the famine that left 6 million people dead of starvation. Neverthel...

  13. Critical theory and holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is attempting to establish the relationship - or the lack of it - of the Critical Theory to the "Jewish question" and justification of perceiving signs of Jewish religious heritage in the thought of the representatives of this movement. The holocaust marked out by the name of "Auschwitz", is here tested as a point where the nature of this relationship has been decided. In this encounter with the cardinal challenge for the contemporary social theory, the particularity of the Frankfurt School reaction is here revealed through Adorno installing Auschwitz as unexpected but lawful emblem of the ending of the course that modern history has assumed. The critique of this "fascination" with Auschwitz, as well as certain theoretical pacification and measured positioning of the holocaust into discontinued plane of "unfinished" and continuation and closure of the valued project, are given through communicative-theoretical pre-orientation of Jürgen Habermas’s Critical Theory and of his followers. Finally, through the work of Detlev Claussen, it is suggested that in the youngest generation of Adorno’s students there are signs of revision to once already revised Critical Theory and a kind of defractured and differentiated return to the initial understanding of the decisiveness of the holocaust experience. This shift in the attitude of the Critical Theory thinkers to the provocation of holocaust is not, however, particularly reflected towards the status of Jews and their tradition, but more to the age old questioning and explanatory patterns for which they served as a "model". The question of validity of the enlightenment project, the nature of occidental rationalism, (nonexistence of historical theology and understanding of the identity and emancipation - describe the circle of problems around which the disagreement is concentrated in the social critical theory.

  14. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  15. Reconceptualising the Holocaust and Holocaust Education in Countries that Escaped Nazi Occupation: A Scottish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the establishment of a national Holocaust Memorial Day in 2001, the Holocaust was not part of Scotland's historical narrative and its teaching was marginal in Scotland. This article examines Scotland's connections with the Holocaust and reflects on the impact that the history of the Holocaust has had on Scotland. Investigating Holocaust…

  16. The Holocaust and Collective Memory in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammers, Karl Christian

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen behandler Holocaust's plads i den kollektibve erindring i Skandinavien, og den viser hvorledes den "gode historie": redningen af de danske jøder i oktober 1943 i lang tid bestemte omgangen med Holocaust.......Artiklen behandler Holocaust's plads i den kollektibve erindring i Skandinavien, og den viser hvorledes den "gode historie": redningen af de danske jøder i oktober 1943 i lang tid bestemte omgangen med Holocaust....

  17. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  18. Treatment of Holocaust Denial Literature in Association of Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidal, Debra F.

    2012-01-01

    Holocaust denial literature has been treated inconsistently in library collections. At one time Holocaust denial literature was classed and subject headings assigned with Holocaust literature. After specific Library of Congress classification numbers and subject headings for Holocaust denial and Holocaust denial literature became available in the…

  19. Complicating Issues in Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the Holocaust in a classroom setting involves a complex undertaking that demands careful planning as educators develop and present curricula on the subject to their students. This article explores another problematic factor involved in teaching the Shoah, that is, several issues that exist outside the content/pedagogical framework but…

  20. Holocaust Knowledge and Holocaust Education Experiences Predict Citizenship Values among US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, Gerene K.; Fredotovic, Ivana; Goodletty, Sashay; Starratt, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This community-based research investigated the relationship among Holocaust knowledge, Holocaust education experiences, and citizenship values in adults residing in the US. This study contributes to the literature an inferential investigation that reports positive civic attitudes associated with Holocaust education. A moderate correlation was…

  1. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  2. Elevated cancer risk in Holocaust survivors residing in Israel: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben David, Ran; Biderman, Aya; Sherf, Michael; Zamstein, Omri; Dreiher, Jacob

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of malignant diseases among Holocaust survivors in Israel compared with European and American immigrants who did not experience the Holocaust. Study subjects included Holocaust survivors born in European countries under Nazi occupation before 1945, who immigrated to Israel after 1945 and were alive as of the year 2000. Living survivors were identified based on recognition criteria in accordance with the Holocaust Survivor Benefits Law. The comparison group consisted of Clalit enrollees who were born before 1945 in European countries not under Nazi occupation and were alive in 2000 or were born in any European country or America, immigrated to Israel before 1939 and were alive in 2000. The incidence of malignant diseases was compared in univariate and Poisson regression models analyses, controlling for age, smoking, obesity, diabetes and place of residence. The study included 294,543 Holocaust survivors, and the mean age at the beginning of follow-up was 74 ± 8.7 years; 43% males. In multivariable analyses, the rate ratio (RR) values for males and females were 1.9 and 1.3 for colon cancer, 1.9 and 1.4 for lung cancer, 1.6 and 1.4 for bladder cancer and 1.2 and 1.3 for melanoma, respectively. For prostate cancer in males, the RR was 1.4, while for breast cancer in females, it was 1.2. The incidence of malignant diseases among Holocaust survivors residing in Israel was higher than that among non-Holocaust survivors. These associations remained statistically significant in a multivariable analysis and were stronger for males. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Textbooks and the Holocaust in Independent Ukraine: An Uneasy Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how Ukrainian history textbooks dealt with the Holocaust between independence and 2006. The analysis reveals two major, conflicting narratives about the Holocaust, though both externalize and relativize the Holocaust. As a template for understanding genocide, the Holocaust was applied to the Soviet-imposed 1932-33 famine in…

  4. Teaching the Holocaust as a Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melissa J.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching about the Holocaust as an atrocity of the 1940s misleads students into thinking that it is a genocide occurred, that the world agreed "Never Again," and that the United Nations would prevent future genocides. With genocides in Rwanda, Srebrenica, and Syria occurring in the years since the Holocaust, teachers need to use the…

  5. Teaching the Holocaust through Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misco, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to the curricular challenges teachers face with Holocaust education, including cursory treatments and a lack of focus on individual experiences. First, the author argues for a case-study approach to help students reengage concrete and complex features of the Holocaust as a point of departure for subsequent inquiry. In…

  6. Do Holocaust survivors show increased vulnerability or resilience to post-Holocaust cumulative adversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-06-01

    Prior trauma can hinder coping with additional adversity or inoculate against the effect of recurrent adversity. The present study further addressed this issue by examining whether a subsample of Holocaust survivors and comparison groups, drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, were differentially affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity. Post-Holocaust cumulative adversity had a stronger effect on the lifetime depression of Holocaust survivors than on that of comparisons. However, comparisons were more negatively affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity when examining markers of physical and cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that previous trauma can both sensitize and immunize, as Holocaust survivors show general resilience intertwined with specific vulnerability when confronted with additional cumulative adversity.

  7. Holocaust memory reconstruction among bereaved parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have examined the trauma bereaved parents experience. The current study focuses on the role that the Holocaust's memory plays in the bereavement experience of parents who have lost a child in a terrorist attack in Israel. Forty bereaved parents were interviewed, using semistructured in-depth interviews. Bereaved parents related to the Holocaust memory as a meaningful experience in their private bereavement. The parents expressed dialectic feelings concerning their loss, personal victimization on the one hand and personal strength, and growth on the other hand. It seems that memory reconstruction of the Holocaust can be used as a coping resource.

  8. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  9. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  10. The Afterlife of Holocaust Memory in Contemporary Literature and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Crownshaw, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As living memories of the Holocaust die out with the generation that witnessed the event, practitioners of memory work have focused on the transmission of memory to the next generations. Recent Holocaust memorialisation, in the form of literature, museums, memorials and monuments, must make Holocaust memory meaningful for those born after the event. With this in mind, the arts of Holocaust memorialisation often provoke a sense of secondary memory or vicarious witnessing, an attempt to experie...

  11. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  12. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittnik, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in…

  13. Jewish Holocaust Histories and the Work of Chronological Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jordana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways that, in Holocaust education in Jewish schools in Melbourne and New York at the beginning of the 21st century, knowledge of the Holocaust is transferred to students in chronological form. It begins by asking: What work do chronological narratives do within the Holocaust historical narratives offered within Jewish…

  14. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  15. The Holocaust after 70 years: Holocaust survivors in the United States(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Over 70 years, there have been different narratives of the Holocaust survivors coming to the United States. Survivors' stories begin with an event of major historical significance. Difficulties in conceptualizing historical trauma, along with common distortions and myths about Holocaust survivors and their children are examined. This article proposes that it is impossible to discuss the consequences of extreme suffering without consideration of historical meaning and social context with which they are entwined. The evolution of the social representation of the Holocaust and the contradictions in clinical attributions to survivors and their children with consideration of the future is described. Attributions to survivors and their children with consideration of the future is described.

  16. Forced Labor during the Romanian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chioveanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available My paper aims to retrieve and present in general lines one aspect of the Romanian Holocaust that was since recently ignored by most scholars in the field, namely the forced labor of the Jewish population. Part of the deliberate anti-Jewish policy of the Antonescu government, the issue of forced labor is relevant as it completes the picture of the Holocaust in Romania, at the same time indicating the border between the Romanian apartheid society and the Romanian genocidal state. The paper thus points at the necessity for the scholars to continue their research in the field of holocaust studies at large, a topic that is far from exhausting its resources and significance.

  17. Living in the Presence of an Absence. The Puzzling Holocaust Legacy of the American Post-Holocaust Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Balestrino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with second-generation Holocaust literature, i.e. writings belonging to the generation born after the Holocaust and grown up in its aftermath. Specifically I dwell on two considerably different Jewish-American novels, which reflect two different natures of Holocaust inheritance and, hence, two distinct paths, featuring second-generation Holocaust literature: Thane Rosenbaum’s Second-Hand Smoke (1999 and Irene Dische’s Pious Secrets (1991. My understanding of these narratives is grounded in the cultural distinction between particularist and universalist second-generation Holocaust writers outlined by Alan Berger in Children of Job, American Second-Generation Witnesses to the Holocaust (1997. The argument that I present interprets Rosenbaum’s novel as a particularist depiction of the Holocaust legacy, whereas Dische’s book is associated to a universalist perspective towards this event and its inheritance.

  18. Holocaust survivors: the pain behind the agony. Increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, J N; Cohen, H; Eisinger, M; Buskila, D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of fibromyalgia among a population of Holocaust survivors in Israel as well as the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and concurrent psychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety among survivors. Eighty-three survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and 65 age-matched individuals not exposed to Nazi occupation were recruited. Physical examination and manual tender point assessment was performed for the establishment of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia and information was collected regarding quality of life (SF-36), physical function and health (FIQ), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms (CAPS). Significantly increased rates of fibromyalgia were identified among Holocaust survivors compared with controls (23.81% vs. 10.94, pHolocaust survivors six decades after the end of the Second World War. This finding furthers our knowledge regarding the long-term effect of stress on the development of fibromyalgia.

  19. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  20. Reluctant Learners? Muslim Youth Confront the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    There is good reason to believe that anti-Semitism is rife in Muslim communities across the world. Consequently, one might expect that teaching the Holocaust in schools with a substantial Muslim presence would prove a difficult and stressful experience. In this article, I draw on a diverse body of literature to argue for a more nuanced approach to…

  1. Five Perspectives for Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Studying the Holocaust provides an opportunity to explore a fascinating historical topic whose impact on the contemporary world cannot be overstated. As such, the topic is now an accepted part of the American secondary school curriculum. For such curricula to be of maximum benefit to students, clearly defined perspectives that direct the students'…

  2. Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

  3. En-gendering Memory through Holocaust Alimentary Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2015-01-01

    In her article "En-gendering Memory through Holocaust Alimentary Life Writing" Louise O. Vasvári aims to underline the cultural and gendered significance of the sharing of recipes as a survival tool by starving women in concentration camps during the Holocaust and the continuing role of food memories in the writing of Holocaust survivor women she considers a genealogy of intergenerational remembrance and transmission into the postmemory writing of their second generation daughters and occasio...

  4. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  5. Psychoanalysis traumatized: the legacy of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Psychoanalysis is a survivor of the Holocaust. It was founded and flourished in central European centers that would be destroyed by the Nazis. A core group of refugees who lived through persecution and exile were instrumental in rebuilding their movement on alien shores. They had no opportunity to mourn the loss of their culture or their leader, Freud, whose death was overshadowed by the cataclysmic upheaval around them. Though its trauma has been dissociated, it is represented in psychoanalytic ideas and enacted in institutions within the context of delayed or incomplete mourning. For example, authoritarianism in psychoanalytic institutions will be explored as a reliving of the trauma of both fascism and exile, and not merely typical group psychology. Further evidence of the impact of dissociated trauma includes the astonishing scotoma for actual events in treatment of Holocaust survivors; the extreme privileging of infantile fantasy over reality, and attention to childhood neurosis at the expense of adult catastrophic events.

  6. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  7. "Logically We Should Be Dead": Absurd Heroism in Holocaust Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, James F.

    1984-01-01

    Readers of holocaust literature can learn from the common person as hero. If traditional heroic models are less frequent in holocaust literature than in Greek, Roman, and Elizabethan literature, the common person defying his or her fate and still trying to survive is still worthy of attention. In this insistence on survival, a freedom of spirit is…

  8. Guidelines for Teaching the Holocaust: Avoiding Common Pedagogical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching the Holocaust is a complex undertaking involving twists and turns that can frustrate and even intimidate educators who teach the Holocaust. This complexity involves both the event's history and its pedagogy. In this article, the author considers eight pedagogical approaches that often cause problems in teaching the event. He states each…

  9. Educating Students about the Holocaust: A Survey of Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the horrific events of the Holocaust took place, but images of the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany are no less shocking than they were 60 years ago. Any discussion of the Holocaust inevitably leads to questions not only of how and why this event…

  10. Holocaust Education in Quebec: Teachers' Positioning and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Sabrina; Hirsch, Sivane; Audet, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Teaching about the Holocaust is mandatory in many societies. This prescription is justified by authorities with many reasons: educating pupils for a better understanding of human rights, peace, war, genocide, critical thinking, historical thinking, racism, etc. The Holocaust can carry a very strong moral and emotional charge. But why do teachers…

  11. Measuring Holocaust Knowledge and Its Impact: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the responses of some 1,500 Canadians to a public opinion survey on knowledge of the Holocaust, awareness of genocide, and attitudes towards discrimination and diversity. Based on one of the most detailed surveys conducted to date on Holocaust knowledge, the study found strong correlations between greater reported Holocaust…

  12. Normal at last? German Strategic Culture and the Holocaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    role in Europe – most notably when it comes to security issues. e reason is that German strategic culture is still highly in uenced by the collective remembrance of the Holocaust and the lessons Germany has drawn from it. us, the Holocaust nation discourse is still the central ’unwritten constitution...

  13. Teaching about the Holocaust in Less Impacted Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines reasons for teaching about the Holocaust in countries only marginally impacted by these events. Against the backdrop of a recent global study showing that anti-Semitism is still quite pervasive around the globe, an attempt is made to show in what ways teaching about the Holocaust can affect attitudes of young people toward…

  14. Teaching about the Holocaust in English Schools: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some principal findings from the first comprehensive national study of Holocaust education in England, which was conducted by the University of London's Institute of Education. More than 2000 teachers provided insight into their teaching about the Holocaust, including their perceptions, perspectives and practice. This article…

  15. Policy and Practice of Holocaust Education in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in England and Wales, Holocaust education in Scotland is not mandatory and is not delivered to every school student. Still, it is offered frequently. In this article we show how Scotland's changing curriculum, the introduction of Holocaust Memorial Day, and the Lessons from Auschwitz Project have contributed to the…

  16. Holocaust Education in Jewish Schools in Israel: Goals, Dilemmas, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown the Holocaust to be the primary component of Jewish identity (Farago in Yahadut Zmanenu 5:259-285, 1989; Gross in Influence of the trip to Poland within the framework of the Ministry of Education on the working through of the Holocaust. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, 2000; "Herman in Jewish…

  17. How They Teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jeffrey Alan

    2017-01-01

    Though Holocaust education is of critical importance in the world of Jewish Day Schools, little research has been conducted about it. The purpose of this paper is to answer some critical questions about how they teach the Holocaust in Jewish Day Schools--the who, what, when, where, how, and why questions. Additionally, comparisons are made between…

  18. Holocaust Studies in Austrian Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mittnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents arguments in support of teaching about the Holocaust and Nazism in Austria at an early age. To accomplish this, Austrian and German elementary school textbooks were analyzed for the amount of content dealing with the Holocaust and Jews; the results showed that since 1980 the amount of content on the Holocaust increased in Germany, and to a lesser extent in Austria. The article reviews some of the criticism in Europe of the term Holocaust Education and explores some of arguments about why that is. The author argues that moral education and teaching of Human Rights are important components of, but ought not be the main goal of teaching about the Holocaust. The role of Austria after World War II, and exploration of the so called victim myth, prevalent until the 1990s are important to understanding history and to how history textbooks were created. After a discussion of how the Holocaust can be taught to elementary and early secondary school aged children, some suggestions are made about approaches to teaching the Holocaust to students in these age groups.

  19. The aging of Holocaust survivors: myth and reality concerning suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram

    2007-03-01

    The association between the Holocaust experience and suicide has rarely been studied systematically. The dearth of data in this area of old-age psychiatry does not necessarily imply that Holocaust survivors are immune from suicide. Recent work on the aging of survivors seems to suggest that as a group they are at high risk for self-harm. Published reports on suicide and the Holocaust identified by means of a MEDLINE literature search were reviewed. A similar search was performed on the Internet using the Google search engine. Thirteen studies were uncovered, 9 of which addressed the association of suicide and the Holocaust experience and 4 focused on suicide in the concentration camps during the genocide. Eleven of the 15 studies explicitly reported on the association of suicide, suicidal ideation or death by suicide with the Holocaust experience, or reported findings suggesting such an association. The Internet search yielded three sites clearly describing increased suicide rates in the concentration camps. An increased rate of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among the elderly who were exposed to the Holocaust experience is confirmed. There is a need for further study, intervention and resource allocation among the growing numbers of elderly persons who suffered traumatic events in earlier phases of their lives. This is especially critical for Holocaust survivors.

  20. Animation: textural difference and the materiality of Holocaust memory

    OpenAIRE

    Walden, Victoria Grace

    2014-01-01

    The notion of “Holocaust animation” may seem paradoxical; how can a medium which, in the popular eye, is usually associated with comedy, play and fantasy be used to remember one of the 20th century’s most traumatic events? By examining the textural difference of animation to our lived world in texts such as Silence (Yadin and Bringas 1998) and I was a Child of Holocaust Survivors (Ann Marie Fleming 2010), it becomes clear how the medium can emphasise the fragile materiality of Holocaust memor...

  1. Thoughts on representation in therapy of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Yael

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the problems of representation and lack of representation in treating Holocaust survivors, through clinical vignettes and various theoreticians. The years of Nazi persecution and murder brought about a destruction of symbolization and turning inner and external reality into the Thing itself, the concrete, or, in Lacan's words, 'The Thing'. The paper presents two ideas related to praxis as well as theory in treating Holocaust survivors: the first is related to the therapist's treatment of the Holocaust nightmare expressing the traumatic events just as they happened 63 years previously; the second deals with the attempt at subjectification, in contrast to the objectification forced by the Nazis on their victims.

  2. The Holocaust and the Landscape after the Holocaust in Comic Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Forecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of two comic books entitled Maus by Art Spiegelman, the comics about the Holocaust became a separate category of graphic stories referring to history. The appearance of albums by Spiegelman may also be treated as a certain caesura on the Polish market of comics. Until that time, no Polish author of comic strips had even tried to come to grips with the topic of the Holocaust; even today they would rather avoid this topic. Taking no account of the reasons behind such abandonment, it is worth noting that Polish authors clearly gave ground to the creators from the West who, with mixed success, filled in this significant gap and their comics were later translated into Polish. The main purpose of the article is to show a panorama of comic books by Polish and Western authors, which have been published in Poland until now and, in various ways, touch upon the question of the Holocaust, thus becoming a part of a postcatastrophic discourse. The aim of the undertaken considerations is not solely the creation of the inventory but also a fragmentary but critical analysis of the contents of the mentioned comic strips.

  3. Resources and Guidelines for Teaching about the Holocaust [and Related Brochures and Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource packet presents a variety of ideas, lesson plans and activities to teach about the Holocaust. Lesson plans in this packet include: (1) "Human Behavior"; (2) "The Teachings of Contempt--Entry Points for Examining the Holocaust: Prejudice, Bigotry, Racism, Stereotypes, Scapegoating"; (3) "The Holocaust";…

  4. Connecting the Dots: Helping Year 9 to Debate the Purposes of Holocaust and Genocide Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyman, Tamsin; Harris, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Why do we teach about the Holocaust and about other genocides? The Holocaust has been a compulsory part of the English National Curriculum since 1991; however, curriculum documents say little about why pupils should learn about the Holocaust or about what they should learn. Tamsin Leyman and Richard Harris decided to use the opportunity presented…

  5. Surviving the Holocaust: A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Sequelae of a Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Efrat; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    The current set of meta-analyses elucidates the long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical consequences of the Holocaust for survivors. In 71 samples with 12,746 participants Holocaust survivors were compared with their counterparts (with no Holocaust background) on physical health, psychological well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms,…

  6. Toward a Philosophy of Holocaust Education: Teaching Values without Imposing Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Most teachers hope to make a difference in the lives of their students, but whether they accomplish this with any regularity is often left unclear. With a topic like the Holocaust, the stakes are greatly raised. In this essay, the author discusses the place of the Holocaust in the liberal arts. He argues that the content of Holocaust education…

  7. 75 FR 43225 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Holocaust-Uniforms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Determinations: ``The Holocaust--Uniforms, Canisters, and Shoes'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Holocaust--Uniforms, Canisters, and Shoes.... Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, from on or about September 2010 until on or about September 2015...

  8. The Durban Holocaust Centre Educators and the Origins of Their Historical and Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, Brenda; Wassermann, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Education at Holocaust museums worldwide often falls to volunteer museum educators. The Durban Holocaust Centre in South Africa is no different. We set out to understand who the educators at the Durban Holocaust Centre were, where their historical and pedagogical knowledge came from, and to examine the connection between the two. The study…

  9. 75 FR 27613 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Holocaust (Warsaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Determinations: ``The Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto)'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... Holocaust (Warsaw Ghetto),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of... custodian. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the documents at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial...

  10. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  11. Challenging Dutch Holocaust Education: Towards a Curriculum Based on Moral Choices and Empathetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jacob R.; Schimmel, Noam

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings…

  12. Empirical and Normative Foundations of Holocaust Education: Bringing Research and Advocacy into Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle; Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    A scenario of Holocaust education gone awry, which was constructed from a real event in one author's experience, and a 2010 critique of Holocaust education by former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, are used to explore key issues and dilemmas for Holocaust education. The authors argue that we should pursue clarity about the empirical and moral…

  13. Moving beyond the Toolbox: Teaching Human Rights through Teaching the Holocaust in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    What role might Holocaust education play in post-apartheid South Africa? What role might the teacher of the Holocaust play? This paper examines the considerations that have shaped the programmes developed by the South African Holocaust Foundation to support South African teachers teaching about the Holocaust. This programme is set against a…

  14. Making Sense of the Brutality of the Holocaust: Critical Themes and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D

    2017-01-02

    This article offers an analytic, integrative review of select themes associated with one of history's greatest atrocities: the Holocaust. Much of this review considers general and Holocaust-specific themes as they pertain to the nature of senseless violence and evil. The importance of having a greater understanding of the sheer brutality of violence perpetuated in the Holocaust is emphasized. As part of this discussion, considerable attention is given to how Internet-based photographs and videos from the Holocaust era can provide greater insight into understanding the evil associated with this genocide. Some consideration of the larger meaning of the Holocaust, particularly for Jews, is also examined.

  15. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1992-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  17. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  18. Is the Holocaust implicated in posttraumatic growth in second-generation Holocaust survivors? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-08-01

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Polish Literature of the Holocaust. The First Instalment: 1939-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kuczyńska-Koschany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is a critical attempt discussing the compendium Literatura polska wobec Zagłady, (“Polish Literature in the Face of the Holocaust” edited and published by three prominent scholarly experts on the subject: Sławomir Buryła, Dorota Krawczyńska and Jacek Leociak. This is the first of the three volumes of the series Reprezentacje Zagłady w kulturze polskiej (“Representations of the Holocaust in Polish Culture” – an endeavour which is imposing already in its first instalment concerning the years 1939-1968. The time frame of the abovementioned volume is marked by the date of the beginning of World War II (1939, resulting in the Holocaust of the Jews of Europe, and a “dry pogrom”, that is was the anti-Semitic campaign in Poland in 1968 (the campaign itself and its writings shall be examined in the following volume. A comprehensive and very carefully prepared monograph has been divided into two fundamental parts: concerning the literature reacting to the Holocaust conducted by Nazi Germany during the war (1939-1945 and discussing the literary echoes of that genocide in the years 1945-1968. The study and invaluable interpretational effort have been focused on personal document literature (Marta Janczewska, Jacek Leociak, the prose (Sławomir Buryła, Dorota Krawczyńska, the poetry (Piotr Matywiecki and the press (Ewa Koźmińska-Frejlak. A separate chapter has been devoted to a the “global text”, i.e., Archiwum Ringelbluma (“Ringelblum’s Archives”. Highly appreciating the entire volume as well as its individual fragments, recalling fundamental considerations and the ones concerning details, finally, proposing small corrections and pointing to minor shortcomings, the author of the critical review suggests the use of the formula “Polish literature of the Holocaust” (analogous to the formula coined by Grzegorz Niziołek “Polish theatre of the Holocaust” as the one principally necessary to be contrasted with the

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and dementia in Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian Konstantin; Biermann, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in the group of people damaged by the Holocaust. Within the context of internal research, 93 Holocaust survivors suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been examined. Patients suffered on average from 4.5 (standard deviation ± 1.8) somatic diagnoses as well as 1.8 (standard deviation ± 0.5) psychiatric diagnoses. A diagnosis of dementia was ascertained according to ICD-10 criteria in 14%. Vascular dementia (66%) dominated over Alzheimer's dementia (23%) and other subtypes (11%).

  1. Haim Gouri and the Ghetto Fighters’ House Holocaust Trilogy Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mayer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1974 and 1985 The Ghetto Fighters’ House [Museum} collaborated with one of Israel’s best known literary figure-poet, journalist and screenwriter-Haim Gouri and together produced three movies about the Holocaust which were based upon a collection of excellent documentary materials. Known as the Holocaust Trilogy, the first film earned an Oscar nomination for best documentary, a feat not matched until 40 years later. Today, we see a remarkable resurgence of these works and this article will explore why this increase in interest is occurring.

  2. Impact of the Holocaust on the Rehabilitation Outcome of Older Patients Sustaining a Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Eliyahu H; Lubart, Emilia; Heymann, Anthony; Leibovitz, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    Holocaust survivors report a much higher prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture in the hip joint compared to those who were not Holocaust survivors. To evaluate whether being a Holocaust survivor could affect the functional outcome of hip fracture in patients 64 years of age and older undergoing rehabilitation. A retrospective cohort study compromising 140 consecutive hip fracture patients was conducted in a geriatric and rehabilitation department of a university-affiliated hospital. Being a Holocaust survivor was based on registry data. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)TM at admission and discharge from the rehabilitation ward. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test, and linear regression analysis. Total and motor FIM scores at admission (P = 0.004 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total and motor FIM gain scores at discharge (P = 0.008 and P = 0.004 respectively) were significantly higher in non-Holocaust survivors compared with Holocaust survivors. A linear regression analysis showed that being a Holocaust survivor was predictive of lower total FIM scores at discharge (β = -0.17, P = 0.004). Hip fracture in Holocaust survivors showed lower total, motor FIM and gain scores at discharge compared to non-Holocaust survivor patients. These results suggest that being a Holocaust survivor could adversely affect the rehabilitation outcome following fracture of the hip and internal fixation.

  3. 31 CFR 1.6 - Business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 1.6 Section 1.6... Information Act § 1.6 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to the Department of the Treasury by a business submitter shall not be disclosed pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act...

  4. From the Holocaust to Darfur: A Recipe for Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Joseph D.; Beiter, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, social studies teachers present the cruelty of the Holocaust as an isolated event. These units focus on Hitler, gas chambers, and war crimes and end with a defiant and honorable "Never again!" While covering mass murder in this way is laudable, it ultimately might not go as far as it could. For as teaches if we really want…

  5. Responses to the Holocaust in Modern Irish Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keatinge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines twentieth and twenty-first century responses by Irish poets to the Holocaust. It argues that, despite the illiberal tendencies of the Irish state towards Jewish immigration during and after the 1939-1945 war, recent commemorative activities in Ireland have included the Holocaust and are part of a wider commemorative ‘opening up’ in Ireland towards twentieth-century historical events. Important contemporary Irish poets have written Holocaust poems of notable merit including: Seamus Heaney, Harry Clifton, Derek Mahon, Pearse Hutchinson, Paul Durcan, Paul Muldoon, Thomas Kinsella and Tom Paulin, all of whom are discussed here. These poets are noted as second-generation Holocaust poets, more at home in the lyric form and less troubled by communicative dilemmas than their precursors such as Paul Celan and Samuel Beckett whose resemblance is briefly discussed. The essay concludes by arguing that Giorgio Agamben’s arguments about testimony after Auschwitz are strikingly pertinent to some of the poems under discussion. It also suggests that the historical essays of Hubert Butler may have acted as an unseen influence on some of these writers.

  6. Confronting History: Holocaust Books for Children (Practical Reflections).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Masha Kabakow; Rosenberg, Susan P.

    1991-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive picture of current Holocaust literature, largely for readers age 10 and older. Describes books that look at individual responsibility, group responsibility, non-Jewish perspectives, and Jewish resistance and survivors' stories. Explores nonfiction works for varying ages, and closes with a special book that takes the form…

  7. Finding Common Ground in Education about the Holocaust and Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondius, Dienke

    2010-01-01

    In scholarship on the Holocaust and the history of slavery, historians and other academics have, over the years, developed both abstract concepts and concrete activities. Teachers and developers of educational materials have translated complex events into digestible entities fit for use within and outside the classroom, often including new…

  8. Libeskind and the Holocaust Metanarrative; from Discourse to Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiftsi Xanthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Holocaust today resides between memory and postmemory. Initially, children of survivors and their contemporaries inherited a mediated past and bore full responsibility for disseminating their ancestors’ experiences. However, with the prevalence of the Holocaust metanarrative and its absolutist historicism, it was realised that when memory needs to cross generational boundaries, it needs to cross medial as well. The discourse was not enough; there was a need for broadening the narrative beyond the verbal using a powerful medium with the capacity to affect cognition and provoke emotions. This would be architecture, a storyteller by nature. In the 2000s, there was a noticeable boom in innovative Holocaust museums and memorials. Deconstructivist designs and symbolic forms constituted a new language that would meet the demands of local narratives, influence public opinion, and contribute to social change. This paper examines the potential of this transmediation and addresses critical issues-the importance of the experience, the role of empathy and intersubjectivity, the association of emotions with personal and symbolic experiences-and ethical challenges of the transmedia “migration” of a story. To accomplish this, it draws upon Daniel Libeskind, a Polish-born architect who has narrated different aspects of the Holocaust experience through his works.

  9. Sources and Resources for Teaching about the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a guide of books related to the Jewish holocaust during World War II for use by students, teachers, and librarians at the secondary level. Books are listed in 20 categories including Hitler, Third Reich, Anti-Semitism, Ghettos, and World Reaction. (Author/DB)

  10. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  11. "What Happened to Their Pets?": Third Graders Encounter the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Though widely believed to contain moral lessons of import for audiences of all ages, the Holocaust is often considered too complex, too appalling, too impenetrable, or too emotionally disturbing a subject to be taught to young children, even if taught only in its most "preparatory version," to use Jerome Bruner's famous…

  12. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  13. Defining the Shoah: An Opening Lesson for a Holocaust Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Students often bring considerable prior information about the Holocaust to their study of the event, with much of that knowledge being inaccurate or incomplete. In addition, the Shoah's complexity necessitates that teachers establish a well-defined framework as they introduce the topic to their students. This article outlines an opening lesson for…

  14. Synecdochic Memory at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    2012-01-01

    On the third floor of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), in Washington, D.C., inside a glass case, lie thousands of shoes. Old and mismatched, moldering after sixty years, they are what remains of countless Jews who were told to disrobe and who were subsequently murdered at Majdanek, Poland, during the final years of the…

  15. Holocaust Education: Global Forces Shaping Curricula Integration and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan L.; Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    The article provides a critical review of the global scholarship on Holocaust education (HE). Despite the growing body of work on this topic, a search through major academic databases by the authors revealed that no such review of the research literature has been published as of yet. The review focuses on three main themes across the research…

  16. Empathy, Sympathy, Simulation? Resisting a Holocaust Pedagogy of Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Pascale R.

    2014-01-01

    Most colleges and universities in the United States today offer one or more undergraduate courses on the Holocaust in History, Sociology, Literature, or other Humanities disciplines. Enrollments are strong, and many faculty members find themselves teaching such courses at the request of their chair or dean. However, most faculty will not have been…

  17. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  18. Can We Teach the Environmental History of the Holocaust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Verity

    2017-01-01

    Verity Morgan took an unusual approach to the challenge of teaching the Holocaust, coming to it through the lens of environmental history. She shares here the practical means and resources she used to engage pupils with this current trend in historiography, and its associated concepts. Reflecting on her pupils' responses, Morgan makes a case for…

  19. Meeting a Moral Imperative: A Rationale for Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    A primary rationale for studying the Holocaust (Shoah) involves the opportunity to consider the moral implications that can be drawn from examining the event. Studying the Shoah forces students to consider what it means to be human and humane by examining the full continuum of individual behavior, from "ultimate evil" to "ultimate good". This…

  20. Developing Holocaust Curricula: The Content Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The content decision-making process involved in developing Holocaust curricula is unusually complex and problematic. Educators must consider factors such as historical accuracy, selection of topics covered, potential teaching materials (such as textbooks and literary texts), and graphic materials (such as films and photographs) as they plan their…

  1. Holocaust "Laughter" and Edgar Hilsenrath's "The Nazi and the Barber": Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Laughter and Humor in Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2018-01-01

    This article tries to defend the position that Holocaust Education can be enriched by appreciating laughter and humor as critical and transformative forces that not only challenge dominant discourses about the Holocaust and its representational limits, but also reclaim humanity, ethics, and difference from new angles and juxtapositions. Edgar…

  2. The Intricacies of Education about the Holocaust in Poland. Ten Years after the Jedwabne Debate, What Can Polish School Students Learn about the Holocaust in History Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Jolanta; Szuchta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, disparities have grown between history and the memory of the Holocaust. Debates on Polish-Jewish relations during the Holocaust and empirical studies in the field of education reveal that there is a gap between research and education. The emphasis in this paper is on the content of new history textbooks published after…

  3. The Past and the Future of Holocaust Research : From Disparate Sources to an Integrated European Holocaust Research Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanke, Tobias; Daelen, Veerle Vanden; Frankl, Michal; Kristel, Conny; Rodriguez, Kepa; Speck, Reto; Rapp, Andrea; Lossau, Norbert; Neurot, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) has been set up by the European Union to create a sustainable complex of services for researchers. EHRI will bring together information about dispersed collections, based on currently more than 20 partner organisations in 13 countries and many

  4. Psychological vulnerability and resilience of Holocaust survivors engaged in creative art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Shira; Shrira, Amit

    2018-06-01

    Although evidence demonstrates that engagement in art promotes favorable coping with trauma, this subject is underexplored among Holocaust survivors. Thus, the present study explored whether Holocaust survivors engaged in art differed from survivors not engaged in art in various markers of psychological vulnerability and resilience. The study further included non-Holocaust survivor comparisons, some engaged in art and some not, in order to assess whether engagement in art among Holocaust survivors relates to a unique psychological profile beyond art engagement in general. A sample of 154 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 81.67, SD = 5.33, range = 73-97) reported exposure to the Holocaust, current engagement in art, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, general psychological distress, resilience and subjective perceptions of age and aging. Holocaust survivors (regardless of whether they engaged in art or not) reported higher PTSD symptoms relative to comparisons. However, Holocaust survivors who engaged in art reported higher resilience than all other groups (survivors not engaged in art and comparisons engaged and not engaged in art). To the best of our knowledge, these findings are the first quantitative evidence pointing toward a link between engagement in art and positive coping with the Holocaust. These findings have important implications for clinicians working with Holocaust survivors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Encyclopaedia of energy. Six volume set, 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, C.; Ayres, R.; Costanza, R.; Goldemberg, J. (and others) [Boston University, MA (US). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    2004-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia provides information about all aspects of energy. It is written by leading international authorities (approximately 400 authors). Contents are: Basics of Energy; Energy Flows; Society and Energy; History and Energy; Systems of Energy; Conservation and End Use; Renewable and Alternative Sources; Environmental Issues; Public Issues; Policy Issues; Economics of Energy; Measurement and Models; Material Use and Reuse; Oil and Natural Gas; Coal, Electricity; Nuclear Energy; Risks; Sustainable Development; Global Issues; Appendices.

  6. Addicted to the Holocaust – Bernice Eisenstein’s Ways of Coping with Troublesome Memories in I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Dagmara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In her I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors published in Canada in 2006, Bernice Eistenstein undertakes an attempt to cope with the inherited memories of the Holocaust. As a child of the Holocaust survivors, she tries to deal with the trauma her parents kept experiencing years after WWII had finished. Eisenstein became infected with the suffering and felt it inescapable. Eisenstein’s text, which is one of the first Jewish-Canadian graphic memoirs, appears to represent the voice of the children of Holocaust survivors not only owing to its verbal dimension, but also due to the drawings incorporated into the text. Therefore, the text becomes a combination of a memoir, a family story, a philosophical treatise and a comic strip, which all prove unique and enrich the discussion on the Holocaust in literature. For these reasons, the aim of this article is to analyze the ways in which Eisenstein deals with her postmemory, to use Marianne Hirsch’s term (1997 [2002], as well as her addiction to the Holocaust memories. As a result of this addiction, the legacy of her postmemory is both unwanted and desired and constitutes Bernice Eisenstein’s identity as the eponymous child of Holocaust survivors.

  7. On genocide and the Holocaust in Swedish History teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Ammert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about the Holocaust and other genocides is emphasized in Swedish History teaching. In Sweden there is a public authority commisioned to work with issues related to tolerance, democracy and human rights. It is this context and under these conditions, that Swedish History teachers select a variety of topics for their students to learn, as part of the History curriculum. In addition to the Holocaust, they teach about crimes against humanity committed under communist regimes, the genocide of Tutsies in Rwanda, and mass murder and ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. Teachers use a multiplicity of uses of history and teaching methods. They conduct a scientific use of history when focusing on the historical contexts and explaining the background, motives and consequences of genocide. Teachers also stress the students’ personal reflections and standpoints in a moral use of history. The teaching aims at developing understanding and empathy among students.

  8. Disorganizing experiences in second- and third-generation holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-11-01

    Second-generation Holocaust survivors might not show direct symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder or attachment disorganization, but are at risk for developing high levels of psychological distress. We present themes of difficult experiences of second-generation Holocaust survivors, arguing that some of these aversive experiences might have disorganizing qualities even though they do not qualify as traumatic. Based on in-depth interviews with 196 second-generation parents and their adolescent children, three themes of disorganizing experiences carried across generations were identified: focus on survival issues, lack of emotional resources, and coercion to please the parents and satisfy their needs. These themes reflect the frustration of three basic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy, and this frustration becomes disorganizing when it involves stability, potency, incomprehensibility, and helplessness. The findings shed light on the effect of trauma over the generations and, as such, equip therapists with a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  9. Heckling the Catastrophe. On the Holocaust Literary Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a special kind of narrative about the catastrophe, treated as a specific genre of writing: the theory of literature of the Holocaust. The article presents its two most significant (although not the only ones features: firstly, the conviction about its unusual character as compared to other genres/forms of writing, sometimes secretly described by such concepts as the uniqueness of the Holocaust (which metonymizes not only the event itself but also the narrations referring to it and, secondly, identifies all text-producing entities (narrator, author etc., simultaneously constituting the basic feature of the most important genre/modality of this kind of writing which is testimony. The article presents the examples of Polish and foreign scholars portraying this state of affairs.

  10. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors.

  11. Magical Realism in the Holocaust Literature of the Postwar Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the use of magical realism in two Holocaust novels written by the contemporary Austrian writers Doron Rabinovici and Robert Schindel, who both are descendants of Holocaust survivors. I will argue that Rabinovici and Schindel not only use the narrative technique of magic...... Schindel’s novel Born-Where (Gebürtig, 1994) visualize the situation of being torn between two contradictory perceptions of the world: on the one hand, the “normal” perception of the world, based on the present norms of society, and on the other hand, a perception of the traumatic world bestowed by family...... history, which clearly subverts those present norms. Whereas the magical element in The Search for M. is inherent in the contradictions of the story line, it is shown in a bewildering narrative structure in Born-Where (Genette, 1980)....

  12. Silencios. Visual memory of the Holocaust in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cardona González

    2017-01-01

    complexity to produce an image in a context of pain; the second, taking into account the work of Michael Pollak, focuses on how memory becomes an essential component of identity, and although this is traumatic, their times, enunciations and hearings suffer postponements, suppression and concealments. These components enable a regard toward the memory of the Holocaust in Colombia

  13. Holocaust Exposure Induced Intergenerational Effects on FKBP5 Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bierer, Linda M; Bader, Heather N; Klengel, Torsten; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2016-09-01

    The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in intergenerational transmission of stress effects has been demonstrated in animals but not in humans. Cytosine methylation within the gene encoding for FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) was measured in Holocaust survivors (n = 32), their adult offspring (n = 22), and demographically comparable parent (n = 8) and offspring (n = 9) control subjects, respectively. Cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites for analysis were chosen based on their spatial proximity to the intron 7 glucocorticoid response elements. Holocaust exposure had an effect on FKBP5 methylation that was observed in exposed parents as well in their offspring. These effects were observed at bin 3/site 6. Interestingly, in Holocaust survivors, methylation at this site was higher in comparison with control subjects, whereas in Holocaust offspring, methylation was lower. Methylation levels for exposed parents and their offspring were significantly correlated. In contrast to the findings at bin 3/site 6, offspring methylation at bin 2/sites 3 to 5 was associated with childhood physical and sexual abuse in interaction with an FKBP5 risk allele previously associated with vulnerability to psychological consequences of childhood adversity. The findings suggest the possibility of site specificity to environmental influences, as sites in bins 3 and 2 were differentially associated with parental trauma and the offspring's own childhood trauma, respectively. FKBP5 methylation averaged across the three bins examined was associated with wake-up cortisol levels, indicating functional relevance of the methylation measures. This is the first demonstration of an association of preconception parental trauma with epigenetic alterations that is evident in both exposed parent and offspring, providing potential insight into how severe psychophysiological trauma can have intergenerational effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. DISCOURSES AND DEPICTIONS OF HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN LITHUANIAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS (1992-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKVILĖ NAUDŽIŪNIENĖ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the Holocaust is a relatively new issue in Lithuanian historical education – only with the regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1990 did Lithuanians have a chance include the Holocaust theme into the main school curriculum. Of course, its development through the first two decades have not been steady and even – in the beginning of the creation of the new educational system the Holocaust did not receive so much attention as in later years with the relation to integration with the European Union (2004 and development of historical studies on the Holocaust within the Lithuanian academic community. This article aims to analyse the representation of the Holocaust in Lithuanian educational system during the first two decades after Lithuania regained its independence. So the main basis of empirical data will be all history textbooks for Lithuanian school education (from the 5th grade to the last, 12th grade published in the period of 1992-2012, and educational programmes presented by the State`s Ministry of Education and Science. In order to objectively evaluate the Lithuanian situation regarding Holocaust education the article will discuss and compare the main trends of Holocaust education development in neighbouring countries, which also suffered from Holocaust and could not freely speak about the issue during the Communist regime.

  15. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  16. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  17. Political and Pedagogical Dimensions in Holocaust Education: Teacher Seminars and Staff Development in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodimas-Bartolomei, Angelyn

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines Holocaust education and professional teacher development in Greece. It briefly reviews the history of Greek Jewry and the stance and significance of Holocaust education within the Greek education system from historical, political, and pedagogical dimensions. The study also compares various approaches, themes, and…

  18. "And Roma Were Victims, Too." The Romani Genocide and Holocaust Education in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    While Holocaust education has been mandatory in Romanian schools for over a decade, educators do not necessarily teach about it. Distortion and obfuscation of Romanian Holocaust crimes during the communist and transition periods means that teachers, like the majority of Romanians, know little about their country's perpetration of genocides. From…

  19. The Treatment of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks: A Case Study from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Delgado, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The Holocaust was one of the most significant events of contemporary history and still has great relevance for current times. This paper analyses the portrayal of the Holocaust in secondary education history textbooks in Spain. As this type of research has grown in the international arena, the need to review critically this event in Spanish…

  20. Holocaust Education: Analysis of Curricula and Frameworks: A Case Study of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Rachel G.; Rosenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how far educational institutions have come in designing authentic and meaningful curricula for teaching the Holocaust at the secondary level. Examined in this article are the historical development of Holocaust education in the United States, with a focus on the state of Illinois as a case study, what contributes to the…

  1. "Once There Was El'zunia": Approaching Affect in Holocaust Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Gail Ivy

    2012-01-01

    The encounter with literature of the Holocaust, saturated as it is with unfathomable grief, loss, terror, and death, presents its readers with difficulties rare in literatures not dealing with the extreme. Specifically, usual academic discourse lacks a register for addressing the intense emotions that Holocaust narratives or poetry may generate.…

  2. Far Away and Nearby: Holocaust Remembrance and Human Rights Education in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag, Thomas; Wackerlig, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The article considers how young people in Swiss schools are taught about the history and background of the Holocaust within the wider perspective of human rights education, as an important basis for education concerning democratic citizenship. Given the country's specific history, for decades the Holocaust was not a matter of great interest in…

  3. An Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerry, LaMonnia Edge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the effects of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's work in partnering with professors from universities across the United States during a 1-year collaborative partnership through an educational program referred to as Belfer First Step Holocaust Institute for Teacher Educators (BFS…

  4. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  5. Teaching about the Holocaust: Major Educational Predicaments, Proposals for Reform, and Change-- An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the findings of a research project on how the Holocaust is taught around the world. The project analyzes central issues and educational events that occur while teaching the Holocaust "behind the classroom door," in public schools in different countries. Researchers from 10 nations participated in the…

  6. The Holocaust as Reflected in Communist and Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbulescu, Ana; Degeratu, Laura; Gusu, Cosmina

    2013-01-01

    Romanian history textbooks were mostly silent about the Holocaust during the Communist era. The authors reconstructed the different models of remembering the Holocaust that are present in post-Communist Romanian textbooks. The analysis revealed the existence of six different models of recollecting this history. The six models of representing the…

  7. The Problem with Using Historical Parallels as a Method in Holocaust and Genocide Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Doron

    2010-01-01

    Teaching the Holocaust in multicultural classrooms and in places which have experienced mass violence raises the question of whether specific methods of teaching are required. One of the answers is that Holocaust education in these cases should facilitate the creation of parallels and similarities between past events and the experiences of the…

  8. Holocaust Education in Polish Public Schools: Between Remembrance and Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milerski, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and political context of Holocaust education, and its implementation in Polish schools. Perceptions of the Holocaust continue to change, influenced by Poland's social and political situation. The Polish historical context is quite specific; it includes the long history of Poles and Jews as neighbors, with local…

  9. Through Psychological Lenses: University Students' Reflections Following the "Psychology of the Holocaust" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak-Hirsch, Tal; Bar-On, Dan; Beyth-Marom, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    While Holocaust related activities and educational programs around the world are growing in number, published reports on their impact are scarce, especially on the university level. The free responses of 94 Jewish-Israeli university students who took the course "Psychology of the Holocaust" yielded eight themes. The results reflect a…

  10. Teaching Traumatic History to Young Children: The Case of Holocaust Studies in Israeli Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Golden, Deborah; Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Israeli Ministry of Education initiated a mandatory nationwide curriculum for Jewish kindergarten children focusing on the study of the Holocaust. This initiative raises general questions regarding the inclusion of sensitive historical issues in curricula for young children. In this article, we use the new Holocaust curriculum as an…

  11. God Loves Us All: Helping Christians Know and Name God in a Post-Holocaust Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Cyndi

    2011-01-01

    Reflection on the Holocaust is still critical today to help all educators teach their students about good and evil in the world today. In particular, reflection on the Holocaust is crucial for religious educators to help people know and name God, as well as help them deal with questions of theodicy, within their everyday life experiences. This…

  12. The Holocaust in Palestinian Textbooks: Differences and Similarities in Israel and Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayan, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Holocaust is represented in history textbooks for Palestinian pupils in the Palestinian and Arab-Israeli curricula from a pedagogical perspective. Since no mention of the Holocaust was found in Palestinian Authority textbooks, the study seeks to explain why this is so, while examining representations of the Holocaust…

  13. Early childhood holocaust survival and the influence on well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal-van Raalte, van der Elisabeth A.M.

    2007-01-01

    No specific, systematic research existed focusing exclusively on late effects of surviving the Holocaust and its aftermath on the youngest child Holocaust survivors. Born between 1935 and 1944, they had endured persecution and deprivation in their first and most formative years. From

  14. Erlebten Frauen den Holocaust anders als Männer? Did Men and Women Experience the Holocaust in Different Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Schwarz

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Sammelband basiert auf Vorträgen einer Konferenz aus dem Jahr 1995, auf der nach dem spezifischen Erleben des Holocaust durch Frauen gefragt wurde. In der Regel waren es Zeugnisse von Überlebenden, die die Grundlage für die Analyse von Verhalten und Reaktionen von Frauen bildeten. Diskutiert wurde aber nicht nur über die einzelnen Erfahrungsbereiche jüdischer Frauen in West- und Osteuropa in Zwischenkriegs- und Kriegszeit, sondern ebenso über die Anwendbarkeit der „Gender-Frage“ auf den Holocaust generell. Entstanden ist so ein interessanter Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Diskussion, der die Grenzen und mehr noch die Chancen eines solchen Zugangs hervortreten läßt.h the limits of the gender approach in this field of research are obvious, the gains promised by a further look into this matter outweigh them by far.

  15. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust: Part 2: Under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Julia; Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    At least 564,500 Hungarian Jews perished during the Holocaust, including many physicians. Exactly how many Jewish dermatologists were killed is not known. We have identified 62 Hungarian Jewish dermatologists from this period: 19 of these dermatologists died in concentration camps or were shot in Hungary, 3 committed suicide, and 1 died shortly after the Holocaust, exhausted by the War. Fortunately, many Hungarian Jewish dermatologists survived the Holocaust. Some had fled Europe before the Nazi takeover, as was described in Part 1 of this contribution. Two Holocaust survivors, Ferenc Földvári and Ödön Rajka, became presidents of the Hungarian Dermatologic Society and helped rebuild the profession of dermatology in Hungary after the War. This contribution provides one of the first accounts of the fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust and serves as a remembrance of their suffering and ordeal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Persecution-induced reduction in earning capacity of Holocaust victims: influence of psychiatric and somatic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Helge; Seifert, Frank; Asemann, Rita; Schütz, Patricia; Maler, Juan-Manuel; Sperling, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae is very high in the group of persons damaged by the Holocaust. Based on the sociomedical criteria prevailing in Germany, the assessment of persecution-induced reduction in earning capacity of Holocaust victims (vMdE) is mainly orientated towards direct Holocaust-induced somatic and mental sequelae but must also take into account the interaction of direct Holocaust-induced damage with subsequently acquired physical, mental, and psychosocial factors. The current medical evaluation is focused on the question whether persecution-induced symptoms are exacerbated by endogenous factors like mental or somatic diseases and/or exogenous factors like life events. In that case the grade of vMdE could be increased. Based on the synopsis of 56 Holocaust victims, we ascertained in this study that newly acquired somatic diseases and psychic morbidities contribute to an increase in persecution-induced mental complaints. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Sense of coherence moderates late effects of early childhood Holocaust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hal-van Raalte, Elisheva A M; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated child Holocaust survivors with an emphasis on potential protective factors facilitating participants' adaptation to post-Holocaust life. We examined Antonovsky's (1979, 1987) salutogenic paradigm, testing the mediating and moderating effect of participants' sense of coherence (SOC) on the association between early childhood deprivation due to Holocaust persecution and posttraumatic stress later in life. The nonclinical sample, composed of 203 child Holocaust survivors born between 1935 and 1944 completed questionnaires on Holocaust survival exposure, inventories on current health, posttraumatic stress, and SOC. The results indicated that SOC moderates the association between traumatic experiences during the war and posttraumatic stress, and SOC acts as a protective factor, buffering the impact of traumatic Holocaust experiences on child survivors in old age. Survivors with a less coherent perspective on the meaning of their life showed greater vulnerability for posttraumatic complaints. The moderating role of the SOC may suggest promising avenues of therapeutic interventions for child Holocaust survivors and other adults with early childhood trauma. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Very Neutral Voice: Teaching about the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Clements

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation The Holocaust is a significant event in the history of twentieth century Europe and, as such, is an important topic for pupils to encounter in classroom lessons. Aside from the acquisition of skills helpful for historical enquiry and evaluation, some teachers and educationalists, as well as those outside the educational world, make claims for the topic in terms of its promoting anti-racism or Citizenship. However, this paper suggests that a particular learning experience is to be found in the dynamics of the relationship between teacher and pupil. Abstract: This paper is concerned to address the question of ‘What are The Lessons To Be Learnt in the study of the Holocaust?’ Very little research has been done in this field, although both the literature and classroom teachers tend to cite rationales from countering racism to promoting engagement with Citizenship issues. Research in related areas, together with the experience of the teachers themselves, indicates that such grand outcomes are unlikely. This paper suggests that the main outcome of Holocaust Education is the enabling of a re-examination of pupil discourses about humanity and society. The relationship between teacher and pupil in the course of these lessons, issues of shared language and a lowering of the barrier of emotional restraint all contribute to produce this outcome. This paper further suggests that, while the facts of the events themselves are important in terms of historical understanding, the main value of the lessons comes not from these but from an experience of empowerment as both teachers and pupils engage with the concept of ‘difficult knowledge’.

  19. The Contemporary Significance of the Holocaust for Australian Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Light, Edwina; Lipworth, Wendy; Walter, Garry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we survey briefly the components of the Holocaust directly relevant to the psychiatric profession and identify the main themes of relevance to contemporary psychiatry. The ‘euthanasia’ program; the persecution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) citizens; and the complex relationship between the psychiatric profession and Nazi state are the main themes to emerge from this survey. We then compare this period with key themes in the history of Australian psychiatry and link these themes to some of the contemporary ethical challenges the profession faces.

  20. Redemptive Family Narratives: Olga Lengyel and the Textuality of the Holocaust*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Memoirs written by Holocaust survivors and (in some cases) their testimonies retain a salience unmatched by other historical sources. This article discusses one such memoir, Olga Lengyel’s Five Chimneys, alongside her 1998 testimony, aiming to engage with broader methodological issues relating to the history of the Holocaust, particularly those about memory, narrative and textuality. Through a detailed discussion of certain moments shaping Olga Lengyel’s personal experience, both pre-and post-arrival in Auschwitz, the article captures the tensions and contradictions characterizing the harrowing story of one woman’s loss of family in the Holocaust. PMID:27959969

  1. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolniewicz-Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia The goal of this article is to examine how different events and phenomena related to the Second World War and the Holocaust are framed via Wikipedia articles written in Polish, Hebrew and English. Departing from the pillars of the theory of framing in mass media, the article conducts a content analysis of three articles, in three different languages. The articles under analysis are the following: “Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp”, “The Pogrom in Jedwabne”, and “Righteous Among the Nations”. The analysis will use the four roles of frames as categories, determined by Entman: definition of the problem/phenomenon, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and treatment recommendation. Analyzing how the articles fulfill each of the roles in the different languages, the research hypothesis is that the framing of the phenomena will differ between the versions, and each version will follow pillars of the collective memory of the Holocaust in its respective country. Findings, however, are not in complete compliance with this hypothesis.   Kształtowanie popularnej wiedzy o Holocauście na przykładzie trzech artykułów z polskiej, hebrajskiej i angielskiej Wikipedii Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, jak przedstawiane są wybrane wydarzenia i zjawiska, związane z historią II wojny światowej oraz Holokaustem, w internetowej encyklopedii „Wikipedia” w różnych językach. Prezentowana analiza treści opiera się na teorii framingu w mass mediach i obejmuje trzy artykuły: „Auschwitz-Birkenau”, „Pogrom w Jedwabnem” oraz „Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata”, opublikowane w językach polskim, angielskim oraz hebrajskim. W analizie wykorzystano cztery role „ram” (frames, sformułowane przez Entmana: definicja problemu/zjawiska, interpretacja przyczyn, ewaluacja moralna oraz propozycja rozwiązań. Autor, badając to, jak

  3. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Balancing psychache and resilience in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2014-06-01

    Psychache can and does co-exist alongside resilience and coping amongst trauma survivors. This has been the center of the a-integrative theory of aging demonstrating an attitude to life based on cognitive and emotional dimensions. Aging of Holocaust survivors (HS) is especially difficult when focus is brought to the issue of integrating their life history. The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between psychache and resilience amongst aging HS. Cross-sectional study of HS and a matched comparison group recruited from the general population was carried out. All underwent a personal interview and endorsed quantifiable psychache and resilience scales. We enrolled 214 elderly participants: 107 HS and 107 comparison participants. Mean age for the participants was 80.7± years; there were 101 women and 113 men in each group. Holocaust survivors did not differ in the level of resilience from comparisons (mean: 5.82 ± 0.68 vs. 5.88 ± 0.55, respectively). Psychache was significantly more intense in the HS group (F(8,205) = 2.21; p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the complex interplay between psychache and resilience. Aging HS still have to cope with high levels of psychache while realizing a life-long process of development through resilience.

  5. Secondary salutogenic effects in veterans whose parents were Holocaust survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Solomon, Zahava; Rozenstreich, Eyal

    2013-02-01

    Addressing the ongoing controversy over inter-generational transmission of trauma, we examined the impact of the Nazi Holocaust on PTSD course and co-morbid symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) among offspring of survivors following their own adversity in two longitudinal studies. Two samples of Israeli war veterans included Second Generation Holocaust (i.e., SGH) survivors and comparable veterans with no such family history (i.e., not-SGH). Study I: 1982 Lebanon War veterans (N = 669) were assessed 1, 3, and 20 years after the war. Study II: 1973 Yom Kippur War veterans (N = 343) were followed up 18, 30, and 35 years after the war. Results indicated that SGH endorsed higher PTSD and co-morbid symptoms criteria rates than not-SGH veterans in the initial post-war years but this pattern was reversed in the long-term, that is, lower rates were evident among SGH in later follow-ups. These findings suggest the development of a complex trauma reaction among offspring of trauma survivors. Possibly there is a transmission of positive trauma outcomes from one generation to the next rather than merely negative ones. Future studies are therefore warranted to re-evaluate the notion of inter-generational transmission of trauma and examine its components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The mental health consequences of student "Holocaust memorial journeys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Walter, Garry; Ross, Sharon; Bloch, Yuval

    2013-08-01

    Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.

  7. Sleep disturbances in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; Reynolds, C F; Yeager, A L; Houck, P R; Hurwitz, L F

    1991-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by victims of extraordinary stress and can persist for decades. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that survivors of the Nazi Holocaust would have significantly more and different sleep problems than depressed and healthy comparison subjects and that the severity of the survivors' problems would be correlated with length of time spent in a concentration camp. Forty-two survivors, 37 depressed patients, and 54 healthy subjects of about the same age, all living in the community, described their sleep patterns over the preceding month on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a self-rating instrument that inquires about quality, latency, duration, efficiency, and disturbances of sleep, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. The survivors had significantly greater sleep impairment than the healthy comparison subjects, as measured by all subscales of the index, but had less impairment than the depressed patients except on the sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction subscales. However, for specific items within these subscales, survivors had significantly more frequent awakenings due to bad dreams and had less loss of enthusiasm than the depressed subjects. Sleep disturbances and frequency of nightmares were significantly and positively correlated with the duration of the survivors' internment in concentration camps. These findings suggest that for some Holocaust survivors, impaired sleep and frequent nightmares are considerable problems even 45 years after liberation.

  8. Facing History and Ourselves: The Study of the Holocaust and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern

    1978-01-01

    Presents a rationale for teaching about the Nazi Holocaust and describes a unit of study for eighth graders that builds on concepts of conflict and conflict resolution, power, fairness and justice, leadership, decision making, and obedience. (KS)

  9. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  10. The relationship between loss of parents in the holocaust, intrusive memories, and distress among child survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzter-Pouw, Sonia; Werner, Perla

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of intrusive memories of the Holocaust and their relationship to distress was examined among 272 child survivors in Israel. Using attachment theory as a conceptual framework, the authors also examined the effects of type of experience and loss of parents in the Holocaust, psychological resources, other life events, and sociodemographic characteristics on distress and symptomatic behavior. Eighty five percent of the participants reported suffering from intrusive memories. Structural equation modeling showed that survivors who lost one or both parents in the Holocaust suffered more distress because of more intrusive memories. These findings suggest that intrusive memories may be part of unfinished mourning processes related to the loss of parents in the Holocaust. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. Shadows of the past and threats of the future: ISIS anxiety among grandchildren of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yaakov; Shrira, Amit

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined intergenerational transmission of trauma in grandchildren of Holocaust survivors. While many typically do not find evidence for such effects, careful reading of the relevant literature suggests conditions under which such effects may be obtained. Following, we made use of three factors. First, we took the number of grandparents exposed to the Holocaust into account. Second, we examined participants who were exposed to present terror and displayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Third, we measured anxiety of a future ISIS threat, which in its genocidal nature is reminiscent of the Holocaust. Results reveal that grandchildren having all four grandparents who survived the Holocaust in conjunction with them directly experiencing PTSD symptoms demonstrated greater ISIS anxiety than other groups. Results are discussed in reference to various conditions that may determine the likelihood of intergenerational transmission of trauma emerging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SPOKEN CUZCO QUECHUA, UNITS 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLA, DONALD F.; AND OTHERS

    THE MATERIALS IN THIS VOLUME COMPRISE SIX UNITS WHICH PRESENT BASIC ASPECTS OF CUZCO QUECHUA PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX FOR THE BEGINNING STUDENT. THE SIX UNITS ARE DESIGNED FOR APPROXIMATELY 120 HOURS OF SUPERVISED CLASS WORK WITH OUTSIDE PREPARATION EXPECTED OF THE STUDENT. EACH UNIT CONSISTS OF A DIALOGUE TO BE MEMORIZED, A DIALOGUE…

  13. Holocaust Literature and the Shaping of European Identity after the Second World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen handler om, hvilken rolle holocaust litteratur spiller for udviklingen af en fælles europæisk identitet. Handler det primært om, at den hjælper os med at besinde os på et fælles etisk anliggende og evt. en fælles skyld eller handler det om, at vi igennem holocaust og fortællingen herom h...

  14. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  15. [Long-term analysis of disability pensions in survivors of the Holocaust: somatic and psychiatric diagnoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, T; Sperling, W; Müller, H; Schütz, P; Kornhuber, J; Reulbach, U

    2010-12-01

    Survivors of the Holocaust are known to suffer more often from mental as well as somatic consequential illness. The assessment of the degree of disability and invalidity due to the persecution complies with the interaction of directly Holocaust-related mental and somatic primary injuries as well as physical, psychical and psychosocial disadvantages and illnesses acquired later on. The presented descriptive as well as multivariate analyses included complete reports (expertise, medical records, physicians' assessments, witnessed hand-written notes of the patients) of 56 survivors of the Holocaust (36 women and 20 men). The disability pension reports of 56 Holocaust survivors (36 women and 20 men) were analysed referring to the diagnostic groups and socio-demographic aspects. In 92.3 % a psychiatric illness could be diagnosed within the first year after liberation. In a separate analysis of somatic diagnoses, gastrointestinal diseases were statistically significant more often in Holocaust survivors with a degree of disability of more than 30 % (chi-square χ (2) = 4.0; df = 1; p = 0.046). The question of an aggravation of psychiatrically relevant and persecution-associated symptomatology is mainly the objective of the expert opinion taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors such as so-called life events. Above all, newly acquired somatic diseases seem to be responsible for an aggravation of persecution-associated psychiatric symptoms, at least in the presented sample of Holocaust survivors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Holocaust exposure and disordered eating: a study of multi-generational transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Ada H; Giladi, Lotem; Givati, Timor

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that disordered eating in second- and third-generation women would be related to their levels of Holocaust exposure and family dysfunction. One hundred eight mother-daughter dyads were ascertained through the daughters, all Israeli college students 18-35 years of age. Mothers and daughters assessed themselves on family function, Holocaust exposure and disordered eating. The disordered eating of women of the third generation was partially predicted by their mothers' disordered eating and by their mothers' Holocaust exposure. The second generation reported more maternal over-protection and emotional over-involvement than did the third generation. Contrary to expectation, the third-generation women were more Holocaust exposed than were the second generation. The nature of Holocaust exposure for second and third generations needs further study and clarification in relation to disordered eating. There is considerable disparity between the results of clinical and qualitative studies which tend to find a strong relationship between Holocaust exposure and psychopathology, and population-based quantitative studies which tend to find a much weaker relationship. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  17. [HOLOCAUST DOCTORS SURVIVORS IN ISRAEL 1945-1952: FROM EARLY POSITIONS TO PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The encounter between Holocaust doctor survivors and the Israeli society was part of the whole encounter between Holocaust survivors and the Israeli society. The present thesis aimed at evaluating the integration process of Holocaust doctor survivors in the Israeli health care system from 1945 until the end of 1952. Between these years about 1350 doctors arrived in Israel, the vast majority of them Holocaust survivors. Their rapid entrance to work provided the healthcare system with professional manpower, contributing their share during a tough period of the nation's history. The doctors themselves gained the opportunity for rapid professional recovery and social integration, all at the same time. The individual contributions of each of these doctors constitute a significant collective contribution. It is an inspiring story of personal and universal human victory. There are similarities between the absorption of all Holocaust survivals in Israel with regard to the motives of immigration and the feelings towards the absorption places and organizations. But Holocaust doctor survivors didn't stay too long and moved out rather quickly. The beginning was difficult. They were absorbed in each of the healthcare fronts, but especially in new clinics established in immigrant-concentrated areas, in hospitals dedicated to lung diseases and in psychiatric hospitals. They started at low professional levels, but as soon as 1952, they could be found in management positions. This was indicative of their professional advancement and the willingness of the medical establishment to absorb and promote.

  18. The case for establishing a Holocaust survivors cohort in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this issue, Keinan-Boker summarises the main studies that have followed up offspring of women exposed to famine during pregnancy and calls for the establishment of a national cohort of Holocaust survivors and their offspring to study inter-generational effects. She suggests that the study would consolidate the fetal origins theory and lead to translational applications to deal with the inter-generational effects of the Holocaust. Barker suggested that alterations in the nutritional supply during critical stages of intra-uterine development permanently alter the structure and metabolism of fetal organs which he termed ‘fetal programming’ (now known as developmental origins of health and disease). The famine studies have played an important role in refining the hypothesis by allowing a ‘quasi-experimental’ setting that would otherwise have been impossible to recreate. The developmental origins hypothesis provides a framework to link genetic, environmental and social factors across the lifecourse and offers a primordial preventive strategy to prevent non-communicable disease. Although the famine studies have provided valuable information, the results from various studies are inconsistent. It is perhaps unsurprising given the problems with collecting and interpreting data from famine studies. Survival bias and information bias are key issues. With mortality rates being high, survivors may differ significantly from non-survivors in factors which influence disease development. Most of the data is at ecological level; a lack of individual-level data and poor records make it difficult to identify those affected and assess the severity of effect. Confounding is also possible due to the varying periods and degrees of food deprivation, physical punishment and mental stress undergone by famine survivors. Nonetheless, there would be value in setting up a cohort of Holocaust survivors and their offspring and Keinan-Boker correctly argues that they deserve special

  19. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highlight structural features that empowered the curriculum writers as they engaged in protracted rumination, reflected upon competing norms, and considered the nuances of the curriculum problem in relation to implementation. Understanding the process, challenges, and promises of cross-cultural curriculum deliberation holds significance for educators, curricularists, and educational researchers wishing to advance teaching and learning within silenced histories and controversial issues.

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ESTABLISHING HOLOCAUST STUDY IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat KEDEM-TAHAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute a practical study model based on long term, deep, mainly historical studies about the Holocaust inAlbania. A similar model has already existed forthe eight years in Bucharest, Romania. Based on its advantages and the needs in Albania I built a new model. The article describes the relevanthistorical backgroundand raised the humanistic questions that have interested and challenged many historians over the last 20 years.The article is based on theoretical methods from other fields and integrates them into the original model. The model is divided into two parts that are interdependent. The conclusion and discussion summarize all the factors in order to convince the Albanian Ministry of Education and University of Tirana to adopt its idea.

  1. The effect of cancer on suicide among elderly Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Liphshitz, Irena; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levav, Itzhak

    2013-06-01

    Jewish-Israelis of European origin with cancer have higher suicide rates relative to their counterparts in the general population. We investigated whether this effect results from the high proportion of Holocaust survivors among them, due to vulnerabilities arising from the earlier traumas they sustained. The study was based on all Jewish-European persons with cancer, 60 years and over, diagnosed in Israel between 1999 and 2007. The standardized incidence ratios were not significantly different between the exposed and nonexposed groups (men: 0.90, 95% CI 0.60-1.19; women: 0.95, 95% CI 0.55-1.37). Past exposure to maximum adversity did not increase the suicide risk among persons with cancer. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Epigenetic transmission of Holocaust trauma: can nightmares be inherited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan Pf

    2013-01-01

    The Holocaust left its visible and invisible marks not only on the survivors, but also on their children. Instead of numbers tattooed on their forearms, however, they may have been marked epigenetically with a chemical coating upon their chromosomes, which would represent a kind of biological memory of what the parents experienced. as a result, some suffer from a general vulnerability to stress while others are more resilient. Previous research assumed that such transmission was caused by environmental factors, such as the parents' childrearing behavior. New research, however, indicates that these transgenerational effects may have been also (epi) genetically transmitted to their children. Integrating both hereditary and environmental factors, epigenetics adds a new and more comprehensive psychobiological dimension to the explanation of transgenerational transmission of trauma. Specifically, epigenetics may explain why latent transmission becomes manifest under stress. a general theoretical overview of epigenetics and its relevance to research on trauma transmission is presented.

  3. Sleep Disorders Among Holocaust Survivors: A Review of Selected Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Ido

    2017-09-01

    After World War II, traumatic after effects often caused persistent sleep disorders for Holocaust survivors (HSs). This is a review of studies reporting on sleep disturbances and nightmares (as primary or secondary outcomes) among HSs between 1939 and 2015, conducted in various countries and contexts (clinical settings, pension claims, community surveys, sleep laboratories). Most studies revealed various sleep disturbances among HSs. Some studies found those disturbances in the absence of clinical disorders. Both men and women reported similar frequencies of sleep disturbances, although posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were more frequent in women. Sleep laboratory studies provided the single most direct and detailed sources of information. Findings included a) long-standing changes in sleep architecture, for example, decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and b) contrasting patterns of dreaming and recall among better versus poorly adjusted survivors. These results are of importance to both HSs and their families and for medical and mental health professionals.

  4. "I Could Teach You How to Choose Right": Using Holocaust Memoir to Teach Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Annemarie Koning

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the problems of teaching William Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" after the Holocaust, arguing that even though the play is anti-Semitic, it can become a valuable teaching tool when placed in the context of the Holocaust memoirs "Dry Tears" by Nechama Tec and "The Nazi Officer's Wife" by…

  5. Challenges and Possibilities of Holocaust Education and Critical Citizenship: An Ethnographic Study of a Fifth-Grade Bilingual Class Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Louise B.

    2010-01-01

    This classroom ethnography examines the engagement of fifth-grade children in a year-long study of rights, respect, and responsibility, which culminated in a focused study of tolerance and intolerance organized around literature regarding the Holocaust. A close examination of one teacher's approach to teaching about the Holocaust, the study…

  6. Holocaust Education and the Student Perspective: Toward a Grounded Theory of Student Engagement in Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliza, Evette

    2010-01-01

    Too often students perceive history as boring with no relevance to their lives. Although students describe history as boring, this does not seem to be the case with one aspect of social studies education--Holocaust studies. Courses about the Holocaust have grown in number in recent years; and classes are routinely full. Why do students choose to…

  7. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  8. The Holocaust as History and Human Rights: A Cross-National Analysis of Holocaust Education in Social Science Textbooks, 1970-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Patricia; Russell, Susan Garnett

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Holocaust education in secondary school social science textbooks around the world since 1970, using data coded from 465 textbooks from 69 countries. It finds that books and countries more connected to world society and with an accompanying emphasis on human rights, diversity in society and a depiction of international, rather…

  9. Interrogating Europe’s Voids of Memory: Trauma Theory and Holocaust Remembrance between the National and the Transnational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Allwork

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the research process for Holocaust Remembrance between the National and the Transnational (HRNT, which explores and analyzes the significance of the European and global politics of the commemoration of the Holocaust and Nazi-era crimes in the late 1990s and 2000s, this article will consider the influence of the intellectual context of trauma theory for this book. It will offer a response to the increasing critique of Eurocentric trauma theory which developed during the period spent researching the Stockholm International Forum (SIF 2000 and the first decade of the Task Force for International Co-operation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research (ITF, now the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, IHRA. This article will discuss how a revised trauma theory, along the lines suggested by scholars such as Joshua Pederson, continues to offer important possibilities for European studies of the histories and memories of the Holocaust in singular and comparative terms

  10. Temporal Cross-References and Multidirectional Comparisons: Holocaust Remembrance Day on Italian State Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Garofalo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the connections between Holocaust memory and the presence of other genocides – or crimes against humanities – narratives in Italian TV commemorations of the Holocaust Day of Memory (Giorno della memoria between 2001-2015.1 The research investigates the question of whether Italian television’s approach to the Day of Memory has been exclusively centered on the Holocaust, or whether it has been used also as a starting point to talk about other traumatic historical or current events such as the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan or Italy’s participation in Western policy against Islamic terrorism. With this aim, the paper will examine Italy’s State-owned network RAI’s programming in the week before and after the Day of Memory (January, 27 from 2001 to 2015, revealing how an increasing civic and didactic awareness of the Holocaust emerged from the TV programs here analyzed. The paper will trace this new television discourse, where the Holocaust began to be perceived as an unconditional warning and a constant term of comparison with other contemporary tragedies.

  11. Trauma and identity through two generations of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogman, F

    1998-08-01

    In summary, these four second generation women were/are in search of an equilibrium which includes integrating approach-avoidance feelings about their upbringing. They have struggled in various ways, through their own personal styles, with issues of enmeshment with their parents' ordeals, and this has helped to shape their identities. The approach-avoidance dilemma around the suffering of their parents involves finding a way to separate from, yet to include in the meaning of their lives, the suffering of their parents. In these women, empathy preserves the "good" aspect of the parent and in the end allows for separateness to be achieved. An evolution of their approach to the Holocaust occurs throughout their lives and is enhanced by their having children. Creativity and knowledge play an important role in the expression of tormented feelings in both second and third generations. The issues grappled with by the second generation reverberate in their children. This is a group of resolute, serious people who believe in the preciousness of life. They are also thoughtful, empathic youngsters, aware of social and political inequities. These third-generation members feel somewhat burdened by the legacy of the Holocaust, inasmuch as they feel obligated to stand up for Jewish identity and be successful in their own lives. Placing the suffering in a larger group context helps the second generation confront the suffering of their parents. This diminishes individual liability so that the suffering does not have to be taken on personally. The cause goes beyond the self and the family. When, as in Sylvia's case, this outlook is not achieved, the struggle against family enmeshment continues. Seeing the suffering in a group context creates a different set of responsibilities, that of allegiance and closeness to the group. It promotes a need to find meaning in the suffering, a need to cope with the sense of identification with group loss. This urge for empathy is accompanied by its

  12. Psychiatric disorders and other health dimensions among Holocaust survivors 6 decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Asaf; Levav, Itzhak; Brodsky, Jenny; Shemesh, Annarosa Anat; Kohn, Robert

    2009-10-01

    No previous community-based epidemiological study has explored psychiatric disorders among those who survived the Holocaust. To examine anxiety and depressive disorders, sleep disturbances, other health problems and use of services among individuals exposed and unexposed to the Holocaust. The relevant population samples were part of the Israel World Mental Health Survey. The interview schedule included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other health-related items. The Holocaust survivor group had higher lifetime (16.1%; OR = 6.8, 95% CI 1.9-24.2) and 12-month (6.9%; OR = 22.5, 95% CI 2.5-204.8) prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, and more current sleep disturbances (62.4%; OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and emotional distress (PHolocaust did not modify the results.

  13. Intergenerational families of holocaust survivors: designing and piloting a family resilience template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserman, Nancy; Greene, Roberta R; Bowen, Sheryl Perlmutter; Hollander-Goldfein, Bea; Cohen, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Researchers from the Templeton study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship Among Holocaust Survivors," and the Transcending Trauma Project, combined efforts to examine six transcripts of interviews with survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. The researchers focused on the nature of parent-child family dynamics before, during, and after the Holocaust. They refined a Family Resilience Template (FRT) originally based on an ecological-systems design, adding an attachment theory component and a quantitative methodology. The goal of the research project was to pilot the FRT by further defining terms and adding a Quality of Family Dynamics Paradigm to encompass an intergenerational dimension. The researchers arrived at a consensus of item definitions, establishing the initial face validity of the FRT.

  14. Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...

  15. Meaning and love in Viktor Frankl's writing: reports from the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwood, J B

    1994-12-01

    Viktor Frankl has written that people can survive in the most adverse of situations. He emphasized that the will to meaning has actual survival value. Frankl said people who were oriented toward the future or who had loved ones to see again were most likely to have survived the Holocaust. But is this belief valid? Does love have survival value? Six survivors of the Holocaust were interviewed to assess whether they experienced thoughts and feelings as those described by Frankl. Analysis of results from these interviews showed that love was important but so were other factors.

  16. Coping in old age with extreme childhood trauma: aging Holocaust survivors and their offspring facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    The Holocaust has become an iconic example of immense human-made catastrophes, and survivors are now coping with normal aging processes. Childhood trauma may leave the survivors more vulnerable when they are facing stress related to old age, whereas their offspring might have a challenging role of protecting their own parents from further pain. Here we examine the psychological adaptation of Holocaust survivors and their offspring in light of these new challenges, examining satisfaction with life, mental health, cognitive abilities, dissociative symptoms, and physical health. Careful matching of female Holocaust survivors and comparison subjects living in Israel was employed to form a case-control study design with two generations, including four groups: 32 elderly female Holocaust survivors and 47 daughters, and 33 elderly women in the comparison group, and 32 daughters (total N = 174). Participants completed several measures of mental and physical health, and their cognitive functioning was examined. The current study is a follow-up of a previous study conducted 11 years ago with the same participants. Holocaust survivors showed more dissociative symptomatology (odds = 2.39) and less satisfaction with their life (odds = 2.79) as compared to a matched group. Nonetheless, adult offspring of Holocaust survivors showed no differences in their physical, psychological, and cognitive functioning as compared to matched controls. Holocaust survivors still display posttraumatic stress symptoms almost 70 years after the trauma, whereas no intergenerational transmission of trauma was found among the second generation.

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air...

  18. 44 CFR 1.6 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ex parte communications. 1.6 Section 1.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.6 Ex parte communications. In...

  19. Hitler and the Holocaust. Senior High School U.S. History, World History, English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Ron; Townsend, Kenneth

    This curriculum outline, designed for use in U.S. history, world history, or English courses, presents information about Adolf Hitler and the Holocaust. Part 1 provides a rationale for teaching about this subject, while part 2 presents an outline of historical information from 1887 to 1934 concerning Hitler's life and the rise of the Nazi Party.…

  20. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  1. “Wafts of what conspired”: Seamus Heaney’s District and Circle and the Holocaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, O.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I read Seamus Heaney’s 2006 collection District and Circle in terms of motifs that connect many of its poems to themes of war and violence. Offering a detailed analysis of Heaney’s use of stock Holocaust imagery, or “topoi,” first introduced as such by Alain Resnais’ film essay Nuit

  2. Human Rights through Holocaust and Genocide Studies: Achievement and Challenges. (Daniel Roselle Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edwin W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a curriculum on the Holocaust and genocide. Expresses the belief that Martin Luther King, Jr.'s dream of human equality can be a world dream. Argues that the curriculum is not a "Jewish" one, because it addresses examples of genocide from many cultures, and its authors are educators of various faiths. (SG)

  3. Representing "The Great Devouring:" Romani Characters in Young Adult Holocaust Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean-Ruzicka, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the representation of Roma-Sinti ("gypsy") characters in young adult literature about the Holocaust. It analyzes three primary texts: Jerry Spinelli's "Milkweed" (2003), Erich Hackl's "Farewell Sidonia" (1991), and Alexander Ramati's "And the Violins Stopped Playing"…

  4. Using Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" to Teach the Study of Genocide and the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Kimberley A.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses a project called ""The Sunflower" Symposium," named in honor of Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" (1998). The project was a catalyst for discussions on legalized discrimination, the infringement of civil rights, (in)justice, (in)tolerance, and civic responsibility, influencing students to connect the Holocaust to other world…

  5. Examples of Best Practice 2. Holocaust Education as a Universal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisman, Raya

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Humanistic Education (CHE) engages high-school students and teachers from the Arab and Jewish sectors in an examination of connections between the Holocaust, personal and social morals, and implications for present Israeli society. Since 1997, CHE has been working regularly with about 25 Jewish and Arab high schools, engaging about…

  6. We Knew It At the Time: Selected Newspaper Coverage of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, W. Richard

    A continuing debate among those studying the Holocaust in Europe during the Nazi era is when Americans first learned of the mass murder of Jews being carried out in the extermination camps. Historians suggest that Americans had been made skeptical of charges of German brutality by World War I "atrocity propaganda," and that the language…

  7. Organized for Genocide: Student Reactions and Learning from Use of Emotive Documentaries on the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Krumm, Bernita; Hughes, Robin L.; Satterfield, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the qualitative analysis of the use of highly emotive documentaries of the Holocaust in a graduate-level organizational theory class. Specifically, the article looks at student reactions and impacts on learning. Student-produced work captured a broad range of reactions that led to increased insights about organizations (the…

  8. From Photographs to Elegies: Engaging the Holocaust in a Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamber, Cayo

    2010-01-01

    Teaching the Holocaust in a first-year writing course--using photographs of the Shoah as a primary resource--authorizes students to engage in research and writing that provides a place of empathetic, dignified witnessing for those who were denied the possibility of realizing the lives they were meant to live. The author believes that in engaging…

  9. Struggling to Deal with the Difficult Past: Polish Students Confront the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between school and cultural knowledge of Second World War in contemporary Poland. Drawing on analysis of 126 student responses to well-known photographs (photo elicitation), the author addresses what it means for schoolchildren to learn about an aspect of a contested past, the Holocaust, within the frame of…

  10. Shame on Me? Shame on You! Emotional Reactions to Cinematic Portrayals of the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kopf-Beck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The media are playing an increasingly important role in teaching the public about the history of the Holocaust. In Germany, however, Holocaust documentaries have been criticized for eliciting unintended, adverse reactions among the viewers, such as distancing from the victims or calling for closing the books on the past. This criticism stems from the concern that such reactions pose an obstacle to critical-constructive engagement and coming to terms with history. This study examines the interplay between cinematic representation of the Holocaust, film-induced defensive strategies, and group-based emotions of shame. Based on a content analysis of six different film excerpts, we investigated the mediating effects of four defensiveness strategies (distancing from victims, victim blaming, closeness to perpetrators, and rejection of the relevance of the Holocaust on group-based shame in a sample of 224 pupils from Germany’s third post-war generation in a quasi-experimental field study. The results reveal the complexity of film-portrayals which can foster as well as hinder group-based shame and thus, a constructive dealing with past injustice.

  11. Teaching of the Holocaust as Part of a University's Catholic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    This article sketches the development of the National Catholic Center for Holocaust Education, Seton Hill University, Greensburg, PA. It does so with broad strokes, which paint a picture of the program of the Center within the context of ecclesial and papal activities and documents. The article describes how the Center entered into dialogue with…

  12. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  13. Developing Civic Leaders through an Experiential Learning Programme for Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that involvement in an experiential learning programme for Holocaust education had on college and university participants' worldviews and civic leadership development. Results indicate that involvement in specific elements of the programme did have an impact. The student-focused, experiential…

  14. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  15. From Empathy to Critical Reflection: The Use of Testimonies in The Training of Holocaust Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Lilach Naishtat; Naveh, Eyal

    2018-01-01

    How can we bridge the emotional and cognitive study of Holocaust testimonies in Israel? Can empathy be used as a stepping stone to critical reflection? And how can teachers address the manipulative popular interpretation of these testimonies in Israel, which seemingly place them beyond critical reflection? We examine these questions through an…

  16. Grasping the Unimaginable: Recent Holocaust Novels for Children by Morris Gleitzman and John Boyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This discussion explores the role that storytelling and stories might have in leading children towards an awareness of uncertainty and ambiguity in relation to Holocaust representation. It focuses on Morris Gleitzman's "Once" ("2006"), its sequel "Then" ("2008"), and John Boyne's "The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas" ("2006") to consider the narrative…

  17. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  18. Who Needs Holocaust Studies? Writing Structurally, Reading Corporeally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wolski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W artykule bronię tezy głoszącej, że nauka o Zagładzie jako dyscyplina wytwarza szczególne napięcie pomiędzy autorem tekstów należących do tej dziedziny (badaczem i obiektem jego narracji (badań. To napięcie, w pewnym stopniu obecne także w innych dziedzinach humanistycznych pod postacią rewaloryzacji autobiografizmu, narracji somatycznych itp., w przypadku badań nad Zagładą pozostaje w ścisłym związku z zasadniczą modalnością-gatunkiem tego rodzaju pisarstwa – świadectwem – i jego paradoksalnym wymogiem narracyjnego umieszczenia się wewnątrz własnej narracji (obecność zaświadczająca i pozostawania poza nią (zakładana zdolność narratora do spójnej i bezstronnej opowieści. Próbując udowodnić powszechność tego paradoksu w holocaustowych narracjach historiograficznych, literaturoznawczych i innych, dochodzę do wniosku, że staje się on quasi-gatunkowym wyznacznikiem tej dyscypliny, która opierając się na wspomnianym paradoksie (sygnalizowanym m.in. poprzez proliferację kategorii takich jak np. niewypowiadalność dąży do ustanowienia własnego badawczego języka i własnej metodologii. Choć jest to często metodologia i terminologia zbieżna z powszechnie stosowanymi narzędziami badań historiograficznych, literaturoznawczych i innych, to w ramach omawianej dziedziny zyskuje ona status narzędzi osobnych, właściwych jedynie dziedzinie Holocaust studies.

  19. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  20. Surviving the Holocaust: a meta-analysis of the long-term sequelae of a genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Efrat; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-09-01

    The current set of meta-analyses elucidates the long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical consequences of the Holocaust for survivors. In 71 samples with 12,746 participants Holocaust survivors were compared with their counterparts (with no Holocaust background) on physical health, psychological well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychopathological symptomatology, cognitive functioning, and stress-related physiology. Holocaust survivors were less well adjusted, as apparent from studies on nonselected samples (trimmed combined effect size d = 0.22, 95% CI [0.13, 0.31], N = 9,803) and from studies on selected samples (d = 0.45, 95% CI [0.32, 0.59], N = 2,943). In particular, they showed substantially more posttraumatic stress symptoms (nonselect studies: d = 0.72, 95% CI [0.46, 0.98], N = 1,763). They did not lag, however, much behind their comparisons in several other domains of functioning (i.e., physical health, stress-related physical measures, and cognitive functioning) and showed remarkable resilience. The coexistence of stress-related symptoms and good adaptation in some other areas of functioning may be explained by the unique characteristics of the symptoms of Holocaust survivors, who combine resilience with the use of defensive mechanisms. In most domains of functioning no differences were found between Israeli samples and samples from other countries. The exception was psychological well-being: For this domain it was found that living in Israel rather than elsewhere can serve as a protective factor. A biopsychological stress-diathesis model is used to interpret the findings, and future directions for research and social policy are discussed.

  1. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  2. Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis of Holocaust Survivors Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Plakht, Ygal; Belinski, Katya; Gilutz, Harel

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophic life events are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular incidents and worsening of the clinical course followirg-such events. To evaluate the characteristics and long-term prognosis of Holocaust survivors presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to non-Holocaust survivors. Israeli Jews who were born before 1941 and had been admitted to a tertiary medical center due to AMI during the period 2002-2012 were studied. Holocaust survivors were compared with non-Holocaust survivor controls using individual age matching. Overall 305 age-matched pairs were followed for up to 10 years after AMI. We found a higher prevalence of depression (5.9% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.045) yet a similar rate of cardiovascular risk factors, non-cardiovascular co-morbidity, severity of coronary artery disease, and in-hospital complications in survivors compared to controls. Throughout the follow-up period, similar mortality rates (62.95% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.801) and reduced cumulative mortality (0.9 vs. 0.96, HR = 0.780, 95% CI 0.636-0.956, P = 0.016) were found among survivors compared to age-matched controls, respectively. However, in a multivariate analysis survival was not found to be an independent predictor of mortality, although some tendency towards reduced mortality was seen (AdjHR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.68-1.03, P = 0.094). Depression disorder was associated with a 77.9% increase in the risk for mortality. Holocaust survivors presenting with AMI were older and had a higher prevalence of depression than controls. No. excessive, and possibly even mildly improved, risk of mortality.was observed in survivors compared with controls presenting with AMI. Possibly, specific traits that are associated with surviving catastrophic events counter the excess risk of such events following AMI.

  3. Proactive Aging Among Holocaust Survivors: Striving for the Best Possible Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Barak, Adi; Lomranz, Jacob; Benyamini, Yael

    2016-10-14

    To investigate methods that older Holocaust survivors and their age peers use in order to maintain the best possible life and to examine associations between these methods and subjective well-being. Participants were 481 older Israelis (mean age 77.4 ± 6.7 years): Holocaust survivors (n = 164), postwar immigrants (n = 183), and prewar immigrants (n = 134). Measures included sociodemographics and indicators of health and well-being. Respondents were asked to answer an open-ended question: "What are the methods you use to maintain the best possible life?". Answers were coded into eight categories. Holocaust survivors were significantly less likely to mention methods coded as "Enjoyment" (32.3%) relative to postwar (43.7%) and prewar (46.2%) immigrants and significantly more likely to mention methods coded as "Maintaining good health" (39.0%) relative to postwar (27.9%) and prewar (21.6%) immigrants. Controlling for sociodemographics and health status, Holocaust survivors still differed from their peers. Aging Holocaust survivors tended to focus on more essential/fundamental needs (e.g., health), whereas their peers tended to focus on a wider range of needs (e.g., enjoyment) in their effort to maintain the best possible life. Our findings may add to the proactivity model of successful aging by suggesting that aging individuals in Israel use both proactive (e.g., health) and cognitive (e.g., accepting the present) adaptation methods, regardless of their reported history during the war. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Linda M; Bader, Heather N; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy L; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-h urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. The inverse association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the directional effect on offspring will

  5. Between Local and Global Politics of Memory: Transnational Dimensions of Holocaust Remembrance in Contemporary Serbian Prose Fiction and Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Vervaet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serbia joined the ITF (Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research in 2011. This resulted in increased institutional efforts to pay more attention to Holocaust education and commemoration. However, critics have observed that many of these state-supported initiatives use the Holocaust to conceal the state’s role as perpetrator or accomplice in mass war crimes and genocide committed during the Second World War and during the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. Against this backdrop, I discuss two recent Serbian Holocaust novels, Ivan Ivanji’s Man of Ashes (2006 and Zoran Penevski’s Less Important Crimes (2005, and Goran Paskaljević’s film When Day Breaks (2012. I argue that Holocaust memory in these works does not function as a ‘screen memory’ – one memory that covers up or suppresses other, undesired memories – but as a prism through which memories of the recent Yugoslav past as well as stories of present injustice, which the dominant political elites and mainstream society would prefer to forget or not to see, are filtered and brought to light. Ivanji, who is well acquainted with the politics of memory both in Germany and Serbia, also reflects critically upon the current globalization of Holocaust remembrance, thus providing feedback on the possibilities and limits of the memorial culture stimulated by the ITF.

  6. Health and functional status and utilization of health care services among holocaust survivors and their counterparts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther; Carmel, Sara

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in health and functional status and in utilization of health services between holocaust survivors and their counterparts; and (b) to investigate if holocaust survivor status is a significant predictor of health status, functional status, and utilization of health services. The study included 1255 respondents of whom 272 were holocaust survivors. Interviews were conducted face-to-face at the respondents' homes. Participants were asked about their health (self-rated health and comorbidity) and functional (ADL and IADL) status, utilization of inpatient and outpatient health care services, age, gender, education, marital status, length of residence in Israel, and if they were holocaust survivors. Holocaust survivors, who were frailer and more chronically ill compared to their counterparts, visited their family physician and the nurse at the health care clinic more often than their counterparts did, and received more homecare services. Yet, there were no differences between them in the utilization of other health care services such as visits to specialists, emergency department, and hospitalizations. Holocaust survivors are more homebound due to more morbidity and functional limitations and therefore receive more health home care services that offset the utilization of other health services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  8. This-worldly and other-worldly: a holocaust pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This story is about a kind of pilgrimage, which is connected to the course of events which occurred in Częstochowa on 22 September 1942. In the morning, the German Captain Degenhardt lined up around 8,000 Jews and commanded them to step either to the left or to the right. This efficient judge from the police force in Leipzig was rapid in his decisions and he thus settled the destinies of thousands of people. After the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the town (renamed Tschenstochau had been occupied by Nazi Germany, and incorporated into the General Government. The Nazis marched into Częstochowa on Sunday, 3 September 1939, two days after they invaded Poland. The next day, which became known as Bloody Monday, approximately 150 Jews were shot deadby the Germans. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created. During World War II about 45,000 of the Częstochowa Jews were killed by the Germans; almost the entire Jewish community living there.The late Swedish Professor of Oncology, Jerzy Einhorn (1925–2000, lived in the borderhouse Aleja 14, and heard of the terrible horrors; a ghastliness that was elucidated and concretized by all the stories told around him. Jerzy Einhorn survived the ghetto, but was detained at the Hasag-Palcery concentration camp between June 1943 and January 1945. In June 2009, his son Stefan made a bus tour between former camps, together with Jewish men and women, who were on this pilgrimage for a variety of reasons. The trip took place on 22–28 June 2009 and was named ‘A journey in the tracks of the Holocaust’. Those on the Holocaust tour represented different ‘pilgrim-modes’. The focus in this article is on two distinct differences when it comes to creed, or conceptions of the world: ‘this-worldliness’ and ‘other- worldliness’. And for the pilgrims maybe such distinctions are over-schematic, though, since ‘sacral fulfilment’ can be seen ‘at work in all modern constructions of travel, including

  9. Holocaust and its Legacy in the Light of the Contemporary Humanitarian Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta S. Gromoglasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper discusses in-depth new perspectives in the Holocaust studies. It pays special attention to the spatiality of the Nazi camps and analyzes the Holocaust geographies more in general. It conceptualizes the camp as a ‘space of lawlessness’ that was created by political means of terror and exclusion. The specific spatiality of the Nazi camp was constructed by perpetrators with intentions to neglect both juridical law and moral laws of humanity. To prove this point the author analyzes P. Levi, the survivor of Auschwitz, witness and his prominent books “The Drowned and the Saved” and “If This Is a Man”. After reading his witness one can conclude that two spatial characteristics of the camp have been the most fundamental. The first one were the borders that cut the camp’s inmates from the people lived in the outside world and made impossible all human relations like providing help, solidarity, empathy. The second one was ‘the grey zone’ - a spatial metaphor that P. Levi used to explain all forms of collaboration with the camp authorities. The presence of the ‘grey zone’ as a main characteristic of the Nazi camp allows us to conceptualize it as a ‘space’ where ‘the starry heavens and internal moral law’ were no more present. So, the Nazi camp is a ‘place of indistinction’, a ‘spatial threshold’ where ‘moral’ and ‘immoral’, ‘human’ and ‘animal’, ‘drowned’ and ‘saved’ were no more distinguishable. The author analyzes more broaden Holocaust geographies outside the camp. Nazis used extensively occupied territories in Eastern Europe to perpetrate their crimes. The author concludes that the geographical localization of the Holocaust was an expression of Nazi irrational genocidal intentions and spatial imaginations. Eastern territories have been constructed by Nazis as ‘broaden spaces of exception and lawlessness’. That spatial imagination and planning allowed the perpetrators

  10. The Lived Experience of Providing Care and Support Services for Holocaust Survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshuva, Karen; Borowski, Allan; Wells, Yvonne

    2017-06-01

    Lack of awareness among paid carers of the possible late-life consequences of early-life periods of extreme and prolonged traumatization may have negative impacts on the experiences of trauma survivors in receiving care. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used to investigate the lived experience of paid carers in providing care for Jewish Holocaust survivors. In total, 70 carers participated in 10 focus group discussions. Credibility of the findings was ensured by methodological triangulation and peer debriefing. Three major themes emerged: (a) knowing about survivors' past helps me make sense of who they are, (b) the trauma adds an extra dimension to caregiving, and (c) caring for survivors has an emotional impact. Specific knowledge, attitudes, and skills for building positive care relationships with Holocaust survivors were identified. The findings offer a starting point for advancing knowledge about the care of older survivors from other refugee backgrounds.

  11. Compilation of a casebook on bioethics and the Holocaust as a platform for bioethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelouche, Tessa

    2013-03-01

    The Holocaust arose, in part, because of a profound and pervasive breakdown of medical professional ethics. This history is complex and powerfully instructive. The value judgments and moral actions of the Nazi doctors can inform current debate and practices and also prevent the use of inaccurate analogies in current bioethical debates. Under the auspices of the International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, we are in the process of publishing a casebook on bioethical topics, using personal cases from the Third Reich and the Holocaust. The casebook will provide a platform for deep reflection and discourse on historical ethical issues and their relevance for today. This teaching tool can also inspire healthcare professionals and students to practice with greater compassion, knowledge, tolerance, respect and justice on behalf of their patients.

  12. Transgenerational Effects of Trauma in Midlife: Evidence for Resilience and Vulnerability in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Despite abundant research on offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), it is relatively unknown how they function in middle-age. Transgenerational effects of the Holocaust may be stronger among middle-aged OHS as they previously suffered from early inclement natal and postnatal environment and now face age-related decline. Yet, middle-aged OHS may successfully maintain the resilience they demonstrated at younger age. This study performed a wide-spectrum functional assessment of middle-aged OHS and comparisons (N = 364) drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). OHS, and especially those with two survivor parents, reported a higher sense of well-being, but more physical health problems than comparisons. The discussion provides possible explanations for this mixed functional profile. PMID:22267975

  13. Erikson's "components of a healthy personality" among Holocaust survivors immediately and 40 years after the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Soriano, Erin; McMurtry, Donna Louise; Paterson, Helen; Weiszbeck, Tara L; Krell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which Holocaust survivors have dealt successfully with the eight psychosocial crises thought by Erikson (1959) to mark important stages in life-span development. In Study 1, 50 autobiographical interviews of survivors videotaped 30-50 years after the war were subjected to thematic content analysis. Relevant passages were coded as representing either a favorable or an unfavorable outcome as defined by Erikson. Survivors described significantly more favorable than unfavorable outcomes for seven of the crises; the exception was Trust vs. Mistrust. In Study 2, audiotaped Holocaust survivor interviews conducted in 1946 were scored in the same way and compared with the results of Study 1. There were several significant differences as well as similarities between the two data sets, the later interviews mostly showing changes in the positive direction.

  14. Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2009-01-01

    In her "Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English," Louise O. Vasvári discusses aspects and perspectives of women's life writing, including her criteria of selection, the problematics of sourcing, issues of translation, and processes of publication. While the authors listed in the bibliography are overwhelmingly Jewish and from Central and East Europe, there are works listed by others whose experiences also offer important testimony not onl...

  15. [Facilitated and real trauma in the psychoanalysis of children of Holocaust survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, I

    1990-06-01

    The author investigates the effect of retraumatization on the children of Holocaust survivors who have appropriated their parents' trauma through unconscious identification. The author proposes that the working through of the real trauma results in a mitigation of the transmitted trauma in the psychic reality and mobilizes the work of mourning that facilitates the mastery of the real as well as the transmitted trauma. Two case examples are cited as illustration.

  16. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  17. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  18. Suicide Risk Among Holocaust Survivors Following Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Historic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Ido; Gur, Adi; Haklai, Ziona; Goldberger, Nehama

    2018-01-01

    The association between Holocaust experience, suicide, and psychiatric hospitalization has not been unequivocally established. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of suicide among 3 Jewish groups with past or current psychiatric hospitalizations: Holocaust survivors (HS), survivors of pre-Holocaust persecution (early HS), and a comparison group of similar European background who did not experience Holocaust persecution. In a retrospective cohort study based on the Israel National Psychiatric Case Register (NPCR) and the database of causes of death, all suicides in the years 1981-2009 were found for HS (n = 16,406), early HS (n = 1,212) and a comparison group (n = 4,286). Age adjusted suicide rates were calculated for the 3 groups and a logistic regression model was built to assess the suicide risk, controlling for demographic and clinical variables. The number of completed suicides in the study period was: HS-233 (1.4%), early HS-34 (2.8%), and the comparison group-64 (1.5%). Age adjusted rates were 106.7 (95% CI 93.0-120.5) per 100,000 person-years for HS, 231.0 (95% CI 157.0-327.9) for early HS and 150.7 (95% CI 113.2-196.6) for comparisons. The regression models showed significantly higher risk for the early HS versus comparisons (multivariate model adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.09-2.60), but not for the HS versus comparisons. These results may indicate higher resilience among the survivors of maximal adversity compared to others who experienced lesser persecution.

  19. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  20. Evolution of traumatic narratives impact of the Holocaust on children of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerhahn, Nanette C

    2013-01-01

    Traumas' lessons are embedded in oral narratives of disasters that are transmitted over centuries and incorporated into historical memory; often they are woven into scripture and religious ritual; eventually they become encrypted in the collective unconscious. The story of the Holocaust functions like a map of the world for survivors' children, whose minds it both constrains and overwhelms, impacting psychological development and construction of reality. The focus in this paper is on composites of three Holocaust survivors and their daughters, who exemplify traumatic narratives' evolution as they are transmitted in fragments, sometimes silently and often nonverbally, to the second generation, who live out the stories' dictates consciously and unconsciously as they create and discover a reality into which they are born. The Holocaust lives on in survivors' current psychological lives, which occur in the wake of catastrophe, in their children's direct experiences of enduring conscious and unconscious reverberations of parental trauma, and in the children's imaginative lives as they reconstruct parental histories to decode emotional memories carried by stories parents tell that stand in place of stories that cannot be told. The paper examines daughters' interpretations of mothers' stories as evidenced by the impact on individuation, differentiation, sexuality, the conceptualization of death, and relationships with self, mother, other, and society. Impact of the Holocaust is co-created by an amalgam of historical reality, contemporary lived experience, and fantasy, which leads children to uncover three different traumatic stories--the trauma of disaster, the trauma of the loneliness of survival, and the trauma of collateral damage to witnessing children who transmit their own versions of trauma to the third generation. Interpretative engagement and renarration, while injurious, also promote a reparative urge.

  1. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana Lorens; Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Fiks, José Paulo

    2012-09-03

    Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents' experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.

  2. The collective past, group psychology and personal narrative: shaping Jewish identity by memoirs of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S; Handelsman, I

    1990-06-01

    Through honing its collective memory, especially after the Holocaust, the Jewish community has attempted to sustain its culture, bolster the Jewish identity of its members, and regain a resolute sense that its narrative is again proceeding. To some degree, all these aims are realized by instilling in its members the Jewish modal character structure: a psychological configuration with two contrastable entities. One chronically discomposed self-structure, defining itself as polluted and helpless, trembles with the appalling imagery of historical and imminent community disasters. The other entity believes in its unmatched capacity for reparative, socially beneficial actions. The paradigm of this psychological organization is found in many children of survivors. The memory of a tragic history abides alongside the community's hopes in the Jewish modal personality. The need to set forth and accommodate these two motifs imprints upon the Jewish "national" character many of its distinctive qualities. The designs of the Jewish community for this particularly Jewish twofold personality formation are augmented by the personal revelations of survivors. Therefore, Holocaustic testimonies are invested with a sacred aura. In measure, these recitals of the disaster with their stark images, plus the clashing affects aroused in the reader toward main characters of the narrative, dictate the way Jews define themselves in the world and the way they live. A confluence of being covertly commissioned by the Jewish community joins with the narrators' more idiosyncratic longings. Together they generate a steady stream of Holocaustic accounts. Complementary vectors drive the reader to peruse these records. The results therefrom, intimate knowledge of the disaster, plus the twofold personality motifs stamp many Jews as scions of the Holocaust.

  3. VT Lidar Aspect (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related ASPECT datasets. This metadata complies with the...

  4. VT Lidar Aspect (1.6 meter) - 2008 - Missisquoi Lower

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related ASPECT datasets. This metadata complies with the...

  5. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  6. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  7. VT Lidar Aspect (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related ASPECT datasets. This metadata complies with the...

  8. The Nuclear (and the Holocaust: Israel, Iran, and the Shadows of Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Nili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this article is that the Holocaust is indispensable for understanding Israel’s treatment of what it perceives as the greatest current threat to its security - the Iranian nuclear program. The Holocaust’s impact deviates in crucial ways from established teaching regarding balance of power in general and nuclear deterrence in particular. Mutually Assured Destruction, the distinction between capabilities and intentions, and even linkage politics - all of those basic concepts are profoundly altered in the Israeli case by the (often conscious presence of the Holocaust. The Holocaust’s influence is evident in the Israeli belief that deterring Iran might be impossible: MAD does not apply to the Iranians since, like Hitler, their regime is considered mad: its commitment to destructing the “Zionist entity” is understood as trumping any standard realpolitik calculations. This perception of Iran generates the conviction that the Iranian nuclear project must be stopped at all costs: Israel must prepare for the possibility that the Jews will once again be left alone and, if need be, launch a strike against Iran to prevent a potential second Holocaust. There will not be time for “accommodation” to the threat.

  9. Filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Menashe, Ravit; Bensimon, Moshe

    2018-03-13

    Much is known about adult children caring for their aging parents, yet the potentially unique experience of offspring caring for traumatized parents is underexplored. Therefore, the current studies assessed filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) in caring for their parents. In Study 1, we interviewed 10 OHS (mean age = 61.0) in order to extract themes of filial anxiety. Based on Study 1's data, a newly constructed scale of filial anxiety was administered in Study 2 to 59 adult offspring (mean age = 56.4): 28 OHS and 31 comparisons. Study 3 included 143 dyads of parents and offspring (mean age = 55.4 and 81.7, respectively): 86 Holocaust dyads and 57 comparison dyads. Parents reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring reported filial anxiety and sense of obligation. In Study 1, interviewees referred to concerns about parent experiencing decline alongside caregiving difficulties. In Study 2, OHS reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. This group difference was mediated by sense of obligation. In Study 3, OHS with parental PTSD reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. Once more, filial sense of obligation served as a mediator. In Studies 2-3, results remained significant after adjusting for offspring symptoms. Parental exposure to the Holocaust, and especially parental PTSD, related to higher filial obligation, which in turn was related to higher filial anxiety. These findings bear important implications for practitioners working with survivors' families.

  10. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Transmitting the sum of all fears: Iranian nuclear threat salience among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Many Israelis are preoccupied with the prospect of a nuclear-armed Iran, frequently associating it with the danger of annihilation that existed during the Holocaust. The current article examined whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) are especially preoccupied and sensitive to the Iranian threat, and whether this susceptibility is a part of their increased general image of actual and potential threats, defined as the hostile world scenario (HWS). Study 1 (N = 106) showed that relative to comparisons, OHS reported more preoccupation with the Iranian nuclear threat. Moreover, the positive relationship between the salience of the Iranian threat and symptoms of anxiety was stronger among OHS. Study 2 (N = 450) replicated these findings, while focusing on the Iranian nuclear threat salience and symptoms of psychological distress. It further showed that OHS reported more negative engagement with the HWS (i.e., feeling that surrounding threats decrease one's sense of competence), which in turn mediated their increased preoccupation with the Iranian threat. The results suggest that intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma includes heightened preoccupation with and sensitivity to potential threats of annihilation, and that the specific preoccupation with threats of annihilation reflects a part of a more general preoccupation with surrounding threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A study of family health in Chareidi second and third generation survivors of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslawitz, S L; DeGrace, B W; Sloop, J; Arnold, S; Hamilton, T B

    2015-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission of survivor syndrome places the health of family occupation of Chareidi second and third generation survivors of the Holocaust at risk. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experience and capture the essence of family health from the perspective of this cultural group. Guided by phenomenological research design, 5 participants were interviewed. They described their perception of the health of their families and how experiences in Nazi death camps impacted their families' health. Family health is an experience of being together and doing together. Generational transmission of family health was disrupted by the Holocaust. Dysfunction exists in generations that were produced by the survivors. Daily effort is required to reverse the effects of the Holocaust and establish connections with subsequent generations. The essence of occupational therapy is described as "being before doing", which is the cornerstone of individual health and well-being; and in this case family health. This study investigates a cultural group who is experiencing intergenerational transmission of trauma that disrupts family health. Opportunities to examine family health in all settings and consider implications for interventions should be explored.

  13. Holocaust exposure and subsequent suicide risk: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Levav, Itzhak; Levine, Stephen Z

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between the extent of genocide exposure and subsequent suicide risk among Holocaust survivors. Persons born in Holocaust-exposed European countries during the years 1922-1945 that immigrated to Israel by 1965 were identified in the Population Registry (N = 209,429), and followed up for suicide (1950-2014). They were divided into three groups based on likely exposure to Nazi persecution: those who immigrated before (indirect; n = 20,229; 10%), during (partial direct; n = 17,189; 8%), and after (full direct; n = 172,061; 82%) World War II. Groups were contrasted for suicide risk, accounting for the extent of genocide in their respective countries of origin, high (>70%) or lower levels (Holocaust survivors (full direct exposure) as a resilient group. A tentative mechanism for higher vulnerability to suicide risk of the partial direct exposure group from countries with higher genocide exposure includes protracted guilt feelings, having directly witnessed atrocities and escaped death.

  14. Visiting Holocaust-Related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent.

  15. Somatic diseases in child survivors of the Holocaust with posttraumatic stress disorder: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian; Biermann, Teresa

    2012-05-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in people who survived the Holocaust. In the current study, 80 Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder were examined based on evaluation of their complete record (medical reports, clinical history, medical statements, and handwritten declarations of patients under oath). These survivors were compared with subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder caused by traumata other than the Holocaust. The data were analyzed for the presence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic diseases that developed in the time between the earliest medical report (expert opinion) and the latest expert opinion. Analysis revealed an increase in myocardial infarction, chronic degenerative diseases, and cancerous changes in the second expert opinion. No differences between the groups were seen with regard to sex, age at traumatization, or age at examination. Several implications of the data are discussed, including the implication that the survivors examined in this study may comprise a highly resilient group, inasmuch as they had reached an advanced age.

  16. ‘You think your writing belongs to you?’: Intertextuality in Contemporary Jewish Post-Holocaust Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Gwyer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a sub-category of recent Jewish post-Holocaust fiction that engages with the absent memory of the persecution its authors did not personally witness through the medium of intertextuality, but with intertextual recourse not to testimonial writing but to literature only unwittingly or retrospectively shadowed by the Holocaust. It will be proposed that this practice of intertextuality constitutes a response to the post-Holocaust Jewish author’s ‘anxiety of influence’ that, in the wake of the first generation’s experience of atrocity, their own life story and literature will always appear derivative. With reference to works by four such post-Holocaust authors, Jonathan Safran Foer’s Tree of Codes (2010, Maxim Biller’s Im Kopf von Bruno Schulz (2013, Helen Maryles Shankman’s In the Land of Armadillos (2016, and Nicole Krauss’s The History of Love (2005 and Forest Dark (2017, all of which engage intertextually with Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz, it will be suggested that these authors are looking to return to a Kristevan practice of intertextuality after the predominantly citational recourse to antecedent material that has often characterized post-Holocaust literature. In the process, they also succeed in troubling recently popular conceptualizations of ‘postmemory’ literature as the ‘belated’ and ‘evacuated’ recipient of encrypted traumatic content inherited from the first generation that it must now seek either to preserve or to work through vicariously.

  17. Urine 1,6-Hexamethylene Diamine (HDA) Levels Among Workers Exposed to 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Linda G. T.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Flack, Sheila L.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Ball, Louise M.; Richardson, David B.; Ding, Kai; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-french, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workd...

  18. Speaking the Unspeakable and Seeing the Unseeable: The Role of Fantastika in Visualizing the Holocaust, or, More Than Just Maus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Morgan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the represtationabilty of the Holocaust, or rather, it advocates the intention to represent. True representation is impossible and yet, despite the protestations of opponents such as Nobel prize winner Elie Wiesel, it is necessary. Due to the traumatic nature of the Holocaust, and the inability of those who have not experienced it to truly comprehend the terrors it entails, mimetic modes of representation are insufficient. As such, non-mimetic or fantastic modes have a vital role to play and this has been recognised from the earliest opportunity, as this article shall show. Non-mimetic Holocaust fiction begins in the camps themselves with Hurst Rosenthal's Mickey in Gurs (1941 depicting Mickey mouse as a prisoner of Gurs camp, later in 1944 Calvo et al. used barnyard fable imagery to depict France's role in the war and the brutal occupation. Both of these pieces act as precursor to the genre defining non-mimetic Holocaust piece: Art Spiegelman's Maus (1986;1991. All three of these texts use animal imagery and metafictionality to elaborate on the mimetic historical record in some manner. The article will draw to a conclusion by examining a fourth text, or more specifically a single character within a set of texts, Magneto from Marvel comics' The X-Men. Magneto stands as an example of fantastical fiction, in this case the superhero comic, appropriating the Holocaust to deepen and extend its own narrative, as opposed to Rosenthal, Calvo, and Spiegelman use of the fantastic to augment their Holocaust narrative. In doing so, Magneto's character offers us a different view point of the intersection between the visual fantastic and one of the most terrifying horrors on the 20th century.

  19. [Why were they numb again? About the psychological condition of Holocaust survivors and attitudes of society and therapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, Shmuel Tommy

    2009-04-01

    During the first year after Israel's declaration of independence, 350,000 Holocaust survivors immigrated to Israel, about 1/3 of the country's population at that time. Their poor public image ("soap", "avac adam"--shadow of a man) and the Zionist--pioneer attitude of rejecting the "diasporal mentality", led to arrogance and disrespect towards the survivors. The attitude of therapists towards the victims has been influenced by the public atmosphere and their problems did not receive the attention they deserved. This fact caused an additional trauma--"secondary victimization", which, in turn, was one of the causes for the "conspiracy of silence". This silence lasted for many years and caused HoLocaust survivors to become more vulnerable at an older age. A review of the complex psychological condition of Holocaust survivors in the community is characterized by a combination of toughness and vulnerability and other aspects such as: the frequency of PTSD among Holocaust survivors and its characteristics as well as therapists' difficulties in coping with the post-traumatic state. The sequence of traumatic events in their Lives caused a feeling of vulnerability in some survivors. Furthermore, insult and fear of exposure, that throughout the years prevented them from demanding their rights, was contrary to the normative behaviour in Israeli society. The interest and the number of studies concerning the Holocaust and Holocaust survivors increases as the number of survivors decreases and as we move further in time from the horrors of that war. To implement a policy of positive discrimination (affirmative action) for survivors in the Israeli health system.

  20. Sistematies verwronge kommunikasie in Lukas 14:1-6: Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematically distorted communication in Luke 14:1-6: A critical assessment of the dialectical-critical theory of Jürgen Habermas In this article the epistemology and essence of the practical interest of Jürgen Habermas's dialectical-critical theory is discussed, focusing on his concept of systematically distorted ...

  1. Examples from the 1.6 Ga Chorhat Sandstone, Vindhyan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper addresses macroscopic signatures of microbial mat-related structures within the 1.6 Ga-old Chorhat Sandstone of the Semri Group –the basal stratigraphic unit of the Vindhyan succession in Son valley.The Chorhat Sandstone broadly represents a prograding succession of three depositional facies ranging from ...

  2. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22 1 2 1 , with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented

  3. 37 CFR 1.6 - Receipt of correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....6 Section 1.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and... stamped with the date of deposit as “Express Mail” with the United States Postal Service. (3...

  4. Cancer incidence in Holocaust male survivors-An Israeli cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Goldbourt, Uri

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939). Vital status and cancer incidence in the cohort were determined based on national registries. Socioeconomic level, health behaviors and cancer incidence were compared between the groups and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed hazard risk ratios for cancer by exposure status. All-cause mortality was studied as a competing risk. In total, 241, 682, and 522 cancer cases were diagnosed in the E, PE, and NE, respectively. Compared with the NE, all-site cancer incidence was higher in the E (HR = 1.13, 95%CI 0.97-1.32) but not in the PE. All-cause mortality competed with all-site invasive cancer incidence in the E group (HR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.02-1.38). Colorectal and lung cancer seemed to be positively though non-significantly associated with the exposure while prostate cancer was not. Male Holocaust survivors may be at a weakly increased risk for all-site, colorectal and lung cancer. The role of age at exposure and residual confounding should be further investigated. © 2016 UICC.

  5. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  6. The wonder of their voices: The 1946 Holocaust interviews of David Boder (New York: Oxford, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alan C

    2012-05-01

    Writing a study of psychologist David Boder's 1946 displaced persons (DP) interview project gave me a chance to further document the substantial early response to the Holocaust. This was clearly one important piece of my study, and one that was eminently straightforward. Yet much of the research on Boder's project at the point in time that I carried it out was elliptical, partly because the primary interview materials were coming to light at an astonishing pace, partly because the archive collections were virtually untapped, and partly because of the misconception of Boder and his interview project itself.

  7. Googling for ghosts: a meditation on writers' block, mourning, and the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flescher, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    The author describes her father's experience of being a Holocaust survivor and how his unfinished mourning contributed to her struggle with muteness, her own story being dwarfed by the magnitude of her father's losses. When her non-Jewish mother is chosen to be honored by Yad Vashem, the ceremony proves unexpectedly powerful. The witnessing by community, through the Internet, helps dissolve the shame and isolation, heals some of the trauma, and promotes greater psychological freedom. In creating this paper, the author memorializes her parents and her lost relatives, and succeeds in working through much that had haunted her.

  8. Exploring substrate binding and discrimination in fructose1, 6-bisphosphate and tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgiby, S M; Thomson, G J; Qamar, S; Berry, A

    2000-03-01

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyses the reversible condensation of glycerone-P and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A recent structure of the Escherichia coli Class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase [Hall, D.R., Leonard, G.A., Reed, C.D., Watt, C.I., Berry, A. & Hunter, W.N. (1999) J. Mol. Biol. 287, 383-394] in the presence of the transition state analogue phosphoglycolohydroxamate delineated the roles of individual amino acids in binding glycerone-P and in the initial proton abstraction steps of the mechanism. The X-ray structure has now been used, together with sequence alignments, site-directed mutagenesis and steady-state enzyme kinetics to extend these studies to map important residues in the binding of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. From these studies three residues (Asn35, Ser61 and Lys325) have been identified as important in catalysis. We show that mutation of Ser61 to alanine increases the Km value for fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate 16-fold and product inhibition studies indicate that this effect is manifested most strongly in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate binding pocket of the active site, demonstrating that Ser61 is involved in binding glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. In contrast a S61T mutant had no effect on catalysis emphasizing the importance of an hydroxyl group for this role. Mutation of Asn35 (N35A) resulted in an enzyme with only 1.5% of the activity of the wild-type enzyme and different partial reactions indicate that this residue effects the binding of both triose substrates. Finally, mutation of Lys325 has a greater effect on catalysis than on binding, however, given the magnitude of the effects it is likely that it plays an indirect role in maintaining other critical residues in a catalytically competent conformation. Interestingly, despite its proximity to the active site and high sequence conservation, replacement of a fourth residue, Gln59 (Q59A) had no significant effect on the function of the enzyme. In a

  9. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  10. Co-operation Between Science Teachers and Mathematics Teachers. Volumes 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Alan, Ed.

    This document contains six separate works, titled: (1) Functions and Physics; (2) Links Between Geography and Mathematics; (3) Our Inheritance: Common Ground for the Mathematics and Biology Teacher; (4) Mathematics and Chemistry: The Classroom Interface; (5) Mathematical Modeling; and (6) Mathematical Modeling with Calculus. This series of…

  11. Instructional Exchange. Volume 2, Number 1-6, September 1990-March 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of six issues of a newsletter that provides a forum for the sharing of research findings and instructional strategies by faculty of Western Michigan University. Issue Number 1 addresses writing in the Writing Across the Curriculum Program with notification of a faculty workshop, hints on how to encourage good writing, and a…

  12. Holocaust Education in the "Black Hole of Europe": Slovakia's Identity Politics and History Textbooks Pre- and Post-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Holocaust education in Slovakia stands at the confluence of diverse discourses of state and supra-national legitimation. Principles of national self-determination, minority rights, and political ideologies inform and lend credence to how Slovaks' national and state identities are narrated in Slovak history textbooks. For small nation-states with…

  13. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Psychological Distress, Sharing of Traumatic Reminisces, and Marital Quality among Spouses of Holocaust Child Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during World War II. Results showed that about one third of spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. STS among spouses was related to hostility, anger and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but not to reminiscences with…

  14. Content Analysis of Essays from a Cross-National Survey: Implications for Teaching Strategies in Holocaust Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, James J.

    The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers…

  15. Interpersonal vulnerability among offspring of Holocaust survivors gay men and its association with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Shrira, Amit; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) gay men report higher interpersonal vulnerability in comparison to non-OHS gay men, and to further assess whether that vulnerability mediates the association between having a Holocaust background and mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). For this purpose, a community-dwelling sample of 79 middle-aged and older OHS and 129 non-OHS gay men completed measures of hostile-world scenario (HWS) in the interpersonal domain, satisfaction from current steady relationship, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Results indicated that OHS reported higher HWS interpersonal vulnerability and lower satisfaction from current relationship in comparison to non-OHS gay men. Also, having a Holocaust background had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms and life satisfaction through HWS interpersonal vulnerability as well as through satisfaction from current relationship. These findings are the first to suggest interpersonal vulnerability of older OHS, in comparison to non-OHS, gay men, and an association between this vulnerability and adverse psychological outcomes. This interpersonal vulnerability, possibly representing HWS threats of both early family-based trauma and current sexual minority stress, along with its implications, should be addressed by practitioners who work with older gay men having a Holocaust background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and psychiatric symptomatology among third-generation Holocaust survivors whose fathers were war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the intergenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma to the third generation (TGH). However, due to the rareness of this population, there are no studies that have examined TGH individuals whose fathers were also victims of war-related trauma and captivity. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of parents' Holocaust background, fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and adult offspring's anxiety sensitivity (AS) in adult offspring's PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (42 TGH and 71 non-TGH), that included 80 former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) dyads and a comparison group of 44 veteran dyads, completed AS, PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology self-report measures. Fathers were assessed 17 years following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 2008) while offspring took part in T2 (2013-2014). Surprisingly, results show that TGH participants reported lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology than non-TGH participants, regardless of their fathers' captivity status. Interestingly, a moderated mediation analysis indicated that offspring's AS mediated the association between Holocaust background and participants' PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology, only among ex-POWs' offspring. This study provides evidence for relatively lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology among TGH individuals whose fathers were war veterans. Ex-POWs' adult offspring who are grandchildren of Holocaust survivors reported lower levels of AS that was related to lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. To Forget Murder Victims Is to Kill Them Twice: The Prospect of Teaching "The Holocaust" in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgamis, Majid Salem

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of teaching the holocaust in Jordanian universities. In this regard, it highlights the socio-religious challenges that may impede such a project and suggests some methods to overcome them. It discusses the material to be taught and the background that should be furnished for students before presenting the topic.…

  18. "But, Apartheid Was Also Genocide...What about Our Suffering?" Teaching the Holocaust in South Africa--Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates, Tali

    2010-01-01

    Participants in South African educator workshops focusing on teaching the Holocaust and the 1994 genocide in Rwanda frequently declare that apartheid was also genocide. These comments seem like a cry to recognize that South Africa's past of human-rights abuses and pain also deserves a definition, and genocide seems to be the desired title of…

  19. "Never Again"? Helping Year 9 Think about What Happened after the Holocaust and Learning Lessons from Genocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Elisabeth; Spillane, Thomas; Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    "Never again" is the clarion call of much Holocaust and genocide education. There is a danger, however, that it can become an empty, if pious, wish. How can we help pupils reflect seriously on genocide prevention? Elisabeth Kellaway, Thomas Spillane and Terry Haydn report teaching strategies that focused students' attention on what came…

  20. From My Place: Teaching the Holocaust and Judaism at the University of Mississippi Fifty-Three Years after James Meredith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Willa M.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores classroom dynamics when students identify and connect their own painful experiences to structural racism or ethnocentrism exhibited in the Holocaust or parts of Jewish history. The intrusion of this proximal knowledge can be an obstacle to student learning. If engaged by professors, however, I argue that proximal knowledge can…

  1. "Who Wants to Be Sad Over and Over Again?": Emotion Ideologies in Contemporary German Education about the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Lisa Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic field study in Cologne, this article discusses the connection between memory practices and emotion ideologies in Holocaust education, using Sara Ahmed's concept of affective economies. Moral goals, political demands, and educators' care for their students lead to tensions in the education process. Two case studies…

  2. Cancer risk among Holocaust survivors in Israel-A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Freedman, Laurence S; Hakak, Nina; Barchana, Micha; Catane, Raphael; Shani, Mordechai

    2017-09-01

    Holocaust survivors during World War II were exposed to various factors that are associated with cancer risk. The objective of this study was to determine whether Holocaust survivors had an increased risk for developing cancer. The study population included 152,622 survivors. The main analysis was based on a comparison between individuals who were entitled to compensation for suffering persecution during the war and individuals who were denied such compensation. A complementary analysis compared survivors who were born in countries governed by Nazi Germany with survivors born in nonoccupied countries. A Cox proportional hazards model was used, with the time at risk of cancer development starting on either January 1, 1960, or the date of immigration to the date of cancer diagnosis or death or the date of last follow-up (December 31, 2006). Cancer was diagnosed in 22.2% of those who were granted compensation versus 16% of those who were denied compensation (P cancer in those who were exposed. For those who were granted versus denied compensation, the hazard ratios were 1.06 (P cancer, and 1.37 (P = .008) for lung cancer. For those born in occupied countries versus nonoccupied countries, the hazard ratios were 1.08 (P cancer development. Cancer 2017;123:3335-45. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Opportunities for mourning when grief is disenfranchised: descendants of Nazi perpetrators in dialogue with Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of unmourned and disenfranchised grief as a way to understand the experiences of adult children of Nazi perpetrators, who grew up with cultural norms of grieving alone or in silence. The scholarly literature on descendants of Nazis reflects a group unlikely to warrant empathy or support from others because of the stigma surrounding their family's possible involvement in the Holocaust atrocities. This article uses, as a case study approach, the testimony given by Monika Hertwig, the adult daughter of a high ranking Nazi, who appears in the documentary film, Inheritance. From the perspective of disenfranchised grief, defined as grief that is not socially recognized or supported, the article links Monika's testimony with existing research from in-depth interviews with other descendants of Nazis to suggest that, as a group, they lacked permission to grieve their deceased parents, acknowledgment of their grief, and opportunities to mourn. Based on the theory that the effects of grief can be transgenerational, the disenfranchisement experienced by the "children of the Third Reich" does not have to pass to subsequent generations if opportunities for mourning are made possible and some resolution of grief occurs. Studies have shown that ongoing dialogue groups between Holocaust survivors and descendants of Nazis provide opportunities for mourning to both groups.

  4. On failed intersubjectivity: Recollections of loneliness experiences in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Hadas

    2008-07-01

    Intergenerational consequences of extensive trauma experienced by parents for the loneliness experienced by their children were explored in 52 adults (26 men and 26 women) who grew up in Holocaust survivor families. These adults, children of mothers who had survived Nazi concentration camps, were recruited from a random nonclinical Israeli sample. A narrative analysis of their recollected accounts of loneliness in childhood and adolescence yielded 4 major categories of loneliness experiences in the context of growing up in Holocaust survivor families: (a) echoes of parental intrusive traumatic memories; (b) echoes of parental numbing and detachment; (c) perceived parents' caregiving style; and (d) social comparison with other families, in particular the lack of grandparents. The echoes of the parental trauma in the recollected loneliness accounts are conceptualized as representing a sense of failed intersubjectivity in these interpersonal processes. The experiences of not being understood by others, not understanding others, and the lack of shared understanding involved in failed intersubjectivity are discussed and related to the importance of opening lines of communication between survivors and their descendents. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Holocaust Survivors' Memories of Past Trauma and the Functions of Reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Canham, Sarah; Wertman, Annette; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara; Bachner, Yaacov G; Peres, Hagit

    2016-08-01

    Existing research suggests that specific ways of recalling autobiographical memories of one's past cluster in self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial reminiscence functions. We undertook the present qualitative study to gain understanding of reminiscence functions as described by 269 Israeli Holocaust survivors and to see whether groupings of themes that emerged would correspond to our tripartite model of the reminiscence functions. Participants (M = 80.4 years; SD = 6.87) were asked to describe memories that typify a reminiscence function in which they frequently or very frequently engage. Thematic analyses were conducted in English (translated) and Hebrew. Responses reflect the range of ways in which Holocaust survivors reminisce. The task of describing early life memories was difficult for some participants, while others' lived experiences enabled them to teach others to ensure that their collective memory remains in the consciousness of the next generation of Israelis and the Jewish state. Data are imbued with examples of horror, resilience, generativity, and gratitude. As hypothesized, survivors' memories cluster in self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial groupings consistent with the tripartite model of reminiscence functions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-term health effects in adults born during the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovich, Eyal; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha, Shaul M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that exposure to starvation and stress between conception and early infancy may have deleterious effects on health later in life; this phenomenon is termed fetal origin of adult disease. To determine whether exposure to the Holocaust from preconception to early infancy is a cause of chronic morbidity in adulthood. This pilot study involved 70 European Jews born in countries under Nazi rule (exposed group) during the period 1940-1945 who were interviewed to determine the presence of chronic diseases. A control group of 230 Israeli-born individuals of the same descent, age, and gender distribution were extracted from the Israel National Health Interview Survey-2 (unexposed group). The prevalence of selected risk factors and chronic diseases was compared between the groups. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity was significantly higher in the exposed group: body mass index (BMI) (29.06 +/- 3.2 vs. 26.97 +/- 4.42, P = 0.015), hypertension (62.9% vs. 43%, P = 0.003), dyslipidemia (72.9% vs. 46.1%, P Holocaust conditions in early life may be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, malignancy and peptic diseases in adulthood. These findings set the stage for further research, which might define those exposed as a high risk group for chronic morbidity.

  7. Long-term effects of trauma: psychosocial functioning of the second and third generation of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of extreme war-related trauma on the second and the third generation of Holocaust survivors (HS) were examined in 88 middle-class families. Differences in functioning between adult offspring of HS (HSO) and a comparison group, as well as the psychosocial functioning of adolescent grandchildren of HS, were studied. Degree of presence of Holocaust in the family was examined in families in which both parents were HSO, either mother or father was HSO, and neither parent was HSO. Mothers' Holocaust background was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and less positive parenting representations. In line with synergic (multiplicative) models of risk, adolescents in families where both parents were HSO perceived their mothers as less accepting and less encouraging independence, and reported less positive self-perceptions than their counterparts. They also perceived their fathers as less accepting and less encouraging independence, showed higher levels of ambivalent attachment style, and according to their peers, demonstrated poorer adjustment during military basic training than their fellow recruits from the one-parent HSO group. Parents and adolescents in the one-parent HSO group functioned similarly to others with no Holocaust background. Parenting variables mediated the association across generations between degree of Holocaust experience in the family of origin of the parents and ambivalent attachment style and self-perception of the adolescents. It is recommended that researchers and clinicians develop awareness of the possible traces of trauma in the second and the third generation despite their sound functioning in their daily lives.

  8. Is the Unspeakable Singable? The Ethics of Holocaust Representation and the Reception of Górecki's Symphony no.3

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    Alison Moore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Debates about Holocaust representation have long been haunted by the idea that the enormity and intensity of human suffering in the events of World War Two are ‘unspeakable’. In many such statements the capacity for cognition and the ethical dimension of aestheticisation are blurred – the Holocaust is ‘unspeakable’ both in the sense of being impossible to imagine in its full horror, but also morally inappropriate as the subject of artistic production. But do all forms of cultural representation of the Holocaust fail in the same way as words or to the same degree, in the eyes of those who would judge their merits according the tenet of unspeakability? This paper considers one particularly renowned work Henryk Górecki’s symphony no. 3 (Symfonia pieśni żałosnych of 1976, discussing how it mediated both the global politics of Holocaust representation and the recuperation of victimhood in postcommunist Poland. Górecki claimed a subjectivity of failure in response to the challenge of representing the events of World War Two and has insisted that the symphony is not about war but about sorrow. The vocal lyrics are nonetheless profoundly thematised around war suffering, and the Second World War in particular - events he approached with a musical language of epic, pathos and redemption. In framing the subject of his work, he emphasised a Polish national suffering that both eschewed mention of specifically targeted groups of victims, and beckoned to Polish folk and catholic traditions. This article presents a new hypothesis about the success of Górecki’s work by considering it in relation to the ethical debates about Holocaust empathic response that have occurred in relation to historiographic, literary and filmic representation.

  9. Does intergenerational transmission of trauma skip a generation? No meta-analytic evidence for tertiary traumatization with third generation of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2008-06-01

    In a series of meta-analyses with the second generation of Holocaust survivors, no evidence for secondary traumatization was found (Van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Sagi-Schwartz, 2003). With regard to third generation traumatization, various reports suggest the presence of intergenerational transmission of trauma. Some scholars argue that intergenerational transmission of trauma might skip a generation. Therefore, we focus in this study on the transmission of trauma to the third generation offspring (the grandchildren) of the first generation's traumatic Holocaust experiences (referred to as "tertiary traumatization"), and we present a narrative review of the pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results of 13 non-clinical samples involving 1012 participants showed no evidence for tertiary traumatization in Holocaust survivor families. Our previous meta-analytic study on secondary traumatization and the present one on third generation's psychological consequences of the Holocaust indicate a remarkable resilience of profoundly traumatized survivors in their (grand-)parental roles.

  10. Urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels among workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Richardson, David B; Ding, Kai; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-08-01

    Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workday for up to three separate workdays that were spaced approximately 1 month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints and subsequent samples were collected during the workday. HDA levels varied throughout the day and ranged from nondetectable to 65.9 microg l(-1) with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.10 microg l(-1) +/- 6.68. Dermal exposure and inhalation exposure levels, adjusted for the type of respirator worn, were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels in the linear mixed models. Creatinine was a significant covariate when used as an independent variable along with dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure. Consequently, exposure assessment models must account for the water content of a urine sample. These findings indicate that HDA exhibits a biphasic elimination pattern, with a half-life of 2.9 h for the fast elimination phase. Our results also indicate that urine HDA level is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and the lungs. We conclude that urinary HDA may be used as a biomarker of exposure to HDI, but biological monitoring should be tailored to reliably capture the intermittent exposure pattern typical in this industry.

  11. Efficient 1.6 Micron Laser Source for Methane DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Timothy; Burnham, Ralph; Nehrir, Amin R.; Ismail, Syed; Hair, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and on a per molecule basis has a warming influence 72 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20 year horizon. Therefore, it is important to look at near term radiative effects due to methane to develop mitigation strategies to counteract global warming trends via ground and airborne based measurements systems. These systems require the development of a time-resolved DIAL capability using a narrow-line laser source allowing observation of atmospheric methane on local, regional and global scales. In this work, a demonstrated and efficient nonlinear conversion scheme meeting the performance requirements of a deployable methane DIAL system is presented. By combining a single frequency 1064 nm pump source and a seeded KTP OPO more than 5 mJ of 1.6 µm pulse energy is generated with conversion efficiencies in excess of 20%. Even without active cavity control instrument limited linewidths (50 pm) were achieved with an estimated spectral purity of 95%. Tunable operation over 400 pm (limited by the tuning range of the seed laser) was also demonstrated. This source demonstrated the critical needs for a methane DIAL system motivating additional development of the technology.

  12. Repatriation and restitution of Holocaust victims in post-war Denmark

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    Sofie Lene Bak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jewish Holocaust survivors faced severe economic and emotional difficulties on returning home to Denmark in 1945. Jewish families had used their savings, sold valuables and property and obtained improvised private loans in order to finance their escape to Sweden. Homes, businesses and property had been subject to theft and abuse. During and after the German occupation, however, Danish authorities worked to mitigate and ameliorate the consequences of Nazi persecution and the Danish government implemented one of the most inclusive and comprehensive restitution laws in Europe, taking into account Jewish victims of deportation as well as victims of exile. The restitution process underlines the dedication of the Danish authorities to the reintegration of the Jewish community and their interest in allaying potential ethnic conflict. Furthermore, the process is a remarkable – but overlooked – missing link between the social reforms of the 1930s and the modern Danish welfare state.

  13. March of the living, a holocaust educational tour: effect on adolescent Jewish identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Pham, Phung; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2013-12-01

    March of the Living (MOTL) is a worldwide two-week trip for high school seniors to learn about the Holocaust by traveling to sites of concentration/death camps and Jewish historical sites in Poland and Israel. The mission statement of MOTL International states that participants will be able to "bolster their Jewish identity by acquainting them with the rich Jewish heritage in pre-war Eastern Europe." However, this claim has never been studied quantitatively. Therefore, 152 adolescents who participated in MOTL voluntarily completed an initial background questionnaire, a Jewish Identity Survey and a Global Domains Survey pre-MOTL, end-Poland and end-Israel. Results suggest that Jewish identity did not substantially increase overall or from one time period to the next.

  14. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzer, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Following eleven years’ work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified. PMID:27011787

  15. “The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge”: the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors’ offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified “cause-effect” paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of “Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases” (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual’s susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce. The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the “second” and “third” generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed. Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense. PMID:24661388

  16. "The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge": the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-25

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified "cause-effect" paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of "Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual's susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce.The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the "second" and "third" generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed.Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense.

  17. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  18. A question of who, not if: Psychological disorders in Holocaust survivors' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Engdahl, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Because findings on the mental health status of Holocaust survivors' offspring have been inconsistent, we aimed to identify factors that place some offspring at greater risk for developing mood or anxiety disorders. Using a web-based survey and structured clinical interviews with adult children of survivors, we attempted to predict disorders from offspring's circumstances, perceptions of parents' posttrauma adaptational styles, and self-reported reparative adaptational impacts. Posttrauma adaptational styles encompass intrafamilial and interpersonal psychological, social and behavioral coping, mastery, and defense mechanisms used by each parent. Reparative adaptational impacts reflect the offspring's self-reported insecurity about their own competence, reparative protectiveness, need for control, obsession with the Holocaust, defensive psychosocial constriction, and immature dependency. Of the disorders studied, generalized anxiety disorder was most frequent, followed by major depressive episode and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Only 2 variables independently predicted these disorders: participants' age and reparative adaptational impacts. Parents' styles were correlated with the presence of disorder, but had no effect when the child's reparative impacts were controlled. The age effect was consistent with epidemiologic research showing lower prevalence of psychological disorder in older cohorts. The severity of participants' reparative impacts was unequivocally the most important (OR = 5.3) or at least the most proximal precursor to the development of psychological disorders. When reparative impacts were low, frequency of disorder was low (8%); when reparative impacts were high, frequency of disorder was high (46%). Reparative adaptational impacts could guide clinicians in treating children of survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. “To Forget Murder Victims is to Kill Them Twice”: The Prospect of Teaching "The Holocaust" in Jordan

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    Majid Salem Mgamis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of teaching the holocaust in Jordanian universities. In this regard, it highlights the socio-religious challenges that may impede such a project and suggests some methods to overcome them. It discusses the material to be taught and the background that should be furnished for students before presenting the topic. The paper draws on academic as well as political sources to enrich the project it proposes.

  20. Influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in Holocaust survivor offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring. Adult offspring with at least one Holocaust survivor parent (N=80) and demographically similar participants without parental Holocaust exposure or parental PTSD (N=15) completed clinical interviews, self-report measures, and biological procedures. Blood samples were collected for analysis of GR-1F promoter methylation and of cortisol levels in response to low-dose dexamethasone, and two-way analysis of covariance was performed using maternal and paternal PTSD as main effects. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to permit visualization of maternal compared with paternal PTSD effects on clinical variables and GR-1F promoter methylation. A significant interaction demonstrated that in the absence of maternal PTSD, offspring with paternal PTSD showed higher GR-1F promoter methylation, whereas offspring with both maternal and paternal PTSD showed lower methylation. Lower GR-1F promoter methylation was significantly associated with greater postdexamethasone cortisol suppression. The clustering analysis revealed that maternal and paternal PTSD effects were differentially associated with clinical indicators and GR-1F promoter methylation. This is the first study to demonstrate alterations of GR-1F promoter methylation in relation to parental PTSD and neuroendocrine outcomes. The moderation of paternal PTSD effects by maternal PTSD suggests different mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related vulnerabilities.

  1. Gathering the Voices: Disseminating the Message of the Holocaust for the Digital Generation by Applying an Interdisciplinary Approach

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    Angela Shapiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Gathering the Voices project is to gather testimonies from Holocaust survivors who have made their home in Scotland and to make these testimonies available on the World Wide Web. The project commenced in 2012, and a key outcome of the project is to educate current and future generations about the resilience of these survivors. Volunteers from the Jewish community are collaborating with staff and undergraduate students in Glasgow Caledonian University in developing innovative approaches to engage with school children. These multimedia approaches are essential, as future generations will be unable to interact in person with Holocaust survivors. By students being active participants in the project, they will learn more about the Holocaust and recognize the relevance of these testimonies in today’s society. Although some of the survivors have been interviewed about their journeys in fleeing from the Nazi atrocities, for all of the interviewees, this is the first time that they have been asked about their lives once they arrived in the United Kingdom. The interviews have also focused on citizenship and integration into society. The project is not yet completed, and an evaluation will be taking place to measure the effectiveness of the project in communicating its message to the public.

  2. Engaging with German history: Reactions of the third post-war generation to cinematic representations of the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kopf-Beck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the number of surviving contemporary witnesses of the Holocaust is rapidly declining, media reports are increasingly important for transmitting history to the “Third Generation.” The focus of this quasi-experimental study is on the recipient-side effects for school pupils of viewing TV documentaries that use different strategies to represent the Holocaust. For this purpose, 12 school classes (N = 184 were asked by questionnaire about their national identification and previous engagement with the Holocaust. Three weeks later, the study participants were shown one of six different film excerpts, whereby each film excerpt was viewed by respectively one group from Baden-Württemberg and one from Thüringen. The different reactions to the excerpts were sampled using standardized items and open-response essay questions. The results point to the conditions under which TV documentaries elicit contra-indexed effects and how enlightenment on past injustice can be achieved using cinematic material, without eliciting defensive reactions, and thereby make possible a constructive engagement with history.

  3. Reminiscence functions and the health of Israeli Holocaust survivors as compared to other older Israelis and older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Cappeliez, Philippe; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Existing research with English-speaking samples indicates that various ways in which older adults recall their past affect both their physical and mental health. Self-positive reminiscence functions (i.e. identity, problem-solving, death preparation) correlate and predict mental health in later life whereas self-negative functions (i.e. bitterness revival, boredom reduction, intimacy maintenance) correlate and predict the physical health of older adults. For this study, we recruited 295 Israeli Holocaust survivors to ascertain if early life trauma affects these associations between reminiscence and health. In order to distinguish cross-national differences from survivor-specific effects, we also recruited two comparative samples of other older Israelis (not Holocaust survivors; n = 205) and a second comparative sample of 335 older Canadians. Three separate structural equation models were computed to replicate this tripartite reminiscence and health model. Coefficients for self-negative functions significantly differed between survivors and both Canadians and other older Israelis, and between Canadians and both Israeli samples. However, no differences were found between prosocial and self-positive functions. Moreover, the higher order structure of reminiscence and health appears largely indistinguishable across these three groups. Early life trauma does not appear to fundamentally affect associations between reminiscence and health. These findings underscore the resilience of Holocaust survivors.

  4. "Why Do We Always Have to Say We're Sorry?": A Case Study on Navigating Moral Expectations in Classroom Communication on National Socialism and the Holocaust in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the pedagogization and internationalization of Holocaust memory discourse, this contribution focuses on the specific conditions of history classes on National Socialism and the Holocaust in Germany. Using a case study, this article shows both how the meanings of these subjects are communicatively negotiated in history…

  5. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

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    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  6. Postcatastrophic Relicts and Relics: the Fate of Images after the Holocaust (on the Basis of Works by Dina Gottliebová-Babbitt and Christian Boltanski

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    Anja Tippner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text concerns itself with the afterlife of visual representations of the victims of the Holocaust. With regard to Classe terminale du lycée chases en 1931: Castelgasse, Vienne by the French artist Christian Boltanski and drawings made by Dina Gottliebová-Babbitt in Auschwitz, questions of ownership and the appropriation are discussed. The article addresses the aporias of postcatastrophic attitudes towards the remnants of the Holocaust as well as the way in which they are treated and dealt with. The paper states, that the dynamics of dispossession, appropriation and re-appropriation that have been set into motion by the Holocaust, have not come to an end nor will they come to an end in the foreseeable future.

  7. “Out of Germany”: Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, Jakub’s World (2005, and the Commemoration of the Holocaust in the United States

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    Klara Stephanie Szlezák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses survivor stories as formulations of Holocaust memory in the U.S. More specifically, it focuses on the former concentration camp at Flossenbürg in southern Germany. Compared to places like Dachau and Buchenwald in Germany or Auschwitz and Treblinka in Poland, Flossenbürg is often absent from or—if present at all—marginalized in the public and scholarly discourse of Holocaust memory. The heavily autobiographical novel Jakub’s World (2005 tells the story of Jakub Szabmacher, a Jewish boy who is taken from his home in Poland by the Nazis and is eventually interned at Flossenbürg. He survives many months of deprivation and hardship in the concentration camp until U.S. forces liberate it in April 1945; orphaned and homeless, he eventually relocates to the U.S., yet returns to the site of his suffering many times. Reading the book against the backdrop of ongoing debates about Holocaust memory in the U.S., this essay explores structural and plot elements in the book that complicate both a Jewish identity derived from victimhood and the notion of liberation as the moment of ultimate redemption. Both Jakub’s World and the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp Memorial as sites of memory actively partake in the commemoration of the Holocaust, offering narratives that not only complicate the notion of World War II as the “Good War” but also reveal the transnational dimension of memories of the Holocaust. Neither the stories and memories of survivors of the Holocaust at Flossenbürg, nor the visitors to the present-day memorial site, nor the characters central to the memoir can be framed, addressed, or understood in the context of national boundaries.

  8. Study of the structural and thermal stability of Li0.3Co2/3Ni1/6Mn1/6O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Saadoune, Ismael; Difi, Siham; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amarilla, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and structural stabilities of the delithiated positive electrode material Li x Co 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and thermogravimetric analysis. In the opposite to the classical electrode materials LiNiO 2 and LiCoO 2 , the structural symmetry (S.G. R-3 m) of the starting material LiCo 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 is preserved during the electrochemical cycling with a small variation of the unit cell parameters. Squid measurements evidenced that practically no Ni 2+ ions were present in the lithium slab even after the lithium extraction process. For the thermal stability, the highly oxidized phase Li 0.3 Co 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 was tested. This delithiated phase undergoes only 5.16% weight loss after heating up to 600 °C. This weight loss has no effect on the structure symmetry as the starting α-NaFeO 2 type structure was preserved during the thermal treatment. The obtained results coupled to the excellent electrochemical features of LiCo 2/3 Ni 1/6 Mn 1/6 O 2 clearly showits ability to compete with the commercialized cathode materials

  9. Propaganda Versus Genocide: The United States War Refugee Board and the Hungarian Holocaust

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    Dorottya Halász

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1944 the Second World War had been raging for more than four long years, with the death toll among soldiers and civilians alike climbing. European Jews constituted a special group of the victims, a fact that leaders of the Allied powers failed to acknowledge. In January 1944 a major revision of previous government policy was brought about in the United States with the establishment of the War Refugee Board in Washington, promising an American commitment to the rescue of European war refugees, including Jews. In March of the same year the situation for Jewish inhabitants in Hungary turned dire as German forces occupied the country. For lack of any other instantly applicable way to influence Hungarian developments, leaders of the new American War Refugee Board decided to launch a propaganda campaign to fight the Nazis and their accomplices. This paper will examine the motivations of American policy makers in focusing on political propaganda measures during the first phase of the Hungarian Holocaust (March–July 1944, and it will describe the logic and workings of the campaign as a means to save Hungary’s Jewry in the last full year of the Second World War.

  10. The effects of the survival characteristics of parent Holocaust survivors on offsprings' anxiety and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Cohenca-Shiby, Diana; Sasson, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines symptoms of anxiety and depression of Holocaust survivors' (HS) offspring as a function of their parents' age, gender, and survival situation (whether the survivor parent was alone or with a relative during the war). The 180 adults (142 with two parent survivors; 38 with a single parent survivor) who participated in this study completed (a) a measure of state-trait anxiety, (b) a measure of depression symptoms, (c) a sociodemographic questionnaire was divided into three sections: information about the participant, about his mother and about his father. Participants whose mothers were aged 18 or younger during the war and survived alone report more symptoms of anxiety and depression than participants whose mothers were the same age yet survived in the company of relatives. Participants whose mothers were aged 19 or older and survived either alone or in the company of relatives, exhibited fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. The survival situation was the only predictor related to the fathers. There were no significant differences between participants with one or two HS parents. Although this study is based on a relatively small sample, it highlights the relationship between the parents' survival situation and symptoms of anxiety and depression among their offspring.

  11. March of the Living, a Holocaust Educational Tour: An Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Pham, Phung; Grajower, Sarah N; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2016-06-01

    March of the Living (MOTL) is a 2-week international educational tour for high school seniors to learn about the Holocaust by visiting concentration/deaths camps and other Jewish historical sites in Poland, culminating in a week-long excursion in Israel. Although the trip is primarily educational, there is recent research evidence to suggest that attendees may suffer from a variety of mental health sequelae. To determine symptoms of anxiety and depression, 196 Los Angeles delegation participants voluntarily completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, composed of a trait anxiety scale (i.e., STAI-T) and a state anxiety scale (i.e., STAI-S), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Pre-MOTL, students completed an initial background questionnaire along with the STAI-T, STAI-S, and the CES-D. At end-Poland and end-Israel, the STAI-S and CES-D were administered again. Results demonstrated that depression scores increased during end-Poland and returned to baseline; however, anxiety scores mildly increased end-Poland and rose slightly more and persisted through end-Israel.

  12. Working with women survivors of the Holocaust: affective experiences in transference and countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses some late effects of massive traumatization on two women survivors of the Holocaust. Both had appeared to recover from their affective experience of psychic death and hopelessness in Auschwitz and to have moved towards a resumption of further stages of the life cycle. The normal transitional crises of adolescence, when children emotionally separate from their parents, led to severe breakdown in both these patients. Analysis showed that denial, repression and splitting had enabled them to distance themselves from the overwhelming horror of their past, but it had also led to concrete thinking as opposed to metaphorical, and to non-differentiation of psychic and somatic pain. Their inability to dream and the absence of fantasy life in the material could neither facilitate the analytic task of working through these patients' unbearable experience, nor enable them at first to face and recover unbearable affects during the course of the analysis. Hence the analyst's acceptance of an unbearable countertransference and careful monitoring of the affects evoked proved to be an invaluable tool.

  13. Holocaust or Benevolent Paternalism? Intergenerational Comparisons on Collective Memories and Emotions about Belgium's Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Klein

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After publication of Adam Hochschild's King Leopold's Ghost in 1998, asserting that King Leopold II had been responsible for a "holocaust" in the Congo and the heated public debate this provoked, we set out to study Belgian people's reactions to these accusations. In two studies we compared collective memories of and emotions associated with Belgium's colonial action in the Congo in different generations. Results show higher levels of collective guilt and support for reparative actions among young adults than among older generations. This difference can be explained either by referring to the different ideological backgrounds in which different generations were socialized, as evidenced by stark differences in collective memories of colonialism, or by referring to the influence of national identification. Indeed, people could adapt their representations of colonialism in order to avoid experiencing a social identity threat. However, evidence for the identity-protecting functions of collective memories and collective emotions was only found in the older generations: young people held negative representations of colonialism independently of their level of national identification. We refer to the normative dimension of collective guilt to interpret these results.

  14. 20 CFR 1.6 - How were many of OWCP's current functions administered in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How were many of OWCP's current functions administered in the past? 1.6 Section 1.6 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.6 How were many of OWCP's...

  15. Which Jews dislike contemporary Germans: Range and determinants of German aversion in Czech and U.S. Holocaust survivors and young American Jews

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozin, P.; Cherfas, L.; Radil, Tomáš; Radilová, Jiřina; McCauley, C. R.; Cohen, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 1078-1919 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/10/2031 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ethnic aversions * forgiveness * Germans * Holocaust survivors * Jews * social perception * trauma Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  16. Working with Trauma Survivors: Lessons from Survivors of the Holocaust and Opportunities for Building Understanding about the Challenges to Gaining Global Peace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Mona S.

    Millions of people were exterminated by the Nazi government during World War II because of genetic makeup, cultural heritage, religion, or physical disability. Rationalized by the Nazi's leadership as a method to achieve a "pure" and "perfect" race, the uncovering of the Holocaust to those outside German-occupied areas came as…

  17. The Poetry of Holocaust Survivor Testimony: Towards a New Performative Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Rapport

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Performative Social Science provides the research scientist with a much needed platform to move beyond traditional approaches to data collection, analysis and the presentation of study findings towards a response to research questions that closely resonates with the raw materials at hand. For the Performative Social Scientist's voice to be heard, new ways must be found to consider how best to represent the social world, relaxing longstanding and rigid qualitative research frameworks in favour of more contemporary and flexible approaches to working that welcome inter-disciplinary practice. By re-defining the theoretical and paradigmatic boundaries of our studies we can then encourage others to consider a range of alternative positions from which to view the world. The paper embraces the potential such a platform offers by presenting one Holocaust survivor's lived experiences of these extraordinary events including internment in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Through a visual and textual journey that employs photographs and poetic representations derived from one "research conversation" with the survivor, a "photo-textual montage" aims to engender a more empathic response to survivor testimony. The paper also attempts a novel juxtaposition of images and words to present a richer understanding of the researcher's relationship with the survivor, the research process and research outputs. In effect, the paper maps aspects of the research process in "coming to know" the data in chronological, temporal and spatial frames whilst emphasising the importance of presentation style, format and layout. This paper makes visible what is often invisible in more traditional approaches—the researchers own personal journey and the insights that this affords. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802285

  18. Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M

    2015-04-01

    Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.

  19. Holocaust and strategic bombing: case studies in the psychology, organization, and technology of mass killing in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markusen, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    After preliminary discussion of the unprecedented scale of mass killing in the twentieth century, the threat of nuclear war, and the widespread neglect of these issues, the literature on two major types of government sanctioned mass killing is reviewed; genocide, in which a government slaughters its own citizens or subjects, and total war, in which two or more governments slaughter each other's civilian citizens or subjects. This literature review reaches two basic conclusions: (1) there is considerable inconsistency and ambiguity among definitions of genocide and total war; and (2) there is a controversy regarding how distinct or similar the two forms of mass killing actually are. A comparative historical analysis was undertaken in which the Nazi Holocaust was selected as an example of genocide, and the Allied strategic bombing campaigns during World War II were selected to exemplify total war. The two cases are compared in terms of a conceptual framework of five hypothesized facilitating factors. On the basis of this comparative analysis, four or the five hypothesized facilitating factors are found to have played important roles in both cases. The findings of the study are discussed, and their implications for the threat of nuclear holocaust are explored.

  20. Constructing interethnic conflict and cooperation: why some people harmed Jews and others helped them during the Holocaust in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Diana; Johnson, Carter

    2011-01-01

    The authors draw on a natural experiment to demonstrate that states can reconstruct conflictual interethnic relationships into cooperative relationships in relatively short periods of time. The article examines differences in how the gentile population in each of two neighboring territories in Romania treated its Jewish population during the Holocaust. These territories had been part of tsarist Russia and subject to state-sponsored anti-Semitism until 1917. During the interwar period one territory became part of Romania, which continued anti-Semitic policies, and the other became part of the Soviet Union, which pursued an inclusive nationality policy, fighting against inherited anti-Semitism and working to integrate its Jews. Both territories were then reunited under Romanian administration during World War II, when Romania began to destroy its Jewish population. The authors demonstrate that, despite a uniform Romanian state presence during the Holocaust that encouraged gentiles to victimize Jews, the civilian population in the area that had been part of the Soviet Union was less likely to harm and more likely to aid Jews as compared with the region that had been part of Romania. Their evidence suggests that the state construction of interethnic relationships can become internalized by civilians and outlive the life of the state itself.

  1. What can we learn from the dark chapters in our history? Education about the Holocaust in Poland in a comparative perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Ambrosewicz-Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates what research tells us about the dynamics of educational practice in both formal and informal education about the Holocaust. It poses questions such as whether it is possible to identify good practices on a political and/or educational level, whether there are links between education about the Holocaust and human rights education, and how education about the Holocaust relates to attitudes toward Jews. Examples of both international studies (such as those by the Fundamental Rights Agency of the EU and the American Jewish Committee and some national surveys on education about the Holocaust are discussed, followed by an analysis of empirical studies from Poland based on focus group interviews and individual interviews with educators. The choice of case study was based on the historical fact that occupied Poland was the site of the murder of almost 5 million Jews, including 3 million Polish Jews.In many cases a strong association with a Polish sense of victimhood based on the memory of the terror and the murder of almost 2 million ethnic Poles during WWII creates conflicting approaches and generates obstacles to providing education about Jewish victims. Nevertheless, following the fall of communism, the number of educational initiatives designed to teach and learn about the Shoah is steadily increasing. The article presents tips for successful programmes of education about the Holocaust which can be generalised for any type of quality education, but are primarily significant for education about tolerance and education aimed at reducing prejudice, counteracting negative stereotypes and preventing discrimination.

  2. Preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Marie-Hélène; Danel, Mathieu; Gayral, Maud; Bouchu, Alain; Queneau, Yves

    2007-11-05

    The preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose is reported. The synthesis is based on a triple oxidation of a protected sucrose 6,1',6'-triol to the corresponding 6,1',6'-tricarboxylic acid or ester, followed by reduction with lithium aluminium deuteride. This triple oxidation could be achieved either using cat. TEMPO-NaOCl (to the acid) or PDC-Ac(2)O-t-BuOH (to the t-butyl carboxylic ester).

  3. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Incorporation of ancillary terrestrial component base station into an L-band mobile-satellite service system... ancillary terrestrial component (ATC) base stations as defined in § 25.201 at its own risk and subject to... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.136 Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz...

  4. Localization of synthesis of β1,6-glucan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.C.; Vink, E.; Müller, W.H.; Verkleij, A.J.; Ende, H. van den; Henrissat, B.; Klis, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    β1,6-Glucan is a key component of the yeast cell wall, interconnecting cell wall proteins, β1,3-glucan, and chitin. It has been postulated that the synthesis of β1,6-glucan begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of protein-bound primer structures and that these primer structures are

  5. An in vitro assay for (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, E.; Rodriguez-Suarez, R.J.; Gerard-Vincent, M.; Ribas, J.C.; de Nobel, J.G.; van den Ende, H.; Duran, A.; Klis, F.M.; Bussey, H.

    2004-01-01

    (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucan is a key cell wall component of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Many genes are known to affect the levels or structure of this glucan, but their roles and a molecular description of the synthesis of (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucan remain to be established and a method

  6. Bürokraatia läheb maksma 1,6 mld / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Algselt 1,6 miljardi krooniseks plaanitud veeprojektid vajavad reaalseks ehituseks rahalisa teist sama palju veel. Vt. samas: Omavalitsused: tehke või tina, meil rohkem raha pole; Hinna ajasid üles riigihanke tingimused; Esialgu 1,6 mld krooniseks plaanitud veevärgiprojekt koosnes kolmest osast. Vastuseks vt. Mauno Inkineni art. 26. okt. Äripäev lk. 18

  7. Review: Dirk Michel (2009. Politisierung und Biographie. Politische Einstellungen deutscher Zionisten und Holocaustüberlebender [Political Socialization and Biography: German Zionists and Holocaust Survivors and Their Political Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bressan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do extraordinary experiences, especially during childhood and adolescence, affect political attitudes? Most studies focusing on political movements only implicitly address the connection between biographical experiences and political attitudes. Moreover, a detailed understanding of these impacts often remains merely hypothetical. Biographical studies increasingly address the relationship between politics and biography through empirical and hermeneutic approaches. For his doctoral thesis, Dirk MICHEL conducts autobiographical narrative interviews with 20 Jewish Israelis. Based on their extraordinary biographical experiences, MICHEL categorized the interviewees into two groups—the "German Zionists" and the "German Holocaust survivors." He then conducts semi-structured interviews with each of the participants with the aim of analyzing their political attitudes. However, the conceptual categorization of the interviewees, the empirical investigation of the research question and the subsequent analysis all challenge the underpinning theoretical and methodological concepts of the study. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203165

  8. Unexpected Behavior of Enaminones: Interesting New Routes to 1,6-Naphthyridines, 2-Oxopyrrolidines and Pyrano[4,3,2-de][1,6]naphthyridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Meier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of enaminones 1a–d with 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (2 in the presence of AcOH/NH4OAc afforded 7-amino-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro-1,6-naphthyridine-8-carbonitrile derivatives 9a–d. On the other hand, 2-aminopyrano[4,3,2-de] [1,6]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles 20a–c,e were the only obtained products from the reactions of 1a–d with 2 in the presence of AcOH/NaOAc, while 1d afforded [3,5-bis-(4-chloro-benzoyl-phenyl]-(4-chloro-phenyl-methanone 21 under the same condition. The reaction of 2 with diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in the presence of AcOH/NH4OAc afforded (4-cyano-5-dicyanomethylene-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester 15B.

  9. Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of PTSD Diagnosis, Symptom Severity, and Psychosocial Indices in Aging Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948

  10. A new radiochemical assay for fructose-1,6-diphosphatase in human leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase (D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.11, FDPase) is one of the key enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway. Measuring the activity both in the presence and in the absence of AMP yields the true FDPase activity, corrected for non-specific phosphatase activity. In this paper the authors introduce a new radiochemical assay for FDPase, based on the decarboxylating activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. One molecule [U- 14 C]fructose-1,6-diphosphate yields one molecule 14 CO 2 which can be captured in strongly basic solutions and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. (Auth.)

  11. High holidays 2000 and aftermath: doing psychotherapy with Holocaust survivors and the second generation in Israel during the sudden eruptions of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    The potential for countertransference complications in trauma work is generally known by now. "A priori" countertransference demonstrates that thoughts, emotions, and prejudices are evoked by preliminary information about a client even before the first meeting. Insufficient awareness is likely to put both therapists and clients at risk. The literature about therapy with Holocaust survivors amply illustrates this. Less is known about what happens to the therapeutic process at times of armed conflict. Must additional aspects of countertransference be taken into account? Can psychotherapy continue as normal? The outbreak of violence in Israel on Rosh Hashanah 2000, when peace seemed realistically near, provided an opportunity to explore the impact of therapists and clients sharing real-time, potentially (re)traumatizing conditions. This small qualitative study with therapists who work with clients traumatized by the Holocaust focuses on how they cope with the additional personal and professional challenges, and suggests answers to the above questions.

  12. VT Lidar nDSM (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related "normalized" Digital Surface Model (nDSM)....

  13. VT Lidar nDSM (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related "normalized" Digital Surface Model (nDSM). Created...

  14. Exposure to the Holocaust and World War II concentration camps during late adolescence and adulthood is not associated with increased risk for dementia at old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust and Nazi concentration camp survivors were subjects to prolonged and multi-dimensional trauma and stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between exposure to such trauma during late adolescence and adulthood with dementia at old age. In 1963, approximately 10,000 male civil servants aged 40-71 participated in the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease (IIHD) study. Of them, 691 reported having survived Nazi concentration camps [concentration Camp Survivors (CCS)]. Additional 2316 participants were holocaust survivors but not concentration camp survivors (HSNCC) and 1688 were born in European countries but not exposed to the Holocaust (NH). Dementia was assessed in 1999-2000, over three decades later, in 1889 survivors of the original IIHD cohort; 139 of whom were CCS, 435 were HSNCC, and 236 were NH. Dementia prevalence was 11.5% in CCS, 12.6% in HSNCC, and 15.7% in NH. The odds ratio of dementia prevalence, estimated by age adjusted logistic regression, for CCS as compared to HSNCC was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.53-1.77), approximate Z = -0.10; p = 0.92. Further adjustment for socioeconomic status, diabetes mellitus, and other co-morbidity at midlife (coronary heart disease, lung, and kidney disease), and height did not change the results substantially. Thus, in subjects who survived until old age, late adolescence and adulthood exposure to extreme stress, as reflected by experiencing holocaust and Nazi concentration camps, was not associated with increased prevalence of dementia. Individuals who survived concentration camps and then lived into old age may carry survival advantages that are associated with protection from dementia and mortality.

  15. Perceptions of aging among middle-aged offspring of traumatized parents: the effects of parental Holocaust-related communication and secondary traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Traumatized parents may transmit anxieties of physical deterioration and demise to their offspring. These anxieties can amplify negative perceptions of the aging process when the offspring enter old age. The current study examined how middle-aged offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) recount trauma-related communication by their parents, and how these reports are related to offspring's perceptions of their aging process. The study included 450 respondents at the age range of 50-67 (mean age = 57.5, SD = 4.6): 300 OHS and 150 comparisons. Participants reported parental communication of the Holocaust, completed measures of subjective successful aging, aging and death anxieties, and reported secondary traumatization assessing symptoms, developed as a result of a close and continuous relationship with a traumatized parent. Latent profile analysis identified two profiles of parental Holocaust-related communication: intrusive and informative. Offspring who reported intrusive parental communication about the Holocaust perceived themselves as aging less successfully and were more anxious of aging and death than comparisons. Offspring who reported informative parental communication and comparisons did not differ in perceptions of aging. Secondary traumatization mediated these group differences, meaning, intrusive parental communication was related to higher secondary traumatization, which in turn was related to less favorable perceptions of aging. These findings allude to the possibility that secondary traumatization mold negative perceptions of the aging process among middle-aged offspring of traumatized parents. Mental health practitioners may help OHS process fragmented and intrusive remnants of parental trauma, thereby diminishing secondary traumatization, and promoting more adaptive perceptions of aging.

  16. Potential of the McMath-Pierce 1.6-Meter Solar Telescope for Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Jones, Gregory; Wiley, Edward; Boyce, Patrick; Branston, Detrick; Rowe, David; Genet, Russell

    2015-09-01

    We explored the aiming and tracking accuracy of the McMath-Pierce 1.6 m solar telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory as part of an investigation of using this telescope for speckle interferometry of close visual double stars. Several slews of various lengths looked for hysteresis in the positioning system (we found none of significance) and concluded that the 1.6 m telescope would make a useful telescope for speckle interferometry.

  17. Memories of Holocaust-related traumatic experiences, sense of coherence, and survivors' subjective well-being in late life: some puzzling findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Aharoni-David, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nexus of relationships between memories of Holocaust-related early traumatic events, survivors' sense of coherence (SOC), and subjective well-being (SWB) in late life. The basic design of this study, based 106 survivors (54% female), was cross-sectional. Participants underwent an extensive in-depth clinical interview relating to their Holocaust experiences and responded to measures of SOC and SWB. These data provided no evidence for the moderating or "buffering" effect of SOC but showed support for indirect effects of SOC in the relationship between memory traces of specific traumatic experiences and adaptive outcomes. The results of the present study provide support for Antonovsky's salutogenic perspective. It is highly plausible that survivors who underwent severe experiences during the Holocaust period were forced to call upon all their inner strengths and coping resources,and that their success in doing so and also surviving this horrendous period, might have contributed to the development of a stronger sense of meaning and coherence, which, in turn lead to a better sense of mental health as they approach the final season of their lives.

  18. The new 1.6 l turbo spark-ignition engine by GM Powertrain Europe; Der neue 1,6-l-Turbo-Ottomotor von GM Powertrain Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frensch, M.; Heusler, H.; Mohr, J.; Loehnert, T.; Steffens, K. [GM Powertrain Germany GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    With this new turbo charged 1.6 l engine, GM Powertrain Europe presents another application from the mid-size gasoline engine family, internally called the Family 1 engine, which was first introduced in 2003. This third variant of the Family 1 Generation 3 architecture will be offered for the first time in the spring of 2006. It is combined with the M32 6-speed transmission in an Opel Meriva OPC as its top-of-the-line engine offering. Using an integrated exhaust manifold turbocharger, the engine reaches a maximum performance of 132 kW and a torque of 230 Nm. (orig.)

  19. Music and politics after the Holocaust: Menuhin’s Berlin concerts of 1947 and their aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frühauf, Tina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Between September 27 and October 3, 1947, Yehudi Menuhin gave six performances in Berlin, two of them together with Wilhelm Furtwängler, who had just been cleared by the denazification tribunals in Austria and Germany. Because of the German audience and the Furtwängler collaboration, these concerts led to a scandal in the Jewish community and the Displaced Persons camp in Germany as well as Jewish communities abroad. I turn first to the historical background of these performances, specifically the position of Menuhin and Furtwängler toward each other and their roles in postwar Germany. I will then chronicle the events of September and October 1947 through the lenses of Abraham S. Hyman, legal consultant to the American Advisers on Jewish Affairs in Germany, and Yehudi Menuhin and his biographers, to reveal the complexity of the events. Lastly, I will scrutinize the reception of the concerts to shed light on the reasons for and impact of the scandal. I argue that these concerts were mishandled in their organization and aims, in that politics played too large a role in the events during a time when the Jewish people suffered severe trauma in the aftermath of the Holocaust.

    Entre el 27 de septiembre y el 3 de octubre del 1947, Yehudi Menuhin ofreció seis conciertos en Berlín, dos de ellos con Wilhelm Furtwängler, quien acababa de ser declarado inocente por los tribunales de “desnazificación” en Austria y Alemania. Debido a que el público era alemán y a la participación de Furtwängler, estos conciertos provocaron un fuerte escándalo entre la comunidad judía y la población desplazada de los campos en Alemania, así como entre las comunidades judías en el extranjero. Mi investigación se centra, primero, en el contexto histórico de estos conciertos y, concretamente, la posición de Menuhin y Furtwängler hacia el uno al otro, así como sus respectivos papeles en la Alemania de la postguerra. Posteriormente ofrezco una relaci

  20. Preparation and characterization of 1,6 anhydrous Β-D-Glucopyranose from starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Lopez, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to prepare 2-deoxi-2-fluoride-D-glucosa (2FDG) in an inert form there are several synthesis methods, but the more interesting one for our study is based in a reaction from the 1,6 anhydrous, Β-D-glucopyranose (1,6AGP), in an attempt to compare the labelling efficiency rate of 2FDG with F-18, which is highly used in nuclear medicine. In the present paper the attainment of starch from white potatoe, infrared analysis of this starch and fusion point are included. Also results are compared with an analytical reactive standard. The process of preparation of 1,6AGP by pyrolysis of starch under reduced pressure, its separation and purification by crystallization and infrared characterization of 1,6AGP, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are also included. 10 kg. of potatoes were used, and 93059 g. ±5.8 of starch with an efficiency rate of 9.32 ±0.631; fusion point was 272 o C and there was a 9.83 ± 1.48 % of humidity. After the pyrolysis, crystallization an purification processes, 1.71 ±0.54 % of 1,6AGP were obtained. Later results of compound characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectrometry were compared with a commercial product and it was proved that it corresponds to such pure compound. (Author)

  1. Geophysical and Geotechnical Characterization of Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Biopolymer treated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G.

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria or microbes in soil excrete hydrocarbon (e.g. polysaccharide) by-products which are called biopolymers. These biopolymers (or sometime biofilms) recently begun to make a mark on soil erosion control, aggregate stabilization, and drilling enhancement. However, the biological effect on soil behavior (e.g. bio-clogging or bio-cementation) has been poorly understood. In this study, the bio-cementation and bio-clogging effect induced by the existence of β-1,3/1,6-glucan biopolymers in soil were evaluated through a series of geophysical and geotechnical characterization tests in laboratory. According to the experimental test results, as the β-1,3/1,6-glucan content in soil increases, the compressive strength and shear wave velocity increase (i.e., bio-cementation) while the hydraulic conductivity decreases (i.e., bio-clogging) but the electrical conductivity increases due to the high electrical conductivity characteristic of β-1,3/1,6-glucan fibers. Coefficient of consolidation variation with the increases of β-1,3/1,6-glucan content in soil. SEM image of β-1,3/1,6-glucan treated soil. Fibers are form matices with soil particles.

  2. “When Night Passes” and “When Day Breaks” – Between the Past and the Present. Borderlines of Holocaust in Filip David’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Giergiel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When Night Passes and When Day Breaks – Between the Past and the Present. Borderlines of Holocaust in Filip David’s Works The primary objective of the text is the analysis of Filip David's latest work. The Serbian writer is the author of the novel House of Memories and Oblivions (Kuća sećanja i zaborava, 2014, award for Best Novel of the Year by the NIN weekly (Nedeljne Informativne Novine. On the one hand, the output of this Serbian novelist is of interest to us as a continuation and representation of the contemporary discourse on the Holocaust in Serbia. On the other – we look at the literary realization of the Holocaust topic. The fortunes of the main characters in the novel (children who survived Holocaust serve as the cases on which we present where the author draws the borderline of the ever-present Holocaust in their lives; how much and in what way the past affects their present; where the borderline of memory, forgetting and oblivion is.   Kad padne noć i Kad svane dan - między przeszłością a teraźniejszością. Granice Holocaustu w twórczości Filipa Davida Podstawowym celem tekstu jest analiza najnowszej tworczości Filipa Davida, autora nagrodzonej Nagrodą Tygodnika NIN („Nedeljne Informativne Novine" powieści Dom pamięci i zapomnienia (2014, Kuća sećanja i zabovrava. Z jednej strony twórczość serbskiego prozaika interesować nas będzie jako kontynuacja i reprezentacja współczesnego dyskursu na temat Holokaustu w Serbii. Z drugiej zaś – przyjrzymy się jego literackiej realizacji. Na przykładzie losów głównych bohaterów powieści (dzieci, które przeżyły Zagładę pokażemy, gdzie przebiega rysowana przez autora granica istnienia Shoah w ich życiu. Na ile i w jaki sposób przeszłość wpływa na ich teraźniejszość, gdzie przebiega granica pamięci, niepamięci i zapomnienia oraz w jakim stopniu ich życie definiuje rozdzielenie rzeczywistości od fikcji.

  3. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2-37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r(2) = 0.3, p HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure.

  4. Factors affecting variability in the urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-01-01

    Although urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is a useful biomarker of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a large degree of unexplained intra- and inter-individual variability exists between estimated HDI exposure and urine HDA levels. We investigated the effect of individual and workplace factors on urine HDA levels using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters exposed to HDI. Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI-exposures were monitored over an entire workday for up to three separate workdays, spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Using mixed effects multiple linear regression modeling, coverall use resulted in significantly lower HDA levels (p = 0.12), and weekday contributed to significant variability in HDA levels (p = 0.056). We also investigated differences in urine HDA levels stratified by dichotomous and classification covariates using analysis of variance. Use of coveralls (p = 0.05), respirator type worn (p = 0.06), smoker status (p = 0.12), paint-booth type (p = 0.02), and more than one painter at the shop (p = 0.10) were all found to significantly affect urine HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. Coverall use remained significant (p = 0.10), even after adjusting for respirator type. These results indicate that the variation in urine HDA level is mainly due to workplace factors and that appropriate dermal and inhalation protection is required to prevent HDI exposure.

  5. A Library Matter of Genocide: The Library of Congress and the Historiography of the Native American Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Q. Dudley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Indigenous experiences of mass killings, atrocities, ethnic cleansing, and assimilation have been marginalized from genocide studies due to the ways in which knowledge is constructed in the field, specifically in terms of its focus on definitions and prototype-based conceptions. This article argues that these exclusions are not merely owed to discourses internal to genocide studies, but are affirmed by conventional library terminologies for the purposes of knowledge organization and information retrieval in the form of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH and classification, as applied to books regarding genocidal colonial encounters with Indigenous Peoples. These headings largely exhibit euphemistic tendencies and omissions that often fail to reflect the contents of the materials they seek to describe, not only impeding retrieval of books on this subject, but also their incorporation into current scholarship. To determine the extent to which the assignment of LCSH and call numbers corresponded reasonably to the stated intent of the authors, searches in OCLC’s global WorldCat catalogue were conducted for books related to the Library of Congress subject “Indians of North America” and some variation of the keywords genocide, holocaust, or extermination, yielding a list of 34 titles. The subject headings and classification designations assigned to these books were then analyzed, with particular attention paid to euphemisms for genocide, colonial narratives, the exercise of double standards when compared to non-Indigenous genocides, or outright erasure of genocide-related content. The article argues that Western epistemologies in both genocide studies and library science have marginalized Indigenous genocides, reproducing barriers to discovery and scholarship, and contributing to a social discourse of Native American Holocaust denial. Instead a pragmatic view in library science is proposed, in which claims of genocide on the

  6. Identification of α(1,6)fucosylated proteins differentially expressed in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Villar-Portela, Susana; Cuevas, Elisa; Gil-Martín, Emilio; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    A universal hallmark of cancer cells is the change in their glycosylation phenotype. One of the most frequent alterations in the normal glycosylation pattern observed during carcinogenesis is the enhancement of α(1,6)linked fucose residues of glycoproteins, due to the up-regulation of the α(1,6)fucosyltransferase activity. Our previous results demonstrated the specific alteration of this enzyme activity and expression in colorectal cancer, suggesting its implication in tumour development and progression. In the current work we combined a LCA-affinity chromatography with SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry in order to identify α(1,6)fucosylated proteins differentially expressed in colorectal cancer. This strategy allowed the identification of a group of α(1,6)fucosylated proteins candidates to be involved in CRC malignancy. The majority of the identified proteins take part in cell signaling and interaction processes as well as in modulation of the immunological response. Likewise, we confirmed the increased expression of GRP94 in colorectal cancer tissue and the significant down-regulation of the IgGFcBP expression in tumour cells. All these results validate the importance of core-fucosylated proteins profile analysis to understand the mechanisms which promote cancer onset and progression and to discover new tumour markers or therapeutic targets

  7. Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate Dependent Phosphotransferase System. Copurification of HPr and α1-6 Glucan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijewaard, G.; Roossien, F.F.; Robillard, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid, high-yield procedure has been developed for the purification of HPr from the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system. During this procedure, the protein copurifies with a 2500-dalton homopolysaccharide which we have identified as α1-6 glucan. The results of

  8. α2, 6 Sialylation associated with increased β1, 6-branched N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Invasive variants of B16 murine melanoma, B16F10 (parent) and B16BL6 (highly invasive variant) cell lines have been used for these studies. We demonstrate that substitution of 2,6-linked sialic acids on multiantennary structures formed as a result of 1,6-branching modulate cellular adhesion on both extracellular matrix ...

  9. Outer membrane-localised fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom. Accepted 6 June, 2012. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a classical cytoplasmic glycolytic enzyme which, despite lacking a predicted signal peptide, has been demonstrated to be expressed and transported to ...

  10. Wangai et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2011) 5(1): 1 - 6 SENSITIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Wangai et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2011) 5(1): 1 - 6. 1. SENSITIVITY OF MICROSCOPY COMPARED TO MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF P. FALCIPARUM: IMPLICATIONS ON MALARIA TREATMENT IN EPIDEMIC AREAS IN. KENYA. Laura Nyawira Wangai 1,2, Muriira Geoffrey Karau 3, Paul Nthakanio Njiruh 4, Omar Sabah 5 ...

  11. “Prisoners of Hope” or “Amnesia”? The Italian Holocaust Survivors and Their Aliyah to Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Marzano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 38.000 Italian Jews residents in Italy in 1938, more than 4,148 were deported. Of these, only 312 survivors returned. This paper deals with the Italian Holocaust survivors’ migration to Israel, and investigates the reason why only a very small percentage of those who returned from the Nazi camps migrated to Israel, compared to a much higher percentage of Italian Jews who were not deported and made aliyah. Were they “prisoners of hope”? Did they decide to reintegrate into the Italian political, social, and economic context hoping that their relationship with Italy could be the same as if nothing had happened? Or was it a question of “amnesia”? Was the lack of memory of the Fascist persecution a price they had to pay in order to succeed in their request of a full reintegration or was it due to the attitude of forgetting the past that Jews shared with the entire Italian society?

  12. Mark II containment 1/6-scale pressure suppression test program: data report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Okazaki, Motoaki; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-08-01

    This report documents experimental data from the first test phase of the Mark II Containment 1/6-Scale Pressure Suppression Test. The 1/6-Scale Test was initiated in December, 1976, to investigate the thermohydraulic responses of a BWR Mark II pressure suppression system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), by means of scale model experiments. From January to June, 1977, a series of tests were performed for the Japanese BWR Owners' Group. These tests consisted of eight air-blowdown pool swell tests, three steam-blowdown pool swell tests, and twelve steam condensation tests. The dynamic responses of pressure and pool water level during the blowdown, pressure oscillation and chugging phenomena associated with unsteady condensation of steam were measured. (author)

  13. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and QSAR studies of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Rami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A practical synthesis of pyrimidinone would be very helpful for chemists because pyrimidinone is found in many bioactive natural products and exhibits a wide range of biological properties. The biological significance of pyrimidine derivatives has led us to the synthesis of substituted pyrimidine. Materials and Methods: With the aim of developing potential antimicrobials, new series of 5-cyano-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine derivatives namely 2-(5-cyano-6-oxo-4-substituted (aryl-1,6-dihydropyrimidin-2-ylthio-N-substituted (phenyl acetamide (C1-C41 were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, mass analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR. All the compounds were screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MTCC, 227. Results and Discussion: Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies of a series of 1,6-dihydro-pyrimidine were carried out to study various structural requirements for fungal inhibition. Various lipophilic, electronic, geometric, and spatial descriptors were correlated with antifungal activity using genetic function approximation. Developed models were found predictive as indicated by their square of predictive regression values (r 2pred and their internal and external cross-validation. Study reveals that CHI_3_C, Molecular_SurfaceArea, and Jurs_DPSA_1 contributed significantly to the activity along with some electronic, geometric, and quantum mechanical descriptors. Conclusion: A careful analysis of the antifungal activity data of synthesized compounds revealed that electron withdrawing substitution on N-phenyl acetamide ring of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine moiety possess good activity.

  14. 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate: a rapid and potent sensitizer in the printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, V A; Fewings, J M

    2000-08-01

    Printers are exposed to a wide variety of irritants and sensitizers. Allergy developing from a single exposure to any compound is rare. We report two cases of workers in the printing industry who developed allergic contact dermatitis to 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) within a short period of exposure. The first developed within weeks of exposure to a plastic sheet primed with HDDA. The second developed after a single accidental exposure.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all published and unpublished toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergy, repeated dose, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al., 2013 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.1-6h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.1-6h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 1-6h embryos SRX033315,SRX0...26864 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.1-6h_embryos.bed ...

  17. Purification and enzymatic characterization of a novel β-1,6-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Moe; Ujiie, Seiryu; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    In this study, among the 10 genes that encode putative β-glucosidases in the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) with a signal peptide in the Aspergillus oryzae genome, we found a novel gene (AO090038000425) encoding β-1,6-glucosidase with a substrate specificity for gentiobiose. The transformant harboring AO090038000425, which we named bglH, was overexpressed under the control of the improved glaA gene promoter to form a small clear zone around the colony in a plate assay using 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-glucopyranoside as the fluorogenic substrate for β-glucosidase. We purified BglH to homogeneity and enzymatically characterize this enzyme. The thermal and pH stabilities of BglH were higher than those of other previously studied A. oryzae β-glucosidases, and BglH was stable over a wide temperature range (4°C-60°C). BglH was inhibited by Hg(2+), Zn(2+), glucono-δ-lactone, glucose, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethanol, but not by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Interestingly, BglH preferentially hydrolyzed gentiobiose rather than other oligosaccharides and aryl β-glucosides, thereby demonstrating that this enzyme is a β-1,6-glucosidase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and characterization of β-1,6-glucosidase from Aspergillus fungi or from other eukaryotes. This study suggests that it may be possible to find a more suitable β-glucosidase such as BglH for reducing the bitter taste of gentiobiose, and thus for controlling the sweetness of starch hydrolysates in the food industry via genome mining. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 1.6 billion euros for nuclear research through the 'Horizon 2020' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Council has approved the budget for the future European program for research and innovation called 'Horizon 2020'. A global funding of 77 billion euros has been allocated to 'Horizon 2020' for the 2014 to 2020 years. The share for nuclear sciences will reach 1.6 billion euros and will break down as follows: 316 million euros for fundamental research on fission, 728 million euros for fundamental research on fusion (ITER not included) and 560 million euros for the research projects of the European Joint Research Center (JRC). (A.C.)

  19. Synthesis, structure and photochromic properties of a novel 1,6-hexanediamine trimolybdate supramolecular compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Dehui; Zhang Hongjie; Zhang Jilin; Zheng Guoli; Yu Jiangbo; Gao Shuyan

    2007-01-01

    A novel supramolecular compound 1,6-hexanediamine trimolybdate ((C 6 H 18 N 2 )[Mo 3 O 10 ], denoted as HDAMo) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method and its structure has been characterized by elemental analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. This single crystal compound consists of protonated 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) cations and polyoxometalate [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- anions. Its crystal structure belongs to monoclinic system (space group P2 1 /n) with a=7.7508(14), b=11.467(2), c=16.167(3) A, β=92.689(3) o , V=1435.3(5) A 3 , Z=4 and D calc =2.619 g cm -3 . The final statistics based on F 2 are GOF=0.980, R 1 =0.0261 and wR 2 =0.0506 for I>2σ(I). XRD analysis revealed that in the crystal structure of HDAMo, novel infinite [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- chains parallel to a axis are made up of distorted MoO 6 octahedra connected by corners and edges. The protonated HDA cations occupy channels formed by [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- chains and exhibit strong hydrogen bond interactions to terminal and bridging oxo groups of the chains. The [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- chains linked through protonated HAD cations formed a one-dimensional network. The HDAMo compound shows novel photochromic properties, i.e., its color changes from white to reddish brown gradually under UV irradiation. XRD, FT-IR, ESR spectra and XPS are used to investigate the photochromic behavior of the compound. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of 1,6-hexanediamine trimolybdate (C 6 H 18 N 2 )[Mo 3 O 10 ] along c-axis. It consists of protonated 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and novel infinite chains [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- . Infinite chains [Mo 3 O 10 ] 2- are made up of distorted MoO 6 octahedron connected by edges and corners and are linked through protonated HDA cations into a one-dimensional network. What is more, the compound displays photochromic properties and may be applied to the field of photosensitive materials

  20. Posttest analysis of the 1:6 scale reinforced concrete containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of the response of the Sandia National Laboratories 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model test was made by Argonne National Laboratory. ANL along with nine other organizations performed a detailed nonlinear response analysis of the 1:6-scale model containment subjected to overpressurization in the fall of 1986. The two-dimensional code Temp-Stress and the three-dimensional Neptune code were utilized to predict the global response of the structure, to identify global failure sites and the corresponding failure pressures, and to identify some local failure sites and pressure levels. A series of axisymmetric models was studied with the two-dimensional computer program Temp-Stress. The comparison of these pretest computations with test data from the containment model has provided a test for the capability of the respective finite element codes to predict global failure modes, and hence serves as a validation of these codes. The two-dimensional analyses are discussed in this paper

  1. 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph A. Krzycki

    2005-09-15

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004 was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA from August 1-6, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 117 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  2. Nonenzymatic gluconeogenesis-like formation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Christoph B; Driscoll, Paul C; Piedrafita, Gabriel; De Volder, Michael F L; Ralser, Markus

    2017-07-11

    The evolutionary origins of metabolism, in particular the emergence of the sugar phosphates that constitute glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the RNA and DNA backbone, are largely unknown. In cells, a major source of glucose and the large sugar phosphates is gluconeogenesis. This ancient anabolic pathway (re-)builds carbon bonds as cleaved in glycolysis in an aldol condensation of the unstable catabolites glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, forming the much more stable fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. We here report the discovery of a nonenzymatic counterpart to this reaction. The in-ice nonenzymatic aldol addition leads to the continuous accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in a permanently frozen solution as followed over months. Moreover, the in-ice reaction is accelerated by simple amino acids, in particular glycine and lysine. Revealing that gluconeogenesis may be of nonenzymatic origin, our results shed light on how glucose anabolism could have emerged in early life forms. Furthermore, the amino acid acceleration of a key cellular anabolic reaction may indicate a link between prebiotic chemistry and the nature of the first metabolic enzymes.

  3. Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

    2011-01-01

    While other aldolases crystallize readily in the apo form, diffraction-quality crystals of B. henselae aldolase could only be obtained in the presence of the native substrate. The quaternary structure is tetrameric, as is typical of aldolases. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 72.39, b = 127.71, c = 157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site

  4. Interactions between hadrons and nuclei. The Lund Monte Carlo - FRITIOF VERSION 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson-Almqvist, B.; Stenlund, E.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo programme based upon a model, in which a hadron is treated as a vortex line in a superconducting vacuum. The vortex line consists of a hard core which is surrounded by an exponentially damped field. In a soft interaction a momentum transfer between two colliding hadrons is assumed to be due to the overlap of those fields. Having transferred momenta we end up with two longitudinally excited string states which finally fragment into hadrons. When the model is extended into hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions, the incoming hadrons may collide more than once and the excited states continue to collide during their passage through the nucleus. The model shows good agreement with data. FRITIOF 1.6 consists of a main programme where the variables are set and where the user handles the information. Information on the generated event and on the produced particles are stored in common blocks which make the information easy to handle. Furthermore FRITIOF 1.6 contains a set of subroutines for internal use, which administrates the event, gives masses to the excited nucleons etc. The hadronization and the particle decays are taken care of by routines in JETSET 6.2, which perform the hadronization according to the Lund Model for jet fragmentation. The programme is written in FORTRAN 77 and the only non-standard function needed to run the programme is a random number generator, which supplies uniformly distributed random numbers between 0 and 1

  5. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  6. Photochemistry of 1 and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, R.D.; Hornback, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to synthesize partially saturated phenanthrene derivatives by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between a photochemically produced o-xylylene (diene) and a tethered dienophile, it was found that 1 and 2 underwent a photochemically allowed [2 + 2] cycloaddition. Irradiation of 1 gave 6-(2-methylphenyl)bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane in 86% yield. Upon irradiation of 2, a benzvalene rearrangement of 2 first took place, producing the meta isomer 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene, followed by a [2 + 2] photocycloaddition giving 1-(3-methylphenyl)bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane in 15% yield. Direct irradiation of 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene gave the same bicyclo derivative as 2 in 34% yield. Examination of the fluorescence spectra of 1 and 2 in comparison with 1-(2-methylphenyl)propene and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1-butene, respectively, has shown that 1 may be biased toward [2 + 2] cycloaddition where 2 is not biased toward [2 + 2] photocycloization. Attempts to produce 4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of the o-xylylene produced by irradiation of 3 will also be described

  7. Spatial dialogues and Holocaust memory in contemporary Polish art: Yael Bartana, Rafał Betlejewski and Joanna Rajkowska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilleam Blacker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how the work of three contemporary artists deal with the memory of Poland’s pre-war Jewish population and the Holocaust. Joanna Rajkowska is one of Poland’s leading contemporary artists and her artworks have been displayed in prominent public sites in Warsaw. Her most famous work is her palm tree in central Warsaw, Greetings from Jerusalem Avenue (2002, ongoing, which references, in its form and physical location on Aleje Jerozolimskie, or Jerusalem Avenue, both Jerusalem and Warsaw’s vanished Jews. Rajkowska has also used important Jewish locations in Warsaw in other work, such as Oxygenator (2007. Yael Bartana is an Israeli artist, but represented Poland at the Venice Biennale in 2011. In her trilogy of films set in Poland, And Europe Will Be Stunned (2006-11, Bartana uses prominent locations in Warsaw in which to stage performances (the Palace of Culture, the National Stadium, site of the future Museum of Polish Jews that provocatively posit a return of Jews to Poland. Betlejewski has authored several provocative and creative responses to the absence of Jews in contemporary Poland, such as his I miss you, Jew! project (2004, and his Burning barn performance (2010. The paper will examine the varying strategies through which these artists deal with the problem of the absence of Jews, the trauma of their violent disappearance, and attempt to re-inscribe the vanished Jews back into the landscape of contemporary Poland. The paper argues that all three artists use actual and imagined space in order to create a complex, often ambiguous dialogue between diverse traumatic pasts and the problems of the present. This text is published as a counterpart to the contribution to Disturbing Pasts from the artist Rafał Betlejewski.

  8. Posthumous Testimony for Dr. Leo Gross and his Family / Restoration of the 'Lost' Biography of a Physician Victim of the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine; Von Villiez, Anna; Seidelman, William E

    At a time when the last direct witnesses of the Holocaust are passing, new approaches to the restoration of 'lost' biographies of victims need to be considered. This investigation describes the potential of an international collaboration including surviving family members. Archival documents discovered in Jerusalem in 1983 concerned a discussion on the cancellation of a medical licence for a German Jewish physician, Dr. Leo Gross of Kolberg, who had been disenfranchised from medical practice under Nazi law. After applying for a medical licence during a 1935 visit to Palestine, Gross remigrated to Germany, where he was imprisoned in a concentration camp. No further information was found until 2014, when a group of scholars linked a variety of archival and internet-accessible sources and located a nephew of Gross. The nephew's testimony, cross-referenced against data from other sources, enabled the reconstruction of the 'lost' biography of his uncle and family, in fact a posthumous testimony. The resulting narrative places Dr. Leo Gross within his professional and social network, and serves his commemoration within this context of family and community. The restored biography of Dr. Leo Gross presents an exemplary case study for the future of Holocaust testimony.

  9. PRRT2 controls neuronal excitability by negatively modulating Na+ channel 1.2/1.6 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Floriana; Valente, Pierluigi; Sterlini, Bruno; Romei, Alessandra; Baldassari, Simona; Fadda, Manuela; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giansante, Giorgia; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Rossi, Pia; Rubio, Alicia; Gambardella, Antonio; Nieus, Thierry; Broccoli, Vania; Fassio, Anna; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Zara, Federico; Benfenati, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    See Lerche (doi:10.1093/brain/awy073) for a scientific commentary on this article.Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c.649dupC mutation. Single-cell patch-clamp experiments on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from homozygous patients showed increased Na+ currents that were fully rescued by expression of wild-type PRRT2. Closely similar electrophysiological features were observed in primary neurons obtained from the recently characterized PRRT2 knockout mouse. This phenotype was associated with an increased length of the axon initial segment and with markedly augmented spontaneous and evoked firing and bursting activities evaluated, at the network level, by multi-electrode array electrophysiology. Using HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav channel subtypes, we demonstrated that the expression of PRRT2 decreases the membrane exposure and Na+ current of Nav1.2/Nav1.6, but not Nav1.1, channels. Moreover, PRRT2 directly interacted with Nav1.2/Nav1.6 channels and induced a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and a slow-down in the recovery from inactivation. In addition, by co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the PRRT2-Nav interaction also occurs in brain tissue. The study demonstrates that the lack of PRRT2 leads to a hyperactivity of voltage

  10. PRRT2 controls neuronal excitability by negatively modulating Na+ channel 1.2/1.6 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Floriana; Valente, Pierluigi; Sterlini, Bruno; Romei, Alessandra; Baldassari, Simona; Fadda, Manuela; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giansante, Giorgia; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Rossi, Pia; Rubio, Alicia; Gambardella, Antonio; Nieus, Thierry; Broccoli, Vania; Fassio, Anna; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Zara, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Lerche (doi:10.1093/brain/awy073) for a scientific commentary on this article. Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c.649dupC mutation. Single-cell patch-clamp experiments on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from homozygous patients showed increased Na+ currents that were fully rescued by expression of wild-type PRRT2. Closely similar electrophysiological features were observed in primary neurons obtained from the recently characterized PRRT2 knockout mouse. This phenotype was associated with an increased length of the axon initial segment and with markedly augmented spontaneous and evoked firing and bursting activities evaluated, at the network level, by multi-electrode array electrophysiology. Using HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav channel subtypes, we demonstrated that the expression of PRRT2 decreases the membrane exposure and Na+ current of Nav1.2/Nav1.6, but not Nav1.1, channels. Moreover, PRRT2 directly interacted with Nav1.2/Nav1.6 channels and induced a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and a slow-down in the recovery from inactivation. In addition, by co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the PRRT2-Nav interaction also occurs in brain tissue. The study demonstrates that the lack of PRRT2 leads to a hyperactivity of

  11. Magnetic refrigeration down to 1.6 K for the future circular collider e$^+$e$^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Tkaczuk, Jakub; Millet, Francois; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean Marc

    2017-01-01

    High-field superconducting rf cavities of the future circular collider e+e− may require a kW-range superfluid helium refrigeration down to 1.6 K. Magnetic refrigeration operating below 4.2 K can be an alternative to the compression/expansion helium refrigeration. A significant difference between this application and previous magnetic refrigerator studies is its large cooling power, up to 103 times larger than the other designs. Principles of magnetic refrigeration are described and various technical solutions are compared. A numerical model for the static magnetic refrigerator is presented, validated, and adapted to the needs of the positron-electron version of the future circular collider. A preliminary design of magnetic refrigerator suitable for low temperature, kW-range cooling is studied.

  12. STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUBSTRATE BINDING AND STEREOSELECTIVITY OF GIARDIA FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA)1 is a member of the Class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced by an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of the D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of the wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn2+. Upon FBP binding, the Zn2+ shifts up to 4.6 Å towards the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance to the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analog of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA/FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and co-planarity of the Zn2+ with the FBP’s O-C(3)-C(4)-O concomitant with coordination of Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn2+ to a site co-planar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibit strict substrate specificity towards FBP and

  13. Emittance studies of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, X.J.

    1997-01-01

    The symmetrized 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A novel emittance compensation solenoid magnet has also been designed, built and is in operation at the ATF. These two subsystems form an emittance compensated photoinjector used for beam dynamics, advanced acceleration and free electron laser experiments at the ATF. The highest acceleration field achieved on the copper cathode is 150 MV/m, and the guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The maximum rf pulse length is 3 micros. The transverse emittance of the photoelectron beam were measured for various injection parameters. The 1 nC emittance results are presented along with electron bunch length measurements that indicated that at above the 400 pC, space charge bunch lengthening is occurring. The thermal emittance, ε o , of the copper cathode has been measured

  14. Performance tests of a 1.6-MV Van de Graaff accelerator of tandem type, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Syukuro; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kitamura, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies on the performance of a 1.6-MV Van de Graaff accelerator of tandem type, Model 5SDH of NEC, are reported. Two kinds of performance test were conducted. First, it was successfully demonstrated that the beam currents observed at two positions, 1m and 7m apart from a switching magnet in the +15 0 beam line, exceed the values accepted for our test according to the specifications of NEC. Second, it turned out that the beam transmission could be kept maximum by selecting the optimum number of live sections in the lower energy accelerator tube depending on terminal voltage. Moreover, the plot of optimum insulating SF 6 gas pressure against terminal voltage prepared by us is found very useful for efficient operation of the 5SDH accelerator. (author)

  15. 1,3-Diphenyl-3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Seebacher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H18N2, is the first structural example containing the 3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine fragment. It was synthesized from 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one and was crystallized from a methanol–ethanol solution over two years as a racemate. The C=N double bond [1.2868 (15 Å] is bent significantly out of the plane of the aromatic bicyclic ring system [N—C—C—C = −157.63 (12°] and out of the plane of the phenyl ring bonded at the 1-position [N—C—C—C = 41.15 (16°].

  16. Electrochemical sensing of ammonium ion at the water/1,6-dichlorohexane interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José A; Silva, F; Pereira, Carlos M

    2012-01-15

    In this work, ion transfer and facilitated ion transfer of ammonium ion by a lipophilic cyclodextrin is investigated at the water/1,6-dichlorohexane micro-interface, using electrochemical approaches (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry). The association constant has been obtained for the complex between ammonium ion and the cyclodextrin. Experimental conditions for the analytical determination of ammonium ion were established and a detection limit of 0.12 μM was obtained. The amperometric sensor gave a current response proportional to the ammonium ion concentration in the range from 4.2 to 66 μM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Donor assists acceptor binding and catalysis of human α1,6-fucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötzler, Miriam P; Blank, Simon; Bantleon, Frank I; Wienke, Martin; Spillner, Edzard; Meyer, Bernd

    2013-08-16

    α1,6-Core-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) is a vital enzyme in mammalian physiological and pathophysiological processes such as tumorigenesis and progress of, among others, non-small cell lung cancer and colon carcinoma. It was also shown that therapeutic antibodies have a dramatically higher efficacy if the α1,6-fucosyl residue is absent. However, specific and potent inhibitors for FUT8 and related enzymes are lacking. Hence, it is crucial to elucidate the structural basis of acceptor binding and the catalytic mechanism. We present here the first structural model of FUT8 in complex with its acceptor and donor molecules. An unusually large acceptor, i.e., a hexasaccharide from the core of N-glycans, is required as minimal structure. Acceptor substrate binding of FUT8 is being dissected experimentally by STD NMR and SPR and theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations. The acceptor binding site forms an unusually large and shallow binding site. Binding of the acceptor to the enzyme is much faster and stronger if the donor is present. This is due to strong hydrogen bonding between O6 of the proximal N-acetylglucosamine and an oxygen atom of the β-phosphate of GDP-fucose. Therefore, we propose an ordered Bi Bi mechanism for FUT8 where the donor molecule binds first. No specific amino acid is present that could act as base during catalysis. Our results indicate a donor-assisted mechanism, where an oxygen of the β-phosphate deprotonates the acceptor. Knowledge of the mechanism of FUT8 is now being used for rational design of targeted inhibitors to address metastasis and prognosis of carcinomas.

  18. Structure of a rabbit muscle fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase A dimer variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherawat, Manashi [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118-2394 (United States); Tolan, Dean R., E-mail: tolan@bu.edu [Department of Biology, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Allen, Karen N., E-mail: tolan@bu.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118-2394 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structure of a dimer variant of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase demonstrates a stable oligomer that mirrors half of the native tetramer. The presence of product demonstrates that this is an active form. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) is an essential enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition to this primary function, aldolase is also known to bind to a variety of other proteins, a property that may allow it to perform ‘moonlighting’ roles in the cell. Although monomeric and dimeric aldolases possess full catalytic activity, the enzyme occurs as an unusually stable tetramer, suggesting a possible link between the oligomeric state and these noncatalytic cellular roles. Here, the first high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of rabbit muscle D128V aldolase, a dimeric form of aldolase mimicking the clinically important D128G mutation in humans associated with hemolytic anemia, is presented. The structure of the dimer was determined to 1.7 Å resolution with the product DHAP bound in the active site. The turnover of substrate to produce the product ligand demonstrates the retention of catalytic activity by the dimeric aldolase. The D128V mutation causes aldolase to lose intermolecular contacts with the neighboring subunit at one of the two interfaces of the tetramer. The tertiary structure of the dimer does not significantly differ from the structure of half of the tetramer. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms the occurrence of the enzyme as a dimer in solution. The highly stable structure of aldolase with an independent active site is consistent with a model in which aldolase has evolved as a multimeric scaffold to perform other noncatalytic functions.

  19. Genetic analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency in nine consanguineous Pakistani families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sadaqat; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Imran, Muhammad; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Bhinder, Munir Ahmad; Shakeel, Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Aslam, Asim; Shehzad, Wasim; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Rehman, Habib

    2017-10-26

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, ketosis and lactic acidosis. FBPase is encoded by FBP1 gene and catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate in the last step of gluconeogenesis. We report here FBP1 mutations in nine consanguineous Pakistani families affected with FBPase deficiency. Nine families having one or two individuals affected with FBPase deficiency were enrolled over a period of 3 years. All FBP1 exonic regions including splicing sites were PCR-amplified and sequenced bidirectionally. Familial cosegregation of mutations with disease was confirmed by direct sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis. Three different FBP1 mutations were identified. Each of two previously reported mutations (c.472C>T (p.Arg158Trp) and c.841G>A (p.Glu281Lys)) was carried by four different families. The ninth family carried a novel 4-bp deletion (c.609_612delAAAA), which is predicted to result in frameshift (p.Lys204Argfs*72) and loss of FBPase function. The novel variant was not detected in any of 120 chromosomes from normal ethnically matched individuals. FBPase deficiency is often fatal in the infancy and early childhood. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is therefore crucial to preventing early mortality. We recommend the use of c.472C>T and c.841G>A mutations as first choice genetic markers for molecular diagnosis of FBPase deficiency in Pakistan.

  20. The impact Atopic dermatitis on the life quality of childrens 1-6 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Shariati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most prevalent skin diseases in the world. Although, the disorder is not fatal, it can cause life quality reduction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of atopic dermatitis on life quality of 1-6-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The current study is a descriptive and analytical one designed to assess quality of life (QOL in 1-6-year-old children with atopic dermatitis in Kurdistan province (West of Iran. All the children who attended skin clinic of Besat Hospital, Sanandaj- Iran, during 2014 and 2016, participated in the study. Quality of life questionnaires were used to obtain data. Parents of the participating children were asked to complete the questionnaire. Index of Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD was used to determine the severity of the disease. The study data were analysis using Stata-12 software. Results: During the study, 53 children with atopic dermatitis were identified and 66.04% were male. According to the classification of SCORAD index, 54.36% of the children (19 subjects were included in the moderate group (SCORAD 14-40 and 63.46% (33 persons in the severe group (SCORAD> 40. Mean of life quality score was 9.24 ± 10.48 (range 0-30 and there was no statistically significant difference between the genders (P >0.05. Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between the quality of life and pain severity in AD children; and children with atopic dermatitis had low quality of life and itching, wound, discomfort and sleep disorder, were the factors that mainly impact on their life quality.

  1. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, Frank A; Staton, Margaret E; Blackmon, Barbara P; Ficklin, Stephen P; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Shapiro, Howard; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2011-08-16

    The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree) are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS) II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105) span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map assembly. A comparison between the two T. cacao

  2. Molecular and biochemical characterizations of three fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Bian, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xueqing; Xie, Zhizhi; Sun, Hengchang; Jia, Feifei; Liang, Pei; Zhou, Chenhui; He, Lei; Mao, Qiang; Huang, Bo; Liang, Chi; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbA) is a ubiquitous enzyme in glycolysis. In the present study, we screened out three distinct genes encoding FbA isozymes (CsFbAs, CsFbA-1/2/3) from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) and characterized their sequences and structures profiles as well as biochemical properties. The amino acid sequences of CsFbAs shared homology with those of Class I FbAs from other species. The putative quaternary structures revealed that CsFbA-2 and CsFbA-3 were tetramers, while CsFbA-1 was dimer. Recombinant CsFbA-2 and CsFbA-3 (rCsFbA-2/3) were confirmed to be Class I FbAs for their stable enzymatic activities in the presence of EDTA or metal ions. However, recombinant CsFbA-1 (rCsFbA-1) did not show the catalytic activity, which might be due to the inappropriate fold and interaction between its subunits. Both rCsFbA-2 and rCsFbA-3 showed similar enzymatic properties such as optimal temperatures and broad pH ranges that similar to human FbA isozymes. They showed relatively higher affinities for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) than fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P). Their kcat ratios of FBP to F-1-P were in accordance with those of human FbA-A or C. In addition, CsFbAs were differentially transcribed in the developmental stages of C. sinensis, suggesting their essential roles throughout the life stages. Extensive distribution of CsFbAs in adult worms indicated that ubiquitous activities of CsFbAs took place in these organs. Collectively, these results suggested that long-term parasitic environment might adapt these isozymes similar to host FbAs for metabolic requirement. Our study will provide new insight into CsFbAs in the glycometabolism of C. sinensis and relationship between the host and the parasite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  4. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn David N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Results Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105 span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map

  5. 17 CFR 240.11a1-6 - Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions for certain accounts of OTC derivatives dealers. 240.11a1-6 Section 240.11a1-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... effected by a member of a national securities exchange for the account of an OTC derivatives dealer that is...

  6. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Woelfl, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism

  7. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovic, Ana [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Woelfl, Stefan [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfl@uni-hd.de

    2006-02-22

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism.0.

  8. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Markwardt, Michele L. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Rizzo, Mark A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1559 (United States); Wachter, Rebekka M., E-mail: rwachter@asu.edu [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed.

  9. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a FRET-optimized Cerulean fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hanseong; Markwardt, Michele L.; Chen, Liqing; Fromme, Raimund; Rizzo, Mark A.; Wachter, Rebekka M.

    2013-01-01

    The high resolution X-ray structure of the cyan fluorescent protein mCerulean3 demonstrates that different combinations of correlated residue substitutions can provide near optimum quantum yield values for fluorescence. Genetically encoded cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) bearing a tryptophan-derived chromophore are commonly used as energy-donor probes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments useful in live cell-imaging applications. In recent years, significant effort has been expended on eliminating the structural and excited-state heterogeneity of these proteins, which has been linked to undesirable photophysical properties. Recently, mCerulean3, a descendant of enhanced CFP, was introduced as an optimized FRET donor protein with a superior quantum yield of 0.87. Here, the 1.6 Å resolution X-ray structure of mCerulean3 is reported. The chromophore is shown to adopt a planar trans configuration at low pH values, indicating that the acid-induced isomerization of Cerulean has been eliminated. β-Strand 7 appears to be well ordered in a single conformation, indicating a loss of conformational heterogeneity in the vicinity of the chromophore. Although the side chains of Ile146 and Leu167 appear to exist in two rotamer states, they are found to be well packed against the indole group of the chromophore. The Ser65 reversion mutation allows improved side-chain packing of Leu220. A structural comparison with mTurquoise2 is presented and additional engineering strategies are discussed

  10. Tunable Quantum Spin Liquidity in the 1 /6 th-Filled Breathing Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, A.; Sinclair, R.; Verrier, A.; Ziat, D.; Zhou, H. D.; Sun, X. F.; Quilliam, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements on a series of materials, Li2 In1 -xScx Mo3 O8 , that can be described as a 1 /6 th-filled breathing kagome lattice. Substituting Sc for In generates chemical pressure which alters the breathing parameter nonmonotonically. Muon spin rotation experiments show that this chemical pressure tunes the system from antiferromagnetic long range order to a quantum spin liquid phase. A strong correlation with the breathing parameter implies that it is the dominant parameter controlling the level of magnetic frustration, with increased kagome symmetry generating the quantum spin liquid phase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that this is related to distinct types of charge order induced by changes in lattice symmetry, in line with the theory of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245134 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245134]. The specific heat for samples at intermediate Sc concentration, which have the minimum breathing parameter, show consistency with the predicted U (1 ) quantum spin liquid.

  11. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin at 1.6 Å resolution: a preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, Victoria von der; Delbrück, Heinrich; Herrler, Andreas; Beier, Henning M.; Fischer, Rainer; Hoffmann, Kurt M. V.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization of recombinant bovine uteroglobin. Uteroglobin (UG) is a conserved protein which is induced by progesterone and secreted by the epithelia of various mammalian reproductive and respiratory organs. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin (recbUG), consisting of 80 amino acids with a C-terminal His 6 tag, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The protein was crystallized in two geometric forms, rhomboid and cuneate (wedge-shaped), by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. The rhomboid crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.6 Å using synchrotron radiation. These crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.42, b = 82.82, c = 45.26 Å, and contain four monomers per asymmetric unit. The cuneate crystals diffracted to 2.35 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator. These crystals belong to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 43.39, b = 93.94, c = 77.30 Å, and contain two molecules per asymmetric unit

  12. Antitumour and immunological activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, K; Kraus, J; Rosskopf, F; Röper, H; Franz, G

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo antitumour activity of a beta 1----3/1----6 glucan from the fungus Glomerella cingulata was investigated in vivo. The glucan exhibited a strong inhibition of tumour growth of the allogeneic Sarcoma-180 as well as the syngeneic DBA/2-MC.SC-1 fibrosarcoma with inhibition ratios up to 100%. Against the hormone sensitive Noble-Nb-R prostate carcinoma the glucan alone showed a moderate antitumour effect, whereas in combination with diethylstilbestrol an almost complete regression of the tumour could be achieved. It could be demonstrated that a highly ordered structure of the glucan is not essential for the antitumour activity. Since the glucan expressed no direct cytotoxic effects, the immunomodulating activity was investigated in vitro in order to get an indication for a possible mode of action. In the lymphocyte transformation assay the glucan at a dose of 100 micrograms/ml caused a fourfold increase in the proliferation of murine spleen lymphocytes. Moreover, the glucan stimulated the phagocytosis of zymosan by bone marrow macrophages up to 100%. However, the glucan was not able to render macrophages cytotoxic against P-815 mastocytoma cells.

  13. Structure and Function of p97 and Pex1/6 Type II AAA+ Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Enenkel, Cordula; Wendler, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Protein complexes of the Type II AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family are typically hexamers of 80-150 kDa protomers that harbor two AAA+ ATPase domains. They form double ring assemblies flanked by associated domains, which can be N-terminal, intercalated or C-terminal to the ATPase domains. Most prominent members of this family include NSF (N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor), p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), the Pex1/Pex6 complex and Hsp104 in eukaryotes and ClpB in bacteria. Tremendous efforts have been undertaken to understand the conformational dynamics of protein remodeling type II AAA+ complexes. A uniform mode of action has not been derived from these works. This review focuses on p97/VCP and the Pex1/6 complex, which both structurally remodel ubiquitinated substrate proteins. P97/VCP plays a role in many processes, including ER- associated protein degradation, and the Pex1/Pex6 complex dislocates and recycles the transport receptor Pex5 from the peroxisomal membrane during peroxisomal protein import. We give an introduction into existing knowledge about the biochemical and cellular activities of the complexes before discussing structural information. We particularly emphasize recent electron microscopy structures of the two AAA+ complexes and summarize their structural differences.

  14. A Photometrically Detected Forming Cluster of Galaxies at Redshift 1.6 in the GOODS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, M.; Salimbeni, S.; Trevese, D.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Santini, P.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2007-12-01

    We report the discovery of a localized overdensity at z~1.6 in the GOODS-South field, presumably a poor cluster in the process of formation. The three-dimensional galaxy density has been estimated on the basis of well-calibrated photometric redshifts from the multiband photometric GOODS-MUSIC catalog using the (2+1)-dimensional technique. The density peak is embedded in the larger scale overdensity of galaxies known to exist at z=1.61 in the area. The properties of the member galaxies are compared to those of the surrounding field, and we find that the two populations are significantly different, supporting the reality of the structure. The reddest galaxies, once evolved according to their best-fit models, have colors consistent with the red sequence of lower redshift clusters. The estimated M200 total mass of the cluster is in the range 1.3×1014-5.7×1014 Msolar, depending on the assumed bias factor b. An upper limit for the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity, based on the 1 Ms Chandra observations, is LX=0.5×1043 erg s-1, suggesting that the cluster has not yet reached the virial equilibrium.

  15. NFAP calculation of the response of a 1/6 scale reinforced concrete containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Pepper, S.; Reich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The details associated with the NFAP calculation of the pressure response of the 1/6th scale model containment structure are discussed in this paper. Comparisons are presented of some of the primary items of interest with those determined from the experiment. It was found from this comparison that the hoop response of the containment wall was adequately predicted by the NFAP finite element calculation, including the response in the high pressure, high strain range at which cracking of the concrete and yielding of the hoop reinforcement occurred. In the vertical or meridional direction, it was found that the model was significantly softer than predicted by the finite element calculation; that is, the vertical strains in the test were three to four times larger than computed in the NFAP calculation. These differences were noted even at low strain levels at which the concrete would not be expected to be cracked under tensile loadings. Simplified calculations for the containment indicate that the vertical stiffness of the wall is similar to that which would be determined by assuming the concrete fully cracked. Thus, the experiment indicates an anomalous behavior in the vertical direction

  16. NFAP calculation of pressure response of 1/6th scale model containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Pepper, S.; Reich, M.

    1988-01-01

    The details associated with the NFAP calculation of the pressure response of the 1/6th scale model containment structure are discussed in this paper. Comparisons are presented of some of the primary items of interest with those determined from the experiment. It was found from this comparison that the hoop response of the containment wall was adequately predicted by the NFAP finite element calculation, including the response in the high pressure, high strain range at which cracking of the concrete and yielding of the hoop reinforcement occurred. In the vertical or meridional direction, it was found that the model was significantly softer than predicted by the finite element calculation; that is, the vertical strains in the test were three to four times larger than computed in the NFAP calculation. These differences were noted even at low strain levels at which the concrete would not be expected to be cracked under tensile loadings. Simplified calculations for the containment indicate that the vertical stiffness of the wall is similar to that which would be determined by assuming the concrete fully cracked. Thus, the experiment indicates an anomalous behavior in the vertical direction

  17. Parental Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Are Related to Successful Aging in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Ayalon, Liat; Bensimon, Moshe; Bodner, Ehud; Rosenbloom, Tova; Yadid, Gal

    2017-01-01

    A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31) completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms) and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging). Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86) and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48). Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1) and by parents themselves (Study 2) take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of secondary

  18. Parental Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Are Related to Successful Aging in Offspring of Holocaust Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shrira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS, who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and offspring’s secondary traumatization symptoms. In Study 1, 101 adult offspring (mean age = 62.31 completed measures of parental PTSD, secondary traumatization, as well as successful aging indices – objective (medical conditions, disability and somatic symptoms and subjective (perceptions of one’s aging. Relative to comparisons and OHS who reported that none of their parents suffered from probable PTSD, OHS who reported that their parents suffered from probable PTSD had lower scores in objective and subjective measures of successful aging. Mediation analyses showed that higher level of secondary traumatization mediated the relationship between parental PTSD and less successful aging in the offspring. Study 2 included 154 dyads of parents (mean age = 81.86 and their adult offspring (mean age = 54.48. Parents reported PTSD symptoms and offspring reported secondary traumatization and completed measures of objective successful aging. Relative to comparisons, OHS whose parent had probable PTSD have aged less successfully. Once again, offspring secondary traumatization mediated the effect. The findings suggest that parental post-traumatic reactions assessed both by offspring (Study 1 and by parents themselves (Study 2 take part in shaping the aging of the subsequent generation via reactions of

  19. Quantifying cortical development in typically developing toddlers and young children, 1-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Justin; Croteau-Chonka, Elise; Dean, Douglas C; D'Arpino, Sara; Dirks, Holly; Whiley, Dannielle; Deoni, Sean C L

    2017-06-01

    Cortical maturation, including age-related changes in thickness, volume, surface area, and folding (gyrification), play a central role in developing brain function and plasticity. Further, abnormal cortical maturation is a suspected substrate in various behavioral, intellectual, and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to characterize the altered development associated with these disorders, appreciation of the normative patterns of cortical development in neurotypical children between 1 and 6 years of age, a period of peak brain development during which many behavioral and developmental disorders emerge, is necessary. To this end, we examined measures of cortical thickness, surface area, mean curvature, and gray matter volume across 34 bilateral regions in a cohort of 140 healthy children devoid of major risk factors for abnormal development. From these data, we observed linear, logarithmic, and quadratic patterns of change with age depending on brain region. Cortical thinning, ranging from 10% to 20%, was observed throughout most of the brain, with the exception of posterior brain structures, which showed initial cortical thinning from 1 to 5 years, followed by thickening. Cortical surface area expansion ranged from 20% to 108%, and cortical curvature varied by 1-20% across the investigated age range. Right-left hemisphere asymmetry was observed across development for each of the 4 cortical measures. Our results present new insight into the normative patterns of cortical development across an important but under studied developmental window, and provide a valuable reference to which trajectories observed in neurodevelopmental disorders may be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Chloroplastic Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolases as Lysine-methylated Proteins in Plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininno, Morgane; Brugière, Sabine; Pautre, Virginie; Gilgen, Annabelle; Ma, Sheng; Ferro, Myriam; Tardif, Marianne; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum), the protein-lysine methyltransferase (PsLSMT) catalyzes the trimethylation of Lys-14 in the large subunit (LS) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the enzyme catalyzing the CO2 fixation step during photosynthesis. Homologs of PsLSMT, herein referred to as LSMT-like enzymes, are found in all plant genomes, but methylation of LS Rubisco is not universal in the plant kingdom, suggesting a species-specific protein substrate specificity of the methyltransferase. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of the LSMT-like enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLSMT-L), with a focus on its substrate specificity. We show that, in Arabidopsis, LS Rubisco is not naturally methylated and that the physiological substrates of AtLSMT-L are chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase isoforms. These enzymes, which are involved in the assimilation of CO2 through the Calvin cycle and in chloroplastic glycolysis, are trimethylated at a conserved lysyl residue located close to the C terminus. Both AtLSMT-L and PsLSMT are able to methylate aldolases with similar kinetic parameters and product specificity. Thus, the divergent substrate specificity of LSMT-like enzymes from pea and Arabidopsis concerns only Rubisco. AtLSMT-L is able to interact with unmethylated Rubisco, but the complex is catalytically unproductive. Trimethylation does not modify the kinetic properties and tetrameric organization of aldolases in vitro. The identification of aldolases as methyl proteins in Arabidopsis and other species like pea suggests a role of protein lysine methylation in carbon metabolism in chloroplasts. PMID:22547063

  1. Paleohydrology Reconstruction of the Tropical South America for the Past 1.6 Million Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Rigsby, C. A.; Chiessi, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The western Atlantic equatorial margin has been recognized as an important part of global climate change. It is responsible for the transfer of moisture to South America and, heat and fresh water to the northern hemisphere. It might hold answers to past and present global climate. We reconstructed the last 1.6 million years of the paleoclimatic record of the Tropical South American to assess a long period of oceanic and atmospheric variability, which still remains unknown to science. Paleoclimate reconstructions of the Tropical South American are determined on a sediment core located on the Brazilian continental slope. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the paleohydrologic evolution. Here we present elemental ratios of Ti/Ca and Fe/K, to determine variability in Tropical South America. Differences in sediment input observed on Fe/K and Ti/Ca ratios suggest periods of increased chemical weathering and precipitation. Comparison of our data with the Cariaco basin Molybdenum (Mo) records, suggests that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is triggering wet periods on Tropical South America, distinguishing a clear North-South anti-phase over the last 600 ka. Southward displacement of the ITCZ in the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, indicates changes in the variability mode of the ITCZ N-S excursion, modulating the precipitation over Tropical South America. We also show that extensive northward migration of Antarctic Polar Front induces a drastic change in the Tropical South America hydrological system, triggering long periods of drought, potentially driven by cooler sea surface temperature of the South Atlantic. This study is funded by Capes- IODP 38/2014 and the Duke University.

  2. Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate: A Summary of Its Cytoprotective Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Norma; Alva, Ronald; Carbonell, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In clinical and experimental settings, a great deal of effort is being made to protect cells and tissues against harmful conditions and to facilitate metabolic recovery following these insults. Much of the recent attention has focused on the protective role of a natural form of sugar, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16bP). F16bP is a high-energy glycolytic intermediate that has been shown to exert a protective action in different cell types and tissues (including the brain, kidney, intestine, liver and heart) against various harmful conditions. For example, there is much evidence that it prevents neuronal damage due to hypoxia and ischemia. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effects of F16bP have been documented in lesions caused by chemicals or cold storage, in a decrease in mortality during sepsis shock and even in the prevention of bone loss in experimental osteoporosis. Intriguingly, protection in such a variety of targets and animal models suggests that the mechanisms induced by F16bP are complex and involve different pathways. In this review we will discuss the most recent theories concerning the molecular model of action of F16bP inside cells. These include its incorporation as an energy substrate, the mechanism for the improvement of ATP availability, and for preservation of organelle membrane stability and functionality. In addition we will present new evidences regarding the capacity of F16bP to decrease oxidative stress by limiting free radical production and improving antioxidant systems, including the role of nitric oxide in the protective mechanism induced by F16bP. Finally we will review the proposed mechanisms for explaining its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties.

  3. Experimental results from pressure testing a 1:6-scale nuclear power plant containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horschel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the testing of a 1:6-scale, reinforced-concrete containment building at Sandia National Laboratories, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scale-model, Light Water Reactor (LWR) containment building was designed and built to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., and was instrumented with over 1200 transducers to prepare for the test. The containment model was tested to failure to determine its response to static internal overpressurization. As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program on containment integrity, the test results will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods to predict the performance of containments under severe-accident loads. The scaled dimensions of the cylindrical wall and hemispherical dome were typical of a full-size containment. Other typical features included in the heavily reinforced model were equipment hatches, personnel air locks, several small piping penetrations, and a ihin steel liner that was attached to the concrete by headed studs. In addition to the transducers attached to the model, an acoustic detection system and several video and still cameras were used during testing to gather data and to aid in the conduct of the test. The model and its instrumentation are briefly discussed, and is followed by the testing procedures and measured response of the containment model. A summary discussion is included to aid in understanding the significance of the test as it applies to real world reinforced concrete containment structures. The data gathered during SIT and overpressure testing are included as an appendix

  4. Direct Reduction of 1,2- and 1,6-Dibromohexane at Silver Cathodes in Dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Erin T.; Strawsine, Lauren M.; Mubarak, Mohammad S.; Peters, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of 1,2-dibromohexane (1) and 1,6-dibromohexane (2) at silver cathodes in dimethylformamide (DMF) containing tetramethylammonium perchlorate (TMAP) has been investigated with the aid of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential electrolysis. Cyclic voltammograms for reduction of 1 and 2 both exhibit a single irreversible cathodic peak associated with reduction of carbon–bromine bonds; however, the cathodic peak potential (−0.33 V) for 1 is significantly less negative than that (−1.00 V) for 2, and the peak current for 1 is approximately half of that for 2. Cyclic voltammograms for 0.5–20.0 mM solutions of 1 and 2, separately, show that the parameter I pc /C* increases as the concentration (C*) decreases; this trend is likely due to a combination of adsorption phenomena and a potential-dependent transfer coefficient (α). Coulometric n values and product distributions arising from bulk electrolyses of 5.0 mM solutions of 1 and 2 depend on the positions of the bromine atoms: (a) for 1, n was 2.13 and 1-hexene was the only product; (b) for 2, n was 2.12 and a mixture of products was obtained [1-hexene (21%), n-hexane (37%), 1,5-hexadiene (22%), 5-hexen-1-ol (9%), and a trace of n-dodecane]. When 2 was electrolyzed in the presence of a proton or deuteron donor (2,2,2-trifluoroethanol or D 2 O), the n value and the amount of n-hexane increased, whereas 1-hexene and 1,5-hexadiene decreased in yield. We conclude that reduction of 1 follows a concerted mechanism, but that reduction of 2 proceeds via carbanionic intermediates.

  5. Experimental results from pressure testing a 1:6-scale nuclear power plant containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the testing of a 1:6-scale, reinforced-concrete containment building at Sandia National Laboratories, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scale-model, Light Water Reactor (LWR) containment building was designed and built to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., and was instrumented with over 1200 transducers to prepare for the test. The containment model was tested to failure to determine its response to static internal overpressurization. As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s program on containment integrity, the test results will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods to predict the performance of containments under severe-accident loads. The scaled dimensions of the cylindrical wall and hemispherical dome were typical of a full-size containment. Other typical features included in the heavily reinforced model were equipment hatches, personnel air locks, several small piping penetrations, and a ihin steel liner that was attached to the concrete by headed studs. In addition to the transducers attached to the model, an acoustic detection system and several video and still cameras were used during testing to gather data and to aid in the conduct of the test. The model and its instrumentation are briefly discussed, and is followed by the testing procedures and measured response of the containment model. A summary discussion is included to aid in understanding the significance of the test as it applies to real world reinforced concrete containment structures. The data gathered during SIT and overpressure testing are included as an appendix.

  6. Negotiating Proximity and Distance to Holocaust Memory through Narrativity and Photography in Monika Maron’s Pawels Briefe (Pavel’s Letters (1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s unification in 1989 triggered a public and literary confrontation with WWII, the Holocaust and the East-West German past. The years following the “Wende” of 1989/90 witnessed an increase in autobiographical family novels that explore how historical events of the twentieth century impacted upon individual and family pasts and continue to do so. Monika Maron, in claiming Pawels Briefe (Pavel’s Letters (1999 as a family story/history, rather than novel, raises questions about the ethics of intertwinement between autobiographical memory and family memory, specifically postmemory. By analyzing narrative and photographic engagement, I argue that Maron resists over-identification by engendering critical distance between family memory and autobiographical memory that are both situated in a particular moment of German national memory.

  7. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews: Response to "Benjamin and us: Christanity, its Jews, and history" by Jeanne Favret-Saada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzer, David I

    2014-01-01

    Following eleven years' work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews , I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified.

  8. Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust in der spanischen Gegenwartsliteratur: Fiktionalisierte ‚images malgré tout‘ bei Ricardo Menéndez Salmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Thomas Bosshard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die literarischen Repräsentationen von nationalsozialistischen Kriegsverbrechen in den Romanen La ofensa und Medusa des spanischen Schriftstellers Ricardo Menéndez Salmón. Ausgehend von einer Kontextualisierung der Romane im Gesamtschaffen des Autors werden intertextuelle Bezüge nicht nur zu anderen literarischen Texten, sondern auch zur Theorie herausgearbeitet. Gegenüber dem im Zusammenhang mit Holocaust-Darstellungen oft postulierten ‚Bilderverbot‘ realisiert Menéndez Salmón in Anlehnung an Didi-Huberman fiktionalisierte images malgré tout im Medium der Sprache, deren Funktion über die Darstellung von Nazi-Verbrechen hinausgeht und eine metamediale Reflexion über den Zusammenhang von Bild, Sprache und Schrecken anstößt.

  9. Contes tragiques, Heimatfilme ou mélodrames ? Les générations allemandes et l’Holocauste

    OpenAIRE

    Loewy, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 1980, des films allemands sur l’héritage national-socialiste, la Seconde Guerre mondiale et l’Holocauste, sont devenus des instruments de débat entre générations. Beaucoup de films, de Deutschland bleiche Mutter à Väter und Söhne, de Abrahams Gold à Land der Väter, Land der Söhne, ont essayé d’explorer la trajectoire de l’Histoire dans le microcosme de la famille et dans l’espace de la culture locale, via différents genres tels le Heimatfilm, le mélodrame, oscillant entre le conte de f...

  10. Investigation of thermal hazard during the hydrosilylation of 1,6-divinyl(perfluorohexane) with trichlorosilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Katsumi; Ito, Shunsuke; Wada, Yusuke; Higashi, Eiko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Katsuyuki; Wada, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermal hazard during hydrosilylation of FDV with TCS in the presence of Pt-Cat as the catalyst was investigated using ARC in the heat-wait-search mode. The following conclusions are drawn: → (1) In TCS/FDV/Pt-Cat (control sample), rapid reaction with dT/dt max of 136 K . min -1 was observed. However, this reaction hardly released any pressure during the decomposition. → (2) The thermal behavior of the sample with excessive Pt-Cat indicates that even in the case of the sample with 10 times the normal amount of Pt-Cat, dT/dt max hardly increased in comparison with the control sample. In addition, hardly any pressure produced caused by decomposition was released, similar to the control sample. → (3) When the thermal behavior of the sample in the presence of Fe 2 O 3 was observed, dT/dt max and ΔP were >624 K . min -1 and >25 MPa, respectively. This result indicates that a vigorous reaction could occur unexpectedly through contact with the iron rust generated in the reactor in the industrial process. → (4) The thermal and pressure behavior was observed when water was added to the sample. Heat and pressure release with dT/dt max of 50 K . min -1 and ΔP of 3 MPa was observed just after the water addition. The reaction then continued and the pressure gradually increased to 13 MPa. Although the generated gases included corrosive gases, the reaction of the sample with water was more gradual than that with Fe 2 O 3 . - Abstract: In this study, we examined the reaction hazard during the hydrosilylation reaction between trichlorosilane (TCS) and 1,6-divinyl(perfluorohexane) (FDV) in the presence of a butanol solution of chloroplatinic acid (Pt-Cat) as the catalyst. Assuming the three industrial risks of excessive addition of Pt-Cat, contamination by iron rust and mixing with cooling water, we observed the temperature and pressure change of TCS/FDV with an excessive amount of Pt-Cat, TCS/FDV/Pt-Cat with Fe 2 O 3 and TCS/FDV/Pt-Cat with distilled water

  11. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an oligo-α-1,6-glucosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; Flórez, Ana Belén; Guadamuro, Lucía; Mayo, Baltasar

    2017-04-04

    Although encoded in the genome of many Lactobacillus spp. strains, α-glucosidases have received little attention compared to other glycosyl hydrolases. In this study, a putative oligosaccharide(oligo)-α-1,6-glucosidase-encoding gene (malL) was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum LL441. malL coded for 572 amino acid residues with a calculated total molecular mass of 66.31kDa. No predicted signal peptide was observed, suggesting this enzyme to be localized within the cytoplasm of the cell. Homology studies of the deduced amino acid sequence in the area of its active sites classified the enzyme as a member of the α-amylase (AmyAC) superfamily of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), family 13 (GH13), subfamily 31 (GH13_31). malL was cloned in Escherichia coli and the coded enzyme overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein (MalL His ). It was then purified and characterized. MalL His protein showed strong hydrolytic activity towards 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNP-α-Glu) but not to other pNP-α-d- or pNP-β-d-derivatives. When using pNP-α-Glu as a substrate, MalL His showed similar specific activities between pH5.0 and 6.0, and between 20 and 42°C (optimum 30°C). Among the natural carbohydrates assayed, MalL His showed specificity towards isomaltose (V max and K m values of 40.64μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 6.22mM) and much less to isomaltulose (V max and K m values of 168.86μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 244.52mM). However, under the conditions of the assay, the enzyme showed no transglycosylation activity. Characterization of the entire complement of glycosidases in L. plantarum might reveal how strains of this species could be used in new biotechnological applications or in the development of functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces as tools for the construction of a herringbone pattern in the crystal structure of hexane-1,6-diaminium hexane-1,6-diyl bis(hydrogen phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido J. Reiss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [H3N(CH26NH3][(HOO2P(CH26PO2(OH], consists of one half of a hexane-1,6-diaminium dication and one half of a hexane-1,6-diyl bis(hydrogen phosphonate dianion. Both are located around different centres of inversion (Wyckoff sites: 2a and 2d of the space group P21/c. The shape of the hexane-1,6-diaminium cation is best described as a double hook. Both aminium groups as well as the two attached CH2 groups are turned out from the plane of the central four C atoms. In contrast, all six C atoms of the dianion are almost in a plane. The hydrogen phosphonate (–PO3H groups of the anions and the aminium groups of the cations form two-dimensional O—H... and O—H...N hydrogen-bonded networks parallel to the ac plane, built up from ten-membered and twelve-membered ring motifs with graph-set descriptors R33(10 and R54(12, respectively. These networks are linked by the alkylene chains of the anions and cations. The resulting three-dimensional network shows a herringbone pattern, which resembles the parent structures 1,6-diaminohexane and hexane-1,6-diphosphonic acid.

  13. Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads with photocatalytic, antibacterial and anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamani, Muthamizh; Krishnamoorthy, Giribabu; Ramadoss, Manigandan; Sivakumar, Praveen Kumar; Settu, Munusamy; Ranganathan, Suresh; Vengidusamy, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance of pathogens and cancer cell line towards antibiotics and anticancer agents has caused serious health problems in the past decades. Due to these problems in recent years, researchers have tried to combine nanotechnology with material science to have intrinsic antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The metals and metal oxides were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial and anticancer effects towards bacteria and cancer cell line. In the present work metal@metal tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads) is investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Mueller-Hinton broth and the anticancer activity against B16F10 cell line was studied. Silver decorated silver tungstate (Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6) was synthesized by the microwave irradiation method using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. The phase and crystalline nature were analyzed by using XRD. The morphological analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectral analysis were carried out in order to ascertain the presence of functional groups in Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6. The optical property was investigated using Diffuse Reflectance Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (DRS-UV–Vis) and the band gap was found to be 3.08 eV. Surface area of the synthesized Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 wasanalyzed by BET analysis and Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 was utilized for the degradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B. The morphology of the Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 resembles roasted rice beads with breath and length in nm range. The oxidation state of tungsten (W) and silver (Ag) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ag@Ag_8W_4O_1_6 nanoroasted rice beads using

  14. Simulations of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell emittance compensated photocathode RF gun low energy beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Winick, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated low energy (2 to 10 MeV) experimental beam line is now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratories Accelerator Test Facility (BNL/ATF) for photocathode RF gun testing and photoemission experiments. The design of the experimental line, using the 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA RF gun collaboration is presented. Detailed beam dynamics simulations were performed for the 1.6 cell RF gun injector using a solenoidal emittance compensation technique. An experimental program for testing the 1.6 cell RF gun is presented. This program includes beam loading caused by dark current, higher order mode field measurements, integrated and slice emittance measurements using a pepper-pot and RF kicker cavity

  15. Verification of the sputter-generated 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, R. G.; Surendran, P.; Kumar, Sanjay; Nair, J. P.; Yadav, M. L.; Hemalatha, M.; Thomas, R. G.; Mahata, K.; Kailas, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have performed systematic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements at our ion source test set up and have demonstrated that gas phase 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions for all size 'n' can be readily generated from a variety of surfaces undergoing Cs+ ion sputtering in the presence of high purity SF6 gas by employing the gas spray-cesium sputter technique. In our SIMS measurements, the isotopic yield ratio 34SFn-/32SFn- (n = 1-6) was found to be close to its natural abundance but not for all size 'n'. In order to gain further insight into the constituents of these molecular anions, ultra sensitive Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements were conducted with the most abundant 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions, at BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron accelerator. The results from these measurements are discussed in this paper.

  16. Structure of a Class I Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase - Investigation into an Apparent Loss of Stereospecificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LowKam, C.; Liotard, B; Sygusch, J

    2010-01-01

    Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Streptococcus pyogenes is a class I aldolase that exhibits a remarkable lack of chiral discrimination with respect to the configuration of hydroxyl groups at both C3 and C4 positions. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible cleavage of four diastereoisomers (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), psicose 1,6-bisphosphate, sorbose 1,6-bisphosphate, and tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with high catalytic efficiency. To investigate its enzymatic mechanism, high resolution crystal structures were determined of both native enzyme and native enzyme in complex with dihydroxyacetone-P. The electron density map revealed a ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} fold in each dimeric subunit. Flash-cooled crystals of native enzyme soaked with dihydroxyacetone phosphate trapped a covalent intermediate with carbanionic character at Lys{sup 205}, different from the enamine mesomer bound in stereospecific class I FBP aldolase. Structural analysis indicates extensive active site conservation with respect to class I FBP aldolases, including conserved conformational responses to DHAP binding and conserved stereospecific proton transfer at the DHAP C3 carbon mediated by a proximal water molecule. Exchange reactions with tritiated water and tritium-labeled DHAP at C3 hydrogen were carried out in both solution and crystalline state to assess stereochemical control at C3. The kinetic studies show labeling at both pro-R and pro-S C3 positions of DHAP yet detritiation only at the C3 pro-S-labeled position. Detritiation of the C3 pro-R label was not detected and is consistent with preferential cis-trans isomerism about the C2-C3 bond in the carbanion as the mechanism responsible for C3 epimerization in tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

  17. Sodium channel SCN8A (Nav1.6: properties and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Elizabeth O'Brien

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sodium channel Nav1.6, encoded by the gene SCN8A, is one of the major voltage-gated channels in human brain. The sequences of sodium channels have been highly conserved during evolution, and minor changes in biophysical properties can have a major impact in vivo. Insight into the role of Nav1.6 has come from analysis of spontaneous and induced mutations of mouse Scn8a during the past 18 years. Only within the past year has the role of SCN8A in human disease become apparent from whole exome and genome sequences of patients with sporadic disease. Unique features of Nav1.6 include its contribution to persistent current, resurgent current, repetitive neuronal firing, and subcellular localization at the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Loss of Nav1.6 activity results in reduced neuronal excitability, while gain-of-function mutations can increase neuronal excitability. Mouse Scn8a (med mutants exhibit movement disorders including ataxia, tremor and dystonia. Thus far, more than ten human de novo mutations have been identified in patients with two types of disorders, epileptic encephalopathy and intellectual disability. We review these human mutations as well as the unique features of Nav1.6 that contribute to its role in determining neuronal excitability in vivo. A supplemental figure illustrating the positions of amino acid residues within the 4 domains and 24 transmembrane segments of Nav1.6 is provided to facilitate the location of novel mutations within the channel protein.

  18. Averting a holocaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Koeberg nuclear power station is running computer software developed in South Africa to maximise the health and safety of both staff and public. Escom has prepared an extensive and costly emergency plan, and should be able to identify some potential problem areas and thus avert accidents

  19. Use of Vortex Generators to Reduce Distortion for Mach 1.6 Streamline-Traced Supersonic Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank; Slater, John W.; Trefny, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    Reduce the total pressure distortion at the engine-fan face due to low-momentum flow caused by the interaction of an external terminal shock at the turbulent boundary layer along a streamline-traced external-compression (STEX) inlet for Mach 1.6.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  1. Intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] carbocyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Evans, P.; Sawyer, James R.; Lai, Kwong Wah; Huffman, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The crossed intermolecular rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] carbocyclization of carbon and heteroatom tethered 1,6-enynes can be accomplished with symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes, to afford the corresponding bicyclohexadienes in an efficient and highly selective manner. PMID:16075089

  2. Structure and stability of small Li2 +(X2Σ+ g )-Xen (n = 1-6) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Sameh; Ghanmi, Chedli; Berriche, Hamid

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the structure and stability of the Li2 +(X2Σ+ g )Xe n ( n = 1-6) clusters for special symmetry groups. The potential energy surfaces of these clusters, are described using an accurate ab initio approach based on non-empirical pseudopotential, parameterized l-dependent polarization potential and analytic potential forms for the Li+Xe and Xe-Xe interactions. The pseudopotential technique has reduced the number of active electrons of Li2 +(X2Σ+ g )-Xe n ( n = 1-6) clusters to only one electron, the Li valence electron. The core-core interactions for Li+Xe are included using accurate CCSD(T) potential fitted using the analytical form of Tang and Toennies. For the Xe-Xe potential interactions we have used the analytical form of Lennard Jones (LJ6 - 12). The potential energy surfaces of the Li2 +(X2Σ+ g )Xe n ( n = 1-6) clusters are performed for a fixed distance of the Li2 +(X2Σ+ g ) alkali dimer, its equilibrium distance. They are used to extract information on the stability of the Li2 +(X2Σ+ g Xe n ( n = 1-6) clusters. For each n, the stability of the different isomers is examined by comparing their potential energy surfaces. Moreover, we have determined the quantum energies ( D 0), the zero-point-energies (ZPE) and the ZPE%. To our best knowledge, there are neither experimental nor theoretical works realized for the Li2 +(X2Σ+ g Xe n ( n = 1-6) clusters, our results are presented for the first time.

  3. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  4. Experimental study of spallation: neutron angular distributions induced by protons (0.8.,1.2 et 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 et 1.6 GeV) beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borne, F.

    1998-01-01

    Angular distributions of spallation neutrons, produced by 0,8 to 1,6 GeV protons and 0,8 to 1,6 GeV deuterons, with two experimental and complementary techniques: the flight time measure and the use of a liquid hydrogen converter associated with a magnetic spectrometer of higher energy (2000 MeV). Experimental results obtained at Saturne (Cea) are analysed and interpreted. They allowed the determination of the neutrons production behaviour on thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th) in function of the angle emission and the atomic number of the target and to compare the variation of neutrons production, coming from protons and incident deuterons of same total energy on a Pb target. Experimental results are compared with simulation results obtained with the TIERCE code, including Bertini and Cugnon intra-nuclear cascades. (A.L.B.)

  5. Energy distributions study of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by proton beams (0.8 GeV and 1.6 GeV) and deuteron beams (1.2 and 1.6 GeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eugenie

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the energy distributions of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by protons of 0.8 GeV up to 1.6 GeV and deuterons of 1.2 and 1.6 GeV with two complementary experimental techniques: the time of flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (3-400 MeV) and the use of a magnetic spectrometer at high energy (E ≥ 200 MeV). These measurements enable us to measure for the first time the neutron spectra for incident energies higher than 800 MeV. We have compared the double differential cross sections produced with 1.2 GeV protons on several thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th). The neutron production obtained for a lead target is also studied for various energies (0.8 up to 1.6 GeV) and incident particles (p, d). Data are compared with theoretical simulations carried out using the TIERCE system and the intranuclear cascade model of J. Cugnon associated to the decay code of D. Durand. The neutron spectra calculated by using the HETC and MCNP codes, included in TIERCE, are significantly higher than the measured distributions. A better agreement is observed with the results of the Cugnon's cascade model. (author) [fr

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of Dialkyl Hexane-1,6-Dicarbamate from 1,6-Hexanediamine, Urea, and Alcohol over Zinc-Incorporated Berlinite (ZnAlPO4 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lei Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate was synthesized, for the first time, by a one-pot reaction of 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA, urea, and alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, in a self-designed batch reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as a catalyst. The yield of dibutyl hexane-1,6-dicarbamate (2 was systematically investigated as a function of Zn/Al molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst usage and urea/HDA/butanol molar ratio. Based on these studies, the optimized reaction conditions were as follows: molar ratio urea/HDA/butanol = 2.6:1:8.6, catalyst usage = 3.0 g, reaction temperature = 493 K, reaction time = 6 h and reaction pressure = 1.2 MPa; a yield of 2 of 89.7% was achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04 catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, based on these experimental results, it was also proposed that the catalysis recycle of the one-pot synthesis of 2 from urea, HDA, and butanol over the ZnAlPO4 catalyst.

  7. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Crystal structures of the bacterial α1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop

  8. 1 - 6_Dabo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    for treatment of malaria fever by the Hausa people of Kano-Nigeria were selected based on the traditional claims of ... the leaves of C. aurantifolia, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica and Psidium guajava) were further screened against a ... Keywords: Plants Extracts, Traditional Malaria Therapy, Hausa people, Kano, Nigeria.

  9. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Da-Lei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4 and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA and dimethyl carbonate (DMC. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. Results The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol, a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. Conclusion As a heterogeneous

  10. Pressure-induced magnetic collapse and metallization of TlF e1.6S e2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, P. G.; Filsinger, K.; Shylin, S. I.; Barkalov, O. I.; Ksenofontov, V.; Qi, Y.; Palasyuk, T.; Schnelle, W.; Medvedev, S. A.; Greenblatt, M.; Felser, C.

    2017-08-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic ordering, and electrical resistivity of TlF e1.6S e2 were studied at high pressures. Below ˜7 GPa , TlF e1.6S e2 is an antiferromagnetically ordered semiconductor with a ThC r2S i2 -type structure. The insulator-to-metal transformation observed at a pressure of ˜7 GPa is accompanied by a loss of magnetic ordering and an isostructural phase transition. In the pressure range ˜7.5 -11 GPa a remarkable downturn in resistivity, which resembles a superconducting transition, is observed below 15 K. We discuss this feature as the possible onset of superconductivity originating from a phase separation in a small fraction of the sample in the vicinity of the magnetic transition.

  11. Intramolecular anionic diels-alder reactions of 1-aryl-4-oxahepta-1,6-diyne systems in DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Takayuki; Mori, Tomoko; Shirahama, Mitsuhito; Yamada, Masashi; Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Saito, Seiki; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi

    2007-04-25

    Base-promoted cycloaddition reactions of 1-aryl- or 1-aryl-7-substituted-4-oxahepta-1,6-diyne systems in DMSO have proven to involve an anionic intramolecular Diels-Alder process taking place even at room temperature in spite of the reaction suffering from temporary disruption of aromaticity. Although initially formed alpha-arylallenide anion can be protonated by DMSO, it can be back to the allenide anion probably because of a small acidity difference between alpha-arylallene and DMSO. The alpha-arylallenide anion in combination with the alpha-aryl substituent can constitute an anionic diene structure that undergoes the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction involving the C(6)-yne part, a very fast process probably because of the increased HOMO-1 level of the anionic diene, as shown by DFT calculations. Diversified substituted naphthalenes, benzofurans, phenanthrenes, and quinolines, including biaryl architectures, are available from 4-oxahepta-1,6-diynes in a highly expeditious way.

  12. Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petrović Todosijević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to illustrate the role the municipal authorities in Šabac, which were headed by wartime mayor Branko Petrović, and which were part of Milan Aćimović’s collaborationist administration and Milan Nedić’s government, played in the process of usurping the right to property of the Jewish people from Šabac and from the Kladovo Transport, initially through the Committee for Registration and Evaluation of Jewish Property, and later through the Commissariat for Jewish Property.   Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Petrović Todosijević, Sanja. "Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 5-15. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.181

  13. Staging Encounters with Estranged Pasts: Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017 and the Cinematic Face of Public Memory of the Holocaust in Present-Day Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana I. Popescu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a close analysis of Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017, a documentary essay that brings together authentic archival sources documenting the persecution and murder of Jews in World War II. The sources include a little-known diary of Emil Dorian, a Jewish medical doctor and writer from Bucharest, a collection of photographs depicting scenes from Romanian daily life in the 1930s and 1940s, and recordings of political speeches and propaganda songs of a Fascist nature. Through a careful framing of this film in relation to Romanian public memory of World War II, and in connection to the popular new wave cinema, I will contend that Jude’s work acts, perhaps unwittingly, to intervene in public memory and invites the Romanian public to face up to and acknowledge the nation’s perpetrator past. This filmic intervention further offers an important platform for public debate on Romania’s Holocaust memory and is of significance for European public memory, as it proposes the film happening as a distinct and innovative practice of public engagement with history.

  14. Transgenerational transmission of trauma in families of Holocaust survivors: the consequences of extreme family functioning on resilience, sense of coherence, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Vandeleur, Caroline; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stéphanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2015-01-15

    The psychological transmission of the noxious effects of a major trauma from one generation to the next remains unclear. The present study aims to identify possible mechanisms explaining this transmission among families of Holocaust Survivors (HS). We hypothesized that the high level of depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) among HS impairs family systems, which results in damaging coping strategies of their children (CHS) yielding a higher level of DAD. 49 CHS completed the Resilience Scale for Adults, the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the 13-Item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale. We test a mediation model with Family types as the predictor; coping strategies (i.e. Resilience or SOC) as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results confirm that the CHS׳ family types are more often damaged than in general population. Moreover, growing in a damaged family seems to impede development of coping strategies and, therefore, enhances the occurrence of DAD. The present investigation is correlational and should be confirmed by other prospective investigations. At a theoretical level we propose a mechanism of transmission of the noxious effects of a major trauma from one generation to the next through family structure and coping strategies. At a clinical level, our results suggest to investigate the occurrence of trauma among parents of patients consulting for DAD and to reinforce their coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance studies of varian VPM-154D.6D VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed field photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Leskovar, B.

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics have been measured for the Varian VPM-154D.6D and VPM-154A/1.6L Static Crossed Field Photomultipliers. Some typical photomultiplier characteristics such as: gain, dark current, quantum efficiency, and rise-time--are compared with data provided by the manufacturer. Photomultiplier characteristics generally not available from the manufacturer, such as: transit time, FWHM of the output pulse, peak output current measurement and multiphotoelectron time resolution were measured and are discussed

  16. Sucrose derivatives and the selective benzoylation of the secondary hydroxyl groups of 6,1',6'-tri-O-tritylsucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, C.W.; Koekemoer, J.M.; Marais, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and 500 MHz 1 H-n.m.r. spectra of a number of sucrose derivatives are described. The assignment of the individual proton resonances in these compounds contributed to the identification of the mono- and dibenzoates obtained by benzoylation of 6,1',6'-tri-O-tritylsucrose following regioselective activation of the secondary hydroxyl groups by reaction with dibutyltin oxide or bis(tributyltin) oxide

  17. Alkyne- and 1,6-elimination- succinimidyl carbonate – terminated heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) for reversible "Click" PEGylation

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yumei; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2010-01-01

    A new heterobifunctional (succinimidyl carbonate, SC)-activated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a reversible 1,6-elimination linker and a terminal alkyne for "click" chemistry was synthesized with high efficiency and low polydispersity. The α-alkyne-ω-hydroxyl PEG was first prepared using trimethylsilyl-2-propargyl alcohol as an initiator for ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide followed by mild deprotection with tetrabutylammonium fluoride. The hydroxy end was then modified with di...

  18. Yeast β-1,6-glucan is a primary target for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukša, Juliana; Podoliankaitė, Monika; Vepštaitė, Iglė; Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Živilė; Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Servienė, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Certain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains secrete different killer proteins of double-stranded-RNA origin. These proteins confer a growth advantage to their host by increasing its survival. K2 toxin affects the target cell by binding to the cell surface, disrupting the plasma membrane integrity, and inducing ion leakage. In this study, we determined that K2 toxin saturates the yeast cell surface receptors in 10 min. The apparent amount of K2 toxin, bound to a single cell of wild type yeast under saturating conditions, was estimated to be 435 to 460 molecules. It was found that an increased level of β-1,6-glucan directly correlates with the number of toxin molecules bound, thereby impacting the morphology and determining the fate of the yeast cell. We observed that the binding of K2 toxin to the yeast surface receptors proceeds in a similar manner as in case of the related K1 killer protein. It was demonstrated that the externally supplied pustulan, a poly-β-1,6-glucan, but not the glucans bearing other linkage types (such as laminarin, chitin, and pullulan) efficiently inhibits the K2 toxin killing activity. In addition, the analysis of toxin binding to the intact cells and spheroplasts confirmed that majority of K2 protein molecules attach to the β-1,6-glucan, rather than the plasma membrane-localized receptors. Taken together, our results reveal that β-1,6-glucan is a primary target of K2 toxin and is important for the execution of its killing property. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Double cascade erbium fiber laser at 1.7 µm, 2.7 µm, and 1.6 µm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J.; Frerichs, Ch.; Carbonnier, C.; Unrau, U.B.; Pollnau, Markus; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H.P.

    The output power of the erbium laser at 2.7 um (4I11/2 -> 4I13/2) is enhanced due to simultaneous laser action at 1.7 um (4S3/2 -> 4I9/2) and 1.6 um (4I13/2 -> 4I15/2) in an Er3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber. The laser cascade overwhelms the saturation effect for the transition at 2.7 um by

  20. Rv2131c gene product: An unconventional enzyme that is both inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Xiaoling; Chen Mao; Shen Hongbo; Jiang Xin; Huang Yishu; Wang Honghai

    2006-01-01

    Inositol monophosphatase is an enzyme in the biosynthesis of myo-inostiol, a crucial substrate for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which has been demonstrated to be an essential component of mycobacteria. In this study, the Rv2131c gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain, allowing the expression of the enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide on the N-terminal. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of the lysed cells under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified Rv2131c gene product showed inositol monophosphatase activity but with substrate specificity that was broader than those of several bacterial and eukaryotic inositol monophosphatases, and it also acted as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. The dimeric enzyme exhibited dual activities of IMPase and FBPase, with K m of 0.22 ± 0.03 mM for inositol-1-phosphate and K m of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. To better understand the relationship between the function and structure of the Rv2131c enzyme, we constructed D40N, L71A, and D94N mutants and purified these corresponding proteins. Mutations of D40N and D94N caused the proteins to almost completely lose both the inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities. However, L71A mutant did not cause loss either of the activities, but the activity toward the inositol was 12-fold more resistant to inhibition by lithium (IC 5 ∼ 60 mM). Based on the substrate specificity and presence of conserved sequence motifs of the M. tuberculosis Rv2131c, we proposed that the enzyme belonged to class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase IV)

  1. Energy densities of Alfven waves between 0.7 and 1.6 AU. [in interplanetary medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Burchsted, R.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma and field data from Mariner 4 and 5 between 0.7 and 1.6 AU are used to study the radial dependence of the levels of microscale fluctuation associated with interplanetary Alfven waves. The observed decrease of these levels with increasing distance from the sun is consistent with little or no local generation or damping of the ambient Alfven waves over this range of radial distance.

  2. β-1,6-glucan synthesis-associated genes are required for proper spore wall formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Ping; Wang, Ning; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong

    2017-11-01

    The yeast spore wall is an excellent model to study the assembly of an extracellular macromolecule structure. In the present study, mutants defective in β-1,6-glucan synthesis, including kre1∆, kre6∆, kre9∆ and big1∆, were sporulated to analyse the effect of β-1,6-glucan defects on the spore wall. Except for kre6∆, these mutant spores were sensitive to treatment with ether, suggesting that the mutations perturb the integrity of the spore wall. Morphologically, the mutant spores were indistinguishable from wild-type spores. They lacked significant sporulation defects partly because the chitosan layer, which covers the glucan layer, compensated for the damage. The proof for this model was obtained from the effect of the additional deletion of CHS3 that resulted in the absence of the chitosan layer. Among the double mutants, the most severe spore wall deficiency was observed in big1∆ spores. The majority of the big1∆chs3∆ mutants failed to form visible spores at a higher temperature. Given that the big1∆ mutation caused a failure to attach a GPI-anchored reporter, Cwp2-GFP, to the spore wall, β-1,6-glucan is involved in tethering of GPI-anchored proteins in the spore wall as well as in the vegetative cell wall. Thus, β-1,6-glucan is required for proper organization of the spore wall. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Divergent actions of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin, and deltamethrin on rat Nav1.6 sodium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We expressed rat Na v 1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat β 1 and β 2 auxiliary subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, deltamethrin, and tefluthrin on expressed sodium currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. S-Bioallethrin, a type I structure, produced transient modification evident in the induction of rapidly decaying sodium tail currents, weak resting modification (5.7% modification at 100 μM), and no further enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation by high-frequency trains of depolarizing pulses. By contrast deltamethrin, a type II structure, produced sodium tail currents that were ∼ 9-fold more persistent than those caused by S-bioallethrin, barely detectable resting modification (2.5% modification at 100 μM), and 3.7-fold enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation. Tefluthrin, a type I structure with high mammalian toxicity, exhibited properties intermediate between S-bioallethrin and deltamethrin: intermediate tail current decay kinetics, much greater resting modification (14.1% at 100 μM), and 2.8-fold enhancement of resting modification upon repetitive activation. Comparison of concentration-effect data showed that repetitive depolarization increased the potency of tefluthrin ∼ 15-fold and that tefluthrin was ∼ 10-fold more potent than deltamethrin as a use-dependent modifier of Na v 1.6 sodium channels. Concentration-effect data from parallel experiments with the rat Na v 1.2 sodium channel coexpressed with the rat β 1 and β 2 subunits in oocytes showed that the Na v 1.6 isoform was at least 15-fold more sensitive to tefluthrin and deltamethrin than the Na v 1.2 isoform. These results implicate sodium channels containing the Na v 1.6 isoform as potential targets for the central neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids.

  4. Generation of a library of two-group diffusion parameters for SPPS-1,6 by HELIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.; Haralampieva, C.V.; Simeonov, T.; Stojanova, I.; Kamenov, K.

    2000-01-01

    The two-group three-dimensional nodal diffusion code SPPS-1.6 has been used for many years for steady-state neutronics calculations of the WWER-440 reactors at Kozloduy NPP. The old library of two-group diffusion parameters for SPPS-1.6 has been generated by WIMSD4 with a nuclear data library compiled from three different libraries. The current paper presents our experience in generating a new library for SPPS-1.6 by the HELIOS lattice code. The accuracy of the current-coupling collision probability (CCCP) method in calculating a single WWER-440 assembly has been studied first. Among all possible angular discretization of the interface partial currents, called coupling orders, only coupling order 3 is suitable for hexagonal cells. Dividing each cell side into 3 segments an accuracy of 100 pcm has been achieved. The accuracy in calculating the absorber problem was estimated at 1%, which means about 10% error in the control assemblies efficiency. The accuracy for small core-reflector problems is 1% as well. The general conclusion is that HELIOS is accurate enough for assembly calculations, but inadequate for absorber and core-reflector problems. (Authors)

  5. Separate effects testing to investigate liner tearing of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is investigating the performance of containments subject to severe accidents. This work is being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). In 1987, a 1:6-scale Reinforced Concrete Containment (RCC) model was tested to failure. The failure mode was a liner tear. As a result, a separate effects test program has been conducted to investigate liner tearing. This paper discusses the design of test specimens and the results of the testing. The post-test examination of the 1:6-scale RCC model revealed that the large tear was not an isolated event. Other small tears in similar locations were also discovered. All tears occurred near the insert-to-liner transition which is also the region of closest stud spacing. Also, all tears propagated vertically, in response to the hoop strain. Finally, all tears were adjacent to a row of studs. The tears point to a mechanism which could involve the liner/insert transition, the liner anchorage, and the material properties. The separate effects tests investigated these effects. The program included the design of three types of specimens with each simulating some features of the 1:6-scale RCC model. The specimens were instrumented using strain gages and photoelastic materials

  6. Alkyne- and 1,6-elimination- succinimidyl carbonate - terminated heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) for reversible "Click" PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yumei; Duan, Shaofeng; Forrest, M Laird

    2010-01-01

    A new heterobifunctional (succinimidyl carbonate, SC)-activated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a reversible 1,6-elimination linker and a terminal alkyne for "click" chemistry was synthesized with high efficiency and low polydispersity. The α-alkyne-ω-hydroxyl PEG was first prepared using trimethylsilyl-2-propargyl alcohol as an initiator for ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide followed by mild deprotection with tetrabutylammonium fluoride. The hydroxy end was then modified with diglycolic anhydride to generate α-alkyne-ω-carboxylic acid PEG. The reversible 1, 6-elimination linker was introduced by conjugation of a hydroxymethyl phenol followed by activation with N,N'-disuccinimidyl carbonate to generate the heterobifunctional α-alkyne-ω-SC PEG. The terminal alkyne is available for "click" conjugation to azido ligands via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, and the succinimidyl carbonate will form a reversible conjugate to amines (e.g. in proteins) that can release the unaltered amine after base or enzyme catalyzed cleavage of the 1,6-linker.

  7. NaV1.6a is required for normal activation of motor circuits normally excited by tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sean E.; Zhou, Weibin; Choong, Xinling; Saint-Amant, Louis; Sprague, Shawn M.; Hirata, Hiromi; Cui, Wilson W.; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    A screen for zebrafish motor mutants identified two non-complementing alleles of a recessive mutation that were named non-active (navmi89 and navmi130). nav embryos displayed diminished spontaneous and touch-evoked escape behaviors during the first three days of development. Genetic mapping identified the gene encoding NaV1.6a (scn8aa) as a potential candidate for nav. Subsequent cloning of scn8aa from the two alleles of nav uncovered two missense mutations in NaV1.6a that eliminated channel activity when assayed heterologously. Furthermore the injection of RNA encoding wild type scn8aa rescued the nav mutant phenotype indicating that scn8aa was the causative gene of nav. In vivo electrophysiological analysis of the touch-evoked escape circuit indicated that voltage-dependent inward current was decreased in mechanosensory neurons in mutants, but they were able to fire action potentials. Furthermore tactile stimulation of mutants activated some neurons downstream of mechanosensory neurons but failed to activate the swim locomotor circuit in accord with the behavioral response of initial escape contractions but no swimming. Thus mutant mechanosensory neurons appeared to respond to tactile stimulation but failed to initiate swimming. Interestingly fictive swimming could be initiated pharmacologically suggesting that a swim circuit was present in mutants. These results suggested that NaV1.6a was required for touch-induced activation of the swim locomotor network. PMID:20225246

  8. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-β-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand βC2 and helix αC3. In addition, there is a shift of the αC3 helix itself upon GDP

  9. Cs_7Sm_1_1[TeO_3]_1_2Cl_1_6 and Rb_7Nd_1_1[TeO_3]_1_2Br_1_6, the new tellurite halides of the tetragonal Rb_6LiNd_1_1[SeO_3]_1_2Cl_1_6 structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Black, Cameron; Downie, Lewis J.; Sklovsky, Dmitry E.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Olenev, Andrei V.; Zhou, Wuzong; Lightfoot, Philip; Dolgikh, Valery A.

    2015-01-01

    Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were synthesized by a salt flux technique and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of the new compounds Cs_7Sm_1_1[TeO_3]_1_2Cl_1_6 (I) and Rb_7Nd_1_1[TeO_3]_1_2Br_1_6 (II) (both tetragonal, space group I4/mcm) correspond to the sequence of [MLn_1_1(TeO_3)_1_2] and [M_6X_1_6] layers and bear very strong similarities to those of known selenite analogs. We discuss the trends in similarities and differences in compositions and structural details between the Se and Te compounds; more members of the family are predicted. - Graphical abstract: Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were predicted and synthesized. - Highlights: • Two new rare-earth – alkali – tellurium oxide halides were synthesized. • They adopt slab structure of rare earth-tellurium-oxygen and CsCl-like slabs. • The Br-based CsCl-like slabs have been observed first in this layered family.

  10. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Sallstedt, Therese; Belivanova, Veneta; Whitehouse, Martin

    2017-03-01

    The ~1.6 Ga Tirohan Dolomite of the Lower Vindhyan in central India contains phosphatized stromatolitic microbialites. We report from there uniquely well-preserved fossils interpreted as probable crown-group rhodophytes (red algae). The filamentous form Rafatazmia chitrakootensis n. gen, n. sp. has uniserial rows of large cells and grows through diffusely distributed septation. Each cell has a centrally suspended, conspicuous rhomboidal disk interpreted as a pyrenoid. The septa between the cells have central structures that may represent pit connections and pit plugs. Another filamentous form, Denaricion mendax n. gen., n. sp., has coin-like cells reminiscent of those in large sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but much more recalcitrant than the liquid-vacuole-filled cells of the latter. There are also resemblances with oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, although cell volumes in the latter are much smaller. The wider affinities of Denaricion are uncertain. Ramathallus lobatus n. gen., n. sp. is a lobate sessile alga with pseudoparenchymatous thallus, "cell fountains," and apical growth, suggesting florideophycean affinity. If these inferences are correct, Rafatazmia and Ramathallus represent crown-group multicellular rhodophytes, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years.

  11. (1-3)(1-6)-β-glucan-enriched materials from Lentinus edodes mushroom as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute for baked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Lee, Seung Mi; Bae, In Young; Park, Hyuk-Gu; Gyu Lee, Hyeon; Lee, Suyong

    2011-08-15

    Extensive physiological and biological emphasis has been placed on pharmaceutical and medicinal uses of mushrooms containing β-glucans, but their incorporation into processed functional foods is quite limited. Thus, low-grade Lentinus edodes mushrooms were utilised to produce β-glucan-enriched materials (BGEMs), which were evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. The fractions obtained from Lentinus edodes mushrooms contained 514 g kg⁻¹ of (1-3)-β-glucans with (1-6)-β-linked side chains and the chemical structure was confirmed by ¹³C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Replacement of a portion of the wheat flour with BGEMs resulted in the solutions with lower values of pasting parameters and also caused significant changes in starch gelatinisation. When BGEMs were incorporated into cake formulations, batter viscosity increased with more shear-thinning behaviours and elastic properties improved. Overall, the cakes containing more BGEMs showed decreased volume and increased hardness while no significant differences were observed between the control and BGEM cakes containing 1 g of β-glucan per serving. As a wheat flour substitute, the BGEMs that were prepared from low-grade Lentinus edodes mushrooms, could be successfully used to produce cakes containing 1 g of β-glucan per serving with quality attributes similar to those of the control. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The crystal structure of Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, a new 44.8 Å derivative of the bismuthinite-aikinite solid-solution series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil

    2000-01-01

    Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, aikinite-bismuthinite derivative, crystal structure, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria......Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, aikinite-bismuthinite derivative, crystal structure, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria...

  13. Phase-shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering below 1.6 GeV; Analyse en ondes partielles de la diffusion elastique meson {pi} - nucleon au-dessous de 1.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareyre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Experimental results of pion-nucleon elastic scattering below 1.6 GeV (total cross sections, angular distributions of elastic scattering and recoil nucleon polarizations) have been described by a partial wave analysis. This analysis has been developed, one energy at a time, with a method of least squares fits. A single solution is extracted by continuity with energy of the different solutions. Resonating behaviour has been clearly established for several partial waves. In addition to these important effects some phase shifts show rapid variations with energy. Present experimental situation does not permit to say whether these variations are due to experimental biases or to physical effects. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de la diffusion elastique meson {pi} - nucleon au-dessous de 1.6 GeV (sections efficaces totales, distributions angulaires de diffusion elastique et de polarisation du nucleon de recul) sont decrits a l'aide d'une analyse en ondes partielles. Cette analyse est developpee energie par energie au moyen d'une methode d'ajustement en moindres carres. Un critere empirique de continuite des solutions en fonction de l'energie a permis d'isoler une solution unique. Des resonances sont clairement etablies pour plusieurs ondes partielles, ainsi que certains petits effets moins caracteristiques. Pour ceux-ci, la situation experimentale presente ne permet pas d'affirmer s'ils sont dus a des effets physiques ou a des biais experimentaux. (auteur)

  14. Immunochemical studies on the N-acetyllactosamine beta-(1----6)-linked trisaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Sugii, S; Gruezo, F G; Kabat, E A

    1988-07-15

    The combining site of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Of 31 complex carbohydrates tested, all except active and inactive antifreeze glycoproteins, Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, and native rat salivary glycoprotein, reacted strongly, and 22 completely precipitated the lectin, indicating that RCA1 has both a broad range of affinity and a low solubility of its carbohydrate-bound complex. Of the monosaccharides and glycosides tested for inhibition of precipitation, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside was the best. It was about 6.4 times better than methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The beta anomer of glycosides of D-galactose was much more potent than the corresponding alpha anomer. Among the oligosaccharides tested, beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the best inhibitor, which was approximately 2/3 as active as p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. It was approximately 1.4 times as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----4)-D-GlcNAc (N-acetyllactosamine), twice as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----3)-D-GlcNAc, and 4.5 times more active than lacto-N-tetraose. From the results, it can be concluded that; (a) hydrophobic interaction is important for binding; (b) the combining site of this lectin is at least as large as a trisaccharide; and (c) of the compounds studied, the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the most complementary to the human blood group I Ma determinant beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal.

  15. The new 'Earth Dreams Technology i-DTEC' 1.6 l diesel engine from Honda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, J.; Ikoma, K.; Matsui, R.; Ikegami, N.; Mori, S.; Yano, T. [Honda R and D Co., Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Honda has developed a 3rd-generation diesel engine, seeking to balance further CO{sub 2} reductions with dynamic performance. This development focused on downsizing the engine and succeeded in developing a compact, lightweight and high-efficiency 1.6 L in-line 4-cylinder turbocharged i-DTEC diesel engine. Optimization of engine rigidity in the newly developed 1.6 L diesel engine has made it possible to use an aluminum cylinder block with an open-deck structure. Furthermore, weight could be reduced by means of an efficient structure and engine layout. In addition, mechanical friction has been minimized via reducing weight of the reciprocating components and downsizing auxiliary equipment. These innovations made it possible for the engine to achieve the same level of friction as a Honda petrol engine of the same displacement. Thermal management has also been optimized by enhancement of the engine cooling system. In addition, low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) was applied to achieve increased thermal efficiency. These measures have helped the engine to realize a high level of boost and high EGR, increasing fuel efficiency and reducing emissions across a wide range of operating conditions. Like the 2.2 L model, the Civic fitted with this 1.6 L diesel engine uses idle-stop and deceleration energy regeneration control. With all these measures, the Civic achieved CO{sub 2} emissions of 94 g/km (3.6 L/100km) in NEDC, a reduction of 14.5% in CO{sub 2} emissions against the 110 g/km recorded by the 2.2 L model. (orig.)

  16. Axisymmetric analysis of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building using a distributed cracking model for the concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherby, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Results of axisymmetric structural analyses of a 1:6 scale model of a reinforced concrete nuclear containment building are presented. Both a finite element shell analysis and a simplified membrane analysis were made to predict the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of the model. Analytical results indicate that the model will fail at an internal pressure of 187 psig when the stress level in the hoop reinforcement at the midsection of the cylinder exceeds the ultimate strength of the bar splices. 5 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Hombre, bienaventuranza y Dios en Suma Teológica l-ll, qq. 1-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Pérez Treviño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the Aquinas' proposal on Summa Theologica I-II, qq-1-6, where he studies how should the final end of the man be and concludes that it should be transcendental in a certain way, but immanent in another and that God is the immanent end; then, he studies the way in which man will get it and he finds out that it requires unity in three ways: unity between body and soul, intelligence and will, and finally, between the man, who is well disposed to contemplation and contemplation itself.

  18. Identification of the basic structure of a glycolipid from Selenomonas ruminantium as β-glucosaminyl-1,6-glucosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Kyo-Chang; Takahashi, Hajime

    1972-01-01

    Lipid materials extracted by chloroform-methanol from solvent and acid treated cells of Selenomonas ruminantium grown with valerate - 14 C were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. At least 12 radioactive lipid materials were present in the extract. The major compound, designated as spot A, carried approximately 70% of radioactivity of this fraction. The spot A compound was purified by column and thin-layer chromatography and its chemical structure was studied. The basic structural unit of this material was tentatively identified as β-glucosaminyl-1, 6-glucosamine with O-acyl and amide linked fatty acids. (author)

  19. PAUL A. SHAPIRO, The Kishinev Ghetto, 1941–1942. A Documen-tary History of the Holocaust in Romania’s Contested Borderlands. With chronology by Radu Ioanid and Brewster Chamberlin and translations by Angela Jianu. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suveica, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Review on the book PAUL A. SHAPIRO, The Kishinev Ghetto, 1941–1942. A Documen-tary History of the Holocaust in Romania’s Contested Borderlands. With chronology by Radu Ioanid and Brewster Chamberlin and translations by Angela Jianu. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabam

  20. Separate effects testing and analyses to investigate liner tearing of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.; Bergman, V.L.

    1995-06-01

    The overpressurization of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment building demonstrated that liner tearing is a plausible failure mode in such structures under severe accident conditions. A combined experimental and analytical program was developed to determine the important parameters which affect liner tearing and to develop reasonably simple analytical methods for predicting when tearing will occur. Three sets of test specimens were designed to allow individual control over and investigation of the mechanisms believed to be important in causing failure of the liner plate. The series of tests investigated the effect on liner tearing produced by the anchorage system, the loading conditions, and the transition in thickness from the liner to the insert plate. Before testing, the specimens were analyzed using two- and three-dimensional finite element models. Based on the analysis, the failure mode and corresponding load conditions were predicted for each specimen. Test data and post-test examination of test specimens show mixed agreement with the analytical predictions with regard to failure mode and specimen response for most tests. Many similarities were also observed between the response of the liner in the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model and the response of the test specimens. This work illustrates the fact that the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete containment building can be greatly influenced by details of liner and anchorage system design. Further, it significantly increases the understanding of containment building response under severe conditions

  1. Injection study of the Radiance 330 synchrotron with a 1.6 MeV RFQ linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Flanz, J.; Hamm, R.

    2012-09-01

    The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system provides the most advanced proton delivery capability to date. It supports true three-dimensional beam scanning with dynamic energy and intensity modulation. Most of the protons extracted from the synchrotron are used to treat the patient, which results in minimal neutron background in the treatment room. The patient dose rate depends upon the number of protons injected and the acceleration cycle time. Therefore, one can boost the dose rate by increasing the beam intensity at injection. Improvements to the existing tandem accelerator injector are already underway. However, an alternative way to attain higher intensity beam is to use an RFQ linac as an injector. To this end, a novel 1.6 MeV RFQ linac has been designed to specifically satisfy the small energy acceptance limits of the synchrotron. Simulations of the beam line optics and injection matching to the synchrotron have been performed using the computer codes PARMILA and TRACE-3D to determine if an additional bunching cavity is needed. Assessments of the space charge limit at the relatively low injection energy of 1.6 MeV and RF capture simulations have also been performed. Results of these studies are presented.

  2. Elucidation of new condition-dependent roles for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase linked to cofactor balances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Toit W P Schabort

    Full Text Available The cofactor balances in metabolism is of paramount importance in the design of a metabolic engineering strategy and understanding the regulation of metabolism in general. ATP, NAD+ and NADP+ balances are central players linking the various fluxes in central metabolism as well as biomass formation. NADP+ is especially important in the metabolic engineering of yeasts for xylose fermentation, since NADPH is required by most yeasts in the initial step of xylose utilisation, including the fast-growing Kluyveromyces marxianus. In this simulation study of yeast metabolism, the complex interplay between these cofactors was investigated; in particular, how they may affect the possible roles of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycerol production and the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass. Using flux balance analysis, it was found that the potential role of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was highly dependent on the cofactor specificity of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and on the carbon source. Additionally, the excessive production of ATP under certain conditions might be involved in some of the phenomena observed, which may have been overlooked to date. Based on these findings, a strategy is proposed for the metabolic engineering of a future xylose-fermenting yeast for biofuel production.

  3. Regulation by S-nitrosylation of the Calvin-Benson cycle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Serrato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox regulation is of great importance in chloroplasts. Many chloroplast enzymes, such as those belonging to the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC, have conserved regulatory cysteines which form inhibitory disulphide bridges when physiological conditions become unfavourable. Amongst these enzymes, cFBP1, the CBC fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase isoform, is well known to be redox activated by thioredoxin f through the reduction of a disulphide bridge involving Cys153 and Cys173. Moreover, data obtained during recent years point to S-nitrosylation as another redox post-translational modification putatively regulating an increasing number of plant enzymes, including cFBP1. In this study we have shown that the Pisum sativum cFBP1 can be efficiently S-nitrosylated by GSNO and SNAP, triggering the formation of the regulatory disulphide. Using in vivo experiments with P. sativum we have established that cFBP1 S-nitrosylation only occurs during the light period and we have elucidated by activity assays with Cys-to-Ser mutants that this enzyme may be inactivated through the S-nitrosylation of Cys153. Finally, in the light of the new data, we have proposed an extended redox-regulation model by integrating the S-nitrosylation and the TRX f-mediated regulation of cFBP1. Keywords: S-nitrosylation, GSNO, Redox regulation, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, Pisum sativum, Calvin-Benson cycle

  4. Fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by 1-6 GeV energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J. de D.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei induced by bremsstrahlung photons in the maximum energy range of 1-6 GeV are studied. A special technique of nuclear emulsion for the highly ionizing nuclear fragment detection is used in the discrimination between nuclear fission and fragmentation events. Films of Ilford-KO nuclear emulsion (approximatelly 10 20 atoms/cm 2 of Ag, Br) which had been exposed to bremsstrahlung beams in 'Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron' (DESY, Hamburg) with total doses of approximatelly 10 11 equivalent photons are used. Through a detailed analysis of range, angular and angle between fragment distributions, and empirical relations which permit to estimate nuclear fragment energy, range and velocity, the discrimination between fission and fragmentation events is made. Results related to fragment range distribution, angular distribution, distribution of angle between fragments, distribution of ratio between ranges, velocity distributions, forward/backward ratio, fission and fragmentation cross sections, nuclear fissionability and ternary fission frequency are presented and discussed. The results show that the mean photofragmentation cross section in the internal 1-6 GeV (0,09+-0,02mb) is significant when compared to the photofission (0,29+-0,05mb). It is also shown that the mean photofission cross section between 1 and 6 GeV is great by a factor of approximatelly 10 when compared to the foreseen by the cascade-evaporation nuclear model for monoenergetic photons of 0,6 GeV. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Texture development due to preferential grain growth of Ho--Ba--Cu--O in 1.6-T magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.; McCallum, R.W.; Arrasmith, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that the application of even a relatively weak magnetic field of 1.6-T during sintering of HoBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (hereafter HoBCO) results in a significant degree of grain alignment. The orientation of grains is found to be controlled by the direction and magnitude of a magnetic field. The degree of alignment was monitored by x-ray diffraction measurements on the flat surface of the samples and by metallography. It has been observed that the degree of alignment grows as the magnitude of the field increases between 0 and 1.6 T for a fixed temperature and processing time. The degree of alignment also increases when the processing temperature changes from 930 degree C to 965 degree C for a fixed field and time. It has also been observed that for both a fixed field and processing temperature, the alignment grows when the processing time increases between 16 and 72 hours. Metallography measurements on the flat and cross-sectional parts of the samples showed that the texture propagates into the bulk of the samples. In the presence of a sufficient amount of the liquid phase, the enhancement of the grain growth in the direction favorable to the magnetic field produces rather large single-crystals (0.3 to 0.5 mm linear size) within the sample

  6. The role of the β-1,6-endoglucanase gene vegB in physiology and virulence of Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugard EBOIGBE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The β-1,6-endoglucanase gene (vegB of Verticillium dahliae was isolated using a genome walking technique. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene showed high identity with the PAN1 sequence deposited at the Verticillium genome database (Broad Institute, but significant differences in intron numbers and sites of insertion. Detailed in silico analysis, accompanied by sequencing of both genomic and cDNA, as well as RT-PCR experiments, provided the correct size of the gene and the exact number, length and positions of introns. The putative protein of this gene was compared with corresponding β-1,6-endoglucanases from other fungi, and sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. A clear differentiation between enzymes derived from plant pathogenic and mycoparasitic fungi was observed, fully supported by bootstrap data. An internal fragment (1.2kb of vegB was used to disrupt the wild-type gene of a V. dahliae tomato race 2 strain, and the mutant strain, vegB-, was tested for pathogenicity on tomato plants. Results showed a small but constant reduction in disease symptoms only on eggplants for the vegB- strain in comparison with the wild type. Growth on minimal medium supplemented with different carbon sources showed reduced ability of the mutant to breakdown cellulose, whereas growth on glucose, pectin and sucrose was similar to the wild type.

  7. Phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate by the catalytic decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO{sub 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Da-Lei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Jun-Yin; Wen, Ru-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Deng, Jian-Ru [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chao, Zi-Sheng, E-mail: zschao@yahoo.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of HDI via HDU decomposition over ZnAlPO{sub 4} heterogeneous catalyst. • Employment of self-designed reliable fixed bed reactor for HDU decomposition to HDI. • As high as 89.4% yield of HDI over ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst. • High stability and large ability for repeating usage of ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst. -- Abstract: The phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) by the decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDU) was carried out on a self-designed fixed-bed catalytic reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO{sub 4}) as catalyst, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as solvent and N{sub 2} as carrier gas. Factors influencing the yield of HDI, including the Zn/Al molar ratio, HDU concentration and liquid space velocity (LHSV), were investigated. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., 4.8 wt.% concentration of HDU in DOP, 100 ml/min N{sub 2} flow rate, 0.09 MPa vacuum, 623 K reaction temperature, 1.2 h{sup −1} LHSV and catalyst usage 2.0 g, a 89.4% yield of HDI had been achieved over the ZnAlPO{sub 4} (molar ratio Zn/Al = 0.04) catalyst. The ZnAlPO{sub 4} catalyst was found to exhibit a considerable large on-stream stability and could be repeatedly used in the decomposition of HDU to HDI, after its regeneration.

  8. Early Hydrodynamic Escape Limits Rocky Planets to Less Than or Equal to 1.6 Earth Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, O. R.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade thousands of exoplanet candidates and hundreds of confirmed exoplanets have been found. For sub-Neptune-sized planets, those less than approx. 10 Earth masses, we can separate planets into two broad categories: predominantly rocky planets, and gaseous planets with thick volatile sheaths. Observations and subsequent analysis of these planets show that rocky planets are only found with radii less than approx. 1.6 Earth radii. No rocky planet has yet been found that violates this limit. We propose that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen rich protoatmospheres, accreted by forming planets, explains the limit in rocky planet size. Following the hydrodynamic escape model employed by Luger et al. (2015), we modelled the XUV driven escape from young planets (less than approx.100 Myr in age) around a Sun-like star. With a simple, first-order model we found that the rocky planet radii limit occurs consistently at approx. 1.6 Earth radii across a wide range of plausible parameter spaces. Our model shows that hydrodynamic escape can explain the observed cutoff between rocky and gaseous planets. Fig. 1 shows the results of our model for rocky planets between 0.5 and 10 Earth masses that accrete 3 wt. % H2/He during formation. The simulation was run for 100 Myr, after that time the XUV flux drops off exponentially and hydrodynamic escape drops with it. A cutoff between rocky planets and gaseous ones is clearly seen at approx. 1.5-1.6 Earth radii. We are only interested in the upper size limit for rocky planets. As such, we assumed pure hydrogen atmospheres and the highest possible isothermal atmospheric temperatures, which will produce an upper limit on the hydrodynamic loss rate. Previous work shows that a reasonable approximation for an upper temperature limit in a hydrogen rich protoatmosphere is 2000-3000 K, consistent with our assumptions. From these results, we propose that the observed dichotomy between mini-Neptunes and rocky worlds is simply explained by

  9. The secreted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase as a broad spectrum vaccine candidate against pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyang; Shen, Binbing; Wu, Haizhen; Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-10-01

    The development of aquaculture has been hampered by different aquatic pathogens that can cause edwardsiellosis, vibriosis, or other diseases. Therefore, developing a broad spectrum vaccine against different fish diseases is necessary. In this study, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), a conserved enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated to be located in the non-cytoplasmic components of five aquatic pathogenic bacteria and exhibited remarkable protection and cross-protection against these pathogens in turbot and zebrafish. Further analysis revealed that sera sampled from vaccinated turbot had a high level of specific antibody and bactericidal activity against these pathogens. Meanwhile, the increased expressions of immune response-related genes associated with antigen recognition and presentation indicated that the adaptive immune response was effectively aroused. Taken together, our results suggest that FBA can be utilized as a broad-spectrum vaccine against various pathogenic bacteria of aquaculture in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Size control in the synthesis of 1-6 nm gold nanoparticles via solvent-controlled nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Kim, Dukhan; Lee, Dongil

    2011-11-15

    We report a facile synthetic route for size-controlled preparation of gold nanoparticles. Nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles with core diameters of 1-6 nm were obtained by reducing AuP(Phenyl)(3)Cl with tert-butylamine borane in the presence of dodecanethiol in the solvent mixture of benzene and CHCl(3). Mechanism studies have shown that the size control is achieved by the solvent-controlled nucleation in which the nuclei concentration increases with increasing the fraction of CHCl(3), leading to smaller particles. It was also found that, following the solvent-controlled nucleation, particle growth occurs via ligand replacement of PPh(3) on the nuclei by Au(I)thiolate generated by the digestive etching of small particles. This synthetic strategy was successfully demonstrated with other alkanethiols of different chain length with which size-controlled, monodisperse gold nanoparticles were prepared in remarkable yield without requiring any postsynthesis treatments.

  11. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results of the 1/6 scale concrete model under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, J.; Barbe, B.; Millard, A.; Koundy, V.

    1988-01-01

    The prevision of the behavior of the 1/6 scale concrete model under internal pressure was realized by means of two computations, the first one with an infinite soil rigidity, the second one with a soil rigidity equal to 61.26 MPa/m. These two computations, that assumed a perfectly axisymetric structure gave theoretical and experimental results in good agreement, except the raft of which the theoretical uplift was three times higher than the experimental one. The main conclusions of this study are as follow: the soil stiffness has no influence on the ultimate behavior of the model, the dead concrete rigidity decreases the raft uplift in an important way, the model is destroyed because the hoop stress reaches the ultimate strength

  12. Magnetic refrigeration down to 1.6 K for the future circular collider e^{+}e^{-}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tkaczuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-field superconducting rf cavities of the future circular collider e^{+}e^{-} may require a kW-range superfluid helium refrigeration down to 1.6 K. Magnetic refrigeration operating below 4.2 K can be an alternative to the compression/expansion helium refrigeration. A significant difference between this application and previous magnetic refrigerator studies is its large cooling power, up to 10^{3} times larger than the other designs. Principles of magnetic refrigeration are described and various technical solutions are compared. A numerical model for the static magnetic refrigerator is presented, validated, and adapted to the needs of the positron-electron version of the future circular collider. A preliminary design of magnetic refrigerator suitable for low temperature, kW-range cooling is studied.

  13. Initiation of proteolysis of yeast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by pH-control of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Purwin, C.; Pohlig, G.; Scheffers, W.A.; Nicolay, K.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of fermentable sugars or uncouplers such as CCCP to resting yeast cells grown on glucose initiates phosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). There is good evidence that phosphorylation marks FBPase for proteolytic degradation. 31 P-NMR measurements of the cytosolic pH of yeast cells demonstrated a decrease of the cytosolic pH from 7.0 to 6.5 after addition of glucose or CCCP to starved yeast. Activity of adenylate cyclase in permeabilized yeast cells increases 2-3-fold when the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 6.5. It is concluded that pH controlled activation of adenylate cyclase causes the previously described increase in cyclic AMP which leads to phosphorylation of FBPase and finally to proteolysis of FBPase

  14. Effect of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure on peak flowmetry in automobile paint shop workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedian, Siyamak; Barkhordari, Abdullah; Habibi, Ehsanallah; Rismanchiyan, Masoud; Zare, Mohsen

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) on peak flowmetry in automobile body paint shop workers in Iran. We studied a population of 43 car painters exposed to HDI at their workplaces. Peak expiratory flow was tested for one working week, from the start to the end of each shift. Air was sampled and HDI analysed in parallel, according to the OSHA 42 method. Daily and weekly HDI exposure averages were (0.42+/-0.1) mg m(-3) and (0.13+/-0.05) mg m(-3), respectively. On painting days, 72 % of workers showed more than a 10 % variation in peak expiratory flow. Inhalation exposure exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) ten times over. This strongly suggests that HDI affected the peak flowmetry in the studied workers.

  15. Branching enzyme assay: selective quantitation of the alpha 1,6-linked glucosyl residues involved in the branching points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisman, C R; Tolmasky, D S; Raffo, S

    1985-06-01

    Methods previously described for glycogen or amylopectin branching enzymatic activity are insufficiently sensitive and not quantitative. A new, more sensitive, specific, and quantitative one was developed. It is based upon the quantitation of the glucose residues joined by alpha 1,6 bonds introduced by varying amounts of branching enzyme. The procedure involved the synthesis of a polysaccharide from Glc-1-P and phosphorylase in the presence of the sample to be tested. The branched polysaccharide was then purified and the glucoses involved in the branching points were quantitated after degradation with phosphorylase and debranching enzymes. This method appeared to be useful, not only in enzymatic activity determinations but also in the study of the structure of alpha-D-glucans when combined with those of total polysaccharide quantitation, such as iodine and phenol-sulfuric acid.

  16. Fission and nuclear fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by photons of 1-6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The studies of fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by Bremsstrahlung photons of 1.6 GeV energy range are presented. The Il ford-KO nuclear emulsion submitted to Bremsstrahlung beams in Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) with total doses of 10'' equivalent photons, was used for nuclear fragment detection. The discrimination of fission and fragmentation events was done analysing angular distribution, range and angles between fragments. The results of fragment range distributions, angular distributions, distributions of angles between fragments, distributions of ratio between range, velocity distributions forward/backward ratio, cross sections of fission and fragmentation, nuclear fissionability and ternary fission frequency are presented and discussed. (M.C.K.)

  17. Fabrication of a 1/6-scale mock-up and manifolds for the Korea first wall in the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Lee, Dong Won

    2012-01-01

    Korea has developed and participated in the Test Blanket Module (TBM) program of the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The first wall (FW) of the TBM is an important component that faces the plasma directly and therefore it is subjected to high heat and neutron loads. To fabricate the TBM FW, the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) bonding method has been investigated. In the present study, the manufacturing method of the TBM FW is introduced through the fabrication and testing of a 1/6-scale mockup. To distribute fluid uniformly in the mock-up, a manifold was designed and fabricated using the ANSYS-CFX analysis. After the mock-up was fabricated and its fluid distribution tests performed, we compared the results of tests with the simulated results

  18. Single pion and several pions production in π+p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabiol, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    The production of ρ + , N 33 * , and η 0 was observed in π + p interactions at 1.6 GeV/c. In the reactions where one pion is created, the comparison between the experimental distribution of the ρ + and the N 33 * with the predictions of the peripheral model modified by absorption effects permits the conclusion that the contribution of this model is important, but that other effects such as interferences between ρ + and N 33 * are not negligible. In the reactions where several pions are created, the branching ratios of some decay modes of η0 are evaluated and the associated production of η 0 and N 33 * is observed. (author) [fr

  19. New insight into the binding modes of TNP-AMP to human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinya; Huang, Yunyuan; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, San; Zhu, Shuaihuan; Qin, Nian; Hong, Zongqin; Wei, Lin; Feng, Jiangtao; Ren, Yanliang; Feng, Lingling; Wan, Jian

    2016-08-05

    Human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) contains two binding sites, a substrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) active site and an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) allosteric site. The FBP active site works by stabilizing the FBPase, and the allosteric site impairs the activity of FBPase through its binding of a nonsubstrate molecule. The fluorescent AMP analogue, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-monophosphate (TNP-AMP) has been used as a fluorescent probe as it is able to competitively inhibit AMP binding to the AMP allosteric site and, therefore, could be used for exploring the binding modes of inhibitors targeted on the allosteric site. In this study, we have re-examined the binding modes of TNP-AMP to FBPase. However, our present enzyme kinetic assays show that AMP and FBP both can reduce the fluorescence from the bound TNP-AMP through competition for FBPase, suggesting that TNP-AMP binds not only to the AMP allosteric site but also to the FBP active site. Mutagenesis assays of K274L (located in the FBP active site) show that the residue K274 is very important for TNP-AMP to bind to the active site of FBPase. The results further prove that TNP-AMP is able to bind individually to the both sites. Our present study provides a new insight into the binding mechanism of TNP-AMP to the FBPase. The TNP-AMP fluorescent probe can be used to exam the binding site of an inhibitor (the active site or the allosteric site) using FBPase saturated by AMP and FBP, respectively, or the K247L mutant FBPase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular And 3D-Structural Characterization Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase Derived From Metroxylon Sagu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Azman Roslan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAld is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-phosphate (FBP to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, and plays vital role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, molecular characterization and functional roles of FBAld remain unknown in sago palm. Here we report a modified CTAB-RNA extraction method was developed for the isolation of good quality RNA (RIN>8 from sago leaves and the isolation of FBAld cDNA from sago palm. The isolated sago FBAld (msFBAld cDNA has total length of 1288 bp with an open reading frame of 1020 bp and a predicted to encode for a protein of 340 amino acid resides. The predicted protein shared a high degree of homology with Class-I FBAld from other plants. Meanwhile, the msFBAld gene spanned 2322 bp and consisted of five exons. Conserved domain search identified fifteen catalytically important amino acids at the active site and phylogenetic tree revealed localization of msFBAld in the chloroplast. A molecular 3D-structure of msFBAld was generated by homology modeling and a Ramachandran plot with 86.7% of the residues in the core region, 13.4% in the allowed region with no residues in the disallowed region. The modeled structure is a homotetramer containing an (/(-TIM-barrel at the center. Superimposition of the model with Class-I aldolases identified a catalytic dyad, Lys209-Glu167, which could be involved in the Schiff's base formation and aldol condensation. Apart from that, overproduction of the recombinant msFBAld in Escherichia coli resulted in increased tolerance towards salinity.

  1. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Rukseree, Kamolchanok [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Tha Khlong (Thailand); Capodagli, Glenn C. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Baker, Erica A. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Krasnykh, Olga [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Franzblau, Scott G. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  2. Structure of XC6422 from Xanthomonas campestris at 1.6 Å resolution: a small serine α/β-hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao-Yu; Chin, Ko-Hsin [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Andrew H.-J. [Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Core Facility for Protein Crystallography, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei,Taiwan (China); Chou, Shan-Ho, E-mail: shchou@nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227,Taiwan (China)

    2006-06-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from X. campestris has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. The determined X. campestris structure shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β hydrolase, with an extra strand preceding the first β-strand to lead to extensive subunit interactions in the crystal. XC6422 is a conserved hypothetical protein from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. The protein consists of 220 amino acids and its structure has been determined to 1.6 Å resolution using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Although it has very low sequence identity to protein sequences in the PDB (less than 20%), the determined structure nevertheless shows that it belongs to the superfamily of serine α/β-hydrolases, with an active site that is fully accessible to solvent owing to the absence of a lid domain. Modelling studies with the serine esterase inhibitor E600 indicate that XC6422 adopts a conserved Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad common to this superfamily and has a preformed oxyanion hole for catalytic activation. These structural features suggest that XC6422 is most likely to be a hydrolase active on a soluble ester or a small lipid. An extra strand preceding the first β-strand in the canonical α/β-hydrolase fold leads to extensive subunit interactions between XC6422 monomers, which may explain why XC6422 crystals of good diffraction quality can grow to dimensions of up to 1.5 mm in a few days.

  3. The volume of the human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, Georg; Roehner, Eric; Windisch, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, particularly in septic knee surgery, the volume of the human knee joint has not been established to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine knee joint volume and whether or not it is dependent on sex or body height. Sixty-one consecutive patients (joints) who were due to undergo endoprosthetic joint replacement were enrolled in this prospective study. During the operation, the joint volume was determined by injecting saline solution until a pressure of 200 mmHg was achieved in the joint. The average volume of all knee joints was 131 ± 53 (40-290) ml. The volume was not found to be dependent on sex, but it was dependent on the patients' height (R = 0.312, p = 0.014). This enabled an estimation of the joint volume according to V = 1.6 height - 135. The considerable inter-individual variance of the knee joint volume would suggest that it should be determined or at least estimated according to body height if the joint volume has consequences for the diagnostics or therapy of knee disorders.

  4. Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles with A Scanning 1.6μm DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Nagai, T.; Sakai, T.; Tsukamoto, M.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal carbon dioxide (CO2) distribution and wind profiles are important information for understanding of the regional sink and source of CO2. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler lidar with the range resolution is expected to bring several advantages over passive measurements. We have developed a new scanning 1.6μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system to perform simultaniously measurements of CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles in the atmosphere. The 1.6μm DIAL and Doppler lidar system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz). The receiving optics include the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detct Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope[1][2]. Laser beam is transmitted coaxially and motorized scanning mirror system can scan the laser beam and field of view 0-360deg horizontally and 0-52deg vertically. We report the results of vertical CO2 scanning measurenents and vertical wind profiles. The scanning elevation angles were from 12deg to 24deg with angular step of 4deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m altitude resolution. We also obtained vertical wind vector profiles by measuring line-of-sight wind profiles at two azimuth angles with a fixed elevation angle 52deg. Vertical wind vector profiles were obtained up to 5 km altitude with 1 km altitude rasolution. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. References [1] L. B. Vann, et al., "Narrowband fiber-optic phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg grating filters for atmospheric water vapor lidar measurements", Appl. Opt., 44, pp. 7371-7377 (2005). [2] Y. Shibata, et al., "1.5μm incoherent Doppler lidar using a FBG filter", Proceedings

  5. The metal-enriched host of an energetic γ-ray burst at z ≈ 1.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Geier, S.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Levan, A. J.; Sparre, M.; Watson, D. J.; Zafar, T.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The star-forming nature of long γ-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies provides invaluable constraints on the progenitors of GRBs and might open a short-cut to the characteristics of typical star-forming galaxies throughout the history of the Universe. Due to the absence of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, however, detailed investigations, specifically a determination of the gas-phase metallicity of gamma-ray burst hosts, was largely limited to redshifts z 1 GRB host in unprecedented detail and investigate the relation between GRB hosts and field galaxies. Methods: We availed of VLT/X-shooter optical/NIR spectroscopy to measure the metallicity, electron density, star-formation rate (SFR), and reddening of the host of GRB 080605. Specifically, we used different strong-line diagnostics to robustly measure the gas-phase metallicity within the interstellar medium (ISM) for the first time based on [N ii] at this redshift. Results: The host of the energetic (Eγ,iso ~ 2 × 1053 erg) GRB 080605 at z ~ 1.64 is a morphologically complex, vigorously star-forming galaxy with an Hα-derived SFR of 31-6+12 M⊙ yr-1. Its ISM is significantly enriched with metals. Specifically, [N ii]/Hα = 0.14 ± 0.02, which yields an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) between 8.3 and 8.6 depending on the adopted strong-line calibrator. This corresponds to values in the range of 0.4 - 0.8 Z⊙. For its measured stellar mass M* = 8.0-1.6+1.3 × 109 M⊙ and SFR, this value is consistent with the fundamental metallicity relation defined by star-forming field galaxies. The absence of strong Lyα emission constrains the escape fraction of resonantly-scattered Lyα photons to fesc ≲ 0.08. Conclusions: Our observations provide a detailed picture of the conditions in the ISM of a highly star-forming galaxy with irregular morphology at z ~ 1.6. They include the first robust metallicity measurement based on [N ii] for a GRB host at z > 1 and directly illustrate that GRB hosts are not necessarily

  6. N-acetylcysteine and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate: immunomodulatory effects on mononuclear cell culture N-acetilcisteína e frutose-1,6-bisfosfato: efeito imunomodulador em cultura de células mononucleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Obalski de Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a complex syndrome caused by an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. Inflammatory cytokines play a pivotal role in septic shock pathogenesis. Therapeutic strategies have been tested in order to modulate the excessive generation or function of sepsis mediators. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and its association with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP on T-lymphocytes proliferation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were isolated from healthy individuals. T-lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 96 hours and submitted to different concentrations of NAC or NAC associated with FBP. RESULTS: NAC (10 and 15 mM and NAC (15 mM associated with FBP reduced T-lymphocytes proliferation. IL-1β levels rose in the presence of both NAC (15 mM and NAC with FBP (1.25 mM. MCP-1 levels were reduced only by NAC (15 mM associated with FBP (1.25 mM. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that both NAC itself and NAC associated with FBP inhibit cellular proliferation, acting as potent immunomodulatory agents, which corroborates its use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.INTRODUÇÃO: A sepse é uma síndrome complexa causada pela resposta inflamatória sistêmica descontrolada. As citocinas inflamatórias representam papel central na patogênese do choque séptico. Têm sido testadas estratégias terapêuticas a fim de modular a geração ou a função excessiva de mediadores na sepse. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito terapêutico da N-acetilcisteína (NAC e sua associação com a frutose-1,6-bisfosfato (FBP sobre a proliferação de linfócitos T e a geração de interleucina-1β (IL-1β e proteína quimiotática de monócitos 1 (MCP-1 em cultura celular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas células mononucleares de

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Pseudomonas punonensis Strain D1-6 Isolated from the Desert Plant Erodium hirtum in Jordan

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-01-13

    Pseudomonas punonensis strain D1-6 was isolated from roots of the desert plant Erodium hirtum, near the Dead Sea in Jordan. The genome of strain D1-6 reveals several key plant growth-promoting and herbicide-resistance genes, indicating a possible specialized role for this endophyte.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Pseudomonas punonensis Strain D1-6 Isolated from the Desert Plant Erodium hirtum in Jordan

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi; AL Bladi, Maha Lafi Saleh; Salem, Nida M.; Al-Banna, Luma; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas punonensis strain D1-6 was isolated from roots of the desert plant Erodium hirtum, near the Dead Sea in Jordan. The genome of strain D1-6 reveals several key plant growth-promoting and herbicide-resistance genes, indicating a possible specialized role for this endophyte.

  9. Synthesis of polyurea from 1,6-hexanediamine with CO2 through a two-step polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation and transformation of CO2 is one of the important issues in the field of green and sustainable chemistry. Herein, CO2 as a carbon-oxygen resource was converted to CO2-polyurea with 1,6-hexanediamine through a two-step polymerization. The reaction parameters such as temperature, pressure and reaction time were examined; and several kinds of catalysts were screened in the absence and presence of NMP solvent. The formed oligomer and the final polyurea were characterized by FT-IR, VT-DRIFTS, NMR, XRD, AFM and their thermal properties were examined by TGA and DSC. It was confirmed that the final polyurea has a high thermal stability; the melting temperature is 269 °C and the decomposition temperature is above 300 °C. It is a brittle polymer with a tensile strength of 18.35 MPa at break length of 1.64%. The polyurea has a stronger solvent resistance due to the ordered hydrogen bond in structure. The average molecular weight should be enhanced in the post-polymerization as the appearance, hydrogen bond intensity, crystallinity, melting point and the thermal stability changed largely compared to the oligomer. The present work provides a new kind of polyurea, it is expected to have a wide application in the field of polymer materials. Keywords: CO2, Polyurea, Two-step polymerization, Catalysis

  10. CANDELS OBSERVATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE COLOR-MASS-MORPHOLOGY RELATION AT z = 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Robert; Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Almaini, Omar; Lani, Caterina; Cooper, Michael; Croton, Darren; Dekel, Avishai; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Wechsler, Risa

    2013-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of color, stellar mass, and morphology by comparing galaxies in a forming cluster to those in the field at z = 1.6 with Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared imaging in the CANDELS/UDS field. We quantify the morphology of the galaxies using the effective radius, r eff , and Sérsic index, n. In both the cluster and field, approximately half of the bulge-dominated galaxies (n > 2) reside on the red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram, and most disk-dominated galaxies (n proj < 1.5 Mpc, which have low Sérsic indices and possibly larger effective radii, more consistent with star-forming galaxies at this epoch and in contrast to other quiescent galaxies. We argue that star-forming galaxies are processed under the influence of the cluster environment at distances greater than the cluster-halo virial radius. Our results are consistent with models where gas accretion onto these galaxies is suppressed from processes associated with the cluster environment.

  11. Quantum confinement and surface chemistry of 0.8–1.6 nm hydrosilylated silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi Xiao-Dong; Wang Rong; Yang De-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the electronic properties of alkene/alkyne-hydrosilylated silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) in the size range from 0.8 nm to 1.6 nm. Among the alkenes with all kinds of functional groups considered in this work, only those containing —NH 2 and —C 4 H 3 S lead to significant hydrosilylation-induced changes in the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of an Si NC at the ground state. The quantum confinement effect is dominant for all of the alkene-hydrosilylated Si NCs at the ground state. At the excited state, the prevailing effect of surface chemistry only occurs at the smallest (0.8 nm) Si NCs hydrosilylated with alkenes containing —NH 2 and —C 4 H 3 S. Although the alkyne hydrosilylation gives rise to a more significant surface chemistry effect than alkene hydrosilylation, the quantum confinement effect remains dominant for alkyne-hydrosilylated Si NCs at the ground state. However, at the excited state, the effect of surface chemistry induced by the hydrosilylation with conjugated alkynes is strong enough to prevail over that of quantum confinement. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  12. Extended mechanistic aspects on photoinitiated polymerization of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate by hexaarylbisimidazoles and heterocyclic mercapto compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Nadine; Lindauer, Heike; Strehmel, Veronika; Strehmel, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Chlorine substituted hexaarylbisimidazole (o-Cl-HABI) efficiently initiates radical polymerization of multifunctional acrylic esters in the presence of a heterocyclic mercapto compound if the latter can form its tautomeric thione. Exposure of o-Cl-HABI results in lophyl radicals, which efficiently add to the thione in the first step while the second step releases a highly reactive thiyl radical from this intermediate. LC-MS and CID-MS measurements support this reaction scheme. Furthermore, photo-DSC experiments applying UV light between 320 and 380 nm showed that mercaptotriazole and phenylmercaptotriazole exhibited the best reactivity in the monomer 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) while alkyl substituted mercaptotriazoles showed less reactivity. Change of the triazole heterocycle by mercaptoimidazole resulted in a significant decrease of photoinitiation efficiency. This heterocycle does not form the corresponding thione in HDDA as shown by NMR measurements. Replacement of mercaptotriazole by an alkylthiol leads to a system showing the lowest photoinitiation efficiency in this series. Formation of thione structure in the case of heterocyclic mercapto compounds may cause higher reactivity of the heterocyclic mercapto compounds with the lophyl radical in the monomer chosen.

  13. Synthesis and properties of a new polydiacetylene: poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, K.C.; Chance, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The solid-state synthesis and properties are reported for a new polydiacetylene: poly[1,6-di(N-carbozolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne]. The monomer crystals polymerize quantitatively with γ irradiation or thermal annealing. An autocatalytic effect is observed in both γ-ray polymerization and thermal polymerization and is attributed to an increase in chain propagation length at about 5% conversion. The activation energy for thermal polymerization is about 25 kcal/mole, independent of the degree of conversion to polymer. The exceptional thermal stability of the polymer crystals allowed a thermomechanical analysis over a large temperature range, -50 to 300 0 C. With increasing temperature, the polymer contracts in the chain direction linearly with temperature over the entire range, yielding a thermal expansion coefficient of (-2.32 +- 0.02) x 10 -50 C -1 . Photoconductivity action spectra are reported for the polymer crystals. The energies for the photoconductivity onset (ca. 2.3 eV) and for the lowest energy optical transition (1.89 eV) are the lowest reported for the polydiacetylenes. The photoconduction onset is blue-shifted with respect to optical absorption--a result which is consistent with the excitonic assignment for the lowest energy optical transition in the polydiacetylenes

  14. A Piezoelectric Micromotor with a Stator of φ=1.6 mm and l=4 mm Using Bulk PZT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagatay, Serra; Koc, Burhanettin; Moses, Paul; Uchino, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    The smallest discrete piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using bulk ceramics was developed. We are proposing basically a two-part motor: stator and rotor. The stator of the present motor consists of a hollow metal brass tube with outer diameter of 1.6 mm, inner diameter of 0.8 mm and length of only 4 mm with 2 PZT plates bonded onto it. Owing to the asymmetrical stator surface, two degenerated orthogonal bending modes were slightly split, resulting in a wobbling motion. Thus, the motor can be driven by a single driving source. The rotor is a spring, which is basically different from previous designs, pressed at both ends to the stator by a pair of ferrules. Consequently, the length of the whole motor assembly was reduced significantly; a final motor length of only 5 mm was obtained. The working frequency under zero load was approximately 227-233 kHz. Although the size is small, relatively high power was obtained under an optimized load condition: torque of 0.06 mNm, maximum power of 3.2 mW with a speed of 118 rad/s, and maximum efficiency of 11% under 48 Vrms at 221 kHz.

  15. Effects of heat input on mechanical properties of metal inert gas welded 1.6 mm thick galvanized steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, M I; Ishak, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    It is usually a lot easier and less expensive to galvanize steel before it is welded into useful products. Galvanizing afterwards is almost impossible. In this research work, Galvanized Steel was welded by using the ER 308L stainless steel filler material. This work was done to find out an alternative way of welding and investigate the effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt welded joints of Galvanized Steel. A 13.7 kW maximum capacity MIG welding machine was used to join 1.6 mm thick sheet of galvanized steel with V groove and no gap between mm. Heat inputs was gradually increased from 21.06 to 25.07 joules/mm in this study. The result shows almost macro defects free welding and with increasing heat input the ultimate tensile strength and welding efficiency decrease. The Vickers hardness also decreases at HAZ with increasing heat input and for each individual specimen; hardness was lowest in heat affected zone (HAZ), intermediate in base metal and maximum in welded zone. The fracture for all specimens was in the heat affected zone while testing in the universal testing machine.

  16. Effects of heat input on mechanical properties of metal inert gas welded 1.6 mm thick galvanized steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiqul, M. I.; Ishak, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    It is usually a lot easier and less expensive to galvanize steel before it is welded into useful products. Galvanizing afterwards is almost impossible. In this research work, Galvanized Steel was welded by using the ER 308L stainless steel filler material. This work was done to find out an alternative way of welding and investigate the effects of heat input on the mechanical properties of butt welded joints of Galvanized Steel. A 13.7 kW maximum capacity MIG welding machine was used to join 1.6 mm thick sheet of galvanized steel with V groove and no gap between mm. Heat inputs was gradually increased from 21.06 to 25.07 joules/mm in this study. The result shows almost macro defects free welding and with increasing heat input the ultimate tensile strength and welding efficiency decrease. The Vickers hardness also decreases at HAZ with increasing heat input and for each individual specimen; hardness was lowest in heat affected zone (HAZ), intermediate in base metal and maximum in welded zone. The fracture for all specimens was in the heat affected zone while testing in the universal testing machine.

  17. GALAXY ENVIRONMENTS OVER COSMIC TIME: THE NON-EVOLVING RADIAL GALAXY DISTRIBUTIONS AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z = 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Tomer; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the environments of massive galaxies in four redshift bins between z = 0.04 and z = 1.6, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey. We measure the projected radial distribution of galaxies in cylinders around a constant number density selected sample of massive galaxies and utilize a statistical subtraction of contaminating sources. Our analysis shows that massive primary galaxies typically live in group halos and are surrounded by 2-3 satellites with masses more than one-tenth of the primary galaxy mass. The cumulative stellar mass in these satellites roughly equals the mass of the primary galaxy itself. We further find that the radial number density profile of galaxies around massive primaries has not evolved significantly in either slope or overall normalization in the past 9.5 Gyr. A simplistic interpretation of this result can be taken as evidence for a lack of mergers in the studied groups and as support for a static evolution model of halos containing massive primaries. Alternatively, there exists a tight balance between mergers and accretion of new satellites such that the overall distribution of galaxies in and around the halo is preserved. The latter interpretation is supported by a comparison to a semi-analytic model, which shows a similar constant average satellite distribution over the same redshift range.

  18. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Ding, Mingde [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kleint, Lucia [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Institute of 4D technologies Bahnhofstr. 6, CH-5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Su, Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji, Haisheng [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 Beijing Xi Lu, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdae-ro 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  19. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects

  20. Sonochemical synthesis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate dicalcium porous microspheres and their application in promotion of osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhou, Ding; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into bone and cartilage for clinical bone regeneration. Biomaterials with an innate ability to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs into bone and cartilage are considered attractive candidates for the applications in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. In this paper, we synthesized fructose 1,6-bisphosphate dicalcium (Ca 2 FBP) porous microspheres by the sonochemical method, and investigated the ability of Ca 2 FBP for the promotion of the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. After the hBMSCs were co-cultured with the sterilized powder of Ca 2 FBP porous microspheres for different times, the cell proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to investigate the bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation performance of the as-prepared product. Compared with hydroxyapatite nanorods, Ca 2 FBP porous microspheres show a superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential, and can promote the cell differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro, thus, they are promising for applications in the tissue engineering field such as dental and bone defect repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Round-robin pretest analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model subject to static internal pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1987-05-01

    Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test

  2. Beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C immunostimulate the non-specific immune response of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Liau, Shu-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Ting; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-10-01

    This study mainly evaluated the effects of orally administered beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C on the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, we found that the white shrimp oral administration with 1 g/kg of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan effectively enhanced O2(-) production and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Shrimp were oral administration with 0.2 g/kg of vitamin C presented beneficial nonspecific immune responses and enzyme activity and also observed in the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan treatment groups. Consequently, we compared the alterations in the immune activity between the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C groups and the evidence illustrated that combination of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C presented an additive effect on inducing the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CANDELS OBSERVATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE COLOR-MASS-MORPHOLOGY RELATION AT z = 1.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Robert; Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Lotz, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Almaini, Omar; Lani, Caterina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cooper, Michael [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McIntosh, Daniel H. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We study the environmental dependence of color, stellar mass, and morphology by comparing galaxies in a forming cluster to those in the field at z = 1.6 with Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared imaging in the CANDELS/UDS field. We quantify the morphology of the galaxies using the effective radius, r{sub eff}, and Sersic index, n. In both the cluster and field, approximately half of the bulge-dominated galaxies (n > 2) reside on the red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram, and most disk-dominated galaxies (n < 2) have colors expected for star-forming galaxies. There is weak evidence that cluster galaxies have redder rest-frame U - B colors and higher stellar masses compared to the field. Star-forming galaxies in both the cluster and field show no significant differences in their morphologies. In contrast, there is evidence that quiescent galaxies in the cluster have larger median effective radii and smaller Sersic indices compared to the field with a significance of 2{sigma}. These differences are most pronounced for galaxies at clustercentric distances 1 Mpc

  4. KMTNET: A Network of 1.6 m Wide-Field Optical Telescopes Installed at Three Southern Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Byeong-Gon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moo-Young; Yuk, Insoo

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) is a wide-field photometric system installed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Here, we present the overall technical specifications of the KMTNet observation system, test observation results, data transfer and image processing procedure, and finally, the KMTNet science programs. The system consists of three 1.6 m wide-field optical telescopes equipped with mosaic CCD cameras of 18k by 18k pixels. Each telescope provides a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. We have finished installing all three telescopes and cameras sequentially at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. This network of telescopes, which is spread over three different continents at a similar latitude of about -30 degrees, enables 24-hour continuous monitoring of targets observable in the Southern Hemisphere. The test observations showed good image quality that meets the seeing requirement of less than 1.0 arcsec in I-band. All of the observation data are transferred to the KMTNet data center at KASI via the international network communication and are processed with the KMTNet data pipeline. The primary scientific goal of the KMTNet is to discover numerous extrasolar planets toward the Galactic bulge by using the gravitational microlensing technique, especially earth-mass planets in the habitable zone. During the non-bulge season, the system is used for wide-field photometric survey science on supernovae, asteroids, and external galaxies.

  5. Gripe Water Administration in Infants 1-6 months of Age-A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerthi; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany; Venkatesh, Chandrasekaran; Soundararajan, Palanisamy

    2015-11-01

    Gripe water (GW) administration to young infants is common practice in this part of country. In order to ascertain why mothers administer gripe water to their infants and to find out what benefits or health risks it poses, we proposed to study the practice of mothers giving GW to their babies. Three hundred and thirty five eligible mothers of infants aged 1-6 months (who after qualifying inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study) who attended the well baby clinic during the study period, were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire which contained both open and close ended questions after obtaining informed written consent. The study population was then divided into two groups based on administration of GW or not and the results were compared and analysed among the two groups using odds ratio with 95% C.I. For calculation of statistics, the statistical package SPSS 13 was used. 64.18% of the mothers were administering GW for their infants. Most mothers believed that GW helps in digestion and prevents stomach ache. Infantile colic, vomiting and constipation were common in GW administered infants, when compared to those who did not receive GW and the difference was significant with p-values of 0.0001, 0.0373, 0.0007respectively. GW administration is a common problem in infants and remains a significant challenge that thwarts exclusive breast feeding. More over GW administration does not seem to prevent infantile colic and on the other hand, may be associated with vomiting and constipation. Misconceptions prevailing among mothers have to be removed by effective counseling so that the mothers are aware of safe and healthy feeding practices to be adopted for feeding their babies.

  6. Knee function among elite handball and football players 1-6 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, G; Bahr, R; Nilstad, A; Steffen, K

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe objective and self-reported knee function for athletes who have returned to elite handball and football play after an ACL injury, comparing these to non-injured players at the same level. A total of 414 handball and 444 football players completed baseline tests from 2007 through 2014, examining lower extremity strength, dynamic balance, knee laxity, and knee function (KOOS questionnaire). Measures were compared between injured and non-injured legs and between injured legs and legs of controls. Eighty (9.3%) of the 858 players reported a previous ACL injury, 1-6 years post-injury (3.5±2.5 years), 49 handball (61.3%) and 31 football players (38.7%). We found no difference in strength or dynamic balance between previously ACL-injured (N=80) and non-injured players legs (N=1556). However, lower quadriceps (6.3%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.2) and hamstrings muscle strength (6.1%, 95% CI: 3.3-8.1) were observed in previously ACL-injured legs compared to the non-injured contralateral side (N=80). ACL-injured knees displayed greater joint laxity than the contralateral knee (N=80, 17%, 95% CI: 8-26) and healthy knees (N=1556, 23%, 95% CI: 14-33). KOOS scores were significantly lower for injured knees compared to knees of non-injured players. ACL-injured players who have successfully returned to elite sport have comparable strength and balance measures as their non-injured teammates. Subjective perception of knee function is strongly affected by injury history, with clinically relevant lower scores for the KOOS subscores Pain, Function, Sport, and Quality Of Life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Plasma upflows and microwave emission in hot supra-arcade structure associated with AN M1.6 limb flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Bain, H.-M.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  8. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-Glucan inhibit cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Jippo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergies has increased in several countries. Mast cells have critical roles in various biologic processes related to allergic diseases. Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig E on their surface. The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE causes the secretion of granule-stored mediators, as well as the de novosynthesis of cytokines. Those mediators and cytokines proceed the allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of water-soluble, low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast (LMW--glucan on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. We reported that LMW--glucan dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation of mast cells. Furthermore, we found that orally administered LMW--glucan inhibited the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA reaction in mice. Here, we examined if LMW--glucan had effects on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Findings: In a clinical study, a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 65 subjects (aged 2262 was performed. This study was undertaken 3 weeks before and until the end of the cedar pollen season. During the study, all subjects consumed one bottle of placebo or LMW--glucan daily and all subjects were required to record allergic symptoms in a diary. The LMW--glucan group had a significantly lower prevalence of sneezing, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to the activities of daily living than the placebo group. Conclusions: These results suggested that LMW--glucan could be an effective treatment for allergic diseases

  9. β-1,3/1,6-Glucan alleviated intestinal mucosal barrier impairment of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yujing; Guo, Yuming; Wang, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on gut morphology, intestinal epithelial tight junctions, and bacterial translocation of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Ninety Salmonella-free Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups: negative control group (NC), Salmonella Typhimurium-infected positive group (PC), and the Salmonella Typhimurium-infected group with dietary 100 mg/kg of β-1,3/1,6-glucan supplementation (T) to determine the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on intestinal barrier function. Salmonella Typhimurium challenge alone significantly decreased villus height (P chickens challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium.

  10. Improved images of crustal structures in the Bergslagen, central Sweden, through seismic reprocessing of BABEL lines 1, 6 and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, Sebastian; Malehmir, Alireza; Malinowski, Michał; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In a joint effort through the BABEL project, geoscientists from five countries acquired marine seismic data in the Baltic Sea with a total length of 2268 km in the year 1989. These consisted of near-vertical reflection and wide-angle refraction seismic data, providing insights into the subsurface down to the Moho and suggesting the existence of plate tectonics already during the Paleoproterozoic. The seismic data were acquired using a receiver group interval of 50 m and a total cable length of 3 km. In total, 60 groups of 64 hydrophones at 15 m depth were used. An airgun array consisting of six equal subarrays towed at 7.5 m depth was used to generate the seismic signal. The shot interval and the corresponding record lengths were different among the lines. A record length of 25 s and 75 m shot spacing for lines 1 and 7, respectively and 23 s and 62.5 m for line 6, respectively was used. The sampling rate was 4 ms for all three profiles. Lines 1, 6 and 7 are located at the boundary to the world-class and historical Bergslagen mineral district, and are being revisited in this study. Improved images can be used to refine previous interpretations, particularly at shallower depths (stack deconvolutions and coherency enhancements were applied. The reprocessing revealed reflections in the shallow part of the profiles, likely from major deformation (multi-phase) zones extending down to the lower crust, which were not present in the previous images. Also the images of the reflections in the deeper parts are remarkably improved. This also includes a few sub-Moho reflections. The three reprocessed profiles help constrain the nature of the northern boundary of Bergslagen and associated crustal structures. Furthermore they should assist in the planning of an onshore refraction and reflection profile, to be acquired in 2017, crossing the northern boundary of the Bergslagen district. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) grant number 2015

  11. The Constitutional Review Chamber of the Republic of Estonia : no. of the case 3-4-1-6-08 : date of decision 1 July 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohtulahendi 3-4-1-6-08 (Tallinna Ringkonnakohtu taotlus tunnistada põhiseadusega vastuolus olevaks lennundusseaduse § 71 lg 2 teine lause, millega on pandud ettevõtjale kontrolli teostamise kulude tasumise kohustus) tekst inglise keeles

  12. Tööaja arvestamine ja lisatasude maksmine tükitöö puhul. Riigikohtu tsiviilkolleegiumi otsus asjas 3-2-1-6-08 / Merle Muda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muda, Merle, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikohtu otsusest 3-2-1-6-08: OÜ Arliten (endine OÜ Anubis Expert) kassatsioonkaebus Tartu Ringkonnakohtu 03.10.2007. a otsusele Oliver Surva hagis OÜ Arliten (endine OÜ Anubis Expert) vastu töövaidluses

  13. Regioselective 1,4- and 1,6-Conjugate Additions of Grignard Reagent-Derived Organozinc(II)ates to Polyconjugated Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Manabu; Mizuno, Mai; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2016-09-16

    Regioselective synthetic methods were developed for 1,4- and 1,6-conjugate additions of Grignard reagent-derived organozinc(II)ates to malonate-derived polyconjugated esters. By taking advantage of the tight ion-pair control of organozinc(II)ates, it was possible to switch between 1,4- and 1,6-conjugate additions by introducing a terminal ethoxy moiety in the conjugation.

  14. High Power OPO Laser and wavelength-controlled system for 1.6μm CO2-DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the existing 2.0μm CO2-DIAL, a high-energy pulse laser operating in the 1.6μm absorption band of CO2 has not been realized. Quasi phase matching (QPM) devices have high conversion efficiency and high beam quality due to their higher nonlinear optical coefficient. We adapt the PPMgLT crystal as the QPM device. The PPMgLT crystal had 3mm × 3mm apertures, and the periodically poled period was 30.9 μm, with the duty ratio close to the ideal value of 0.5. The beam quality of the pumping laser was exceed M2 ≥1.2. The repetition rate was 400 Hz and the energy was 35 mJ. The pumping laser pulse was injection-seeded by the continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser, which had a narrow spectrum. The pulse pumped the PPMgLT crystal in the ring cavity with a single pass through the dielectric mirror. The PPMgLT crystal was mounted on a copper holder, and the temperature was maintained at 40 °C using a Peltier module. The holder’s temperature was stabilized to within 0.01 °C when the copper holder was covered with a plastic case. The OPO ring cavity was a singly resonant oscillator optimized for the signal wave. Single-frequency oscillation of the PPMgLT OPO was achieved by injection seeding, as described in the following. The injection seeder was a DFB laser having a power of 30mW with a 1MHz oscillation spectrum. Their oscillation wavelength was coarse tuned by temperature and fine tuned by adjusting injection currents. The partial power of the online wavelength was split in the wavelength control unit. We locked the DFB laser as an injection seeder of the online wavelength onto the line center by referencing the fiber coupled multipath gas cell (path length 800mm) containing pure CO2 at a pressure of 700 Torr. Stabilization was estimated to within 1.8MHz rms of the line center of the CO2 absorption line by monitoring the feedback signal of a wavelength-controlled unit. Injection seeding of the PPMgLT OPO was performed by matching the cavity length to the seeder

  15. Chromospheric evaporation flows and density changes deduced from Hinode/EIS during an M1.6 flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömöry, P.; Veronig, A. M.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Thalmann, J. K.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study the response of the solar atmosphere during a GOES M1.6 flare using spectroscopic and imaging observations. In particular, we examine the evolution of the mass flows and electron density together with the energy input derived from hard X-ray (HXR) in the context of chromospheric evaporation. Methods: We analyzed high-cadence sit-and-stare observations acquired with the Hinode/EIS spectrometer in the Fe xiii 202.044 Å (log T = 6.2) and Fe xvi 262.980 Å (log T = 6.4) spectral lines to derive temporal variations of the line intensity, Doppler shifts, and electron density during the flare. We combined these data with HXR measurements acquired with RHESSI to derive the energy input to the lower atmosphere by flare-accelerated electrons. Results: During the flare impulsive phase, we observe no significant flows in the cooler Fe xiii line but strong upflows, up to 80-150 km s-1, in the hotter Fe xvi line. The largest Doppler shifts observed in the Fe xvi line were co-temporal with the sharp intensity peak. The electron density obtained from a Fe xiii line pair ratio exhibited fast increase (within two minutes) from the pre-flare level of 5.01 × 109 cm-3 to 3.16 × 1010 cm-3 during the flare peak. The nonthermal energy flux density deposited from the coronal acceleration site to the lower atmospheric layers during the flare peak was found to be 1.34 × 1010 erg s-1 cm-2 for a low-energy cut-off that was estimated to be 16 keV. During the decline flare phase, we found a secondary intensity and density peak of lower amplitude that was preceded by upflows of ~15 km s-1 that were detected in both lines. The flare was also accompanied by a filament eruption that was partly captured by the EIS observations. We derived Doppler velocities of 250-300 km s-1 for the upflowing filament material. Conclusions: The spectroscopic results for the flare peak are consistent with the scenario of explosive chromospheric evaporation, although a comparatively low value of the

  16. Effect of the La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) hydrogen storage electrode alloys for nickel-metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Lei, Y. Q.; Chen, L. X.; Lu, G. L.; Pan, H. G.; Wang, Q. D.

    Effect of La/Mg ratio on the structure and electrochemical properties of La xMg 3- xNi 9 ( x=1.6-2.2) ternary alloys was investigated. All alloys are consisted of a main phase with hexagonal PuNi 3-type structure and a few impurity phases (mainly LaNi 5 and MgNi 2). The increase of La/Mg ratio in the alloys leads to an increase in both the cell volume and the hydride stability. The discharge capacity of the alloys at 100 mA/g increases with the increase of La/Mg ratio and passes though a maximum of 397.5 mAh/g at x=2.0. As the La/Mg ratio increases, the high-rate dischargeability of the alloy electrodes at 1200 mA/g HRD 1200 decreases from 66.7% ( x=1.6) to 26.5% ( x=2.2). The slower decrease of HRD 1200 (from 66.7 to 52.7%) of the alloys with x=1.6-2.0 is mainly attributed to the decrease of electrocatalytic activity of the alloys for charge-transfer reaction, the more rapid decrease of HRD 1200 of the alloys with x>2.0 is mainly attributed to the lowering of the hydrogen diffusion rate in the bulk of alloy. The cycling capacity degradation of the alloys is rather fast for practical application due to the corrosion of La and Mg and the large VH in the hydride phase.

  17. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, Adela; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Carrato, Alfredo; Soto, José-Luís; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Montenegro, Paola; Ochoa, Enrique; Lázaro, Rafael; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Guarinos, Carla; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  18. Biochemical Characterization and Structural Basis of Reactivity and Regioselectivity Differences between Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia glumae 1,6-Didesmethyltoxoflavin N-Methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K; Almabruk, Khaled H; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P; Philmus, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Burkholderia glumae converts the guanine base of guanosine triphosphate into an azapteridine and methylates both the pyrimidine and triazine rings to make toxoflavin. Strains of Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei have a gene cluster encoding seven putative biosynthetic enzymes that resembles the toxoflavin gene cluster. Four of the enzymes are similar in sequence to BgToxBCDE, which have been proposed to make 1,6-didesmethyltoxoflavin (1,6-DDMT). One of the remaining enzymes, BthII1283 in B. thailandensis E264, is a predicted S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent N-methyltransferase that shows a low level of sequence identity to BgToxA, which sequentially methylates N6 and N1 of 1,6-DDMT to form toxoflavin. Here we show that, unlike BgToxA, BthII1283 catalyzes a single methyl transfer to N1 of 1,6-DDMT in vitro. In addition, we investigated the differences in reactivity and regioselectivity by determining crystal structures of BthII1283 with bound S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) or 1,6-DDMT and SAH. BthII1283 contains a class I methyltransferase fold and three unique extensions used for 1,6-DDMT recognition. The active site structure suggests that 1,6-DDMT is bound in a reduced form. The plane of the azapteridine ring system is orthogonal to its orientation in BgToxA. In BthII1283, the modeled SAM methyl group is directed toward the p orbital of N1, whereas in BgToxA, it is first directed toward an sp 2 orbital of N6 and then toward an sp 2 orbital of N1 after planar rotation of the azapteridine ring system. Furthermore, in BthII1283, N1 is hydrogen bonded to a histidine residue whereas BgToxA does not supply an obvious basic residue for either N6 or N1 methylation.

  19. Expression of reductases in continuous mammal cell cultures and its significance for the activation of nitroaromatics shown for the example of 1.6 dinitropyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, U.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of the work was to establish the metabolism of 1,3- and 1,6-DNP in intact cells. This gave rise to the following questions. What metabolites are formed in cell lines with different enzyme outfits? What influence does the induction of P450 have on the metabolism of the two nitroaromates? Does the metabolism found in the different test cell lines permit any conclusions as to the activating mechanism of 1,6- and 1,3-DNP. In the second part these test cell lines were studied with respect to the expression of the reductases that might be involved in the metabolism of aromates. The following questions were of focal interest: Are cytochrome reductase, DT diaphorase and xanthine-oxidase expressed in the cell lines? If so, to what extent? Can these enzymes be induced in the test cell lines? In the last part the enzymes that reduce 1,6-DNP to gene-toxic products were identified. This required clarifying the following: What role do the above-mentioned reductases play in the activation of 1,6-DNP in individual cell lines? Are there other enzymes responsible for the activation of 1,6-DNP? (MG) [de

  20. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...