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Sample records for hollow carbon spheres

  1. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen; Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2008-10-28

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  3. Hollow-in-Hollow Carbon Spheres for Lithium-ion Batteries with Superior Capacity and Cyclic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Jun; Ye, Jianchuan; Fang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Zheng, Mingsen; Dong, Quanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow-in-hollow structured HIHCS was synthesized via a facile templating strategy. • The HCS core and hollow carbon shell constitute the hollow-in-hollow structure. • The HIHCS exhibited superior rate capability and cycle stability as anode material. • The excellent performance is attributed to the unique hollow-in-hollow structure. - Abstract: Hollow spheres structured materials have been intensively pursued due to their unique properties for energy storage. In this paper, hollow-in-hollow carbon spheres (HIHCS) with a multi-shelled structure were successfully synthesized using a facile hard-templating procedure. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant HIHCS anode exhibited superior capacity and cycling stability than HCS. It could deliver reversible capacities of 937, 481, 401, 304 and 236 mAh g −1 at current densities of 0.1 A g −1 , 1 A g −1 , 2 A g −1 , 5 A g −1 and 10 A g −1 , respectively. And capacity fading is not apparent in 500 cycles at 5 A g −1 . The excellent performance of the HIHCS anode is ascribed to its unique hollow-in-hollow structure and high specific surface area.

  4. MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres for anodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yufei; Wang, Ye; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Jun; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    With the assistance of resorcinol–formaldehyde, MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres (C@MoS 2 ) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route followed by heat and alkali treatments. The measurements indicate that the hollow carbon spheres with an average diameter of 300 nm and shell thickness of 20 nm. And the hollow core are uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS 2 nanosheets with a length increased to 400 nm. The unique hollow structure and the synergistic effect between carbon layer and MoS 2 nanosheets significantly enhance the rate capability and electrochemical stability of C@MoS 2 spheres as anode material of lithium-ion battery. The synthesized C@MoS 2 delivered a capacity of 750 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . More importantly, the C@MoS 2 maintained a reversible capacity of 533 mAh g −1 even at a high current density of 1000 mA g −1 . The study indicated that MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres can be promising anode material for next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. (paper)

  5. Electrochemical characteristics of discrete, uniform, and monodispersed hollow mesoporous carbon spheres in double-layered supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuecheng; Kierzek, Krzysztof; Wenelska, Karolina; Cendrowski, Krzystof; Gong, Jiang; Wen, Xin; Tang, Tao; Chu, Paul K; Mijowska, Ewa

    2013-11-01

    Core-shell-structured mesoporous silica spheres were prepared by using n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18TMS) as the surfactant. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with controllable diameters were fabricated from core-shell-structured mesoporous silica sphere templates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). By controlling the thickness of the silica shell, hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) with different diameters can be obtained. The use of ethylene as the carbon precursor in the CVD process produces the materials in a single step without the need to remove the surfactant. The mechanism of formation and the role played by the surfactant, C18TMS, are investigated. The materials have large potential in double-layer supercapacitors, and their electrochemical properties were determined. HCSs with thicker mesoporous shells possess a larger surface area, which in turn increases their electrochemical capacitance. The samples prepared at a lower temperature also exhibit increased capacitance as a result of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area and larger pore size. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hollow carbon sphere/metal oxide nanocomposites anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenelska, K.; Ottmann, A.; Schneider, P.; Thauer, E.; Klingeler, R.; Mijowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    HCS (Hollow carbon spheres) covered with metal oxide nanoparticles (SnO_2 and MnO_2, respectively) were successfully synthesized and investigated regarding their potential as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Raman spectroscopy shows a high degree of graphitization for the HCS host structure. The mesoporous nature of the nanocomposites is confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. For both metal oxides under study, the metal oxide functionalization of HCS yields a significant increase of electrochemical performance. The charge capacity of HCS/SnO_2 is 370 mA hg"−"1 after 45 cycles (266 mA hg"−"1 in HCS/MnO_2) which clearly exceeds the value of 188 mA hg"−"1 in pristine HCS. Remarkably, the data imply excellent long term cycling stability after 100 cycles in both cases. The results hence show that mesoporous HCS/metal oxide nanocomposites enable exploiting the potential of metal oxide anode materials in Lithium-ion batteries by providing a HCS host structure which is both conductive and stable enough to accommodate big volume change effects. - Highlights: • Strategy to synthesize hollow carbon spheres decorated by metal oxides nanoparticles. • High-performance of HCS/MOx storage as mesoporous hybrid material. • The results hence demonstrate high electrochemical activity of the HCS/MOx.

  7. Synthesis of Hollow Silver Spheres using Spherical Vaterite-type Calcium Carbonate as Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Minyoung; Go, Hani; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Rhee, Seog Woo [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of hollow silver spheres using vaterite-type CaCO{sub 3} as template. The spherical vaterite-type CaCO{sub 3} was selectively precipitated d reaction of aqueous CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the presence of the polyelectrolyte poly(4-styrenesulfonate). Aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution containing NH{sub 2}-functionalized CaCO{sub 3} particles was treated with reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, NaBH{sub 4}, and acetaldehyde, and the reduced silver particles were deposited on the surface of CaCO{sub 3}particles to form uniform silvershells. The CaCO{sub 3} used as template was removed from the CaCO{sub 3}/Ag composite by treatment with acid. Finally, the hollow silver sphere was obtained. The morphologies of product were investigated using electron microscopy, the chemical composition of the composite was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the vibration modes of the carbonate ion were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the thermal mass change was measured using the thermogravimetric analysis, and the solid phases were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction.

  8. Controllable synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres using ionic liquids as template for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aibing; Li, Yunqian; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Xia, Kechan; Wang, Yuying; Li, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and controllable synthesis of monodispersed nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous carbon spheres (N-HMCSs) using resorcinol/formaldehyde resin as a carbon precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a structure-assistant agent, ionic liquids (ILs) as soft template, partial carbon sources, and nitrogen sources. The sizes and the architectures including hollow and yolk-shell of resultant carbon spheres can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the content of ILs. Alkyl chain length of the ILs also has an important effect on the formation of N-HMCSs. With proper alkyl chain length and content of ILs, the resultant N-HMCSs show monodispersed hollow spheres with high surface areas (up to 1158 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (up to 1.70 cm3 g-1), and uniform mesopore size (5.0 nm). Combining the hollow mesoporous structure, high porosity, large surface area, and nitrogen functionality, the as-synthesized N-HMCSs have good supercapacitor performance with good capacitance (up to 159 F g-1) and favorable capacitance retention (88% capacitive retention after 5000 cycles).

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon hollow spheres derived from polypyrrole for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bingjie; Li, Peipei; Liu, Yan; Lin, Shanshan; Gao, Bifen; Lin, Bizhou

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon hollow spheres (NPCHSs) have been prepared by a carbonization and subsequent chemical activation route using dehydrated polypyrrole hollow spheres as the precursor and KOH as the activating agent. NPCHSs are interconnected into a unique 3D porous network, which endows the as-prepared carbon to exhibit a large specific surface area of 1155 m2 g-1 and a high specific capacitance of 232 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The as-obtained NPCHSs present a high-level heteroatom doping with N, O and P contents of 11.4, 6.7 and 3.5 wt%, respectively. The capacitance of NPCHSs has been retained at 89.1% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a relatively high current density of 5 A g-1. Such excellent performance suggests that NPCHSs are attractive electrode candidates for electrical double layer capacitors.

  10. Lithium-ion storage capacitors achieved by CVD graphene/TaC/Ta-wires and carbon hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Liwei; Li, Hongji; Li, Mingji; Xu, Sheng; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Zhang, Lijun; Yang, Baohe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene/TaC/Ta wire electrode was prepared by CVD. • Carbon hollow spheres as a solid electrolyte were prepared by hydrothermal. • Specific capacitance of assembled capacitor reached 593 F g −1 at 10 A g −1 . • The capacitor provided high energy and power densities (132 W h kg −1 /3.17 kW kg −1 ). • The hybrid capacitor also exhibited a high stability during long endurance tests. - Abstract: Lithium-ion storage capacitors were assembled using graphene/tantalum carbide/tantalum wire electrodes and carbon hollow spheres as electrolyte. The graphene/tantalum carbide layers were prepared by electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition; the carbon hollow spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and pyrolysis treatment. The specific capacitance of the capacitor was 593 F g −1 at a current density of 10 A g −1 . The capacitor showed excellent cycling stability, retaining 91.2% of its initial capacitance after 8000 cycles. Moreover, the capacitor provided a high specific energy density of 132 W h kg −1 at a high power density of 3.17 kW kg −1 . The high energy density is attributed to the widened operation window ranging from 0 to 3.0 V. The graphene layer of the electrode and carbon hollow spheres in electrolyte synergistic affect influence on the electrochemical performance of the capacitor are discussed. In addition, the use of a low-cost lithium salt, lithium chloride, is also featured in this paper.

  11. Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Liang; Wang Yanli; Qiao Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Yang Shubin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized. As anode materials for lithium ion battery, the reversible capacity of obtained electrode is as high as 732 mAh g −1 at 74 mA g −1 and 500 mAh g −1 at 744 mA g −1 . - Abstract: Based on the high theoretical capacity of Co 3 O 4 for lithium storage, a noval type of monodisperse hollow carbon spheres with encapsulation of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (HCSE-Co 3 O 4 ) were designed and synthesized. The monodisperse hollow carbon spheres not only can provide enough void volume to accommodate the volume change of encapsulated Co 3 O 4 nanoparicles, but also can prevent the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on the surface of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and following direct contact of Co and SEI films upon lithium extraction. The HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode exhibit highly reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance and rate capability attributed to the unique structure. The reversible capacity of HCSE-Co 3 O 4 electrode is as high as 500 mAh g −1 at a current density of 744 mA g −1 , while that of bare Co 3 O 4 electrode is only around 80 mAh g −1 .

  12. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  13. Preparation of hollow mesoporous carbon spheres and their performances for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, T.; Zhang, G. R.; Kern, A.; Etzold, B. J. M.

    2018-03-01

    Hollow carbon materials have received intensive attention for energy storage/conversion applications due to their attractive properties of high conductivity, high surface area, large void and short diffusion pathway. In this work, a novel hollow mesoporous material based on carbide-derived carbon (CDC) is presented. CDC is a new class of carbon material synthesized by the selective extraction of metals from metal carbides. With a two-stage extraction procedure of carbides with chlorine, firstly hybrid core-shell carbon particles were synthesized, i.e. mesoporous/graphitic carbon shells covering microporous/amorphous carbon cores. The amorphous cores were then selectively removed from particles by a careful oxidative treatment utilizing its low thermal characters while the more stable carbon shells remained, thus resulting hollow particles. The characterization methods (e.g. N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation and SEM) proved the successful synthesis of the aspired material. In electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) testing, this novel hollow core material showed a remarkable enhancement of EDLC’s rate handling ability (75% at a high scan rate) with respect to an entirely solid-mesoporous material. Furthermore, as a fuel cell catalyst support the material showed higher Pt mass activity (a factor of 1.8) compared to a conventional carbon support for methanol oxidation without noticeably decreasing activity in a long-term testing. Therefore, this carbon nanostructure shows great promises as efficient electrode materials for energy storage and conversion systems.

  14. Designed fabrication of fluorine-doped carbon coated mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres for improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ming, Hai; Ge, Danhua; Zheng, Junwei; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hollow TiO 2 with mesoporous shell (MHTO) was successfully fabricated by a novel and controllable route, followed by fluorine-doped carbon coating the MHTO (MHTO-C/F), with the aim of enhancing the conductivity and stability of structures. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO) was fabricated via a facile and controllable route, to improve the lithium ion mobility as well as the stability of the architecture. • Fluorine-doped carbon derived from polyvinylidene difluoride was further encapsulated onto TiO 2 hollow spheres to improve the conductivity. • The composites could provide excellent electrochemical performance, which was desirable for the application of TiO 2 as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: In this manuscript, we demonstrated a facile route for the controllable design of “Fluorine (F)-doped carbon” (C/F)-treated TiO 2 hollow spheres with mesoporous shells (MHTO-C/F). The fabrication of this distinct mesoporous hollow structures and the C/F coating could effectively improve the electrolyte permeability and architectural stability, as well as electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility. As anticipated, MHTO-C/F has several remarkable electrochemical properties, such as a high specific reversible capacity of 252 mA h g −1 , outstanding cycling stability of more than 210 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, and good rate performance of around 123 mA h g −1 at 5 C (1 C = 168 mA g −1 ). These properties are highly beneficial for lithium storage

  15. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m 2 /g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  16. High capacity and high rate capability of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Chen, Guorong; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong, E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres were prepared. • The obtained materials have a good capacitive deionization performance. • The electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance. - Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres (N-PHCS) were well prepared by using polystyrene (PS) spheres as hard templates and dopamine hydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrate that the N-PHCS have a uniform, spherical and hollow structure. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis shows that the N-PHCS have a high specific area of 512 m{sup 2}/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result reveals that the nitrogen doping amount is 2.92%. The hollow and porous structure and effective nitrogen doping can contribute to large accessible surface area, efficient ion transport and good conductivity. In the electrochemical tests, we can conclude that the N-PHCS have a high specific capacitance value, a good stability and low inner resistance. The N-PHCS electrodes present a high salt adsorption capacity of 12.95 mg/g at a cell voltage of 1.4 V with a flow rate of 40 mL/min in a 500 mg/L NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the N-PHCS electrodes show high salt adsorption rate and good regeneration performance in the CDI process. With high surface specific area and effective nitrogen doping, the N-PHCS is promising to the CDI and other electrochemical applications.

  17. Solvent-induced synthesis of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with tunable surface morphology for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yuan, Ren-Lu; Zhang, Ning; Ke, Chang-Ce; Ma, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Ru-Liang; Liu, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs) with tunable surface morphology have been prepared through one-pot carbonization method by using melamine-formaldehyde spheres as template and resorcinol-based resin as carbon precursor in ethanol-water solution. Well-dispersed NHCSs with particle size of 800 nm were obtained and the surface of NHCSs turn from smooth to tough, wrinkled, and finally concave by increasing the ethanol concentration. The fabricated NHCSs possessed high nitrogen content (3.99-4.83%) and hierarchical micro-dual mesoporous structure with surface area range of 265-405 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.18-0.29 cm3 g-1, which contributed to high specific capacitance, excellent rate capability and long cycle life.

  18. Remarkable activity of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres encapsulated Cu on synthesis of dimethyl carbonate: Role of effective nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Zhao, Jinxian; Shi, Ruina; Hao, Panpan; Liu, Shusen; Li, Zhong; Ren, Jun

    2018-04-01

    A critical aspect in the improvement of the catalytic performance of Cu-based catalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is the development of an appropriate support. In this work, nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres (NHCSs), with 240 nm average diameter, 17 nm shell thickness, uniform mesoporous structure and a specific surface area of 611 m2 g-1, were prepared via a two-step Stӧber method. By varying the quantity of nitrogen-containing phenols used in the preparation it has been possible to control the nitrogen content and, consequently, the sphericity of the NHCSs. It was found that perfect spheres were obtained for nitrogen contents below 5.4 wt.%. The catalysts (Cu@NHCSs) were prepared by the hydrothermal impregnation method. The catalytic activity towards DMC synthesis was notably enhanced due to the immobilization effect on Cu particles and the enhanced electron transfer effect exercised by the effective nitrogen species, including pyridinic-N and graphitic-N. When the average size of the copper nanoparticles was 7.4 nm and the nitrogen content was 4.0 wt.%, the values of space-time yield of DMC and of turnover frequency (TOF) reached 1528 mg/(g h) and 11.0 h-1, respectively. The TOF value of Cu@NHCSs was 6 times higher than non-doped Cu@Carbon (2.1 h-1). The present work introduces the potential application of nitrogen-doped carbon materials and presents a novel procedure for the preparation of catalysts for DMC synthesis.

  19. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  20. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping

    2012-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H 2 O 2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H 2 O 2 . The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM −1 ), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time m ) and the maximum current density (i max ) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 μA cm −2 respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  1. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nitrogen doped porous carbon hollow spheres (N-PCHSs) with an ultrahigh nitrogen content of 15.9 wt% and a high surface area of 775 m2 g-1 were prepared using Melamine-formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  2. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo Xiangjie; Ju Jian; Guo Liping, E-mail: guolp078@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, Faculty of Chemistry (China)

    2012-10-15

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 {mu}A mM{sup -1}), low detection limit (1.8 {mu}M), fast response time <3 s, and wide linear range (0.04-8.62 mM). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) and the maximum current density (i{sub max}) values for the biosensor were 10.94 mM and 887 {mu}A cm{sup -2} respectively. Furthermore, this biosensor showed an acceptable reproducibility and high stability. The interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid at concentration levels normally found in human blood were not much compared with the response to glucose. Blood serum samples were also tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  3. Three-dimensional interconnected cobalt oxide-carbon hollow spheres arrays as cathode materials for hybrid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye Zhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical porous metal oxides arrays is critical for development of advanced energy storage devices. Herein, we report a facile template-assisted electro-deposition plus glucose decomposition method for synthesis of multilayer CoO/C hollow spheres arrays. The CoO/C arrays consist of multilayer interconnected hollow composite spheres with diameters of ∼350 nm as well as thin walls of ∼20 nm. Hierarchical hollow spheres architecture with 3D porous networks are achieved. As cathode of high-rate hybrid batteries, the multilayer CoO/C hollow sphere arrays exhibit impressive enhanced performances with a high capacity (73.5 mAh g−1 at 2 A g−1, and stable high-rate cycling life (70 mAh g−1 after 12,500 cycles at 2 A g−1. The improved electrochemical performance is owing to the composite hollow-sphere architecture with high contact area between the active materials and electrolyte as well as fast ion/electron transportation path.

  4. Synthesis of carbon-coated Na2MnPO4F hollow spheres as a potential cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiequn; Zhu, Xing; Zhong, Shengkui

    2018-01-01

    Hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C composite is synthesized through spray drying, following in-situ pyrolytic carbon coating process. XRD results indicate that the well crystallized composite can be successfully synthesized, and no other impurity phases are detected. SEM and TEM results reveal that the Na2MnPO4F/C samples show intact hollow spherical architecture, and the hollow spherical shells with an average thickness of 150 nm-250 nm are composed of nanosized primary particles. Furthermore, the amorphous carbon layer is uniformly coated on the surface of the hollow sphere, and the nanosized Na2MnPO4F particles are well embedded in the carbon networks. Consequently, the hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C shows enhanced electrochemical performance. Especially, it is the first time that the obvious potential platforms (∼3.6 V) are observed during the charge and discharge process at room temperature.

  5. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T >approx. 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  6. Ultrafine Sn nanoparticles embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres as high rate anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng; Cao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Jiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Xinhua, E-mail: xhxutju@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic covalent bond in polymeric nanoparticles is used to induce hollow Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs. • Ultrafine Sn nanoparticles uniformly embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres is successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs precursor. • The composite exhibits superior cycle stability and rate capacity. - Abstract: A novel reversible interaction in polymeric nanoparticles is used to induce hollow Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs. Then ultrafine Sn nanoparticles uniformly embedded in shell of N-doped hollow carbon spheres is successfully synthesized by pyrolysis of the Sn{sup 4+}-MOPs precursor. In this architecture, the N-doped carbon shells can effectively avoid the direct exposure of embedded Sn nanoparticles to the electrolyte and efficiently accommodate the volume change of Sn nanoparticles. Furthermore, the hollow structure of carbon sphere can prevent Sn nanoparticles aggregation over repeated cycling and shorten the diffusion path of both electrons and ions. As a consequence, this N-doped hollow Sn/C anode delivers a reversible capacity of 606 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and a reversible capacity of 221 mA h g{sup −1} even at a much higher current density of 10 A g{sup −1}, which are much better than those of pure Sn nanoparticles. The desirable cyclic stability and rate capability were attributed to the unique architecture that provided fast pathway for electron transport and simultaneously solved the major issues of Sn-based anodes, such as pulverization, aggregation and loss of electrical contact.

  7. A Sortase A-Immobilized Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Sphere-Based Biosensor for Detection of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsu; Luo, Ruiping; Chen, Yang; Si, Qi; Niu, Xiaodi

    2018-05-01

    A sensor based on mesoporous carbon materials immobilized with sortase A (SrtA) for determination of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is reported. To prepare the biosensor, we first synthesized carboxyl-functionalized mesoporous hollow carbon spheres, then applied them as carriers for immobilization of SrtA. Based on the catalytic mechanism of SrtA, a highly sensitive, inexpensive, and rapid method was developed for S. aureus detection. The sensor showed a linear response in the bacterial concentration range of 0.125 × 102 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 to 2.5 × 102 CFU mL-1, with detection limit as low as 9.0 CFU mL-1. The method was successfully used for quantitative detection of S. aureus in whole milk samples, giving results similar to experimental results obtained from the plate counting method. This biosensor could also be used to detect other Gram-positive bacteria that secrete SrtA.

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Spheres with Embedded Co Nanoparticles as Active Non-Noble-Metal Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohao Xing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal (Fe, Co, Ni complexes on carbon nanomaterials are promising candidates as electrocatalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. In this paper, nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with embedded Co nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a controllable synthesis strategy. The morphology characterization shows that the hollow carbon spheres possess an average diameter of ~150 nm with a narrow size distribution and a shell thickness of ~14.5 nm. The content of N doping ranges from 2.1 to 6.6 at.% depending on the calcination temperature from 900 to 1050 °C. Compared with commercial Pt/C, the Co-containing nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres prepared at 900 °C (CoNHCS-900 as an ORR electrocatalyst shows a half-wave potential shift of only ∆E1/2 = 55 mV, but a superior stability of about 90.2% maintenance after 20,000 s in the O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH at a rotating speed of 1600 rpm. This could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of N-containing moieties, Co-Nx species, and Co nanoparticles, which significantly increase the density of active sites and promote the charge transfer during the ORR process.

  9. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres-based fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingru; Liu, Chao; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Xiuyun; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-10-20

    In this study, a novel hollow mesoporous carbon spheres-based fiber (HMCSs-F) was fabricated to immobilize HMCSs onto a stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Characterization results showed that the HMCSs-F possessed a large specific surface area, high porosity and uniform pore size. To demonstrate the extraction performance, a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was chosen as target analytes. The experimental parameters including extraction and desorption conditions were optimized. Compared to commercial fibers, the HMCSs-F exhibited better extraction efficiency for PAHs. More interestingly, a good extraction selectivity for PAHs from the complex matrix was observed in these HMCSs-F. The enhanced SPME performance was attributed to the unique pore structure and special surface properties of the HMCSs. Furthermore, under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for the HMCSs-F were in the range of 0.20-1.15ngL -1 with a corresponding relative standard deviation that was below 8.6%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in actual environmental water samples with recoveries ranging from 85.9% to 112.2%. These results imply that the novel HMCSs-F have potential application in environmental water analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel method for preparation of hollow and solid carbon spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    strength (Li et al 2006), which make them appropriate materials to be used in lithium-ion ... efficient and low cost method to prepare HCSs and SCSs by the reaction of .... Li L C, Song H H and Chen X H 2006 Carbon 44 596. Wang P et al 2007 ...

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Assisted Fabrication of Hollow Carbon Spheres/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Shulan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Li

    2018-05-22

    Three-dimensional hollow carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (DHCSs/RGO) nanocomposites with high-level heteroatom doping and hierarchical pores are fabricated via a versatile method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that serves as a dispersant and nucleating agent is used as the nonremoval template for synthesizing melamine resin (MR) spheres with abundant heteroatoms, which are subsequently composited with graphene oxide (GO). Use of PVA and implementation of freezing treatment prevent agglomeration of MR spheres within the GO network. Molten KOH is used to achieve the one-step carbonization/activation/reduction for the synthesis of DHCSs/RGO. DHCSs/RGO annealed at 700 °C shows superior discharge capacity of 1395 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 606 mA h/g at 5 A/g as well as excellent retentive capacity of 755 mA h/g after 600 cycles at a current density of 2 A/g. An extra CO 2 activation leads to further enhancement of electrochemical performance with outstanding discharge capacity of 1709 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 835 mA h/g at 2 A/g after 600 cycles. This work may improve our understanding of the synthesis of graphene-like nanocomposites with hollow and porous carbon architectures and fabrication of high-performance functional devices.

  12. TEACHING PHYSICS: Biking around a hollow sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    1999-11-01

    The conditions required for a cyclist riding a motorbike in a horizontal circle on or above the equator of a hollow sphere are derived using concepts of equilibrium and the condition for uniform circular motion. The result is compared with an empirical analysis based on a video show. Some special cases of interest derived from the general solution are elaborated.

  13. Evolution of nickel sulfide hollow spheres through topotactic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Lu, Qingyi; Sun, Jing; Gao, Feng

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a topotactic transformation route was proposed to synthesize single-crystalline β-NiS hollow spheres with uniform phase and morphology evolving from polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres. Uniform polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were firstly prepared with thiourea and glutathione as sulfur sources under hydrothermal conditions through the Kirkendall effect. By increasing the reaction temperature the polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were transformed to uniform β-NiS hollow spheres. The β-NiS crystals obtained through the topotactic transformation route not only have unchanged morphology of hollow spheres but are also single-crystalline in nature. The as-prepared NiS hollow spheres display a good ability to remove the organic pollutant Congo red from water, which makes them have application potential in water treatment.In this study, a topotactic transformation route was proposed to synthesize single-crystalline β-NiS hollow spheres with uniform phase and morphology evolving from polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres. Uniform polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were firstly prepared with thiourea and glutathione as sulfur sources under hydrothermal conditions through the Kirkendall effect. By increasing the reaction temperature the polycrystalline α-NiS hollow spheres were transformed to uniform β-NiS hollow spheres. The β-NiS crystals obtained through the topotactic transformation route not only have unchanged morphology of hollow spheres but are also single-crystalline in nature. The as-prepared NiS hollow spheres display a good ability to remove the organic pollutant Congo red from water, which makes them have application potential in water treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns; SEM images and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03371f

  14. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2012-02-01

    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A General Synthesis Strategy for Hierarchical Porous Metal Oxide Hollow Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchical porous TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully prepared by using the hydrothermally synthesized colloidal carbon spheres as templates and tetrabutyl titanate as inorganic precursors. The diameter and wall thickness of hollow TiO2 spheres were determined by the hard templates and concentration of tetrabutyl titanate. The particle size, dispersity, homogeneity, and surface state of the carbon spheres can be easily controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal conditions and adding certain amount of the surfactants. The prepared hollow spheres possessed the perfect spherical shape, monodispersity, and hierarchically pore structures, and the further experiment verified that the present approach can be used to prepare other metal oxide hollow spheres, which could be used as catalysis, fuel cells, lithium-air battery, gas sensor, and so on.

  16. Ni hollow spheres as catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, Yonghong; Rong, Jianhua; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized Ni hollow spheres consisting of needle-like nickel particles by using silica spheres as template with gold nanoparticles seeding method. The Ni hollow spheres are applied to methanol and ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that the Ni hollow spheres give a very high activity for alcohol electrooxidation at a very low nickel loading of 0.10 mg cm{sup -2}. The current on Ni hollow spheres is much higher than that on Ni particles. The onset potential and peak potential on Ni hollow spheres are more negative than that on Ni particles for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The Ni hollow spheres may be of great potential in alcohol sensor and direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  17. L-cysteine-assisted synthesis of hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres supported carbon nitride as photocatalysts with enhanced lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhang; Jiang, Zhifeng; Chen, Linlin; Qian, Kun; Xie, Jimin

    2017-03-01

    Novel hierarchical NiS2 hollow spheres modified by graphite-like carbon nitride were prepared using a facile L-cysteine-assisted solvothermal route. The NiS2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency in rhodamine B, methyl orange and ciprofloxacin degradation as compared to single g-C3N4 and NiS2, which could be due to the synergistic effects of the unique hollow sphere-like structure, strong visible-light absorption and increased separation rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of heterojunctions. A suitable combination of g-C3N4 with NiS2 showed the best photocatalytic performance. In addition, an electron spin resonance and trapping experiment demonstrated that the photogenerated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were the two main photoactive species in photocatalysis. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of NiS2/g-C3N4 composites under visible light irradiation is also proposed. The strategy presented here can be extended to a general strategy for constructing 3D/2D heterostructured photocatalysts for broad applications in photocatalysis.

  18. A novel synthesis of micrometer silica hollow sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wen; Ye Junwei; Ning Guiling; Lin Yuan; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Silica microcapsules (hollow spheres) were synthesized successfully by a novel CTAB-stabilized water/oil emulsion system mediated hydrothermal method. The addition of urea to a solution of aqueous phase was an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres, which leads to the formation of silica hollow spheres with smooth shell during hydrothermal process. The intact hollow spheres were obtained by washing the as-synthesized solid products with distilled water to remove the organic components. A large amount of silanol groups were retained in the hollow spheres by this facile route without calcination. The morphologies and optical properties of the product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, on the basis of a series of SEM observations, phenomenological elucidation of a mechanism for the growth of the silica hollow spheres has been presented

  19. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-10-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  20. Hollow spheres: crucial building blocks for novel nanostructures and nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the latest developments in research specifically derived from the unique properties of hollow microspheres, in particular, hollow silica spheres with uniform shells. We focus on applications in nanosphere (colloidal lithography and nanophotonics. The lithography from a layer of hollow spheres can result in nanorings, from a multilayer in unique nano-architecture. In nanophotonics, disordered hollow spheres can result in antireflection coatings, while ordered colloidal crystals (CCs of hollow spheres exhibit unique refractive index enhancement upon infiltration, ideal for optical sensing. Furthermore, whispering gallery mode (WGM inside the shell of hollow spheres has also been demonstrated to enhance light absorption to improve the performance of solar cells. These applications differ from the classical applications of hollow spheres, based only on their low density and large surface area, such as catalysis and chemical sensing. We provide a brief overview of the synthesis and self-assembly approaches of the hollow spheres. We elaborate on their unique optical features leading to defect mode lasing, optomicrofluidics, and the existence of WGMs inside shell for light management. Finally, we provide a perspective on the direction towards which future research relevant to hollow spheres might be directed.

  1. Hollow spheres: crucial building blocks for novel nanostructures and nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2018-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the latest developments in research specifically derived from the unique properties of hollow microspheres, in particular, hollow silica spheres with uniform shells. We focus on applications in nanosphere (colloidal) lithography and nanophotonics. The lithography from a layer of hollow spheres can result in nanorings, from a multilayer in unique nano-architecture. In nanophotonics, disordered hollow spheres can result in antireflection coatings, while ordered colloidal crystals (CCs) of hollow spheres exhibit unique refractive index enhancement upon infiltration, ideal for optical sensing. Furthermore, whispering gallery mode (WGM) inside the shell of hollow spheres has also been demonstrated to enhance light absorption to improve the performance of solar cells. These applications differ from the classical applications of hollow spheres, based only on their low density and large surface area, such as catalysis and chemical sensing. We provide a brief overview of the synthesis and self-assembly approaches of the hollow spheres. We elaborate on their unique optical features leading to defect mode lasing, optomicrofluidics, and the existence of WGMs inside shell for light management. Finally, we provide a perspective on the direction towards which future research relevant to hollow spheres might be directed.

  2. Fabrication of porous silver/titania composite hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sa; Halperin, Shakked O.; Wang, Chang-An

    2015-01-01

    Silver/titania composite hollow spheres were first synthesized through an in-situ chemical reaction using functional-grouped carbon spheres as the template in this study. The prepared samples were characterized through an X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of Methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under UV light. We found a structure with an optimal Ag:TiO 2 composition that exhibited a photodecomposition rate constant more than twice as high as titania hollow spheres lacking silver, and over three times higher than a commercial photocatalyst. - Highlights: • Ag/silver composites. • Hollow spheres. • Photocatalysis enhancement

  3. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T greater than or equal to 600 0 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10 3 μm) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants

  4. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  5. Electrodepositing of Au on hollow PS micro-spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingyuan; Zhang Yunwang; Du Kai; Wan Xiaobo; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Wei; Zhang Lin; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Using the self-regulating new micro-sphere electrodepositing device, the techniques of electrodepositing gold on hollow PS micro-spheres were established. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: voltage was about 0.7 ∼ 0.8 V, current density was 2.0 mA · cm -2 , the temperature was 45 degree C, cathode rotating rate was 250 r · min -1 , flow rate of the solution was 7 mL · min -1 · cm -2 . Hollow gold-plated micro-spheres were prepared with well spherical symmetry, uniform thickness and surface smoothness under 500 nm. The speed of the gold depositing was 6 μm · h -1 . (authors)

  6. Determination of corrosion potential of coated hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorkova, Andrea; Orinakova, Renata; Orinak, Andrej; Dudrova, Eva; Kupkova, Miriam; Kalavsky, Frantisek

    2008-01-01

    Copper hollow spheres were created on porous iron particles by electro-less deposition. The consequent Ni plating was applied to improve the mechanical properties of copper hollow micro-particles. Corrosion properties of coated hollow spheres were investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation method in 1 mol dm -3 NaCl solution. Surface morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy (LM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Original iron particles, uncoated copper spheres and iron particles coated with nickel were studied as the reference materials. The effect of particle composition, particularly Ni content on the corrosion potential value was investigated. The results indicated that an increase in the amount of Ni coating layer deteriorated corrosion resistivity of coated copper spheres. Amount of Ni coating layer depended on conditions of Ni electrolysis, mainly on electrolysis time and current intensity. Corrosion behaviour of sintered particles was also explored by potentiodynamic polarisation experiments for the sake of comparison. Formation of iron rich micro-volumes on the particle surface during sintering caused the corrosion potential shift towards more negative values. A detailed study of the morphological changes between non-sintered and sintered micro-particles provided explanation of differences in corrosion potential (E corr )

  7. Synthesis of solid and hollow ATO spheres by carbothermal reduction of ATO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Chunfang; Huang Zaiyin; Liao Dankui; Tan Xuecai; Wu Jian; Yuan Aiqun

    2007-01-01

    Solid and hollow ATO spheres were fabricated by heating ATO nanoparticles and graphite mixture in a tube furnace. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by EDS, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and HRTEM. The size of the solid spheres could be controlled by adjusting the rate of Ar flow and deposition positions. The hollow spheres were synthesized in an alumina tube system under conditions of a relatively high oxygen concentration. The growth mechanism of solid and hollow spheres was analysed

  8. Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres for symmetrical and asymmetrical supercapacitor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xuyang; Wang, Cong; Feng, Wenjing; Xing, Na; Jiang, Hanmei; Lu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres with low crystallinity composed of nanoparticles were prepared by a facile and template-free method, which involved a precipitation of precursor microspheres in aqueous solution at room temperature and subsequent hydrothermal reaction. Quasi-solid-state symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor (SSC and ASC) devices were fabricated using hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres as the electrodes, and the electrochemical properties of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device and the VOOH//AC ASC device were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results demonstrated that the electrochemical performance of the VOOH//AC ASC device was better than that of the VOOH//VOOH SSC device. After 3000 cycles, the specific capacitance of the VOOH//AC ASC device retains 83% of the initial capacitance, while the VOOH//VOOH SSC device retains only 7.7%. Findings in this work proved that hierarchical VOOH hollow spheres could be a promising candidate as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor devices.

  9. Synthesis of Br-doped TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhu, Shengli, E-mail: slzhu@tju.edu.cn; Liang, Yanqin; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin [Tianjin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Liang, Chunyong [Hebei University of Technology, Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials (China); Inoue, Akihisa [Tianjin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The Br-doped hollow TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process on the carbon sphere template following with calcination at 400 °C. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} desorption–adsorption, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres are in diameter of 500 nm with shell thickness of 50 nm. The shell is composed of small anatase nanoparticles with size of about 10 nm. The TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres exhibit high crystalline and high surface area of 89.208 m{sup 2}/g. With increasing content of Br doping, the band gap of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres decreased from 2.85 to 1.75 eV. The formation of impurity band in the band gap would narrow the band gap and result in the red shift of absorption edge from 395 to 517 nm, which further enhances the photocatalytic activity. The appropriate Br doping improves the photocatlytic activity significantly. The TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with 1.55% Br doping (0.5Br-TiO{sub 2}) exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity under full light. More than 98% of RhB, MO, and MB can be photodegraded using 0.5Br-TiO{sub 2} with concentration of 10 mg/L in 40, 30, and 30 min, respectively. The degradation rate of Br-doped photocatalysts was 40% faster than undoped ones.

  10. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-01

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  11. A novel approach to fabrication of superparamagnetite hollow silica/magnetic composite spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Junjie, E-mail: yuanjunjie@tongji.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xiong; Qian He [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-08-15

    We described a method for synthesizing hollow silica/magnetic composite spheres using sulfonic acid functionalized hollow silica spheres (SAFHSS) as templates. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were deposited on or imbedded in the hollow silica shell by a precipitation reaction. The morphologies, composition and properties of the hollow composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared analysis, X-ray diffraction measurement and vibrating-sample magnetometry measurement. The results indicated crystal sizes and amount of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on the SAFHSS. The magnetic properties of the hollow composite spheres were controlled by adjusting the proportion between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} and iron ion total concentration. When appropriate loading species were added into the system, superparamagnetite hollow composite spheres were obtained. The method also could be applicable to prepare other superparamagnetite hollow silica/ferrite composite spheres.

  12. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-26

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  13. Stress in piezoelectric hollow sphere with thermal gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatfar, M.; Rastgoo, A.

    2008-01-01

    The piezoelectric phenomenon has been exploited in science and engineering for decades. Recent advances in smart structures technology have led to a resurgence of interest in piezoelectricity, and in particular, in the solution of fundamental boundary value problems. In this paper, we develop an analytic solution to the axisymmetric problem of a radially polarized, spherically isotropic piezoelectric hollow sphere. The sphere is subjected to uniform internal pressure, or uniform external pressure, or both and thermal gradient. There is a constant thermal difference between its inner and outer surfaces. An analytic solution to the governing equilibrium equations (a coupled system of second-order ordinary differential equations) is obtained. On application of the boundary conditions, the problem is reduced to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. Finally, the stress distributions in the sphere are obtained numerically for two piezoceramics

  14. Controllable Synthesis of Functional Hollow Carbon Nanostructures with Dopamine As Precursor for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-26

    N-doped hollow carbon spheres (N-HCSs) are promising candidates as electrode material for supercapacitor application. In this work, we report a facile one-step synthesis of discrete and highly dispersible N-HCSs with dopamine (DA) as a carbon precursor and TEOS as a structure-assistant agent in a mixture containing water, ethanol, and ammonia. The architectures of resultant N-HCSs, including yolk-shell hollow carbon spheres (YS-HCSs), single-shell hollow carbon spheres (SS-HCSs), and double-shells hollow carbon spheres (DS-HCSs), can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the amount of ammonia. To explain the relation and formation mechanism of these hollow carbon structures, the samples during the different synthetic steps, including polymer/silica spheres, carbon/silica spheres and silica spheres by combustion in air, were characterized by TEM. Electrochemical measurements performed on YS-HCSs, SS-HCSs, and DS-HCSs showed high capacitance with 215, 280, and 381 F g(-1), respectively. Moreover, all the nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanospheres showed a good cycling stability 97.0% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles. Notably, the highest capacitance of DS-HCSs up to 381 F g(-1) is higher than the capacitance reported so far for many carbon-based materials, which may be attributed to the high surface area, hollow structure, nitrogen functionalization, and double-shell architecture. These kinds of N-doped hollow-structured carbon spheres may show promising prospects as advanced energy storage materials and catalyst supports.

  15. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. -P.; Gopalan, A. I.; Philips, M. F.; Jeong, K.M., E-mail: kplee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Teacher' s College, Kyungpook National University 1370, Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics.

  16. Gamma Radiation Induced Preparation of Functional Conducting Polymer Hollow Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.-P.; Gopalan, A.I.; Philips, M.F.; Jeong, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    New materials are sought for applications in many of the emerging fields that include catalysis, sensors, biomedical, optics and electronic application. With the advent of nanotechnology, innovative materials with novel properties are being synthesized towards target applications. Changing the sizes of particles, chemical, optical, and mechanical properties of the materials can often be tailored according to the specific needs of the application. Nanocrystalline, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanoporous materials, nanofibers, nanowires, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanosprings, nanobelts, dendrimers and nanospheres, ets, are few of the nanostructured materials. The examples of nanostructured materials include semiconducting nanowire quantum dots for gas sensing and self-assembled flower-like architectures. Self-assembly of nanoparticles can result in specific structures with unique and useful electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. Self or induced assemby of simple nanoparticles and rods could result into complex geometries, such as nanoflowers, binary superlattices, optical grating. Over the past decade, hollow spherical nanomaterials have received considerable attention due to their interesting properties such as low density, high surface area and good permeation. Various methods like solvothermal, self-assembly, sonochemical, solvent evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, microwave-assisted aqueous hydrothermal and electrochemical are being pursued for the production of hollow spherical materials. Polymer capsules and hollow spheres have increasingly received interest because of their large surface area and potential applications in catalysis, controlled delivery, artificial cells, light fillers and photonics

  17. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jie; Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia

  18. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Ohashi, Takato [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Ti + Ni content. • The activity depends on the amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres. - Abstract: The present work reports influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}). The as-prepared hollow titania–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalytic activities of the hollow spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution improve with the decrease of Ti + Ni content. From the results of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis, the amount of residual polystyrene (PS) templates is able to be reduced by increasing aging time for the preparation, and the catalytic activity of the hollow spheres increases when the amount of residual PS templates decreases. The carbon content in the hollow spheres prepared with aging time = 24 h is 17.3 wt.%, and the evolution of 62 mL hydrogen is finished in about 22 min in the presence of the hollow spheres from aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution. The molar ratio of the hydrolytically generated hydrogen to the initial NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} in the presence of the hollow spheres is 2.7.

  19. Biomolecule-assisted construction of cadmium sulfide hollow spheres with structure-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Zang, Wenzhe; Yin, Jingzhou; Lu, Qingyi; Chen, Qun; Liu, Rongmei; Gao, Feng

    2013-02-25

    In this study, we report the synthesis of monodispersive solid and hollow CdS spheres with structure-dependent photocatalytic abilities for dye photodegradation. The monodispersive CdS nanospheres were constructed with the assistance of the soulcarboxymthyi chitosan biopolymer under hydrothermal conditions. The solid CdS spheres were corroded by ammonia to form hollow CdS nanospheres through a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Their visible-light photocatalytic activities were investigated, and the results show that both the solid and the hollow CdS spheres have visible-light photocatalytic abilities for the photodegradation of dyes. The photocatalytic properties of the CdS spheres were demonstrated to be structure dependent. Although the nanoparticles comprising the hollow spheres have larger sizes than those comprising the solid spheres, the hollow CdS spheres have better photocatalytic performances than the solid CdS spheres, which can be attributed to the special hollow structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Methodology for construction of hollow spheres for use in physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.C.H.; Lima, F.R.A.; Oliveira, F.; Vieira, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET), quantitative evaluation of spatial resolution/object size, attenuation and scatter effects is often performed using phantoms with hollow spheres. Fillable, plastic-walled spheres are commercially available in several sizes. Radioactive solutions in any concentration can be injected into the spheres. Hollow spheres have several desirable traits, including repeatable, consistent use, and standardization across measurements at different institutions, since identical items are distributed by a single manufacturer. The objective of this work is to describe a methodology for construction of hollow spheres using rapid prototyping. It was used the software SolidWork (2014) to create five 3D models of the hollow spheres with inner diameters of 10 mm, 13 mm, 17 mm, 22 mm, and 28 mm. These models were based on hollow spheres of NEMA/IEC PET body phantom. It was used a Cubex Duo 3D printer (3D Systems) to build the hollow spheres. The material used was the ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) resin. (authors)

  1. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kaludjerović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fibers were prepared with regenerated cellulose or polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using sodium phosphate dibasic followed by the carbonization process. The activation process increases the adsorption properties of fibers which is more prominent for active carbone fibers obtained from the cellulose precursor. Chemical activation with sodium phosphate dibasic produces an active carbon material with both mesopores and micropores.

  2. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Siheng; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag(MFe 2 O 4 ) (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag(C) microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe 3+ and M 2+ on the surface of the Ag(C) spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core. - Graphical abstract: MFe 2 O 4 (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn) hollow spheres with a noble metal nanoparticle core were successfully prepared by using colloidal metal(C) core-shell spheres as templates with no need of surface modification. The shell thickness and magnetic properties of the ferrite hollow spheres could be controlled by varying the synthetic parameters

  3. Self-Assembled Hollow Spheres of β-Ni(OH) 2 and Their Derived Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shengmao

    2009-03-10

    This paper describes a novel solution-based chemical process to architect hollow spheres of β-Ni(OH) 2 with controllable sizes in submicrometer and micrometer regimes. In the synthesis, starting nickel salt (nitrate) is first converted to 6-coordinated nickel ion complex [Ni(EDA) 3] 2+ (bidentate ligand EDA = C 2H 4(NH 2) 2) to avoid rapid solid formation. Hollow and core - shell β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres can be obtained with this template-free approach under one-pot conditions. The β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres are constructed from petal-like nanobuilding units which in turn are formed from even smaller nanocrystallites. The obtained porous β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres have a large specific surface area and show a unimodal pore-size distribution. Several preparative parameters have been examined and optimized. In particular, the concentration of divalent nickel in the starting solutions plays an important role in controlling thickness of the petal-like β-Ni(OH) 2 flakes and diameter of spheres. The β-Ni(OH) 2 flakes self-assemble into final spherical products through a donut-like structural intermediate. Furthermore, the β-Ni(OH) 2 hollow spheres can be used as solid precursors to synthesize other nanostructured derivatives. In this work, phase pure inorganic nanostructures, carbon nanotube (CNT) - inorganic nanocomposites, and inorganic - inorganic nanocom-posites (e.g., NiO, Ni, NiO/Ni, Ni/β-Ni(OH) 2, CNTs/NiO, CNTs/Ni, Ni@CNTs, Fe(OH) 3/β-Ni(OH) 2, Co(OH) 2/β-Ni(OH) 2, and Mg(OH) 2/β-Ni(OH) 2) have been prepared via solid-state thermal decomposition, gas-phase reduction, solution-based reduction, surface oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, and liquid-phase deposition. A greater picture for general synthesis of Ni-containing nanomaterials is thus obtained. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Catalyst-Free Synthesis of Hollow-Sphere-Like ZnO and Its Photoluminescence Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hollow-sphere-like ZnO was successfully prepared by a facile combustion route at 950°C, and no external catalysts or additives were introduced. The morphology and structure of the hollow-sphere-like ZnO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The possible growth mechanism was discussed in detail. In addition, the as-obtained hollow-sphere-like ZnO exhibited a strong green emission at 518 nm and a weak UV emission at 385 nm. We believe that the hollow-sphere-like ZnO material may be a good candidate for application in optical devices and catalyst systems.

  5. Self-assembly of calcium phosphate nanoparticles into hollow spheres induced by dissolved amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmeyer, D.; Ganesan, K.; Ruesing, J.; Schunk, D.; Mayer, C.; Dey, A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Epple, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles of calcium phosphate assemble spontaneously within a few seconds into hollow spheres with a diameter around 200–300 nm in the presence of dissolved amino acids and dipeptides. The process of formation was followed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), proving their hollow

  6. Pseudo-bi-enzyme glucose sensor: ZnS hollow spheres and glucose oxidase concerted catalysis glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Ying; Liu, Changhua; Wang, Jia; Cui, Xiaoyan; Nie, Ling

    2013-06-07

    This work creatively uses peroxidase-like ZnS hollow spheres (ZnS HSs) to cooperate with glucose oxidase (GOx) for glucose determinations. This approach is that the ZnS HSs electrocatalytically oxidate the enzymatically generated H2O2 to O2, and then the O2 circularly participates in the previous glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as electron transfer and enzyme immobilization matrices, respectively. The biosensor of glucose oxidase-carbon nanotubes-Au nanoparticles-ZnS hollow spheres-gold electrode (GOx-CNT-AuNPs-ZnS HSs-GE) exhibits a rapid response, a low detection limit (10 μM), a wide linear range (20 μM to 7 mM) as well as good anti-interference, long-term longevity and reproducibility.

  7. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of lindgrenite with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiasheng; Xue Dongfeng

    2007-01-01

    Lindgrenite [Cu 3 (OH) 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 ] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a simple and mild hydrothermal route in the absence of any external inorganic additives or organic structure-directing templates. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous small crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Two factors are important for the formation of hollow and prickly architecture in the present process. One is the general phenomenon of Ostwald ripening in solution, which can be responsible for the hollow structure; the other is that lindgrenite crystals have a rhombic growth habit, which plays an important role in the formation of prickly surface. Furthermore, Cu 3 Mo 2 O 9 with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a simple thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite in air atmosphere. - Graphical abstract: Lindgrenite [Cu 3 (OH) 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 ] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Cu 3 Mo 2 O 9 with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite

  9. Novel one-step route for synthesizing CdS/polystyrene nanocomposite hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dazhen; Ge, Xuewu; Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Mozhen; Zhang, Songlin

    2004-06-22

    CdS/polystyrene nanocomposite hollow spheres with diameters between 240 and 500 nm were synthesized under ambient conditions by a novel microemulsion method in which the polymerization of styrene and the formation of CdS nanoparticles were initiated by gamma-irradiation. The product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which show the walls of the hollow spheres are porous and composed of polystyrene containing homogeneously dispersed CdS nanoparticles. The quantum-confined effect of the CdS/polystyrene nanocomposite hollow spheres is confirmed by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescent (PL) spectra. We propose that the walls of these nanocomposite hollow spheres originate from the simultaneous synthesis of polystyrene and CdS nanoparticles at the interface of microemulsion droplets. This novel method is expected to produce various inorganic/polymer nanocomposite hollow spheres with potential applications in the fields of materials science and biotechnology.

  10. Zinc oxide hollow micro spheres and nano rods: Synthesis and applications in gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Saba; Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf; Ahmad, Tauqeer; Mehmood, Tahir; Li, Songnan; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nano rods and micro hollow spheres are successfully fabricated by adopting a simple solvo-thermal approach without employing any surfactant/template by keeping heating time as variable. The prepared products are characterized by using different instruments such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to investigate the morphological dependence on the reaction time, analogous experiments with various reaction times are carried out. Depending upon heating time, different morphological forms have been identified such as hollow microsphere (4 μm to 5 μm) and nano rods with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm. The fabricated materials are also tested for ethanol gas sensor applications and zinc oxide hollow microsphere proven to be an efficient gas sensing materials. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement was performed to understand better performance of zinc oxide micro hollow spheres as effective ethanol gas sensing material. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract is represented by zinc oxide sphere (prepared by simple solvothermal approach), its XRD pattern(characterization) and finally its application in gas sensing. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide spheres were prepared by using solvothermal method. • Detailed description of the morphology of microspheres assembled by nano rods. • Formation mechanism of zinc oxide spheres assembled by nano rods. • Zinc oxide spheres and nano rods displayed very good gas sensing ability

  11. Synthesis of Hollow Sphere and 1D Structural Materials by Sol-Gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2017-08-25

    The sol-gel method is a simple and facile wet chemical process for fabricating advanced materials with high homogeneity, high purity, and excellent chemical reactivity at a relatively low temperature. By adjusting the processing parameters, the sol-gel technique can be used to prepare hollow sphere and 1D structural materials that exhibit a wide application in the fields of catalyst, drug or gene carriers, photoactive, sensors and Li-ion batteries. This feature article reviewed the development of the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials using the sol-gel method. The effects of calcination temperature, soaking time, pH value, surfactant, etc., on the preparation of hollow sphere and 1D structural materials were summarized, and their formation mechanisms were generalized. Finally, possible future research directions of the sol-gel technique were outlined.

  12. Human serum albumin mediated self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Nimai C [Singapore-MIT Alliance, Manufacturing Systems and Technology Programme, Nanyang Technological University, 65 Nanyang Drive, 637460 (Singapore); Shin, Kwanwoo [Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, Shinsoo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ncnayak@gmail.com

    2008-07-02

    The assembly of nanoparticles in topologically predefined superstructures is an important area in nanoscale architecture. In this paper, we report an unusual aggregation phenomenon involving L-lysine capped gold nanoparticles and human serum albumin into hollow nanospheres. The electrostatic interaction between positively charged L-lysine capped gold nanoparticles and negatively charged human serum albumin at physiological pH led to the assembly of the gold nanoparticles into hollow spheres. The phenomenon can be explained by the dry hole opening mechanism.

  13. Human serum albumin mediated self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Nimai C; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticles in topologically predefined superstructures is an important area in nanoscale architecture. In this paper, we report an unusual aggregation phenomenon involving L-lysine capped gold nanoparticles and human serum albumin into hollow nanospheres. The electrostatic interaction between positively charged L-lysine capped gold nanoparticles and negatively charged human serum albumin at physiological pH led to the assembly of the gold nanoparticles into hollow spheres. The phenomenon can be explained by the dry hole opening mechanism

  14. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  15. Influence of dielectric polarization upon PD transients: Use of hollow dielectric spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    Hollow glass spheres have recently been employed to provide a reproducible source of partial discharges. The influence of the shell permittivity upon the PD transients is examined. It is shown that, relative to the non-shell situation, the magnitude of such transients may be increased or decrease......, depending on the ratio of the shell-to-bulk dielectric permittivities....

  16. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu Long; Yin, Hao Yong [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Nie, Qiu Lin, E-mail: nieqiulin@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Wei Wei [College of Materials Environment Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Yang; LiYuan, Qiu [College of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were synthesized by depositing Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via a precipitation photoreduction method, and they were further characterized using TGA, SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS and photoelectric chemical analysis. The analysis showed that the hierarchical Ag/AgCl-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, which was approximately 13 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. The high photocatalytic activity of the composites is due to efficient electron-hole pairs separation at the photocatalyst interfaces, and localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles formed on AgCl particles in the degradation reaction. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres were prepared by a sacrificial template method. • The hollow spheres were modified with Ag/AgCl to form the heterojunctions. • The modification may produce synergistic effect of LSPR and hollow structure. • Visible light photocatalytic activity was enhanced on this hollow catalyst. • The mechanism of the improved photocatalytic performance was discussed.

  18. Experimental Investigation and Discrete Element Modelling of Composite Hollow Spheres Subjected to Dynamic Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Coré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characterization and the numerical modelling of the collapse of composite hollow spherical structures developed to absorb energy during high velocity impacts. The structure is composed of hollow spheres (ϕ=2–30 mm made of epoxy resin and mineral powder. First of all, quasi-static and dynamic (v=5 mm·min−1 to v=2 m·s−1 compression tests are conducted at room temperature on a single sphere to study energy dissipation mechanisms. Fracture of the material appears to be predominant. A numerical model based on the discrete element method is investigated to simulate the single sphere crushing. The stress-strain-time relationship of the material based on the Ree-Eyring law is numerically implemented. The DEM modelling takes naturally into account the dynamic fracture and the crack path computed is close to the one observed experimentally in uniaxial compression. Eventually, high velocity impacts (v>100 m·s−1 of a hollow sphere on a rigid surface are conducted with an air cannon. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate the ability of the present model to correctly describe the mechanical behavior of brittle materials at high strain rate.

  19. Solvothermal Synthesis of a Hollow Micro-Sphere LiFePO4/C Composite with a Porous Interior Structure as a Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jieyu; Li, Ying; Hu, Yemin; Li, Wenxian; Zhu, Mingyuan; Hu, Pengfei; Chou, Shulei; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the low lithium ion diffusion and slow electron transfer, a hollow micro sphere LiFePO4/C cathode material with a porous interior structure was synthesized via a solvothermal method by using ethylene glycol (EG) as the solvent medium and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. In this strategy, the EG solvent inhibits the growth of the crystals and the CTAB surfactant boots the self-assembly of the primary nanoparticles to form hollow spheres. The resultant carbon-coat LiFePO4/C hollow micro-spheres have a ~300 nm thick shell/wall consisting of aggregated nanoparticles and a porous interior. When used as materials for lithium-ion batteries, the hollow micro spherical LiFePO4/C composite exhibits superior discharge capacity (163 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C), good high-rate discharge capacity (118 mAh g−1 at 10 C), and fine cycling stability (99.2% after 200 cycles at 0.1 C). The good electrochemical performances are attributed to a high rate of ionic/electronic conduction and the high structural stability arising from the nanosized primary particles and the micro-sized hollow spherical structure. PMID:29099814

  20. Solvothermal Synthesis of a Hollow Micro-Sphere LiFePO4/C Composite with a Porous Interior Structure as a Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the low lithium ion diffusion and slow electron transfer, a hollow micro sphere LiFePO4/C cathode material with a porous interior structure was synthesized via a solvothermal method by using ethylene glycol (EG as the solvent medium and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as the surfactant. In this strategy, the EG solvent inhibits the growth of the crystals and the CTAB surfactant boots the self-assembly of the primary nanoparticles to form hollow spheres. The resultant carbon-coat LiFePO4/C hollow micro-spheres have a ~300 nm thick shell/wall consisting of aggregated nanoparticles and a porous interior. When used as materials for lithium-ion batteries, the hollow micro spherical LiFePO4/C composite exhibits superior discharge capacity (163 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C, good high-rate discharge capacity (118 mAh g−1 at 10 C, and fine cycling stability (99.2% after 200 cycles at 0.1 C. The good electrochemical performances are attributed to a high rate of ionic/electronic conduction and the high structural stability arising from the nanosized primary particles and the micro-sized hollow spherical structure.

  1. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances of hollow graphene spheres as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ran-Ran; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Bai, Li-Zhong; Yao, Ning-Na; Xu, Li

    2014-07-01

    The hollow graphene oxide spheres have been successfully fabricated from graphene oxide nanosheets utilizing a water-in-oil emulsion technique, which were prepared from natural flake graphite by oxidation and ultrasonic treatment. The hollow graphene oxide spheres were reduced to hollow graphene spheres at 500°C for 3 h under an atmosphere of Ar(95%)/H2(5%). The first reversible specific capacity of the hollow graphene spheres was as high as 903 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mAh g-1. Even at a high current density of 500 mAh g-1, the reversible specific capacity remained at 502 mAh g-1. After 60 cycles, the reversible capacity was still kept at 652 mAh g-1 at the current density of 50 mAh g-1. These results indicate that the prepared hollow graphene spheres possess excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage. The high rate performance of hollow graphene spheres thanks to the hollow structure, thin and porous shells consisting of graphene sheets.

  2. Graphene-Wrapped Ni(OH)2 Hollow Spheres as Novel Electrode Material for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Jinqing; Li, Zhangpeng; Ou, Junfei; Niu, Lengyuan; Wang, Honggang; Yang, Shengrong

    2015-09-01

    Graphene-wrapped Ni(OH)2 hollow spheres were prepared via electrostatic interaction between poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified Ni(OH)2 and graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous dispersion, followed by the reduction of GO. Morphological and structural analysis by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the successful coating of graphene on Ni(OH)2 hollow spheres with a content of 3.8 wt%. And then its application as electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Results show that the sample displays a high capacitance of 1368 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), much better than that of pure Ni(OH)2, illustrating that such composite is a promising candidate as electrode material for supercapacitors.

  3. Preparation of porous hollow silica spheres via a layer-by-layer process and the chromatographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaobing; Gong, Cairong; Chen, Xujuan; Fan, Guoliang; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Hollow silica spheres possessing excellent mechanical properties were successfully prepared through a layer-by-layer process using uniform polystyrene (PS) latex fabricated by dispersion polymerization as template. The formation of hollow SiO2 micro-spheres, structures and properties were observed in detail by zeta potential, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were uniform with particle diameter of 1.6 μm and shell thickness of 150 nm. The surface area was 511 m2/g and the pore diameter was 8.36 nm. A new stationary phase for HPLC was obtained by using C18-derivatized hollow SiO2 micro-spheres as packing materials and the chromatographic properties were evaluated for the separation of some regular small molecules. The packed column showed low column pressure, high values of efficiency (up to about 43 000 plates/m) and appropriate asymmetry factors.

  4. Fabrication of hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres and their activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hosoya, Tatsuya; Toyama, Naoki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres were fabricated on polystyrene templates by the sol–gel method. • We study the effect of preparation conditions on the activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. • The activity of hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres depends on wall thickness. - Abstract: In this paper, we report fabrication of hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres by polystyrene (PS) template method and control of wall thickness of the hollow spheres in nanoscale. Both the hollow spheres before and after calcination were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Morphology of the hollow spheres does not significantly change after calcination from the results of SEM and TEM images, while the amount of residual PS templates drastically decreases via the calcination procedure from the results of FTIR and elemental analysis. The sample after calcination mainly includes amorphous silica from the results of XRD, indicating that the hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres consist of amorphous phases and/or fine particles. Wall thicknesses of the samples after calcination are controlled by adjusting the amount of PS template suspension, and hollow silica–zirconia composite spheres with the wall thicknesses of 17.5, 15.0, 10.0, and 2.0 nm are obtained using the PS template suspension of 25.0, 33.5, 100.0, and 400.0 g, respectively. The activities of the hollow spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}) were compared. The evolutions of 2.0, 3.1, 5.0, and 8.0 mL hydrogen from aqueous NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution were finished in about 4, 5, 3, and 7 min in the presence of the hollow spheres with wall thicknesses of 17.5, 15.0, 10.0, and 2.0 nm, respectively. The molar ratios of the hydrolytically generated hydrogen to

  5. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres as advanced material for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim, E-mail: info_seyyed@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elyasi, Saeed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • Nano-hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). • Such unique structures exhibit excellent electrochemical properties for high-performance SCs. - Abstract: Due to unique advantages, the development of high-performance supercapacitors has stimulated a great deal of scientific research over the past decade. The electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor is strongly affected by the surface and structural properties of its electrode materials. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-performance supercapacitor electrode material based on CuS nano-hollow spheres with nanoporous structures, large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and facilitated ion transport. The CuS nano-hollow spheres electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance including a maximum specific capacitance of 948 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}, significant rate capability of 46% capacitance retention at a high current density of 50 A g{sup −1}, and outstanding long-term cycling stability at various current densities. This work not only demonstrates the promising potential of the CuS-NHS electrodes for application in high-performance supercapacitors, but also sheds a new light on the metal sulfides design philosophy.

  7. Silicon hollow sphere anode with enhanced cycling stability by a template-free method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Luo, Yunjun; Xia, Min; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-04-01

    Silicon is a promising alternative anode material since it has a ten times higher theoretical specific capacity than that of a traditional graphite anode. However, the poor cycling stability due to the huge volume change of Si during charge/discharge processes has seriously hampered its widespread application. To address this challenge, we design a silicon hollow sphere nanostructure by selective etching and a subsequent magnesiothermic reduction. The Si hollow spheres exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties compared to the commercial Si nanoparticles. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the Si hollow sphere anode are 2215.8 mAh g-1 and 1615.1 mAh g-1 with a high initial coulombic efficiency (72%) at a current density of 200 mA g-1, respectively. In particular, the reversible capacity is 1534.5 mAh g-1 with a remarkable 88% capacity retention against the second cycle after 100 cycles, over four times the theoretical capacity of the traditional graphite electrode. Therefore, our work demonstrates the considerable potential of silicon structures for displacing commercial graphite, and might open up new opportunities to rationally design various nanostructured materials for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Template free fabrication of hollow hematite spheres via a one-pot polyoxometalate-assisted hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli; Li Meiye

    2007-01-01

    Uniform hollow hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl 3 and tungstophosphoric acid H 3 PW 12 O 40 solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres are composed of robust shells with small nanoparticles standing out of the surface and present a high-surface area and a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The effect of concentration of H 3 PW 12 O 40 , reaction time and temperature for the formation of the hollow spheres are investigated in series of experiments. The formation of the hollow spheres may be ascribed to a polyoxometalte-assisted forced hydrolysis and dissolution process. - Graphical abstract: Uniform hollow hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl 3 and tungstophosphoric acid H 3 PW 12 O 40 solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres present a high surface area and weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature

  9. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  10. Comparison of NiS2 and α-NiS hollow spheres for supercapacitors, non-enzymatic glucose sensors and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yazhou; Du, Weimin; Pang, Huan

    2015-10-21

    NiS2 hollow spheres are successfully prepared by a one-step template free method. Meanwhile, α-NiS hollow spheres can also be synthesized via the calcination of the pre-obtained NiS2 hollow spheres at 400 °C for 1 h in air. The electrochemical performances of the as-prepared NiS2 and α-NiS hollow sphere products are evaluated. When used for supercapacitors, compared with NiS2 hollow spheres, the α-NiS hollow sphere electrode shows a large specific capacitance of 717.3 F g(-1) at 0.6 A g(-1) and a good cycle life. Furthermore, NiS2 and α-NiS hollow spheres are successfully applied to fabricate non-enzymatic glucose sensors. In particular, the α-NiS hollow spheres exhibit good catalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose, a fast amperometric response time of less than 5 s, and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.08 μM. More importantly, compared with other normally co-existing interfering species, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, the electrode modified with α-NiS hollow spheres shows good selectivity. Moreover, the α-NiS hollow spheres also present good capacity to remove Congo red organic pollutants from wastewater by their surface adsorption ability.

  11. Facile synthesis and microwave absorbability of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere and multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hongjing; Wu, Guanglei; Wu, Qiaofeng; Wang, Liuding

    2014-01-01

    We reported the preparation of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid spheres or multi-shelled NiO hollow spheres by combining a facile hydrothermal route with a calcination process in H 2 or air atmosphere, respectively. The synthesized C@Ni–NiO core–shell solid spheres with diameters of approximately 2–6 μm were in fact built from dense NiO nanoparticles coated by random two-dimensional metal Ni nanosheets without any visible pores. The multi-shelled NiO hollow spheres were built from particle-like ligaments and there are a lot of pores with size of several nanometers on the surface. Combined Raman spectra with X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), it suggested that the defects in the samples play a limited role in the dielectric loss. Compared with the other samples, the permeability of the samples calcined in H 2 and air was increased slightly and the natural resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency (7, 11 and 14 GHz, respectively), leading to an enhancement of microwave absorption property. For the sample calcined in H 2 , an optimal reflection loss less than − 10 was obtained at 7 GHz with a matching thickness of 5.0 mm. Our study demonstrated the potential application of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere or multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere as a more efficient electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber. - Highlights: • C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere was synthesized by a facile method. • Multi-shelled NiO hollow sphere was synthesized by a facile method. • It suggested that the defects in the samples play a limited role in dielectric loss. • The permeability of the samples calcined in H 2 and air was increased. • Microwave absorbability of C@Ni–NiO core–shell hybrid solid sphere was investigated

  12. Improvement of catalytic activity in selective oxidation of styrene with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} over spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhuitong@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Key Laboratory of Gansu Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Cai, Xiaodong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Qianping [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Key Laboratory of Gansu Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Uniform spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres as templates. Solid spinel Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanocrystals were also prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion, hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods for comparison. The samples were found to be efficient catalysts for oxidation of styrene using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Especially, in the case of Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hollow spheres, obvious improvement on catalytic activity was observed and 21.2% of styrene conversion and 75.2% of selectivity for benzaldehyde were obtained at 80 °C for 6 h reaction in water. The catalyst can be magnetically separated easily for reuse and no obvious loss of activity was observed when reused in six consecutive runs. - Highlights: • Uniform spinel ferrite hollow spheres were prepared by a simple method. • The catalyst has been proved much more efficient for styrene oxidation than the reported analogues. • The catalyst can be easily separated by external magnetic field and has exhibited excellent reusability. • The catalytic system is environmentally friendly. - Abstract: Uniform spinel Mg–Cu ferrite hollow spheres were prepared using carbon spheres as templates. For comparison, solid Mg–Cu ferrite nanocrystals were also prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion, hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. All the samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} physisorption. The samples were found to be efficient catalysts for oxidation of styrene using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Especially, in the case of Mg{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} hollow spheres, obvious improvement on catalytic activity was observed, and 21.2% of styrene conversion and 75.2% of selectivity for benzaldehyde were obtained at 80 °C for 6 h reaction in water. The catalyst can be

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, Talaat M.; Salem, Jamil K.

    2011-01-01

    Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple chemical method at low temperature with Mg:Zn atomic ratio from 0 to 7%. The synthesis process is based on the hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate were heated under refluxing at 65 °C using methanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Mg-doped ZnO crystallizes in a wurtzite structure with crystal size of 5–12 nm. These nanocrystals self-aggregated themselves into hollow spheres of size of 800–1100 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that each sphere is made up of numerous nanoparticles of average diameter 5–11 nm. The XRD patterns, SEM and TEM micrographs of doping of Mg in ZnO confirmed the formation of hollow spheres indicating that the Mg 2+ is successfully substituted into the ZnO host structure of the Zn 2+ site. Furthermore, the UV–Vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO nanoparticles were also investigated. The band gap of the nanoparticles can be tuned in the range of 3.36–3.55 eV by the use of the dopants.

  14. Self-template synthesis of double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Ru, Qinglong; Kang, Xiaoting; Hou, Haiyan; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Daojun

    2018-03-01

    In this work, double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres have been achieved via a simple self-template route, which involves the synthesis of Zn-Ni solid spheres precursors as the self-template and then transformation into double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres by sulfidation treatment. The as-prepared double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres possess a high surface area (105.26 m2 g-1) and porous structures. Benefiting from the combined characteristics of novel structures, multi-component, high surface area and porous. When applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97hollow spheres deliver a large specific capacitance of 696.8C g-1 at 5.0 A g-1 and a remarkable long lifespan cycling stability (less 5.5% loss after 6000 cycles). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was assembled by utilizing ZnS-NiS1.97 (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) as electrode materials. The as-assembled device possesses an energy density of 36 W h kg-1, which can be yet retained 25.6 W h kg-1 even at a power density of 2173.8 W Kg-1, indicating its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage. More importantly, the self-template route is a simple and versatile strategy for the preparation of metal sulfides electrode materials with desired structures, chemical compositions and electrochemical performances.

  15. Nanometric onion-like hollow spheres in laser synthesized boron nitride ultrafine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, L; Willaime, F [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Cauchetier, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l` Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules

    1994-12-31

    TEM observations of ultra-fine B Cl{sub 3}-N H{sub 3} powders elaborated by an innovative method, laser pyrolysis, are presented. The resulting microstructures in the as received state and after thermal treatments show small nanometric scale configurations close to the ones met with carbon, such as an hollowed configuration of onions but at a much smaller scale than with carbon. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO and TiO2 hollow spheres with enhanced photoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofang; Lv Kangle; Deng Kejian; Tang Junfeng; Su Rong; Sun Jie; Chen Lianqing

    2009-01-01

    To study the relationship between the morphology and the photoreactivity of the catalyst, hollow spheres of two semiconductors of ZnO and TiO 2 were synthesized by using sulfonated polystyrene (PS) as template. The catalyst samples were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 sorption. Reactive brilliant red X3B, an anionic organic dye, was used in this study as a model chemical with the aim of organic pollutants control. The results show that, whatever the catalyst was, both the adsorptive ability and photoreactivity of the hollow spheres were much higher than that of nanoparticles. The adsorption and photoreactivity of ZnO hollow spheres increased by a factor of 7.36 and 4.66, respectively compared with ZnO nanoparticles, while 3.74 times increased in adsorption and 3.41 times increased in photoreactivity for TiO 2 hollow spheres compared with TiO 2 nanoparticles. Correlations between adsorption and photoreactivity reflected the importance of adsorption in the enhanced photoreactivity of ZnO and TiO 2 hollow spheres

  17. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a

  18. Novel syntactic foams made of ceramic hollow micro-spheres and starch: theory, structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Kim, H.S. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Built Environments

    2007-08-15

    Novel syntactic foams for potential building material applications were developed using starch as binder and ceramic hollow micro-spheres available as waste from coal-fired power stations. Foams of four different micro-sphere size groups were manufactured with either pre- or post-mould gelatinization process. They were of ternary system including voids with a foam density range of approximately 0.33-0.44 g/cc. Compressive failure behaviour and mechanical properties of the manufactured foams were evaluated. Not much difference in failure behaviour or in mechanical properties between the two different processes (pre- and post-mould gels) was found for a given binder content. Compressive failure of all syntactic foams was of shear on plane inclined 45 degrees to compressive loading direction. Failure surfaces of most syntactic foams were characterized by debonded micro-spheres. Compressive strength and modulus of syntactic foams were found to be dependant mainly on binder content but mostly independent of micro-sphere size. Some conditions of relativity arising from properties of constituents leading to the rule of mixtures relationships for compressive strength and to understanding of compressive/transitional failure behaviour were developed. The developed relationships based on the rule of mixtures were partially verified. Some formation of starch webs on failure surfaces was discussed.

  19. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Indira, J.; Kavitha, L.; Sekar, M.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Indira, J; Kavitha, L; Sekar, M; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2012-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research Update: Facile synthesis of CoFe2O4 nano-hollow spheres for efficient bilirubin adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Rupali; Pal, Monalisa; Chaudhuri, Arka; Mandal, Madhuri; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report an unprecedented bilirubin (BR) adsorption efficiency of CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanostructures in contrast to the commercially available activated carbon and resin which are generally used for haemoperfusion and haemodialysis. We have synthesized CFO nanoparticles of diameter 100 nm and a series of nano-hollow spheres of diameter 100, 160, 250, and 350 nm using a simple template free solvothermal technique through proper variation of reaction time and capping agent, oleylamine (OLA), respectively, and carried out SiO2 coating by employing Stöber method. The comparative BR adsorption study of CFO and SiO2 coated CFO nanostructures indicates that apart from porosity and hollow configuration of nanostructures, the electrostatic affinity between anionic carboxyl group of BR and cationic amine group of OLA plays a significant role in adsorbing BR. Finally, we demonstrate that the BR adsorption capacity of the nanostructures can be tailored by varying the morphology as well as size of the nanostructures. We believe that our developed magnetic nanostructures could be considered as a potential material towards therapeutic applications against hyperbilirubinemia.

  2. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siheng; Wang, Enbo; Tian, Chungui; Mao, Baodong; Kang, Zhenhui; Li, Qiuyu; Sun, Guoying

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag@ MFe 2O 4 ( M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag@C microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe 3+ and M 2+ on the surface of the Ag@C spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core.

  3. Electrochemical performance of Ni/TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere in proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayeeta; Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, Prem Kumar [Birla Institute of Technology, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-08-15

    This work presents the electrocatalytic evaluation of Ni/TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere materials in PEM water electrolysis cell. All the electrocatalysts have shown remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic properties in comparison with their performance in aqueous electrolysis cell. According to cyclic voltammetric results, 0.36 A cm{sup −2} peak current density has been exhibited in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from 30 wt% Ni/TiO{sub 2} electrocatalyst. 15 wt% Ni-doped titania sample has shown the best result in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with the anodic peak current density of 0.3 A cm{sup −2}. In the anodic polarization curves, the performance of 15 wt% Ni/TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere electrocatalyst was evaluated up to 140 mA cm{sup −2} at comparatively lower over-potential value. 20 wt% Ni/TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere electrocatalyst has also shown electrochemical stability in PEM water electrolyzer for 48 h long analysis. The comparative electrocatalytic behavior of hollow spherical materials with non-sphericals is also presented, which clearly shows the influence of hollow spherical structure in greater electrocatalytic activity of the materials. The physical characterization of all the hollow spherical materials is presented in this work, which has confirmed their better electrochemical behavior in PEM water electrolyzer.

  4. Electrochemical performance of Ni/TiO_2 hollow sphere in proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayeeta; Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the electrocatalytic evaluation of Ni/TiO_2 hollow sphere materials in PEM water electrolysis cell. All the electrocatalysts have shown remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic properties in comparison with their performance in aqueous electrolysis cell. According to cyclic voltammetric results, 0.36 A cm"−"2 peak current density has been exhibited in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from 30 wt% Ni/TiO_2 electrocatalyst. 15 wt% Ni-doped titania sample has shown the best result in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with the anodic peak current density of 0.3 A cm"−"2. In the anodic polarization curves, the performance of 15 wt% Ni/TiO_2 hollow sphere electrocatalyst was evaluated up to 140 mA cm"−"2 at comparatively lower over-potential value. 20 wt% Ni/TiO_2 hollow sphere electrocatalyst has also shown electrochemical stability in PEM water electrolyzer for 48 h long analysis. The comparative electrocatalytic behavior of hollow spherical materials with non-sphericals is also presented, which clearly shows the influence of hollow spherical structure in greater electrocatalytic activity of the materials. The physical characterization of all the hollow spherical materials is presented in this work, which has confirmed their better electrochemical behavior in PEM water electrolyzer

  5. Hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres for efficient simulated sunlight-driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taoran; Chen, Yajie; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Zhiyu; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-10-14

    Oxygen generation is the key step for the photocatalytic overall water splitting and considered to be kinetically more challenging than hydrogen generation. Here, an effective water oxidation catalyst of hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres are prepared via a two-step sequential solvothermal processes and followed by thermal treatment. The existence of an effective heterointerface and built-in electric field in the surface space charge region in FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres plays a positive role in promoting the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Surface photovoltage, transient-state photovoltage, fluorescence and electrochemical characterization are used to investigate the transfer process of photoinduced charge carriers. The photogenerated charge carriers in the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres with a proper molar ratio display much higher separation efficiency and longer lifetime than those in the FeTiO3 alone. Moreover, it is suggested that the hierarchical porous hollow structure can contribute to the enhancement of light utilization, surface active sites and material transportation through the framework walls. This specific synergy significantly contributes to the remarkable improvement of the photocatalytic water oxidation activity of the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres under simulated sunlight (AM1.5).

  6. Solvothermal synthesis of monodisperse LiFePO4 micro hollow spheres as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliu; Hu, Mingjun; Xi, Liujiang; Ma, Ruguang; Dong, Yucheng; Chung, C Y

    2013-09-25

    A microspherical, hollow LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode material with polycrystal structure was simply synthesized by a solvothermal method using spherical Li3PO4 as the self-sacrificed template and FeCl2·4H2O as the Fe(2+) source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the LFP micro hollow spheres have a quite uniform size of ~1 μm consisting of aggregated nanoparticles. The influences of solvent and Fe(2+) source on the phase and morphology of the final product were chiefly investigated, and a direct ion exchange reaction between spherical Li3PO4 templates and Fe(2+) ions was firstly proposed on the basis of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) transformation of the products. The LFP nanoparticles in the micro hollow spheres could finely coat a uniform carbon layer ~3.5 nm by a glucose solution impregnating-drying-sintering process. The electrochemical measurements show that the carbon coated LFP materials could exhibit high charge-discharge capacities of 158, 144, 125, 101, and even 72 mAh g(-1) at 0.1, 1, 5, 20, and 50 C, respectively. It could also maintain 80% of the initial discharge capacity after cycling for 2000 times at 20 C.

  7. Preparation and electrochemical characteristics of porous hollow spheres of NiO nanosheets as electrodes of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Jiang, Xinbing; Ding, Shujiang; Li, Ben Q.

    2014-06-01

    Porous hollow nanospheres (or spherical shells) made of NiO nanosheets are synthesized and tested for the electrochemical performance of the electrodes made of these materials for supercapacitors. Preparation of the NiO sheet hollow spheres starts with synthesis of polystyrene nanospheres with carboxyl groups (CPS), followed by a two-step activation procedure and the subsequent nucleation and growth by electroless deposition of Ni on the CPS core to obtain CPS@Ni core-shell nanoparticles. The CPS core is eliminated and metallic Ni nanoshell is converted into NiO by calcinations at high temperatures. The material properties of as-prepared hollow NiO nanospheres are characterized by TEM, XRD and N2-absorption measurements. The electrochemical characteristics of the electrodes made of these nanostructured NiO materials are determined by the CV and galvanostatic measurements. These electrochemical tests indicate that electrodes made of the NiO nanosheet hollow spheres exhibit an improved reversible capacitance of 600 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g-1. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance of these electrodes is attributed to the improved OH- transport in the porous network structures associated with the hollow spheres of randomly oriented NiO nanosheets.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Micron-Sized Hollow Silver Spheres as Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed type of micron-sized hollow silver sphere was successfully synthesized by a simple hard-template method to be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. 4 Å molecular sieves were employed as a removable solid template. [Ag(NH32]+ was absorbed as the precursor on the surface of the molecular sieve. Formaldehyde was selected as a reducing agent to reduce [Ag(NH32]+, resulting in the formation of a micron-sized silver shell on the surface of the 4 Å molecular sieves. The micron-sized hollow silver spheres were obtained by removing the molecular sieve template. SEM and XRD were used to characterize the structure of the micron-sized hollow silver spheres. The as-prepared micro-silver spheres exhibited robust SERS activity in the presence of adsorbed 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA with excitation at 632.8 nm, and the enhancement factor reached ~1.5 × 106. This synthetic process represents a promising method for preparing various hollow metal nanoparticles.

  9. Response Surface Methodology for Design of Porous Hollow Sphere Thermal Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohani, Nazanin; Pourmahdian, Saeed; Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    In this study, response surface method is used for synthesizing polystyrene (PS) as sacrificial templates and optimizing the particle size. Three factors of initiator, stabilizer concentration and also stirring rate were selected as variable factors. Then, three different concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) added to reaction media and core-shell structure with PS core and silica shell was developed. Finally, core-shell structure was changed to hollow silica sphere for using as thermal insulator. We observed that increased initiator concentration caused to larger PS particles, increase the stirring rate caused the smaller PS and also with increased the stabilizer concentration obtained that particle size decrease then after 2.5% began to increase. Also the optimum amount of TEOS was found.

  10. Synthesis of nano grade hollow silica sphere via a soft template method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shyong; Li, Miao Ju; Yen, Fu-Hsu

    2008-06-01

    The nano grade hollow silica sphere (HSS) was synthesized by a novel soft template method. We found that the precipitate of aluminate had a porous structure that could be the soft template for HSS. After mixing the colloidal silica with the aluminate precipitate, the bubble trapped in this porous structure could form the nano grade HSS. The aluminate precipitate was removed by adjusting the pH of the slurry to approximately 1. The outside diameter, the specific surface, and the mean pore size diameter of the forming HSS were 60-90 nm, 571 m2/g, and 3 nm, respectively. The formed HSS was collected by modifying the surface with Si(OCH3)3CHCH2 (VTMO) and then filtrating the precipitated gel in the n-butanol and ethanol solvent system.

  11. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

  12. New Strategies for Constructing Polymeric Micelles and Hollow Spheres Via Self-Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, self-assembly of block copolymers leading to micelles in selective solvents, which dissolve only one of the blocks, has developed rapidly because the micelles are very strong candidates for potential applications in advanced technologies. The micelles usually have core-shell structure which are connected by covalent bonds. Based on our long-term research on interpolymer complexation due to hydrogen bonding, where we noticed that the complexation often led to the formation of irregular aggregates, we succeeded recently in developing a series of new approaches to polymeric micelles and hollow spheres via specific intermolecular interactions. As in these approaches, a variety of polymers with interacting groups i.e. homopolymers, random copolymers, graft copolymers as well as low mass compounds (LMC), can be used as building blocks, our research strategies have substantially extended the field of self-assembly.

  13. One-step synthesis of hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Ren, Feng; Yang, Jinlin; Su, Weiming; Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chang-an

    2016-03-01

    Hierarchically porous hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres were solvothermally synthesized successfully by using tetrabutyl titanate as titanium precursor and hydrated metal sulfates as soft templates. The as-prepared TiO2 spheres with hierarchically pore structures and high specific surface area and pore volume consisted of highly crystallized anatase TiO2 nanocrystals hybridized with a small amount of metal oxide from the hydrated sulfate. The proposed hydrated-sulfate assisted solvothermal (HAS) synthesis strategy was demonstrated to be widely applicable to various systems. Evaluation of the hybrid TiO2 hollow spheres for the photo-decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation revealed that they exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and durability.

  14. A hollow sphere soft lithography approach for long-term hanging drop methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Gu; Ortmann, Daniel; Hancock, Matthew J; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-04-01

    In conventional hanging drop (HD) methods, embryonic stem cell aggregates or embryoid bodies (EBs) are often maintained in small inverted droplets. Gravity limits the volumes of these droplets to less than 50 microL, and hence such cell cultures can only be sustained for a few days without frequent media changes. Here we present a new approach to performing long-term HD methods (10-15 days) that can provide larger media reservoirs in a HD format to maintain more consistent culture media conditions. To implement this approach, we fabricated hollow sphere (HS) structures by injecting liquid drops into noncured poly(dimethylsiloxane) mixtures. These structures served as cell culture chambers with large media volumes (500 microL in each sphere) where EBs could grow without media depletion. The results showed that the sizes of the EBs cultured in the HS structures in a long-term HD format were approximately twice those of conventional HD methods after 10 days in culture. Further, HS cultures showed multilineage differentiation, similar to EBs cultured in the HD method. Due to its ease of fabrication and enhanced features, this approach may be of potential benefit as a stem cell culture method for regenerative medicine.

  15. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Silver Doped Hollow Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver doped PAN-based hollow carbon nanofibers were prepared combining co-electrospinning with in situ reduction technique subsequently heat treatment to improve the electrochemical performances of carbon based supercapacitor electrodes. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performances of the resulted nanofiber were studied. The results show that the silver nanoparticles can be doped on the surface of hollow carbon nanofibers and the addition of silver favors the improvement of the electrochemical performances, exhibiting the enhanced reversibility of electrode reaction and the capacitance and the reduced charge transfer impedance.

  16. Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous 3D-nanostructure as anode material for the lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Su, Danyang; Yang, Jinping; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    3d transition-metal oxides, especially Fe3O4, as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries have been attracting intensive attentions in recent years due to their high energy capacity and low toxicity. A new Fe3O4/C composite with hollow spheres in porous three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure, which was synthesized by a facile solvothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and porous spongy carbon as raw materials. The specific surface area and microstructures of composite were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method, FE-SEM and HR-TEM. A homogeneous distribution of hollow Fe3O4 spheres (diameter ranges from 120 nm to 150 nm) in the spongy carbon (pore size > 200 nm) conductive 3D-network significantly reduced the lithium-ion diffusion length and increased the electrochemical reaction area, and further more enhanced the lithium ion battery performance, such as discharge capacity and cycle life. As an anode material for the lithium-ion battery, the title composite exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. The Fe3O4/C composite electrode achieved a relatively high reversible specific capacity of 1450.1 mA h g-1 in the first cycle at 100 mA g-1, and excellent rate capability (69% retention at 1000 mA g-1) with good cycle stability (only 10% loss after 100 cycles).

  17. Sandwich-like C@SnO2/Sn/void@C hollow spheres as improved anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Xinya; Chai, Yaqin; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo

    2018-03-01

    As lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, SnO2 suffers fast capacity fading due to its large volume expansion during discharge/charge process. To overcome the problem, sandwich-like C@SnO2/Sn/void@C hollow spheres (referred as C@SnO2/Sn/void@C HSs) are prepared by in-situ polymerization and carbonization, using hollow SnO2 as self-template and dopamine as carbon source. The C@SnO2/Sn/void@C HSs possesses the merits of hollow and core/void/shell structure, so that they can accommodate the volume change under discharge/charge process, shorten the transmission distance of Li ions, own more contact area for the electrolyte. Thanks to these advantages, C@SnO2/Sn/void@C HSs display excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, which deliver a high capacity of 786.7 mAh g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 after 60 cycles. The simple synthesis method for C@SnO2/Sn/void@C HSs with special structure will provide a promising method for preparing other anode materials for LIBs.

  18. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Seki, Ayano [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Si+Ni content. • The particle size distribution affects the activity and reducibility of active nickel species. • The amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres decreases by treatment of as-prepared sample in toluene. -- Abstract: In this paper, we investigated influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. In the preparation method of this study, when silica–nickel composite shells were coated on polystyrene templates by the sol–gel method using L(+)-arginine as the promoter for the reaction to form silica–nickel composite shell, the polystyrene templates were dissolved subsequently, even synchronously, in the same medium to form hollow spheres. The as-prepared silica–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of Si+Ni content on the morphology were systematically evaluated. All the as-prepared hollow silica–nickel composite spheres have the similar morphology as identified by SEM and TEM measurement. Homogeneity of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres increases with the increase in the Si+Ni content as shown by the laser diffraction particle size analysis. The catalytic activities of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane prepared with different Si+Ni contents were compared. The catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution in the presence of the hollow spheres increases with the increase of Si+Ni content. The results of FTIR spectra of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres indicate that a certain amount of residual PS templates exists in hollow silica

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hollow α-Fe2O3 sub-micron spheres prepared by sol–gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Lizbet; Bustamante, Angel; Osorio, Ana; Olarte, G. S.; Santos Valladares, Luis De Los; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the preparation of magnetic hematite hollow sub-micron spheres (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) by colloidal suspensions of ferric nitrate nine-hydrate (Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O) particles in citric acid solution by following the sol–gel method. After the gel formation, the samples were annealed at different temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. Annealing at 180°C resulted in an amorphous phase, without iron oxide formation. Annealing at 250°C resulted in coexisting phases of hematite, maghemite and magnetite, whereas at 400°C, only hematite and maghemite were found. Pure hematite hollow sub-micron spheres with porous shells were formed after annealing at 600°C. The characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Three-dimensional graphene-polyaniline hybrid hollow spheres by layer-by-layer assembly for application in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Qiang; Gu, Huahao; Zheng, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A graphene-polyaniline (GR-PANI) hybrid hollow sphere is fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. •The GR-PANI hollow sphere has higher specific capacitance than stacked GR-PANI LBL film. •64% of its initial capacitance is maintained with the current density increased from 0.5 to 20 A g −1 . •A high capacity retention rate of 83% after 1000 cycles can be achieved. -- Abstract: A novel kind of three-dimensional graphene-polyaniline hybrid hollow sphere (RGO-PANI HS) has been prepared via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and positively charged polyaniline (PANI) on polystyrene (PS) microsphere, followed by the removal of the PS template. The hollow structure of the obtained RGO-PANI HS is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When used as the electrode materials for supercapacitor, the specific capacitance of the RGO-PANI HS reaches 381 F/g at a current density of 4.0 A/g, which is much higher than 251 F/g of the stacked RGO-PANI LBL film. The higher specific capacitance of RGO-PANI HS should be attributed to its unique hollow structure which provides a larger accessible surface area and facilitate the charge and ion transport. In addition, its specific capacitance can be facilely tailored by changing the assembly cycle number. Furthermore, good cycling stability is also demonstrated with 83% of the original capacitance value maintained after 1000 charging/discharging cycles

  1. Broadband micro-Michelson interferometer with multi-optical-path beating using a sphered-end hollow fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan-Kuang; Lu, Kuan-Yi; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Lin, Chinlon

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate a high-sensitivity broadband (1250-1650 nm) fiber micro-Michelson interferometer using a single-mode fiber end-spliced with a sphered-end hollow-core fiber. The hollow core is slightly smaller than the solid core of a single-mode fiber, so the fractional power of the core mode is converted into cladding modes. The excited cladding modes propagate at distinct optical paths along the hollow-core fiber and have individual foci outside the spherical lens. The reflected core mode, generated at the solid core-air interface, and the reflected cladding modes, generated at external material, interfere with each other to produce beating in the interference signals. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Fabrication of hollow-sphere films of wurtzite CuInS{sub 2} on copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Shuijin, E-mail: shjlei@ncu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Wang, Chunying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Qiang [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Liu, Lei; Ge, Yang; Tang, Qingliu; Cheng, Baochang; Xiao, Yanhe; Zhou, Lang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)

    2013-12-16

    As important semiconductors, I–III–VI{sub 2} compounds have attracted wide attention, among which the wurtzite structured CuInS{sub 2} has been the research focus due to its metastable phase. In this paper, the wurtzite CuInS{sub 2} hollow-sphere films have been successfully prepared on copper substrate in a self-designed solvothermal detached system. The films of Cu(OH){sub 2} one-dimensional nanostructure arrays and thioacetamide were used as the precursors and triethylene glycol was used as the solvent. Experiments showed that the amount of indium trichloride played a determinative role in the final morphology of the products. Meanwhile, the one-dimensional nanostructure arrays and the detached solvothermal system have great influences on the crystal shape as well. Based on the experimental results, a possible formation mechanism for the CuInS{sub 2} hollow spheres was also proposed. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum showed a broad absorption over the entire visible light and extending into the near-infrared region and presented the band gap of 1.53 eV for the as-prepared wurtzite CuInS{sub 2}, which indicates the potential applications in solar cells. - Highlights: • A self-designed detached system along with solvothermal treatment was developed. • Wurtzite CuInS{sub 2} hollow-sphere films were successfully fabricated on Cu substrate. • The detached system and InCl{sub 3} usage were crucial for the hollow spheres. • The broadband absorption and 1.53 eV band-gap indicates its potentials in PV.

  3. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hol...

  4. Instantaneous, Simple, and Reversible Revealing of Invisible Patterns Encrypted in Robust Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Li, Jiaqi; Liu, Liwang; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2018-05-04

    The colors of photonic crystals are based on their periodic crystalline structure. They show clear advantages over conventional chromophores for many applications, mainly due to their anti-photobleaching and responsiveness to stimuli. More specifically, combining colloidal photonic crystals and invisible patterns is important in steganography and watermarking for anticounterfeiting applications. Here a convenient way to imprint robust invisible patterns in colloidal crystals of hollow silica spheres is presented. While these patterns remain invisible under static environmental humidity, even up to near 100% relative humidity, they are unveiled immediately (≈100 ms) and fully reversibly by dynamic humid flow, e.g., human breath. They reveal themselves due to the extreme wettability of the patterned (etched) regions, as confirmed by contact angle measurements. The liquid surface tension threshold to induce wetting (revealing the imprinted invisible images) is evaluated by thermodynamic predictions and subsequently verified by exposure to various vapors with different surface tension. The color of the patterned regions is furthermore independently tuned by vapors with different refractive indices. Such a system can play a key role in applications such as anticounterfeiting, identification, and vapor sensing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effects of microporosity on the elasticity and yielding of thin-walled metallic hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinliang; Sun, Quansheng; Yang, Zhenning; Luo, Shengmin; Xiao, Xianghui; Arwade, Sanjay R.; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanical properties of porous metallic hollow spheres (MHS) thin wall is of key importance for understanding the engineering performance of both individual ultralight MHS and the innovative MHS-based bulk foams. This paper presents the first integrated experimental and numerical study to determine the elasticity and yielding of the porous MHS wall and their dependence on its microporosity. Nanoindentation was used to probe the Young's modulus and hardness of the nonporous MHS wall material, and synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (XCT) conducted to obtain its porous microstructure and pore morphology. Three-dimensional finite element modeling was performed to obtain the mechanical response of microcubes with varying porosity trimmed from the XCT-derived real digital model of the porous MHS wall. Results show that both the Young's modulus and yield strength of the porous wall decrease nonlinearly with increasing porosity, and their relationships follow the same format of a power law function and agree well with prior experimental results. The empirical relations also reflect certain features of pore morphology, such as pore connectivity and shape. These findings can shed lights on the design, manufacturing, and modeling of individual MHS and MHS-based foams.

  6. Effects of microporosity on the elasticity and yielding of thin-walled metallic hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jinliang [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Sun, Quansheng [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Yang, Zhenning; Luo, Shengmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xiao, Xianghui [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Arwade, Sanjay R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Zhang, Guoping, E-mail: zhangg@umass.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2017-03-14

    Knowledge of the mechanical properties of porous metallic hollow spheres (MHS) thin wall is of key importance for understanding the engineering performance of both individual ultralight MHS and the innovative MHS-based bulk foams. This paper presents the first integrated experimental and numerical study to determine the elasticity and yielding of the porous MHS wall and their dependence on its microporosity. Nanoindentation was used to probe the Young's modulus and hardness of the nonporous MHS wall material, and synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (XCT) conducted to obtain its porous microstructure and pore morphology. Three-dimensional finite element modeling was performed to obtain the mechanical response of microcubes with varying porosity trimmed from the XCT-derived real digital model of the porous MHS wall. Results show that both the Young's modulus and yield strength of the porous wall decrease nonlinearly with increasing porosity, and their relationships follow the same format of a power law function and agree well with prior experimental results. The empirical relations also reflect certain features of pore morphology, such as pore connectivity and shape. These findings can shed lights on the design, manufacturing, and modeling of individual MHS and MHS-based foams.

  7. Integral measurements using the 'sphere method'. The case of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haouat, G.; Lachkar, J.; Patin, Y.; Cocu, F.; Sigaud, J.; Cotten, D.

    1977-01-01

    The time-of-flight spectrum of direct and scattered neutrons with a 10cm diameter carbon sphere. (The direct neutron energy is 14.81MeV, the basic time-of-flight being 6m). The time-of-flight spectrum of the neutrons from T(d,n) 4 He is given in the same experimental conditions (without the carbon sphere) [fr

  8. Permeation of supercritical carbon dioxide through polymeric hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, V.E.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Permeation of carbon dioxide was measured for two types of composite polymeric hollow fiber membranes for feed pressures up to 18 MPa at a temp. of 313 K. support membrane. The membranes consist of a polyamide copolymer (IPC) layer or a poly(vinyl alc.) (PVA) layer on top of a polyethersulfone

  9. Synthesis of hollow carbon nanoshells and their application for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, G. A.; Sosunov, A. V.; Ponomarev, R. S.; Khenner, V. K.; Reza, Md. Shamim; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2018-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the synthesis, the description of the structure, and the use of hollow carbon nanoshells 3-5 nm in size. Hollow carbon nanoshells were synthesized by thermolysis of a mixture of nickel acetate and citric acid in the temperature range of 500-700°C. During the chemical reaction, nickel nuclei 3-5 nm in size are formed, separated from each other by carbon layers. At an annealing temperature of 600°C, the most ordered, close-packed structure is formed, evenly distributed throughout the sample. The etching of nickel with nitric acid resulted in hollow carbon nanoshells with a high specific surface area ( 1200 m2/g) and a homogeneous structure. Raman spectroscopy shows that the graphene-like structure of carbon nanoshells is preserved before and after the etching of nickel, and their defect density does not increase, which enables them to be subjected to new processing (functionalization) in order to obtain additional physical properties. The resulting carbon nanoshells were used as active material of the supercapacitor electrodes. The conducted electrochemical measurements showed that the specific capacitance of the supercapacitor did not fall below 120 F/g at a current density of 0.3 to 3 A after 800 charge/discharge cycles.

  10. Low temperature synthesis and photocatalytic property of perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shasha [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Niu, Helin, E-mail: niuhelin@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Tao, Zhiyin; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Chen, Changle, E-mail: changle@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Dong [Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} is fabricated by green colloidal template method. •Carbonaceous colloids acted as templates and offered internal heat source. •The calcination temperature to form perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} was dropped to 550 °C. •The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV irradiation. •Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} shows excellent photocatalytic activity on dyes. -- Abstract: Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} was successfully fabricated by surface-ion adsorption method utilizing the carbonaceous colloids as template under relatively low calcination temperature. Carbonaceous colloids not only acted as templates but also offered internal heat source during calcination process. The impact of calcined temperature and time on the structure and morphology of the product were studied and the possible formation process of perovskite-type LaCoO{sub 3} hollow spheres was illustrated. The obtained product was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TG-DSC, ICP-OES, BET and UV–visible absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange and neutral red were tested. The good photocatalytic degradation activity of the three different dyes and the band gap of 2.07 eV make it a promising candidate material for photocatalytic applications.

  11. Low temperature synthesis and photocatalytic property of perovskite-type LaCoO3 hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Shasha; Niu, Helin; Tao, Zhiyin; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Chen, Changle; Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO 3 is fabricated by green colloidal template method. •Carbonaceous colloids acted as templates and offered internal heat source. •The calcination temperature to form perovskite-type LaCoO 3 was dropped to 550 °C. •The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV irradiation. •Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO 3 shows excellent photocatalytic activity on dyes. -- Abstract: Hollow perovskite-type LaCoO 3 was successfully fabricated by surface-ion adsorption method utilizing the carbonaceous colloids as template under relatively low calcination temperature. Carbonaceous colloids not only acted as templates but also offered internal heat source during calcination process. The impact of calcined temperature and time on the structure and morphology of the product were studied and the possible formation process of perovskite-type LaCoO 3 hollow spheres was illustrated. The obtained product was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TG-DSC, ICP-OES, BET and UV–visible absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange and neutral red were tested. The good photocatalytic degradation activity of the three different dyes and the band gap of 2.07 eV make it a promising candidate material for photocatalytic applications

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticle layer templated by polydopamine spheres: a novel scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic nanoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Ao, Lijiao; Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Foda, Mohamed F; Su, Wu

    2015-01-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle layers with high packing density and controlled thickness were in situ deposited on metal-affinity organic templates (polydopamine spheres), via one-pot thermal decomposition. The as synthesized hybrid structure served as a facile nano-scaffold toward hollow-mesoporous magnetic carriers, through surfactant-assisted silica encapsulation and its subsequent calcination. Confined but accessible gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into these carriers to form a recyclable catalyst, showing quick magnetic response and a large surface area (642.5 m(2) g(-1)). Current nano-reactors exhibit excellent catalytic performance and high stability in reduction of 4-nitrophenol, together with convenient magnetic separability and good reusability. The integration of compact iron oxide nanoparticle layers with programmable polydopamine templates paves the way to fabricate magnetic-response hollow structures, with high permeability and multi-functionality.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic performance and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B over hierarchical double-shelled zinc nickel oxide hollow sphere heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jiabin; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres heterojunction were prepared by calcination of the metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sacrificial template in air via a one-step solvothermal method. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-vis light irradiation were also investigated. NiO/ZnO microsphere comprised a core and a shell with unique hierarchically porous structure. The photocatalytic results showed that NiO/ZnO hollow spheres exhibited excellent catalytic activity for RhB degradation, causing complete decomposition of RhB (200 mL of 10 g/L) under UV-vis light irradiation within 3 h. Furthermore, the degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the intermediates during the photodegradation process using liquid chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The improvement in photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the p-n heterojunction in the NiO/ZnO hollow spheres with hierarchically porous structure and the strong double-shell binding interaction, which enhances adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface and facilitates the electron/hole transfer within the framework. The degradation mechanism of pollutant is ascribed to the hydroxyl radicals (rad OH), which is the main oxidative species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. This work provides a facile and effective approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides heterojunction with high photocatalytic activity and thus can be potentially used in the environmental purification.

  14. Template method synthesis of mesoporous carbon spheres and its applications as supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosz, Karolina; Chen, Xuecheng; Kierzek, Krzysztof; Machnikowski, Jacek; Kalenczuk, Ryszard J.; Mijowska, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Mesoporous carbon spheres (MCS) have been fabricated from structured mesoporous silica sphere using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ethylene as a carbon feedstock. The mesoporous carbon spheres have a high specific surface area of 666.8 m2/g and good electrochemical properties. The mechanism of formation mesoporous carbon spheres (carbon spheres) is investigated. The important thing is a surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which accelerates the process of carbon deposition. An additional advantage of this surfactant is an increase the yield of product. These mesoporous carbon spheres, which have good electrochemical properties is suitable for supercapacitors.

  15. Experimental stress analysis of large plastic deformations in a hollow sphere deformed by impact against a concrete block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental plastic strain measurement system is presented for use on the surface of high velocity impact test models. The system was used on a hollow sphere tested in impact against a reinforced concrete block. True strains, deviatoric stresses, and true stresses were calculated from experimental measurements. The maximum strain measured in the model was small compared to the true failure strain obtained from static tensile tests of model material. This fact suggests that a much greater impact velocity would be required to cause failure of the model shell structure.

  16. Large-scale preparation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Fu; Bai, Yu-Jun; Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning; Lu, Xi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were synthesized on large scale by a simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C in an autoclave. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of HGCNSs with an average diameter of 10 nm or so and a wall thickness of a few graphenes. The HGCNSs exhibit a reversible capacity of 391 mAh g −1 after 60 cycles when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres could be prepared on large scale by the simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C, which exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite. Highlights: ► Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were prepared on large scale at 550 °C ► The preparation is simple, effective and eco-friendly. ► The in situ yielded MgO nanocrystals promote the graphitization. ► The HGCNSs exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite.

  17. Large-scale preparation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Fu [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bai, Yu-Jun, E-mail: byj97@126.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lu, Xi-Feng [Lunan Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering, Jining 272000 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were synthesized on large scale by a simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 Degree-Sign C in an autoclave. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of HGCNSs with an average diameter of 10 nm or so and a wall thickness of a few graphenes. The HGCNSs exhibit a reversible capacity of 391 mAh g{sup -1} after 60 cycles when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres could be prepared on large scale by the simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 Degree-Sign C, which exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were prepared on large scale at 550 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation is simple, effective and eco-friendly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in situ yielded MgO nanocrystals promote the graphitization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HGCNSs exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite.

  18. Uniform hollow Fe3O4 spheres prepared by template-free solvothermal method as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingjing; Yao Yu; Huang Tao; Yu Aishui

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Unique hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres assembled by Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles prepared by a simple template-free solvothermal reaction are tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results show that the material delivers reversible specific capacities of 870 mA h g −1 even after 50 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 836 mA h g −1 at 500 mA g −1 . The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their hollow nanostructure and excellent structural stability. Highlights: ► Uniform hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres were prepared by a template-free solvothermal method. ► The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres have the capacity of 870 mA h g −1 at 50th cycle. ► The specific capacity can be well maintained at a large current density. ► The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres exhibit enhanced rate capability. ► Electrochemical performance of hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres is better than Fe 3 O 4 powders. - Abstract: Unique hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres are prepared by a simple template-free solvothermal reaction. In the reaction, ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) serve as the reducing agent and surface stabilizer, respectively. NH 4 Ac plays the role of the structure-directing agent, which combines with the Ostwald ripening process, resulting in the favored formation of hollow structures. The morphologies and structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hollow Fe 3 O 4 spheres exhibit excellent cycling and rate performance as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, delivering reversible specific capacities of 870 mA h g −1 even after 50 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 836 mA h g −1 at 500 mA g −1 . The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to their hollow nanostructure and excellent structural stability.

  19. Synthesis of morphology-controlled carbon hollow particles by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde precursor microspheres and applications in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haijiao, E-mail: seaboyfang@163.com [Modern Manufacture Engineering Center, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, 150027 (China); Xu Huifang, E-mail: xuhf@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 (China); Zhao Can [Modern Manufacture Engineering Center, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, 150027 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resorcinol-formaldehyde hollow particles could be obtained by inverse suspension method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphologies of RF carbon precursor particles could be controlled by adjusting the pH values of the RF precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared carbon hollow particles, which derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde, exhibited microporous properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RF carbon microcapsules displayed excellent power property and cycle durability. - Abstract: The morphology-controlled carbon hollow particles, derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) particles, were prepared by using an (oil phase) O/(water phase) W/(oil phase) O inverse-emulsion system which was formed by adding RF precursor (water phase) to n-hexane (oil phase) with Span-80 as surfactant and the following carbonization. This simple method led to the formation of various morphologies of RF carbon precursor particles such as hollow spheres, bowl-like hollow structures, microcapsules, or solid microspheres by adjusting the pH values of the RF precursor. The synthesized carbon particles exhibited porous characters with the surface area of 659 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the total pore volume of 0.44 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Additionally, the electrochemical behavior of the typical RF carbon particles in lithium-ion batteries revealed that the RF carbon microcapsules displayed a high initial discharge capacity of 1059 mAh g{sup -1} and stabilized at about 330 mAh g{sup -1}, indicating its excellent power property and cycle durability.

  20. Bubble template synthesis of Sn2Nb2O7 hollow spheres for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Yufei; Bian, Tong; Shang, Lu; Yu, Huijun; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Zhang, Tierui

    2013-10-28

    Hierarchical Sn2Nb2O7 hollow spheres were prepared for the first time via a facile hydrothermal route using bubbles generated in situ from the decomposition of urea as soft templates. The as-obtained hollow spheres with a large specific surface area of 58.3 m(2) g(-1) show improved visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 production activity in lactic acid aqueous solutions, about 4 times higher than that of the bulk Sn2Nb2O7 sample prepared by a conventional high temperature solid state reaction method.

  1. Carbon based thirty six atom spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskoti, Charles R.; Zettl, Alex K.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Cote, Michel; Grossman, Jeffrey C.; Louie, Steven G.

    2005-09-06

    A solid phase or form of carbon is based on fullerenes with thirty six carbon atoms (C.sub.36). The C.sub.36 structure with D.sub.6h symmetry is one of the two most energetically favorable, and is conducive to forming a periodic system. The lowest energy crystal is a highly bonded network of hexagonal planes of C.sub.36 subunits with AB stacking. The C.sub.36 solid is not a purely van der Waals solid, but has covalent-like bonding, leading to a solid with enhanced structural rigidity. The solid C.sub.36 material is made by synthesizing and selecting out C.sub.36 fullerenes in relatively large quantities. A C.sub.36 rich fullerene soot is produced in a helium environment arc discharge chamber by operating at an optimum helium pressure (400 torr). The C.sub.36 is separated from the soot by a two step process. The soot is first treated with a first solvent, e.g. toluene, to remove the higher order fullerenes but leave the C.sub.36. The soot is then treated with a second solvent, e.g. pyridine, which is more polarizable than the first solvent used for the larger fullerenes. The second solvent extracts the C.sub.36 from the soot. Thin films and powders can then be produced from the extracted C.sub.36. Other materials are based on C.sub.36 fullerenes, providing for different properties.

  2. Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 core-shell spheres encapsulated in three-dimensional graphene foams for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are fabricated using 300 nm spherical SiO2 particles as template. Then three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are successfully obtained through self-assembly in hydrothermal process from graphene oxide nanosheets and metal oxide hollow spheres. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated architectures could greatly improve the capacity, cycling stability and rate capability of hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres electrodes due to the highly conductive networks and flexible buffering matrix. The three-dimensional graphene foams encapsulated hollow SnO2@Co3O4 spheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Hollow Spheres of Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encased in Graphitic Layers as Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction are the ultimate materials and the foremost subject for low‐temperature fuel cells. A novel type of catalysts prepared by high‐pressure pyrolysis is reported. The catalyst is featured by hollow spherical morphologies consisting...

  4. Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Borujeni, Ahmad Reza Afraz; Najafi, Mojgan; Bagheri, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters ranging from 40 to 150 nm have been synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sonochemical route. The successful vesicle templating indicates that the outer leaflet of the bilayer is the receptive surface in the controlled growth of CdS nanoparticles which provide the unique reactor for the nucleation and mineralization growth of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Structural characterization of hollow CdS nanospheres indicates that these products packed with square subunits having sizes between 5 and 7 nm in diameter. The formation of the hollow nanostructure was explained by a vesicle template mechanism, in which sonication and surfactant play important roles. The band-edge emission and surface luminescence of the CdS nanoparticles were observed. -Research Highlights: → CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters of 40-150 nm were synthesized. → Nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Vis and photoluminescence. → Nanospheres are composed of smaller nanocrystals with the average size of 6.8 nm. → The band gap energy of the CdS nanoparticles is higher than its bulk value.

  5. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials and Applications, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou 466001 (China); Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • The formation mechanism for the Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The reactive species in the photocatalytic process were studied. - Abstract: Micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres were successfully synthesized by a one-step and low-temperature route under ambient pressure. The micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres have a diameter of 1–2 μm and their shells are composed of numerous nanoparticles and nanorods. The growth process of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres was investigated in detail. The results indicated that the morphologies and composition of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} samples were strongly dependent on the dose of the AgNO{sub 3} and reaction time. Excessive AgNO{sub 3} was favorable for the nucleation and growth rate of Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} crystals and the formation of pure Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4}. Moreover, the formation mechanism of the micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is related to the Ostwald ripening. Under the same conditions, the photocatalytic activity of micro/nanostructured Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} hollow spheres is about 1.7 times and 11 times higher than that of bulk Ag{sub 2}ZnGeO{sub 4} and Degussa P25, respectively. These interesting findings could provide new insight on the synthesis of micro/nanostructured ternary-metal oxides with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  6. Double hollow MoS{sub 2} nano-spheres: Synthesis, tribological properties, and functional conversion from lubrication to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yueru [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Kunhong, E-mail: hukunhong@163.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Enzhu; Guo, Jianhua; Han, Chengliang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Xianguo [Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized on sericite. • Friction and wear decreased by 22.4 and 63.5% by the novel MoS{sub 2}/sericite. • Friction induced conversion of MoS{sub 2}/sericite from lubricant to catalyst. • MoS{sub 2}/sericite can be used as a photocatalyst after lubricating service life. • A possible approach was proposed for designing a novel green lubricant. - Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) has extensive applications in industries as solid lubricants and catalysts. To improve the lubricating performance of MoS{sub 2}, novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} (DHSM) nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 90 nm were synthesized on sericite mica (SM). When the DHSM/SM composite was used as an additive in polyalphaolefin oil, friction and wear decreased by 22.4% and 63.5% respectively. The low friction and wear were attributed to the easy exfoliation of DHSM. The DHSM/SM composite was then rubbed under 40 MPa for 1 h to investigate the exfoliation and functional conversion behaviors of DHSM. Results showed that DHSM (lubricating structure) on SM could be completely exfoliated into nanosheets (catalytic structure) by rubbing. The nanosheets exfoliated from DHSM presented good photocatalytic activity for the removal of organic compounds from waste water. This work provided both a novel solid lubricant for industrial applications and a possible approach to designing a novel green lubricant for use as a photocatalyst in organic-waste treatment after lubricating service life.

  7. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hollow structure and huge specific surface area. The growth of HSS was an inward-growth mechanism along template. Notably, we have provided a new and interesting fundamental principle for HSS materials by precisely controlling the ethanol-to-water volume ratio. In addition, the as-obtained HSS were mixed with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to prepare WPU/HSS composite membrane. Various characterizations (SEM, TEM, FT-IR and TGA) revealed the morphology, polydispersity and adherence between HSS and WPU. Performance tests showed that the introduction of HSS can improve the water vapor permeability of composite membrane, promoting its water resistance and mechanical performance at the same time.

  8. Hierarchical flower-like carbon nanosheet assembly with embedded hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for high- performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ling; Qiu, Huajun; Luo, Pan; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu, E-mail: wangy@cqu.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}@carbon nanosphere is firstly synthesized for Li-ion batteries. • The nanostructure exhibits the unique feature of hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded inside and graphitized carbon layers coating outside. • The sample reveals stable structure, large specific surface area and good electrical conductivity. • The composite exhibits superior rate capability, cycling capacity and excellent Coulombic efficiency. - Abstract: The fabrication of closely bounded metal oxides/carbon hybrid nano-structures is significant for its use in energy-related areas especially lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this research, a flower-like carbon sphere with hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles encapsulated inside the carbon thin nanopetal is fabricated by using a mixed basic carbonate nickel and cobalt sphere as the precursor and templates followed by the outer carbon membrane covering and two-step calcination process. When tested as anode material for LIBs, this flower-like carbon-based hybrid sphere demonstrates a significantly enhanced reversible capacity and cycling stability at various current densities.

  9. Micelles driven magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) hollow spheres and a study on AC magnetic properties for hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Madhuri Mandal, E-mail: madhuri@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Dey, Chaitali [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Ayan [CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Sarkar, Debasish [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Ahir, Manisha [CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Here we have discussed about designing the magnetic particles for hyperthermia therapy and done some studies in this direction. We have used oleylamine micelles as template to synthesize hollow–nanospheres (HNS) of magnetite by solvo-thermal technique. We have shown that oleylamine plays an important role to generate hollow particles. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM was performed to confirm the shape and size of hollow sphere particles. The detail magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these HNS for magnetic heating in hyperthermia therapy. In vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal that tolerable dose rate for these particles can be significantly high and particles are non-toxic in nature. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, drug release, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc. - Graphical abstract: Oleylamine micelles driven easy synthesis of hollow nanosphere (HNS) magnetite for hyperthermia therapy. - Highlights: • We have reported a new method of synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite using micelles as model core and removal of micelles evolve the hollow like structure by relocating the core particles to the edge one. • Size can be controlled by varying the micellar concentration. • The detail magnetic measurements give an idea of applicability of these nano hollow spheres (NHS) in hyperthermia therapy. • Cyto-toxicity study reveals that these particles are highly biofriendly and dose rate can be increased upto a significant amount.

  10. MnO{sub 2}@colloid carbon spheres nanocomposites with tunable interior architecture for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxin, E-mail: zhangyuxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Devices and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Dong, Meng; Zhu, Shijin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Chuanpu, E-mail: liuchuanpu@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wen, Zhongquan [National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Devices and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}@CSs nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized in room temperature. • The composites exhibited three structures: core–shell, yolk–shell and hollow structure. • The yolk–shell structure exhibited a high specific capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: MnO{sub 2}@colloid carbon spheres nanocomposites with tunable interior architecture have been synthesized by a facile and cost-effective strategy at room temperature. The structure and morphology of as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The as-obtained composites exhibited a three-dimensional architecture with core–shell, yolk–shell and hollow interior structure. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of composites were evaluated by cycle voltammetric (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements. The yolk–shell structure exhibited the optimized pseudocapacitance performance, revealing a specific capacitance (273 F g{sup −1}) with a good rate and cycling stability, owing to its unique structure and the poor crystallinity of MnO{sub 2} nanofilms. Therefore, this facile synthetic strategy could be useful to design and synthesis of tunable nanostructures with enhanced supercapacitor behavior.

  11. MnO2@colloid carbon spheres nanocomposites with tunable interior architecture for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Dong, Meng; Zhu, Shijin; Liu, Chuanpu; Wen, Zhongquan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO 2 @CSs nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized in room temperature. • The composites exhibited three structures: core–shell, yolk–shell and hollow structure. • The yolk–shell structure exhibited a high specific capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: MnO 2 @colloid carbon spheres nanocomposites with tunable interior architecture have been synthesized by a facile and cost-effective strategy at room temperature. The structure and morphology of as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The as-obtained composites exhibited a three-dimensional architecture with core–shell, yolk–shell and hollow interior structure. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of composites were evaluated by cycle voltammetric (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements. The yolk–shell structure exhibited the optimized pseudocapacitance performance, revealing a specific capacitance (273 F g −1 ) with a good rate and cycling stability, owing to its unique structure and the poor crystallinity of MnO 2 nanofilms. Therefore, this facile synthetic strategy could be useful to design and synthesis of tunable nanostructures with enhanced supercapacitor behavior

  12. Design and Synthesis of Hierarchical SiO2@C/TiO2 Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Shunsheng; Yin, Zhengliang; Cheng, Li; Wu, Limin

    2017-09-06

    TiO 2 has been widely investigated as an electrode material because of its long cycle life and good durability, but the relatively low theoretical capacity restricts its practical application. Herein, we design and synthesize novel hierarchical SiO 2 @C/TiO 2 (HSCT) hollow spheres via a template-directed method. These unique HSCT hollow spheres combine advantages from both TiO 2 such as cycle stability and SiO 2 with a high accessible area and ionic transport. In particular, the existence of a C layer is able to enhance the electrical conductivity. The SiO 2 layer with a porous structure can increase the ion diffusion channels and accelerate the ion transfer from the outer to the inner layers. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the HSCT-hollow-sphere-based electrode manifests a high specific capacitance of 1018 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 which is higher than those for hollow TiO 2 (113 F g -1 ) and SiO 2 /TiO 2 (252 F g -1 ) electrodes, and substantially higher than those of all the previously reported TiO 2 -based electrodes.

  13. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Bin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohua, E-mail: hudacxh62@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo, Kaimin [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Xu, Longshan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Chen, Chuansheng [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  14. Enhanced electrochemical performance of different morphological C/LiMnPO4 nanoparticles from hollow-sphere Li3PO4 precursor via a delicate polyol-assisted hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Ting; Xu, Ning; Kou, Li-Qin; Wu, Meng-Tao; Chen, Li

    2014-03-01

    With the hollow-sphere Li3PO4 as precursor, a delicate polyol-assisted hydrothermal method is devised to synthesize high-performance LiMnPO4. Orthorhombic shaped, irregular flaky shaped and sphere-like LiMnPO4 are sequentially prepared by decreasing the water-diethylene glycol (DEG) ratio. The capacity, cycling stability and rate performance of all samples prepared by the new synthesis method are improved significantly. And the C/LiMnPO4 with irregular flaky shape exhibits a capacity of 154.1 mA h g-1 at C/20, 147.4 mA h g-1 at C/10 and 102.5 mA h g-1 at 2 C, which is the best performance ever reported for LiMnPO4 active material with similar carbon additives.

  15. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  16. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Tao; Li, Na; Li, Qianwen; Xing, Zheng; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ▪. Highlights: ► We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ► The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ► Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ► The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  17. N-Doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoupei; Zhang, Jianan; Shang, Pei; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhimin; Xu, Qun

    2014-10-18

    N-doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks (HPSCSs) were facilely fabricated by a one-step carbonization and activation process of N containing polymer spheres by KOH. With the synergy effect of the multiple structures, HPSCSs exhibit a very high specific capacitance of 407.9 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) (1.2 times higher than that of porous carbon spheres) and a robust cycling stability for supercapacitors.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hollow {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sub-micron spheres prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Lizbet, E-mail: lizbetlf@gmail.com; Bustamante, Angel; Osorio, Ana; Olarte, G. S. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru); Santos Valladares, Luis De Los, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk; Barnes, Crispin H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In this work we report the preparation of magnetic hematite hollow sub-micron spheres ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by colloidal suspensions of ferric nitrate nine-hydrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O) particles in citric acid solution by following the sol-gel method. After the gel formation, the samples were annealed at different temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. Annealing at 180 Degree-Sign C resulted in an amorphous phase, without iron oxide formation. Annealing at 250 Degree-Sign C resulted in coexisting phases of hematite, maghemite and magnetite, whereas at 400 Degree-Sign C, only hematite and maghemite were found. Pure hematite hollow sub-micron spheres with porous shells were formed after annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. The characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Eosin Y-sensitized nanosheet-stacked hollow-sphere TiO2 for efficient photocatalytic H2 production under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwen; Guan, Xiangjiu; Zhou, Zhaohui; Liu, Haipei; Guo, Liejin

    2015-06-01

    Nanosheet (with around 20 nm in thickness)-stacked hollow-sphere TiO2 was synthesized via a modified solvothermal reaction for different times followed by calcination treatment at different temperatures. After surface modification by different cations (H+ or Fe3+) and further sensitization by Eosin Y, the obtained photocatalysts achieved remarkably enhanced H2-production activity (about 4.2 times of that for Eosin Y-sensitized P25) and stability under visible-light irradiation. The improved photocatalytic performance was synergistically caused by the enhanced Eosin Y sensitization (due to the enlarged surface area and electropositively modified surface), the optimized crystal structure (well-crystallized anatase phase), and the unique micro/nanostructure (nanosheet-stacked hollow spheres). This work presented an effective route to explore new visible-light-driven H2-production photocatalysts by coupling nanomaterials with special morphologies and metal-free dyes with visible-light absorption.

  20. Eosin Y-sensitized nanosheet-stacked hollow-sphere TiO2 for efficient photocatalytic H2 production under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jinwen; Guan, Xiangjiu; Zhou, Zhaohui; Liu, Haipei; Guo, Liejin

    2015-01-01

    Nanosheet (with around 20 nm in thickness)-stacked hollow-sphere TiO 2 was synthesized via a modified solvothermal reaction for different times followed by calcination treatment at different temperatures. After surface modification by different cations (H + or Fe 3+ ) and further sensitization by Eosin Y, the obtained photocatalysts achieved remarkably enhanced H 2 -production activity (about 4.2 times of that for Eosin Y-sensitized P25) and stability under visible-light irradiation. The improved photocatalytic performance was synergistically caused by the enhanced Eosin Y sensitization (due to the enlarged surface area and electropositively modified surface), the optimized crystal structure (well-crystallized anatase phase), and the unique micro/nanostructure (nanosheet-stacked hollow spheres). This work presented an effective route to explore new visible-light-driven H 2 -production photocatalysts by coupling nanomaterials with special morphologies and metal-free dyes with visible-light absorption

  1. Copper Silicate Hydrate Hollow Spheres Constructed by Nanotubes Encapsulated in Reduced Graphene Oxide as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiujuan; Tang, Chunjuan; Wang, Xuanpeng; Zhou, Liang; Wei, Qiulong; Yan, Mengyu; Sheng, Jinzhi; Hu, Ping; Wang, Bolun; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-12-09

    Hierarchical copper silicate hydrate hollow spheres-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite is successfully fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method using silica as in situ sacrificing template. The electrochemical performance of the composite as lithium-ion battery anode was studied for the first time. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of the hierarchical hollow structure and conductive RGO matrix, the composite exhibits excellent long-life performance and rate capability. A capacity of 890 mAh/g is achieved after 200 cycles at 200 mA/g and a capacity of 429 mAh/g is retained after 800 cycles at 1000 mA/g. The results indicate that the strategy of combining hierarchical hollow structures with conductive RGO holds the potential in addressing the volume expansion issue of high capacity anode materials.

  2. Flexible three-dimensional electrodes of hollow carbon bead strings as graded sulfur reservoirs and the synergistic mechanism for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Ni, Wei, E-mail: niwei@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Wang, Ting; Guan, Qun [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: y_zhang@scu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Wu, Hao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Xiaodong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: edward.bwang@gmail.com [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Flexible three-dimensional electrode comprised of stringed N-doped hollow carbon spheres shows a synergistic sulfur confinement mechanism and a higher energy/power density for the promising lithium-sulfur batteries compared with traditional electrodes. - Highlights: • Hollow carbon beads on string structure was first prepared. • Flexible 3D electrodes as graded reservoirs for polysulfides were conducted. • Synergistic effect for enhanced polysulfides storage was claimed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) flexible electrodes of stringed hollow nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanospheres as graded sulfur reservoirs and conductive frameworks were elaborately designed via a combination of the advantages of hollow structures, 3D electrodes and flexible devices. The as-prepared electrodes by a synergistic method of electrospinning, template sacrificing and activation for Li–S batteries without any binder or conductive additives but a 3D interconnected conductive network offered multiple transport paths for electrons and improved sulfur utilization and facilitated an easy access to Li{sup +} ingress/egress. With the increase of density of hollow carbon spheres in the strings, the self-supporting composite electrode reveals an enhanced synergistic mechanism for sulfur confinement and displays a better cycling stability and rate performance. It delivers a high initial specific capacity of 1422.6 mAh g{sup −1} at the current rate of 0.2C with the high sulfur content of 76 wt.%, and a much higher energy density of 754 Wh kg{sup −1} and power density of 1901 Wh kg{sup −1}, which greatly improve the energy/power density of traditional lithium–sulfur batteries and will be promising for further commercial applications.

  3. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun [School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Wook [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Oh, Tae Sik [School of Mechanical and ICT Convergence Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji Beom, E-mail: jbyoo@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  4. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO_2 hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Dong-Wook; Oh, Tae Sik; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The SiO_2 hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO_2 hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  5. Hollow Carbon Nanopolyhedra for Enhanced Electrocatalysis via Confined Hierarchical Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaokai; Guo, Linli; Liao, Xuemei; Liu, Jian; Sun, Jianhua; Li, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-01

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of hollow Co and N-codoped carbon nanopolyhedra (H-CoNC) from metal-organic framework (MOF) using in situ evaporation of ZnO nanosphere templates is proposed. The excess Zn supply during the pyrolysis process is found beneficial in terms of high nitrogen (≈9.75 at%), relatively homogenous CoN bonding, and the electrochemically accessible hierarchical porous system. Compared with other reported "solid" CoNC of identical surface areas, the newly developed H-CoNC shows enhanced kinetic current in 0.1 m KOH electrolyte and elevated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance in 6 m KOH. The latter exceeds results obtained with the benchmark 20 wt% Pt/C, which is related to the strong confinement of O 2 molecules in the H-CoNC hierarchical porous system. Furthermore, the H-CoNC displays great tolerance toward the methanol crossover and KSCN poisoning. Finally, the assembled Zn-air batteries with H-CoNC yield a record open circuit potential (1.59 V vs Zn, stabilized at 1.52 V), high power density (331.0 mW cm -2 ), and promising rate performance. This work provides a new guideline for the design of MOF-derived carbon materials, as well as novel insights into spatial confinement effect toward the ORR activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Experimental Study on Variable-Amplitude Fatigue of Welded Cross Plate-Hollow Sphere Joints in Grid Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Jiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue stress amplitude of the welded cross plate-hollow sphere joint (WCPHSJ in a grid structure varies due to the random loading produced by suspending cranes. A total of 14 specimens considering three different types of WCPHSJs were prepared and tested using a specially designed test rig. Four typical loading conditions, “low-high,” “high-low,” “low-high-low,” and “high-low-high,” were first considered in the tests to investigate the fatigue behavior under variable load amplitudes, followed by metallographic analyses. The experimental and metallographic analysis results provide a fundamental understanding on the fatigue fracture form and fatigue mechanism of WCPHSJs. Based on the available data from constant-amplitude fatigue tests, the variable-amplitude fatigue life of the three types of WCPHSJs was estimated using the Miner rule and Corten-Dolan theory. Since both accumulative damage theories yield virtually same damaging results, the Miner rule is hence suggested to estimate the fatigue life of WCPHSJs.

  7. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip; Tan, Hua; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-11-25

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Carbonization-dependent nitrogen-doped hollow porous carbon nanospheres synthesis and electrochemical study for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Xie, Guohong; Chen, Xiling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a nitrogen-doped hollow microporous carbon nanospheres was synthesized via the combination of hyper-crosslinking mediated self-assembly and further pyrolysis using polylactide-b-polystyrene (PLA-b-PS) copolymers and aniline monomers as precursor. The pore structure and the correlative electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped hollow microporous carbon nanospheres were affected by the molar mass ratio of aniline and PS in block copolymers and the carbonization conditions. The electrochemical measurements results showed that the obtained PLA150-PS250-N4-900-10H sample with nitrogen content of 3.57% and the BET surface area of 945 m2 g-1 displays the best capacitance performance. At a current density of 1.0 Ag-1, the resultant specific capacitance is 250 Fg-1. In addition, it also exhibits high capacitance retention of 98% after charging-discharging 1500 times at 25 Ag-1. The results demonstrate the nitrogen-doped hollow microporous carbon nanospheres can be used as promising supercapacitor electrode materials for high performance energy storage devices.

  10. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber

  11. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of defect-mediated Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres for highly efficient hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruifeng; Zhang, Yihe; Li, Baoying; Yu, Xuelian; Liu, Huijuan; An, Xiaoqiang; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-06-28

    Moderate efficiency and the utilization of noble metal cocatalysts are the key factors that restrict the large-scale application of photocatalytic hydrogen production. To develop more efficient photocatalysts based on earth abundant elements, either a new material strategy or a fundamental understanding of the semiconductor/cocatalyst interfaces is highly desirable. In this paper, we studied the feasibility of in situ formation of defect-rich cocatalysts on graphene-based photocatalysts. A facile biomolecule-assisted strategy was used to self-assmble Cd1-xZnxS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres. The defect-mediated cocatalyst and synergetic charge transfer around heterostructured interfaces exhibit a significant impact on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of multicomponent solid solutions. With engineered interfacial defects, Cd0.8Zn0.2S/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres exhibited a 63-fold improved H2 production rate, which was even 2 and 3.8 times higher than those of CdS/MoS2/graphene hollow spheres and Cd0.8Zn0.2S/Pt. Therefore, our research provides a promising approach for the rational design of high-efficiency and low-cost photocatalysts for solar fuel production.

  12. Effect of Hollow Sphere Size and Distribution on the Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Properties of Al-A380-Al2O3 Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    heat exchangers, flotation devices, energy absorbers and as decorative building materials. A class of foam material, where the voids are contained...hollow spheres are presented in Table 1 (information provided by suppliers). The hollow spheres were supplied by C-E Minerals in standard size...through TACOM R&D Contract# W56HZV-08-C-0716. The authors would also like to acknowledge and thank C-E Minerals for providing the ALODUR alumina

  13. Optimization of the Photoanode of CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Light-Scattering TiO2 Hollow Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Maziar; Rahmani, Elham; Ahangarani Farahani, Farzaneh

    2017-12-01

    CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been fabricated and their photoanode optimized by altering the thickness of the photoelectrode and CdS deposition conditions and applying a ZnS electron-blocking layer and TiO2 hollow spheres. Hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with dominant size of 20 nm were deposited as a sublayer in the photoanode with thickness in the range from 5 μm to 10 μm using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The number of deposition cycles was altered over a wide range to obtain optimized sensitization. Photoanode thickness and number of CdS sensitization cycles around the optimum values were selected and used for ZnS deposition. ZnS overlayers were also deposited on the surface of the photoanodes using different numbers of cycles of the SILAR process. The best QDSC with the optimized photoelectrode demonstrated a 153% increase in efficiency compared with a similar cell with ZnS-free photoanode. Such bilayer photoelectrodes were also fabricated with different thicknesses of TiO2 sublayers and one overlayer of TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs) with external diameter of 500 nm fabricated by liquid-phase deposition with carbon spheres as template. The optimization was performed by changing the photoanode thickness using a wide range of CdS sensitizing cycles. The maximum energy conversion efficiency was increased by about 77% compared with a similar cell with HS-free photoelectrode. The reason was considered to be the longer path length of the incident light inside the photoanode and greater light absorption. A ZnS blocking layer was overcoated on the surface of the bilayer photoanode with optimized thickness. The number of CdS sensitization cycles was also changed around the optimized value to obtain the best QDSC performance. The number of ZnS deposition cycles was also altered in a wide range for optimization of the photovoltaic performance. It was shown that the maximum efficiency was increased by

  14. All carbon coaxial supercapacitors based on hollow carbon nanotube sleeve structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Xiaobei; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Yangyang; Zhang, Li; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xinming

    2015-01-01

    All carbon coaxial supercapacitors based on hollow carbon nanotube (CNT) sleeve structure are assembled and tested. The key advantage of the structure is that the inner core electrode is variable from CNT sleeve sponges, to CNT fibers, reduced graphene oxide fibers, and graphene woven fabrics. By changing core electrodes from sleeve sponges to CNT fibers, the electrochemical performance has been significantly enhanced. The capacitance based on sleeve sponge + CNT fiber double the capacitances of double-sleeve sponge supercapacitors thanks to reduction of the series and internal resistances. Besides, the coaxial sleeve structure possesses many other features, including high rate capacitance, long cycle life, and good flexibility. (paper)

  15. Shape Engineering of Biomass-Derived Nanoparticles from Hollow Spheres to Bowls via Solvent-Induced Buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhong; Li, Xuefeng; Jiang, Deng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Yong

    2018-06-19

    To realize the asymmetry for the hollow carbonaceous nanostructures remains to be a great challenge, especially when biomass is chosen as the carbon resource via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Herein, a simple and straightforward solvent induced buckling strategy is demonstrated for the synthesis of asymmetric spherical and bowllike carbonaceous nanomaterials. The formation of the bowllike morphology was attributed to the buckling of the spherical shells induced by the dissolution of the oligomers. The bowllike particles made by this solvent-driven approach demonstrated a well-controlled morphology and a uniform particle size of ~360 nm. The obtained nanospheres and nanobowls can be loaded with CoS2 nanoparticles to act as novel heterogeneous catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of aromatic nitro compounds. With the bowllike structure in hand, as expected, the CoS2/nanobowls catalyst showed good tolerance to a wide scope of reducible groups and afforded both high activity and selectivity in almost all the tested substrates (14). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis of Dispersible Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanoplates with Uniform Hexagonal Morphologies for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Jafta, Charl J; Gong, Jiang; Ran, Qidi; Lin, Xianzhong; Félix, Roberto; Wilks, Regan G; Bär, Marcus; Yuan, Jiayin; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan

    2016-11-02

    In this study, dispersible mesoporous nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanoplates have been synthesized as a new anisotropic carbon nanostructure using gibbsite nanoplates as templates. The gibbsite-silica core-shell nanoplates were first prepared before the gibbsite core was etched away. Dopamine as carbon precursor was self-polymerized on the hollow silica nanoplates surface assisted by sonification, which not only favors a homogeneous polymer coating on the nanoplates but also prevents their aggregation during the polymerization. Individual silica-polydopamine core-shell nanoplates were immobilized in a silica gel in an insulated state via a silica nanocasting technique. After pyrolysis in a nanoconfine environment and elimination of silica, discrete and dispersible hollow carbon nanoplates are obtained. The resulted hollow carbon nanoplates bear uniform hexagonal morphology with specific surface area of 460 m 2 ·g -1 and fairly accessible small mesopores (∼3.8 nm). They show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous media and are applied as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitors. When using polyvinylimidazolium-based nanoparticles as a binder in electrodes, the hollow carbon nanoplates present superior performance in parallel to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder.

  17. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  18. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Pei-Fang; Lu, Hai-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharide carrageenan is used as a natural precursor to prepare micro-mesoporous carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of carrageenan, and subsequent chemical activation by KOH at different temperatures. The obtained micro-mesoporous carbon spheres have high surface area (up to 2502 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (up to 1.43 cm3 g-1). Moreover, the micro- and mesoporosity can be finely tuned be modifying the activation temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The carbon spheres activated at 900 °C present high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and good ion transport kinetics. The good capacitive performance can be ascribed to the high specific surface area, well-controlled micro- and mesoporosity and narrow pore size distribution.

  1. safety of carbon fibre reinforced plastic hollow sections in compression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMINUSER

    2014-01-06

    Jan 6, 2014 ... Steel hollow sections were also designed using the same method. This serves as a basis of ..... used for the numerical analysis and design of circular and rectangular model sections. The software was used to analyse failure ...

  2. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Microspheres for Rapid Capture of Low-Concentration Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong; Zhou, Ming-Da; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g?1 at room temperature and a Brunauer?Emmett?Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m2 g?1 with an a...

  3. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping, E-mail: zjuwuping@njnu.edu.cn; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhouyiming@njnu.edu.cn; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  4. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO 2 spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g −1 after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g −1 ), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g −1 )

  5. Eosin Y-sensitized nanosheet-stacked hollow-sphere TiO{sub 2} for efficient photocatalytic H{sub 2} production under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jinwen, E-mail: jinwen-shi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Guan, Xiangjiu; Zhou, Zhaohui; Liu, Haipei; Guo, Liejin [Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU), State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (MFPE), International Research Center for Renewable Energy IRCRE (China)

    2015-06-15

    Nanosheet (with around 20 nm in thickness)-stacked hollow-sphere TiO{sub 2} was synthesized via a modified solvothermal reaction for different times followed by calcination treatment at different temperatures. After surface modification by different cations (H{sup +} or Fe{sup 3+}) and further sensitization by Eosin Y, the obtained photocatalysts achieved remarkably enhanced H{sub 2}-production activity (about 4.2 times of that for Eosin Y-sensitized P25) and stability under visible-light irradiation. The improved photocatalytic performance was synergistically caused by the enhanced Eosin Y sensitization (due to the enlarged surface area and electropositively modified surface), the optimized crystal structure (well-crystallized anatase phase), and the unique micro/nanostructure (nanosheet-stacked hollow spheres). This work presented an effective route to explore new visible-light-driven H{sub 2}-production photocatalysts by coupling nanomaterials with special morphologies and metal-free dyes with visible-light absorption.

  6. Construct 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-sphere: A potential oxidizer of nano-energetic materials with superior reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zheng, Bo; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Long; Li, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Xingquan; Yang, Guangcheng

    2018-06-01

    High energy density and rapid reactivity are the future trend for nano-energetic materials. Energetic performance of nano-energetic materials depends on the interfacial diffusion and mass transfer during the reacted process. However, the development of desired structure to significantly enhance reactivity still remains challenging. Here we focused on the design and preparation of 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-spheres, in which gas-blowing agents (air) and maximize interfacial interactions were introduced to enhance mass transport and reduce the diffusion distance between the oxidizer and fuel (Aluminum). The 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al based nano-energetic materials show a low-onset decomposition temperature (423 °C), and high heat output (3118 J g-1) resulting from porous and hollow nano-structure of Co3O4 micro-spheres. Furthermore, 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al arrays were directly fabricated on the silicon substrate, which was fully compatible with silicon-based microelectromechanical systems to achieve functional nanoenergetics-on-a-chip. This approach provides a simple and efficient way to fabricate 3D ordered nano-energetic arrays with superior reactivity and the potential on the application in micro-energetic devices.

  7. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum ab-initio studies on lithium-intercalation in interconnected hollow spherical nano-spheres of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, A. [Atomic Scale Modelling and Materials, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Rios Campus, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Malik, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Prakash, S. [Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Sarkar, T.; Bharadwaj, M.D. [Center for Study of Science Technology and Policy, Bangalore 560094 (India); Aich, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipto@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-04-25

    A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ∼4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently interconnected hollow nano-spheres of amorphous silicon have been found to exhibit high cyclability. The absence of fracture upon lithiation and the high cyclability has been attributed to reduction in intercalation stress due to hollow spherical geometry of the silicon nano-particles. The present work argues that the hollow spherical geometry alone cannot ensure the absence of fracture. Using classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory based simulations; satisfactory explanation to the absence of fracture has been explored at the atomic scale. - Highlights: • Interconnected nanoshells of amorphous Si: best available lithium ion cell anode. • High cycle life not understood in the light of poor K{sub IC} of amorphous Si. • MD reveals: atomic density of interconnected structure is ∼16% less than bulk Si. • Leads to drastic reduction (DFT) in lithiation σ & metal like e{sup −} structure (high K{sub IC}). • Lowering of lithiation σ and increase in K{sub IC} result in high cycle life.

  8. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum abs-initio studies on lithium-intercalation in interconnected hollow spherical nano-spheres of amorphous Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Malik, R.; Prakash, S.

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ~4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently interconnec......A high concentration of lithium, corresponding to charge capacity of ~4200 mAh/g, can be intercalated in silicon. Unfortunately, due to high intercalation strain leading to fracture and consequent poor cyclability, silicon cannot be used as anode in lithium ion batteries. But recently...... interconnected hollow nano-spheres of amorphous silicon have been found to exhibit high cyclability. The absence of fracture upon lithiation and the high cyclability has been attributed to reduction in intercalation stress due to hollow spherical geometry of the silicon nano-particles. The present work argues...... that the hollow spherical geometry alone cannot ensure the absence of fracture. Using classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory based simulations; satisfactory explanation to the absence of fracture has been explored at the atomic scale....

  9. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xun [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Zheng, E-mail: zhengxu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ► The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ► The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  10. Development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohd Saufi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development and characterization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN based carbon hollow fiber membrane. Nitrogen was used as an inert gas during pyrolysis of the PAN hollow fiber membrane into carbon membrane. PAN membranes were pyrolyzed at temperature ranging from 500oC to 800oC for 30 minutes of thermal soak time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gas sorption analysis were applied to characterize the PAN based carbon membrane. Pyrolysis temperature was found to significantly change the structure and properties of carbon membrane. FTIR results concluded that the carbon yield still could be increased by pyrolyzing PAN membranes at temperature higher than 800oC since the existence of other functional group instead of CH group. Gas adsorption analysis showed that the average pore diameter increased up to 800oC.

  11. Silicon-Encapsulated Hollow Carbon Nanofiber Networks as Binder-Free Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Nan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-encapsulated hollow carbon nanofiber networks with ample space around the Si nanoparticles (hollow Si/C composites were successfully synthesized by dip-coating phenolic resin onto the surface of electrospun Si/PVA nanofibers along with the subsequent solidification and carbonization. More importantly, the structure and Si content of hollow Si/C composite nanofibers can be effectively tuned by merely varying the concentration of dip solution. As-synthesized hollow Si/C composites show excellent electrochemical performance when they are used as binder-free anodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs. In particular, when the concentration of resol/ethanol solution is 3.0%, the product exhibits a large capacity of 841 mAh g−1 in the first cycle, prominent cycling stability, and good rate capability. The discharge capacity retention of it was ~90%, with 745 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. The results demonstrate that the hollow Si/C composites are very promising as alternative anode candidates for high-performance LIBs.

  12. Nano-micro carbon spheres anchored on porous carbon derived from dual-biomass as high rate performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobo; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Baihui; Xia, Hui; Zhou, Jianfei; Xie, Wenke; Li, Hongjian

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical nano-micro carbon spheres@rice straw-derived porous carbon composites are successfully synthesized by the in situ decoration of the porous carbon with carbon spheres from glucose under the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles and further activated by KOH. The scanning electron microscope images clearly show the carbon spheres disperse homogeneously and orderly onto the surface and in the inner macropores of the porous carbon. The diameter of the carbon spheres varies from 475 nm to 1.6 μm, which can be easily controlled by introducing extra inducing agent. The optimal composites exhibit a large specific surface area (1122 m2 g-1), rich content of oxygen (14.2 wt %), and tunable hierarchical porous structure. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, the novel composites with abundant fruits present a high specific capacitance of 337 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate retention of 83% from 1 to 20 A g-1 and a good cycling stability with 96% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles. In this strategy, the thought of shared ion-buffering reservoirs is proposed and the mutual promotion effects between the carbon spheres and porous carbon in the composites are also practically demonstrated to contribute the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  13. Influence of chemical agents on the surface area and porosity of active carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA M. KLJAJEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active carbon hollow fibers were prepared from regenerated polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using: disodium hydrogen phosphate 2-hydrate, disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate. After chemical activation fibers were carbonized in an inert atmosphere. The specific surface area and porosity of obtained carbons were studied by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K, while the structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The activation process increases these adsorption properties of fibers being more pronounced for active carbon fibers obtained with disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as activator. The obtained active hollow carbons are microporous with different pore size distribution. Chemical activation with phosphates produces active carbon material with small surface area but with both mesopores and micropores. X-ray diffraction shows that besides turbostratic structure typical for carbon materials, there are some peaks which indicate some intermediate reaction products when sodium salts were used as activating agent. Based on data from the electrochemical measurements the activity and porosity of the active fibers depend strongly on the oxidizing agent applied.

  14. Hollow carbon nanospheres using an asymmetric triblock copolymer structure directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Tan, Haibo; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Tang, Jing; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Rong, Hongpan; Takei, Toshiaki; Henzie, Joel; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-20

    We introduce a simple method to prepare hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) by using triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) micelles as a new class of soft-templates. Simply by changing the solvent we can prepare ultra-small sized micelles of the triblock copolymer PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO soft template to obtain HCNs with ultra-small diameters (43 nm) and hollow cores (19 nm). Furthermore, we use these HCNs to make electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) that exhibit superior performance.

  15. Synthesis of diamond-like carbon via PECD using a streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacho, A.; Pares, E.; Ramos, H.; Mendenilla, A.; Malapit, G.

    2009-01-01

    A streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode system was used to deposit diamond-like carbon films via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and nickel-coated silicon substrates with acetylene and hydrogen as reactant gases. Samples were characterized using SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the capability of the system to synthesize carbonaceous films and is starting point towards work on formation of carbon nanostructures. (author)

  16. Fabrication of novel micro-nano carbonous composites based on self-made hollow activated carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Yuxia; Qiu Tingting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Qiu Jun, E-mail: qiujun@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Education of Ministry, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hollow pipe and porous HACF with solid carbon net framework structure were successfully prepared by template method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs were grown successfully on the self-made HACF substrate by CVD techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel tree-like micro-nano carbonous structure CNTs/HACF was fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanism of micro phase HACF and nano phase CNTs were respectively discussed. - Abstract: The hollow activated carbon fibers (HACF) were prepared by using commercial polypropylene hollow fiber (PPHF) as the template, and phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF) as carbon precursors. Final HACF was formed through the thermal decomposition and carbonization of PF at 700 Degree-Sign C under the nitrogen atmosphere, and activation at 800 Degree-Sign C with carbon dioxide as the activating agent, consecutively. Then, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques using the as-grown porous HACF as substrate. The growth process was achieved by pyrolyzing ethanol steam at 700 Degree-Sign C using nickel as catalyst. Finally, CNTs was grown successfully on the substrate, and a novel tree-like micro-nano carbonous structure CNTs/HACF was fabricated. The as-grown HACF and micro-nano CNTs/HACF were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Moreover, the formation mechanisms were also discussed.

  17. A template-free solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of multicolor Gd2O2S:xTb3+, yEu3+ hollow spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiaotong; Xu, Guangxi; Lian, Jingbao; Wu, Nianchu; Zhang, Xue; He, Jiao

    2018-06-01

    The multicolor Gd2O2S:xTb3+, yEu3+ hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a template-free solvothermal route without the use of surfactant from commercially available Ln (NO3)3·6H2O (Ln = Gd, Tb and Eu), absolute ethanol, ethanediamine and sublimed sulfur as the starting materials. The phase, structure, particle morphology and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the as-obtained products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence spectra. The influence of synthetic time on phase, structure and morphology was systematically investigated and discussed. The possible formation mechanism depending on synthetic time t for the Gd2O2S phase has been presented. These results demonstrate that the Gd2O2S hollow spheres could be obtained under optimal condition, namely solvothermal temperature T = 220 °C and synthetic time t = 16 h. The as-obtained Gd2O2S sample possesses hollow sphere structure, which has a typical size of about 2.5 μm in diameter and about 0.5 μm in shell thickness. PL spectroscopy reveals that the strongest emission peak for the Gd2O2S:xTb3+ and the Gd2O2S:yEu3+ samples is located at 545 nm and 628 nm, corresponding to 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+ ions and 5D0→7F2 transitions of Eu3+ ions, respectively. The quenching concentration of Tb3+ ions and Eu3+ ions is 7%. In the case of Tb3+ and Eu3+ co-doped samples, when the concentration of Tb3+ or Eu3+ ions is 7%, the optimum concentration of Eu3+ or Tb3+ ions is determined to be 1%. Under 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, the Gd2O2S:7%Tb3+, the Gd2O2S:7%Tb3+,1%Eu3+ and the Gd2O2S:7%Eu3+ samples give green, yellow and red light emissions, respectively. And the corresponding CIE coordinates vary from (0.3513, 0.5615), (0.4120, 0.4588) to (0.5868, 0.3023), which is also well consistent with their luminous photographs.

  18. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  19. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  20. Porous carbon spheres via microwave-assisted synthesis for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong; Pan, Likun; Chen, Taiqiang; Xu, Xingtao; Lu, Ting; Sun, Zhuo; Chua, Daniel H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres were fabricated through a fast microwave-assisted approach. • The capacitive deionization performance of Porous carbon spheres was studied. • Porous carbon spheres exhibit a high NaCl removal with good regeneration ability. - Abstract: Porous carbon spheres (PCSs) were fabricated through a fast microwave-assisted approach using sucrose as the precursor in a microwave system and subsequent thermal treatment at 600, 800 and 1000 °C. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the PCSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Their electrosorption performance in NaCl solution was studied and compared with activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene and carbon aerogels. The results show that due to their high specific surface area and low charge transfer resistance, PCSs treated at 1000 °C exhibit high electrosorption capacity of 5.81 m g g −1 when the initial solution concentration is 500 mg l −1 , which is higher than those of other carbon materials

  1. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2009-01-01

    to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2

  2. Enhanced microwave absorption performance of lightweight absorber based on reduced graphene oxide and Ag-coated hollow glass spheres/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xu, Renxin; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of Ag-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Ag) and a small quantity of graphene sheets within the epoxy matrix, we have prepared a novel lightweight high efficiency microwave absorption composite. Compared with pure HGS@Ag and graphene composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum reflection loss of the novel composite are improved. Reflection loss exceeding −20 dB is obtained for composites in a wide frequency range and the minimum reflection loss reaches −46 dB while bandwidth less than −10 dB can reach up to 4.1 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness between 2 and 3.5 mm is chosen. The enhanced microwave absorption performance of the novel composite is due to the enhanced dielectric response, enhanced conductivity, and the trap of electromagnetic radiation with increased propagation paths by multiple reflections

  3. Real-Time Fluorescence Detection in Aqueous Systems by Combined and Enhanced Photonic and Surface Effects in Patterned Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Wang, Ling; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Bartic, Carmen; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2017-05-16

    Hollow sphere colloidal photonic crystals (HSCPCs) exhibit the ability to maintain a high refractive index contrast after infiltration of water, leading to extremely high-quality photonic band gap effects, even in an aqueous (physiological) environment. Superhydrophilic pinning centers in a superhydrophobic environment can be used to strongly confine and concentrate water-soluble analytes. We report a strategy to realize real-time ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in patterned HSCPCs based on strongly enhanced fluorescence due to the photonic band-edge effect combined with wettability differentiation in the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic pattern. The orthogonal nature of the two strategies allows for a multiplicative effect, resulting in an increase of two orders of magnitude in fluorescence.

  4. Ultrathin-shell boron nitride hollow spheres as sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meizhen; Xing, Hanzhu; Chen, Xiangfeng; Chen, Fan; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Zhao, Rusong; Cheng, Chuange

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride hollow spheres with ultrathin-shells were synthesized and used as sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction of aromatic pollutants at trace levels from environmental water samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target compounds. Sample quantification and detection were performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were optimized through response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed method achieved good linearity within the concentration range of 0.15-250 ng L(-1) PCBs, low limits of detection (0.04-0.09 ng L(-1), S/N=3:1), good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviation, spring waters were analyzed using the developed method. Results demonstrated that the hexagonal boron nitride-based material has significant potential as a sorbent for organic pollutant extraction from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rational synthesis of graphene-encapsulated uniform MnMoO4 hollow spheres as long-life and high-rate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huaixin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Qian, Yong; Geng, Hongbo

    2018-03-29

    In this manuscript, the graphene-encapsulated MnMoO 4 hollow spheres (MnMoO 4 @G) synthesized by an effective strategy were reported. Benefiting from the intriguing hybrid architecture of hollow structure and conductive graphene network, the MnMoO 4 @G composite displays superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacity of 1142 mA h g -1 , high reversible cycling stability of 921 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 after 70 cycles, and stable rate performance (around 513 mA h g -1 at a current density of 4.0 A g -1 ). The remarkable battery performance can be attributed to the rational design of the architecture, which not only ensures the fast transport of electrons and lithium ions within the electrode material, but also effectively relax the stress induced by the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. This facile synthetic method can extend to other transition metal oxides with large volume excursions and poor electric conductivity and promotes the development of transition metal oxides as high-performance LIB anode material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Study of Textural Characteristics on Methane Adsorption for Carbon Spheres Produced by CO2 Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wen; Feng, Yanyan; Chu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin polymer was used as raw material for preparation of carbon spheres. Samples were treated with CO2 flow at 850°C by varying activation times. The CO2 activation granted better pore development of pore structure. The experimental data of CH4 adsorption as a function of equilibrium pressure was fitted by Langmuir and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) models. It was concluded that the high surface area and micropore volume of carbon spheres did unequivocally determine methane c...

  7. Electrochemically Active Polymeric Hollow Fibers based on Poly(ether- b -amide)/Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Carolina

    2017-09-18

    A simple and effective method to incorporate catalytic activity to a hollow fiber membrane is reported. Polyetherimide hollow fiber membranes were coated with a solution containing carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether-b-amide). Electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of a layer of percolating carbon nanotubes on the surface of the membranes. Cyclic voltammetry and linear swept voltammetry experiments showed that these membranes are able to drive the reactions of hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction, making them a cheaper, and greener substitute for platinum based cathodes in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Water flux and molecular weight cut off experiments indicated that the electrochemically active coating layer does not affect the ultrafiltration performance of the membrane.

  8. Electrochemically Active Polymeric Hollow Fibers based on Poly(ether- b -amide)/Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Carolina; Kim, Dooli; Katuri, Krishna; Saikaly, Pascal; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    A simple and effective method to incorporate catalytic activity to a hollow fiber membrane is reported. Polyetherimide hollow fiber membranes were coated with a solution containing carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether-b-amide). Electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of a layer of percolating carbon nanotubes on the surface of the membranes. Cyclic voltammetry and linear swept voltammetry experiments showed that these membranes are able to drive the reactions of hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction, making them a cheaper, and greener substitute for platinum based cathodes in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Water flux and molecular weight cut off experiments indicated that the electrochemically active coating layer does not affect the ultrafiltration performance of the membrane.

  9. MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanosphere electrode for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jing; Yang, Xing; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Zong-Huai, E-mail: zhliu@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres possess large specific surface area. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are benefit for transmission of ions and electrons. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance. - Abstract: MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanospheres (MnO{sub 2}/HGC) electrodes are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. hollow Graphitized carbon nanospheres (HGC) are firstly obtained by carbonizing phenolic resin followed by etching the SiO{sub 2} template, then the MnO{sub 2} ultrathin nanoplates are coated on the surfaces of the HGC nanospheres through a redox reaction between KMnO{sub 4} and HGC nanospheres. The as-prepared MnO{sub 2}/HGC hollow nanospheres possess porous structure and large specific surface area (∼230 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The specific capacitances of MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanosphere electrodes with different mass ratios of MnO{sub 2} to HGC are about 340–380 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and shows relative good cycling performance of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. The good specific capacitance is ascribed to the novel hollow nanosphere structure, which possesses high surface-to-volume ratio, and makes it easy for the mass diffusion of electrolyte and transmission of ions and electrons and also maintains the mechanical integrality.

  10. Fabrication of polymeric hollow nanospheres, hollow nanocubes and hollow plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daming; Xia, Haibing; Chan, Hardy Sze On

    2006-03-01

    A facile strategy for fabricating polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CS) hollow nanostructures with different shapes (sphere, cube and plate) and a wide range of sizes (from 35 to 600 nm) is described. These hollow structures have been fabricated using silver bromide as a single template material for polymer nucleation and growth. PPy-CS hollow nanostructures are formed by reaction with an etching agent to remove the core. These hollow nanostructures have been extensively characterized using various techniques such as TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and XRD.

  11. Comparative Study of Textural Characteristics on Methane Adsorption for Carbon Spheres Produced by CO2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin polymer was used as raw material for preparation of carbon spheres. Samples were treated with CO2 flow at 850°C by varying activation times. The CO2 activation granted better pore development of pore structure. The experimental data of CH4 adsorption as a function of equilibrium pressure was fitted by Langmuir and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A models. It was concluded that the high surface area and micropore volume of carbon spheres did unequivocally determine methane capacities. In addition, a thermodynamic study of the heat of adsorption of CH4 on the carbon spheres was carried out. Adsorption of CH4 on carbon spheres showed a decrease in the adsorption heat with CH4 occupancy, and the heat of adsorption fell from 20.51 to 12.50 kJ/mol at 298 K and then increased to a little higher values at a very high loading (>0.70, indicating that CH4/CH4 interactions within the adsorption layer became significant.

  12. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhattacharjee, K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of carbon spheres (CS) by highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles (TaC NPs) was achieved, for the first time by a unique carbothermal reduction method at 1350 °C for 30 min under reduced oxygen partial pressure. TaC NPs...

  14. Fabrication of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Mesoporous Spherical Carbon Capsules for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aibing; Xia, Kechan; Zhang, Linsong; Yu, Yifeng; Li, Yuetong; Sun, Hexu; Wang, Yuying; Li, Yunqian; Li, Shuhui

    2016-09-06

    A novel "dissolution-capture" method for the fabrication of nitrogen-doped hollow mesoporous spherical carbon capsules (N-HMSCCs) with high capability for supercapacitor is developed. The fabrication process is performed by depositing mesoporous silica on the surface of the polyacrylonitrile nanospheres, followed by a dissolution-capture process occurring in the polyacrylonitrile core and silica shell. The polyacrylonitrile core is dissolved by dimethylformamide treatment to form a hollow cavity. Then, the polyacrylonitrile is captured into the mesochannel of silica. After carbonization and etching of silica, N-HMSCCs with uniform mesopore size are produced. The N-HMSCCs show a high specific capacitance of 206.0 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in 6.0 M KOH due to its unique hollow nanostructure, high surface area, and nitrogen content. In addition, 92.3% of the capacitance of N-HMSCCs still remains after 3000 cycles at 5 A g(-1). The "dissolution-capture" method should give a useful enlightenment for the design of electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  15. Ultrathin 1T-phase MoS2 nanosheets decorated hollow carbon microspheres as highly efficient catalysts for solar energy harvesting and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Hsiao, Min-Chien

    2017-02-08

    The composite of MoS2 and hollow carbon sphere (MoS2@HCS) is prepared via a glucose-assisted one pot synthesis. The composite consists of hierarchical spheres with a diameter of 0.5–4 μm and these hollow spheres are decorated with a number of curled and interlaced MoS2 nanosheets. After the composite is subject to the lithium intercalation, the MoS2 is converted from 2H to 1T phase. In this current work, the activities of 1T-MoS2@HCS toward photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and the reduction of I3− in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are systemically investigated. When evaluated as the photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution, the amount of evolved hydrogen over 1T-MoS2@HCS can reach 143 μmol in 2 h, being 3.6 times higher than as-synthesized 2H-MoS2@HCS. Additionally, the 1T-MoS2@HCS can be employed as the counter electrode (CE) material in DSCs. The DSCs based on 1T-MoS2@HCS CE possesses the power conversion efficiency of 8.94%, being higher than that with 2H-MoS2@HCS CE (8.16%) and comparable to that with Pt CE (8.87%). Our study demonstrates that 1T-MoS2@HCS has a great potential as an inexpensive alternative to Pt catalysts.

  16. Ultrathin 1T-phase MoS2 nanosheets decorated hollow carbon microspheres as highly efficient catalysts for solar energy harvesting and storage

    KAUST Repository

    Hsiao, Min-Chien; Chang, Chin-Yu; Niu, Li-Juan; Bai, Feng; Li, Lain-Jong; Shen, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Jeng-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Wu

    2017-01-01

    The composite of MoS2 and hollow carbon sphere (MoS2@HCS) is prepared via a glucose-assisted one pot synthesis. The composite consists of hierarchical spheres with a diameter of 0.5–4 μm and these hollow spheres are decorated with a number of curled and interlaced MoS2 nanosheets. After the composite is subject to the lithium intercalation, the MoS2 is converted from 2H to 1T phase. In this current work, the activities of 1T-MoS2@HCS toward photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and the reduction of I3− in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are systemically investigated. When evaluated as the photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution, the amount of evolved hydrogen over 1T-MoS2@HCS can reach 143 μmol in 2 h, being 3.6 times higher than as-synthesized 2H-MoS2@HCS. Additionally, the 1T-MoS2@HCS can be employed as the counter electrode (CE) material in DSCs. The DSCs based on 1T-MoS2@HCS CE possesses the power conversion efficiency of 8.94%, being higher than that with 2H-MoS2@HCS CE (8.16%) and comparable to that with Pt CE (8.87%). Our study demonstrates that 1T-MoS2@HCS has a great potential as an inexpensive alternative to Pt catalysts.

  17. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H 2 O 2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 /GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Glucose is carbonized as carbon balls in the 180 °C hydrothermal carbonization process, which plays a role of a soft template. Carbon spherical shell is rich in many hydroxyls, which have good hydrophilicity and surface reactivity. When Fe(NO 3 ) 3 is added to the aqueous solution of Glucose, the hydrophilic -OH will adsorb Fe 3+ to form coordination compound by coordination bond. α-FeOOH is formed on the surface of carbon balls by hydrothermal reaction. After calcination at 500 °C, carbon spheres react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which disappears in the air. Meanwhile α-FeOOH is calcined to form α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres.

  18. Down-conversion emission of Ce3+-Tb3+ co-doped CaF2 hollow spheres and application for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufei; Wang, Yongbo; Teng, Feng; Dong, Hua; Chen, Lida; Mu, Jianglong; Sun, Qian; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun; Miao, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Luminescent downconversion is a promising way to harvest ultraviolet sunlight and transform it into visible light that can be absorbed by solar cells, and has potential to improve their photoelectric conversion efficiency. In this work, the uniform hollow spheres and well dispersed CaF2 phosphors doped with rare-earth Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions are prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. Benefiting from the stronger ability of absorption and emission and excellent transparency property, we demonstrate that the application of the doped nanocrystals can efficiently improve visible light transmittance. The chosen phosphors are added in the SiO2 sols so as to get the anti-reflection coatings with wavelength conversion bi-functional films, promoting the optical transmittance in the visible and near-infrared range which matches with the range of the band gap energy of silicon semiconductor. Optimized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 14.35% and the external quantum efficiency over 70% from 450 to 950 nm are obtained through the silicon solar cells with 0.10 g phosphors coating. Compared with the pure glass devices, the photoelectric conversion efficiency is enhanced by 0.69%. This work indicates that fluorescent downconversion not only can serve as proof of principles for improving photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells but also may be helpful to practical application in the future.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Double-Shelled Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhou, Yanping; Luo, Bin; Zhu, Huacheng; Chu, Wei; Huang, Kama

    2018-03-01

    The ternary transitional metal oxide NiCo2O4 is a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and superior electrical conductivity. However, its sodium storage capability is severely limited by the sluggish sodiation/desodiation reaction kinetics. Herein, NiCo2O4 double-shelled hollow spheres were synthesized via a microwave-assisted, fast solvothermal synthetic procedure in a mixture of isopropanol and glycerol, followed by annealing. Isopropanol played a vital role in the precipitation of nickel and cobalt, and the shrinkage of the glycerol quasi-emulsion under heat treatment was responsible for the formation of the double-shelled nanostructure. The as-synthesized product was tested as an anode material in a sodium ion battery, was found to exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 511 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, and deliver high capacity retention after 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. The use of additive ceramic hollow spheres on cement slurry to prevent lost circulation in formation `X' having low pressure fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Novia; Mursyidah, Syahindra, Michael

    2018-03-01

    When drilling, if the hydrostatic pressure is higher than formation pressure (fracture pressure) it will cause lost circulation during cementing process. To solve this problem, hydrostatic pressure of slurry can be decreased by lowering the slurry density by using some additives. Ceramic Hollow Spheres (CHS) is lightweight additive. This additive comes with low specific gravity so it can lowered the slurry density. When the low-density slurry used in cementing process, it can prevent low circulation and fractured formation caused by cement itself. Class G cement is used in this experiment with the standard density of this slurry is 15.8 ppg. With the addition of CHS, slurry density lowered to 12.5 ppg. CHS not only used to lower the slurry density, it also used to make the same properties with the standard slurry even the density has been lowered. Both thickening time and compressive strength have not change if the CHS added to the slurry. With addition of CHS, thickening time at 70 Bc reached in 03 hours 12 minutes. For the compressive strength, 2000 psi reached in 07 hours 07 minutes. Addition of CHS can save more time in cementing process of X formation.

  1. Urchin-like cobalt incorporated manganese oxide OMS-2 hollow spheres: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation of RhB dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed; Li, Buyi; Tan, Bien; Huang, Kaixun

    2013-01-01

    Urchin-like KxCoyMn8-yO16 hollow spheres assembled from nanoplate building blocks were successfully fabricated via a one-pot hydrothermal route using cobalt acetate and potassium permanganate as raw material. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement. The thermal stability and surface areas of cobalt ion in the manganese sites of KMn8O16 structures were clearly evidenced by TGA and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms curves. Based on time depended experiment results, a possible formation mechanism for this structures was proposed. The catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) on KxCoyMn8-yO16 materials has, therefore been dependent for the molar precursor ratio and specific surface area of the as-fabricated products. UV-vis, LC-MS and barium hydroxide methods were utilized to monitor the temporal course of the catalytic reaction.

  2. Hierarchical cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres as highly active and stable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianli; Pi, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaodeng; Guo, Weimeng; Zhang, Dingke; Chen, Shijian

    2018-01-01

    Exploring highly-efficient and low-cost non-noble metal electrocatalyst toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly desired for renewable energy system but remains challenging. In this work, three dimensional hierarchical porous cobalt poly-phosphide hollow spheres (CoP3 HSs) were prepared by topotactic phosphidation of the cobalt-based precursor via vacuum encapsulation technique. As a porous HER cathode, the CoP3 HSs delivers remarkable electrocatalytic performance over the wide pH range. It needs overpotentials of -69 mV and -118 mV with a small Tafel slope of 51 mV dec-1 to obtain current densities of 10 mA cm-2 and 50 mA cm-2, respectively, and maintains its electrocatalytic performance over 30 h in acidic solution. In addition, CoP3 also exhibit superior electrocatalytic performance and stability under neutral and alkaline conditions for the HER. Both experimental measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the mechanism behind the excellent HER performance. The results of our study make the porous CoP3 HSs as a promising electrocatalyst for practical applications toward energy conversion system and present a new way for designing and fabricating HER electrodes through high degree of phosphorization and nano-porous architecture.

  3. The thermal conductivity of beds of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Shapiro, M.; Longest, A.W.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal conductivities (k) of beds of solid and hollow microspheres were measured using two radial heat flow techniques. One technique provided k-data at 300 K for beds with the void spaces between particles filled with argon, nitrogen, or helium from 5 kPa to 30 MPa. The other technique provided k-data with air at atmospheric pressure from 300 to 1000 K. The 300 K technique was used to study bed systems with high k-values that can be varied by changing the gas type and gas pressure. Such systems can be used to control the operating temperature of an irradiation capsule. The systems studied included beds of 500 μm dia solid Al 2 O 3 , the same Al 2 O 3 spheres mixed with spheres of silica--alumina or with SiC shards, carbon spheres, and nickel spheres. Both techniques were used to determine the k-value of beds of hollow spheres with solid shells of Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 /center dot/7 w/o Cr 2 O 3 , and partially stabilized ZrO 2 . The hollow microspheres had diameters from 2100 to 3500 μm and wall thicknesses from 80 to 160 μm. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Preparation of graphene oxide-wrapped carbon sphere@silver spheres for high performance chlorinated phenols sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Tian, E-mail: gantsjy@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lv, Zhen; Sun, Junyong; Shi, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yanming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Hierarchical CS@Ag@GO composite was obtained by a simple solution route. • Signal amplification is achieved for sensitive detection of chlorinated phenols. • The low-cost method exhibits wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy. • The method can be successfully applied to detect chlorinated phenols in waters. - Abstract: A template-activated strategy was developed to construct core/shell structured carbon sphere@silver composite based on one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The CS@Ag possessed a uniform three-dimensional interconnected microstructure with an enlarged surface area and catalytic activity, which was further mechanically protected by graphene oxide (GO) nanolayers to fabricate intriguing configuration, which was beneficial for efficiently preventing the aggregation and oxidation of AgNPs and improving the electrical conductivity through intimate contact. By immobilizing this special material on electrode surface, the CS@Ag@GO was further used for sensitive determination of chlorinated phenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The tailored structure, fast electron transfer ability and facile preparation of CS@Ag@GO made it a promising electrode material for practical applications in phenols sensing.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of carbon spheres loaded Cu2O/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinhui; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhang, Na; Li, Ruijuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon spheres loaded Cu 2 O/Cu composites are obtained by hydrothermal process. • Cu 2 O/Cu nanocrystals grow on the surface of carbon spheres. • The composites with core–shell structure show highly photo-catalytic activity. • The composites can degrade methyl orange under simulated solar light irradiation. • The composites can be used to treat dye wastewater or organic pollutants. - Abstract: In this work, using amylose as carbon source and cupric acetate as copper source, carbon spheres loaded Cu 2 O/Cu composites were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of the molar ratios between glucose and Cu(II), and hydrothermal time on the morphology and sizes of the composites were investigated. The result of photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the composites could degrade methyl orange in aqueous solution under simulated solar light irradiation. The highest degradation rate was achieved to 93.83% when the composites were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 180 °C for 16 h and the molar ratio between glucose and Cu(II) was 10/1. The composites, as new and promising materials, can be used to treat dye wastewater or other organic pollutants

  6. Matrimid® derived carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for ethylene/ethane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2011-09-01

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes have shown promising separation performance compared to conventional polymeric membranes. Translating the very attractive separation properties from dense films to hollow fibers is important for applying CMS materials in realistic gas separations. The very challenging ethylene/ethane separation is the primary target of this work. Matrimid® derived CMS hollow fiber membranes have been investigated in this work. Resultant CMS fiber showed interesting separation performance for several gas pairs, especially high selectivity for C2H4/C2H6. Our comparative study between dense film and hollow fiber revealed very similar selectivity for both configurations; however, a significant difference exists in the effective separation layer thickness between precursor fibers and their resultant CMS fibers. SEM results showed that the deviation was essentially due to the collapse of the porous substructure of the precursor fiber. Polymer chain flexibility (relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg) for Matrimid® relative to actual CMS formation) appears to be the fundamental cause of substructure collapse. This collapse phenomenon must be addressed in all cases involving intense heat-treatment near or above Tg. We also found that the defect-free property of the precursor fiber was not a simple predictor of CMS fiber performance. Even some precursor fibers with Knudsen diffusion selectivity could be transformed into highly selective CMS fibers for the Matrimid® precursor. To overcome the permeance loss problem caused by substructure collapse, several engineering approaches were considered. Mixed gas permeation results under realistic conditions demonstrate the excellent performance of CMS hollow fiber membrane for the challenging ethylene/ethane separation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Daniel G; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-14

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  8. Easy synthesis of hierarchical carbon spheres with superior capacitive performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinhua; Kim, Seok; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Suh, Hongsuk; Kim, Il

    2013-10-01

    An easy template-free approach to the fabrication of pure carbon microspheres has been achieved via direct pyrolysis of as-prepared polyaromatic hydrocarbons including polynaphthalene and polypyrene. The polyaromatics were synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker. The experimental results show that the methylene bridges between phenyl rings generate a hierarchical porous polyaromatic precursor to form three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous networks during carbonization. These hierarchical porous carbon aggregates of spherical carbon spheres exhibit faster ion transport/diffusion behavior and increased surface area usage in electric double-layer capacitors. Furthermore, micropores are present in the 3D interconnected network inside the cross-linked AHC-based carbon microspheres, thus imparting an exceptionally large, electrochemically accessible surface area for charge accumulation.

  9. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  10. Direct synthesis of solid and hollow carbon nanospheres over NaCl crystals using acetylene by chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Kishore, S.; Anandhakumar, S.; Sasidharan, M., E-mail: sasidharan.m@res.srmuniv.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hollow and solid carbon nanospheres were synthesized by CVD method. • NaCl was used as template for direct growth of carbon nanospheres. • Separation of NaCl from the mixture is made easy by dissolving in water. • The hollow carbon nanospheres exhibit high specific capacity in Li-ion batteries than the graphite anodes. - Abstract: Carbon nanospheres (CNS) with hollow and solid morphologies have been synthesised by a simple chemical vapour deposition method using acetylene as a carbon precursor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) powder as a template was used for the direct growth of CNS via facile and low-cost approach. The effect of various temperatures (500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) and acetylene flow rates were investigated to study the structural evolution on the carbon products. The purified CNS thus obtained was characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and cyclicvoltametry. The synthesised hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. After 25 cycles of repeated charge/discharge cycles, the discharge and charge capacities were found to be 574 mAh/g and 570 mAh/g, respectively which are significantly higher than the commercial graphite samples.

  11. Erythrocyte-like hollow carbon capsules and their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2010-12-14

    Hierarchical nanostructured erythrocyte-like hollow carbon (EHC) with a hollow hemispherical macroporous core of ca. 230 nm in diameter and 30-40 nm thick mesoporous shell was synthesized and explored as a cathode catalyst support in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The morphology control of EHC was successfully achieved using solid core/mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica template and different styrene/furfuryl alcohol mixture compositions by a nanocasting method. The EHC-supported Pt (20 wt%) cathodes prepared have demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared to carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones, probably due to the superb structural characteristics of the EHC such as uniform size, well-developed porosity, large specific surface area and pore volume. In particular, Pt/EHC cathodes exhibited ca. 30-60% higher ORR activity than a commercial Johnson Matthey Pt catalyst at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2).

  12. Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow microspheres as anode and carbon fiber as cathode for high performance quantum dot and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Veerappan; Kong, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jang, Hyun Myung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2014-02-01

    Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a unique structure is used as an alternative counter electrode (CE) and compared with the standard platinum (Pt) CE. Their electrocatalytic properties are measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and Tafel-polarization. Under 1 sun illumination, solar cells made with hollow SnO2 photoanode sandwiched with the stable CNF CE showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.5% in QDSCs and 3.0% for DSCs, which is quite promising with the standard Pt CE (QDSCs: 2.1%, and DSCs: 3.6%).Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a

  13. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanocoils and hollow graphite fibers as anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyong; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Wang, Guizhen; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Peng; Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Lang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) have been used as anode materials for preparation of lithium ion batteries. As pure carbon material without any chemical modification, the graphitized CNCs anode exhibited larger capacities with good Coulombic efficiency, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the hollow graphite fibers (HGFs) anode. The excellent performance of the CNCs was possibly ascribed to the special structure and the high degree of graphitization. As a result, the CNCs anode exhibited high reversible capacity of 385.5 mA h g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1, 104.7% reversible capacity retention after 105 cycles, and superior reversible capability of 177.4 mA h g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This result indicated that CNCs could be an attractive choice as anode material for high-energy density and high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Synthesis of coin-like hollow carbon and performance as Pd catalyst support for methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Dingsheng [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); State Key Laboratories of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xu, Changwei; Liu, Yingliang; Tan, Shaozao [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wei, Zidong [School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen, Pei Kang [State Key Laboratories of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2007-10-15

    The coin-like hollow carbon (CHC) has been synthesized by only using ethanol as the carbon source with a novel Mg/NiCl{sub 2} catalytic system via a facile solvothermal method for the first time. The CHC synthesized at optimized conditions shows an average thickness of less than 154 nm and the coin diameter of 1-3 {mu}m. The CHC is characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and electrochemical techniques. Pd on CHC (denotes as Pd/CHC) electrocatalysts are prepared for methanol oxidation in alkaline media. The Pd/CHC electrocatalyst gives a mass activity of 2930 A g{sup -1} Pd for methanol oxidation against 870 A g{sup -1} Pd on Pd/C electrocatalyst. One main reason for the higher mass activity of the Pd/CHC is the higher electrochemical active surface area (EASA) of the Pd/CHC. (author)

  15. Non-conductive nanomaterial enhanced electrochemical response in stripping voltammetry: The use of nanostructured magnesium silicate hollow spheres for heavy metal ions detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-Xia; Yu, Xin-Yao; Gao, Chao; Jiang, Yu-Jing; Han, Dong-Dong; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-08-06

    Nanostructured magnesium silicate hollow spheres, one kind of non-conductive nanomaterials, were used in heavy metal ions (HMIs) detection with enhanced performance for the first time. The detailed study of the enhancing electrochemical response in stripping voltammetry for simultaneous detection of ultratrace Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) was described. Electrochemical properties of modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The operational parameters which have influence on the deposition and stripping of metal ions, such as supporting electrolytes, pH value, and deposition time were carefully studied. The anodic stripping voltammetric performance toward HMIs was evaluated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) analysis. The detection limits achieved (0.186nM, 0.247nM, 0.169nM and 0.375nM for Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+)) are much lower than the guideline values in drinking water given by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the interference and stability of the modified electrode were also investigated under the optimized conditions. An interesting phenomenon of mutual interference between different metal ions was observed. Most importantly, the sensitivity of Pb(2+) increased in the presence of certain concentrations of other metal ions, such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) both individually and simultaneously. The proposed electrochemical sensing method is thus expected to open new opportunities to broaden the use of SWASV in analysis for detecting HMIs in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis for Heat Transfer in a High Current-Passing Carbon Nanosphere Using Nontraditional Thermal Transport Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol C Y; Chen, B C; Tsai, Y H; Ma, C; Wen, M Y

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the thermal transport in hollow microscale and nanoscale spheres subject to electrical heat source using nontraditional thermal transport model. Working as supercapacitor electrodes, carbon hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres needs excellent heat transfer characteristics to maintain high specific capacitance, long cycle life, and high power density. In the nanoscale regime, the prediction of heat transfer from the traditional heat conduction equation based on Fourier's law deviates from the measured data. Consequently, the electrical heat source-induced heat transfer characteristics in hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres are studied using nontraditional thermal transport model. The effects of parameters on heat transfer in the hollow micrometer- and nanometer-sized spheres are discussed in this study. The results reveal that the heat transferred into the spherical interior, temperature and heat flux in the hollow sphere decrease with the increasing Knudsen number when the radius of sphere is comparable to the mean free path of heat carriers.

  17. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Shibayama, Kyosuke; Iida, Takeru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2018-03-27

    A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO₂) measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO₂ standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO₂ concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO₂ concentration in human airways.

  18. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katagiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO2 measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO2 standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO2 concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO2 concentration in human airways.

  19. Three-dimensional porous hollow fibre copper electrodes for efficient and high-rate electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Recep; Hummadi, Khalid Khazzal; Kortlever, Ruud; de Wit, Patrick; Milbrat, Alexander; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Koper, Marc T.M.; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous-phase electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide requires an active, earth-abundant electrocatalyst, as well as highly efficient mass transport. Here we report the design of a porous hollow fibre copper electrode with a compact three-dimensional geometry, which provides a large area,

  20. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  1. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Rapid growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of micron-thick and hollow-core fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Longfei [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: Dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electric Science, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Zhou, Xinwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310007 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Ni, Weiyuan [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Ultrathick (> 25 μm) carbon films were obtained on the inner surface of hollow and micron-thick quartz fibers by confining CH{sub 4}/He or C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas in their hollow cores. The resulting carbon films were studied by using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microplasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique resulted in the uniform growth of amorphous carbon films on the inner surface of very long (> 1 m) hollow-core fibers. Film deposition is performed by using microplasmas at atmospheric pressure and at 50 Pa. The carbon films obtained with the latter show the smooth inner surfaces and the well continuity across the film/optical fiber. Low-pressure CH{sub 4}/He and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He microplasmas can lead to a rapid growth (∼ 2.00 μm/min) of carbon films with their thickness of > 25 μm. The optical emission measurements show that various hydrocarbon species were formed in these depositing microplasmas due to the collisions between CH{sub 4}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules and energetic species. The microplasma-enhanced CVD technique running without the complicated fabrication processes shows its potentials for rapidly depositing the overlong carbon tubes with their inner diameters of tens of microns. - Highlights: • The microplasma device is applied for coating deposition inside hollow-core fibers. • The microplasma device results in > 25 μm-thick carbon films. • The microplasma device is simple for deposition of ultralong carbon tubes.

  4. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood

    OpenAIRE

    Arazawa, D. T.; Kimmel, J. D.; Finn, M.C.; Federspiel, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (< 500 mL/min) ECCO2R devices necessitates more efficient gas exchange devices. Since over 90% of blood CO2 is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3−), we previously reported development of a carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal ...

  5. Carbon black selection from simulated broth solution for ADU gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jeong Kyung; Ho, Eom Sung; Kim, Yeon Ku; Cho, Moon Seoung

    2012-01-01

    The VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor) is one of the reactor concepts in the Gen IV International Collaboration. The nuclear fuel of a VHTR in the US is based on microspheres containing a mixture of UO 2 and UC 2 coated with multi carbon layers and a SiC layer. This mixture is called a 'UCO (uranium oxi carbide)' kernel. The fabrication process of this kernel was based on the sol-gel method between an ADUN and HMTA and urea, a process referred to as internal gelation. UCO kernel microspheres were first prepared at ORNL in the late 1970s. CB(Carbon Black) as a carbon source in the final UCO kernel is added during the broth solution preparation, in the processing of UCO kernel fabrication. The preparation of a good quality UCO kernel is very difficult due to the homogeneous distribution of carbon in a UCO kernel. The key requirement to obtain a good quality kernel is a uniform distribution of carbon in the ADU gel sphere forming process before the thermal treatment, i.e., during the gel formation step. The internal gelation concept was adapted in ADU gel sphere fabrication in the ORNL process of the US. Generally, UO 2 kernel microspheres are prepared by an internal gelation method (USA, India) or external gelation method (Germany, China, Japan). The UCO kernel microspheres prepared only in the US, use an internal gelation method. A material flow chart on the preparation of the microsphere kernel is simply shown in Fig. 1. The broth solution preparation, the raw material, additives, and thermal steps such as calcining and sintering processes were different to compared with the external gelation and internal gelation methods. In this study, we first carried out the matching CB selection experiments among the various kinds of CBs in a broth solution, for UCO kernel preparation using an external gelation method.

  6. Sustained release of simvastatin from hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres prepared by aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Yinjing; Zhao, Xu; Li, Yi; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Xiaoguang

    2017-06-01

    Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCHAp) microspheres as simvastatin (SV) sustained-release vehicles were fabricated through a novel and simple one-step biomimetic strategy. Firstly, hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were precipitated through the reaction of CaCl 2 with Na 2 CO 3 in the presence of aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Then, the as-prepared hollow CaCO 3 microspheres were transformed into HCHAp microspheres with a controlled anion-exchange method. The HCHAp microspheres were 3-5μm with a shell thickness of 0.5-1μm and were constructed of short needle nanoparticles. The HCHAp microspheres were then loaded with SV, exhibiting excellent drug-loading capacity and sustained release properties. These results present a new material synthesis strategy for HCHAp microspheres and suggest that the as-prepared HCHAp microspheres are promising for applications in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hollow Mesoporous Carbon Microparticles and Micromotors with Single Holes Templated by Colloidal Silica-Assisted Gas Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Tao; Asefa, Tewodros

    2017-07-01

    A simple, new synthetic method that produces hollow, mesoporous carbon microparticles, each with a single hole on its surface, is reported. The synthesis involves unique templates, which are composed of gaseous bubbles and colloidal silica, and poly(furfuryl alcohol) as a carbon precursor. The conditions that give these morphologically unique carbon microparticles are investigated, and the mechanisms that result in their unique structures are proposed. Notably, the amount of colloidal silica and the type of polymer are found to hugely dictate whether or not the synthesis results in hollow asymmetrical microparticles, each with a single hole. The potential application of the particles as self-propelled micromotors is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis of rambutan-like MoS2/mesoporous carbon spheres nanocomposites with excellent performance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouchuan; Hu, Ruirui; Dai, Peng; Yu, Xinxin; Ding, Zongling; Wu, Mingzai; Li, Guang; Ma, Yongqing; Tu, Chuanjun

    2017-02-01

    A novel rambutan-like composite of MoS2/mesoporous carbon spheres were synthesized by a simple two-step hydrothermal and post-annealing approach via using glucose as C source and Na2MoO4·2H2O and thiourea as Mo and S sources. It is found that the morphology and electrochemical properties can be effectively controlled by the change of the weight ratio of coated MoS2 sheets to carbon spheres. When used as electrode material for supercapacitor, the hybrid MoS2/carbon spheres show a high specific capacity of 411 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and 272 F/g at a high discharge current density of 10 A/g. The annealing treatment at 700 °C transformed the core carbon spheres into mesoporous ones, which served as the conduction network and favor the enhancement of the specific capacitance. In addition, the strain released during the charge/discharge process can be accommodated and the structural integrity can be kept, improving the cycling life. After 1000 cycles, the capacitance retention of the hybrid MoS2/carbon spheres is 93.2%.

  9. The effects of carbon distribution and thickness on the lithium storage properties of carbon-coated SnO_2 hollow nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huimin; Li, Zhiyong; Qiu, Yiping; Xia, Xin

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the enormous volume change problem of tin-based anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), carbon-coated tin dioxide (SnO_2) hollow nanofibers were prepared by means of single-spinneret electrospinning followed by calcination and hydrothermal treatment. By varying the concentration of glucose and the reaction time during the hydrothermal coating process, the final product with different carbon distribution and thickness could be obtained. Galvanostatic charge/discharge was carried out to evaluate them as potential anode materials for LIBs. It was shown that the main effect of carbon distribution was to control the capacity retention rate, and the carbon thickness played the important role in lithium insertion/extraction properties. The optimum composite nanofibers could be prepared with glucose concentration of 10 mg/ml and hydrothermal time of 20 h, the carbon content and the specific surface area of which were 26.15% and 29.4 m"2/g, respectively. And this anode with both the carbon core and deposited thin carbon skin was able to deliver a high reversible capacity of 704.6 mAhg"−"1 and the capacity retention could retain 68.2% after 80 cycles. - Graphical abstract: Based on the electrochemical properties of carbon-coated hollow SnO2 anodes, how the carbon distribution and carbon thickness affect their performance are disscussed in groups. - Highlights: • The hollow SnO_2 nanofibers were carbon-coated by hydrothermal process. • The controlled distribution and thickness of carbon layer can be obtained. • The main effect of carbon distribution was to control the capacity retention rate. • The carbon thickness played the important role in lithium insertion/extraction properties.

  10. A composite of hollow carbon nanospheres and sulfur-rich polymers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Zeng, Xierong; He, Qianjun; Zheng, Xianfeng; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tu, Wenxuan; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are the most promising candidates for future high-energy applications because of the unparalleled capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1). However, lithium-sulfur batteries have limited cycle life and rate capability due to the dissolution of polysulfides and the extremely low electronic conductivity of sulfur. To solve these issues, various porous carbons including hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) have been used for improving the conductivity. However, these methods still suffer from polysulfides dissolution/loss owing to their weak physical adsorption to polysulfides. Herein, we introduced a covalent grafting route to composite the HCNs and the vulcanized trithiocyanuric acid (TTCA). The composite exhibits a high loading of the vulcanized TTCA by the HCNs with high surface area and large pore volume, and covalent bonds to sulfur, effectively depressing the dissolution of polysulfides. The first discharge capacity of the composite reaches 1430 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1227 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  11. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALASANS-MAIA, Mônica Diuana; de MELO, Bruno Raposo; ALVES, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; RESENDE, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; LOURO, Rafael Seabra; SARTORETTO, Suelen Cristina; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  12. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Diuana CALASANS-MAIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA. Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group (n=5/period/group. After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05 indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption.

  13. 3D hollow sphere Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs: Its high-performance bi-functional cathode catalysis and application in rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a continuous need for high active, excellently durable and low-cost electrocatalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Among many low-cost metal based candidates, transition metal oxides with the CNTs composite have gained increasing attention. In this paper, the 3-D hollow sphere MnO2 nanotube-supported Co3O4 nanoparticles and its carbon nanotubes hybrid material (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method combined with post-heat treatment. The morphology and composition of the catalysts are thoroughly analyzed through SEM, TEM, TEM-mapping, XRD, EDX and XPS. In comparison with the commercial 20% Pt/C, Co3O4/MnO2, bare MnO2 nanotubes and CNTs, the hybrid Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs-350 exhibits perfect bi-functional catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH. Therefore, high cell performances are achieved which result in an appropriate open circuit voltage (∼1.47 V, a high discharge peak power density (340 mW cm−2 and a large specific capacity (775 mAh g−1 at 10 mA cm−2 for the primary Zn-air battery, a small charge–discharge voltage gap and a high cycle-life (504 cycles at 10 mA cm−2 with 10 min per cycle for the rechargeable Zn-air battery. In particular, the simple synthesis method is suitable for a large-scale production of this bifunctional material due to a green, cost effective and readily available process. Keywords: Bi-functional catalyst, Oxygen reduction reaction, Oxygen evolution reaction, Activity and stability, Rechargeable zinc-air battery

  14. Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Electrospun Ag/Hollow Glassy Carbon Nanofibers as Free-standing Li-ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilpa; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Silver with a high theoretical capacity for lithium storage is an attractive alloy based anode for Li-ion batteries, but large volume changes associated with AgLi x alloy formation leads to electrode cracking, pulverization and rapid capacity fading. A buffer matrix, like the electrospun hollow carbon nanofibers, can reduce this problem to a great extent. Herein, we demonstrate the facile synthesis of a free-standing, binder free Ag-C hybrid electrode through co-axial electrospinning, where well dispersed Ag nanoparticles are embedded in hollow carbon nanofibers. Using this approach, the long cycle life of carbon is complemented with the high lithium storage capacity of Ag, resulting in a high performance anode. The Ag-C composite electrode delivers a capacity of 739 mAh g −1 (>conventional graphite anodes) at 50 mA g −1 , with ∼85% capacity retention after 100 cycles. In addition, the Ag-C composite nanofibers are highly porous and exhibit a large accessible surface area (∼726.9 m 2 g −1 ) with an average pore diameter of ∼6.07 nm. The encapsulation of Ag in the hollow interiors not only provides additional lithium storage sites but also enhances the electronic conductivity, which combined with the reduced lithium diffusion path lengths in the nanofibers result in faster charge-discharge kinetics and hence a high rate performance

  15. Calcium carbonate-gold nanocluster hybrid spheres: synthesis and versatile application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Feng, Li-Na; Zhang, Kui; Li, Xing-Hua; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-04-23

    Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were incorporated into porous calcium carbonate spheres through electrostatic interaction. The resulting CaCO(3)/AuNCs hybrid material exhibited interesting properties, such as porous structure, excellent biocompatibility, good water solubility, and degradability. These properties make the CaCO(3)/AuNCs hybrid material a promising template to assemble horseradish peroxidase/antibody conjugates (HRP-Ab(2)). By using CaCO(3)/AuNCs/HRP-Ab(2) bioconjugates as probes, a versatile immunosensor was developed for fluorescent and electrochemical detection of the cancer biomarker neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The detection limits of the sensor were 2.0 and 0.1 pg mL(-1) for fluorescent and electrochemical detection, respectively. The immunosensor shows high sensitivity and offers an alternative strategy for the detection of other proteins and DNA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Activated Porous Carbon Spheres with Customized Mesopores through Assembly of Diblock Copolymers for Electrochemical Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Jie; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2017-06-07

    A series of porous carbon spheres with precisely adjustable mesopores (4-16 nm), high specific surface area (SSA, ∼2000 m 2 g -1 ), and submicrometer particle size (∼300 nm) was synthesized through a facile coassembly of diblock polymer micelles with a nontoxic dopamine source and a common postactivation process. The mesopore size can be controlled by the diblock polymer, polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) templates, and has an almost linear dependence on the square root of the degree of polymerization of the PS blocks. These advantageous structural properties make the product a promising electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. The electrochemical capacitive performance was studied carefully by using symmetrical cells in a typical organic electrolyte of 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate/acetonitrile (TEA BF 4 /AN) or in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF 4 ), displaying a high specific capacitance of 111 and 170 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , respectively. The impacts of pore size distribution on the capacitance performance were thoroughly investigated. It was revealed that large mesopores and a relatively low ratio of micropores are ideal for realizing high SSA-normalized capacitance. These results provide us with a simple and reliable way to screen future porous carbon materials for electrochemical capacitors and encourage researchers to design porous carbon with high specific surface area, large mesopores, and a moderate proportion of micropores.

  17. Fabrication of micro-hollow fiber by electrospinning process in near-critical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu, E-mail: mgoto@nuce.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Machmudah, Siti [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, Japan and Department of Chemical Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia); Okubayashi, Satoko [Department of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan (Japan); Fukuzato, Ryuichi [SCF Techno-Link, Inc., Ashiya 659-0033 (Japan)

    2014-02-24

    Electrospinning is a simple technique that has gained much attention because of its capability and feasibility in the fabrication of large quantities of fibers from polymer with diameters ranging in nano-microscale. These fibers provided high surface area to volume ratios, and it was of considerable interest for many applications, such as nanoparticle carriers in controlled release, scaffolds in tissue engineering, wound dressings, military wear with chemical and biological toxin-resistance, nanofibrous membranes or filters, and electronic sensors. Recently there has been a great deal of progress in the potential applications of hollow fibers in microfluids, photonics, and energy storage. In this work, electrospinning was conducted under high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to reduce the viscosity of polymer solution. The experiments were conducted at 313 K and ∼8.0 MPa. Polymer solution containing 5 wt% polymers which prepared in dichloromethane (DCM) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) ratio 80:20 was used as a feed solution. The applied voltage was 15 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The morphology and structure of the fibers produced were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under pressurized CO{sub 2}, PVP electrospun was produced without bead formation with diameter ranges of 608.50 - 7943.19 nm. These behaviors hold the potential to considerably improve devolatilization electrospinning processes.

  18. Fabrication of micro-hollow fiber by electrospinning process in near-critical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu; Machmudah, Siti; Okubayashi, Satoko; Fukuzato, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning is a simple technique that has gained much attention because of its capability and feasibility in the fabrication of large quantities of fibers from polymer with diameters ranging in nano-microscale. These fibers provided high surface area to volume ratios, and it was of considerable interest for many applications, such as nanoparticle carriers in controlled release, scaffolds in tissue engineering, wound dressings, military wear with chemical and biological toxin-resistance, nanofibrous membranes or filters, and electronic sensors. Recently there has been a great deal of progress in the potential applications of hollow fibers in microfluids, photonics, and energy storage. In this work, electrospinning was conducted under high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to reduce the viscosity of polymer solution. The experiments were conducted at 313 K and ∼8.0 MPa. Polymer solution containing 5 wt% polymers which prepared in dichloromethane (DCM) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) ratio 80:20 was used as a feed solution. The applied voltage was 15 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The morphology and structure of the fibers produced were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under pressurized CO 2 , PVP electrospun was produced without bead formation with diameter ranges of 608.50 - 7943.19 nm. These behaviors hold the potential to considerably improve devolatilization electrospinning processes

  19. Encapsulation of fish oil into hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles using carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim

    2017-09-15

    Fish oil was encapsulated in hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles formed from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) using a novel green method based on atomization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )-expanded lipid. The highest fish oil loading efficiency (97.5%, w/w) was achieved at 50%, w/w, initial fish oil concentration. All particles were spherical and in the dry free-flowing form; however, less smooth surface with wrinkles was observed when the initial fish oil concentration was increased up to 50%. With increasing initial fish oil concentration, melting point of the fish oil-loaded particles shifted to lower onset melting temperatures, and major polymorphic form transformed from α to β and/or β'. Oxidative stability of the loaded fish oil was significantly increased compared to the free fish oil (p<0.05). This innovative method forms free-flowing powder products that are easy-to-use solid fish oil formulation, which makes the handling and storage feasible and convenient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexural Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Repaired Cracked Rectangular Hollow Section Steel Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexural behavior of rectangular hollow section (RHS steel beams with initial crack strengthened externally with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP plates was studied. Eight specimens were tested under three-point loading to failure. The experimental program included three beams as control specimens and five beams strengthened with CFRP plates with or without prestressing. The load deflection curves were graphed and failure patterns were observed. The yield loads and ultimate loads with or without repairing were compared together with the strain distributions of the CFRP plate. It was concluded that yield loads of cracked beams could be enhanced with repairing. Meanwhile, the ultimate loads were increased to some extent. The effect of repair became significant with the increase of the initial crack depth. The failure patterns of the repaired specimens were similar to those of the control ones. Mechanical clamping at the CFRP plate ends was necessary to avoid premature peeling between the CFRP plate and the steel beam. The stress levels in CFRP plates were relatively low during the tests. The use of prestressing could improve the utilization efficiency of CFRP plates. It could be concluded that the patching repair could be used to restore the load bearing capacity of the deficient steel beams.

  1. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immobilizing LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles on carbon spheres for enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton like performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kaixuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Niu, Helin, E-mail: niuhelin@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Gao, Yuanhao [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles sub–10 nm were successfully immobilized on monodisperse carbon spheres for the first time through a facile and environmental friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. • LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite exhibits much higher photo-Fenton like catalytic activity than LaFeO{sub 3}. • The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of monodisperse carbon spheres. - Abstract: LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of monodisperse carbon spheres have been obtained through a facile and environmentally friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. The LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite was evaluated as photo-Fenton like catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite possesses high specific surface area compared with pure LaFeO{sub 3} and significantly enhanced photo-Fenton like catalytic performance. The possible formation process of the LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite and the mechanism for photo-Fenton like reaction were discussed. The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of carbon spheres. In addition, the heterogeneous process led to better recyclability of this type of catalyst.

  3. Immobilizing LaFeO_3 nanoparticles on carbon spheres for enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton like performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kaixuan; Niu, Helin; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Gao, Yuanhao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • LaFeO_3 nanoparticles sub–10 nm were successfully immobilized on monodisperse carbon spheres for the first time through a facile and environmental friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. • LaFeO_3/C nanocomposite exhibits much higher photo-Fenton like catalytic activity than LaFeO_3. • The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of monodisperse carbon spheres. - Abstract: LaFeO_3 nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of monodisperse carbon spheres have been obtained through a facile and environmentally friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. The LaFeO_3/C nanocomposite was evaluated as photo-Fenton like catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The LaFeO_3/C nanocomposite possesses high specific surface area compared with pure LaFeO_3 and significantly enhanced photo-Fenton like catalytic performance. The possible formation process of the LaFeO_3/C nanocomposite and the mechanism for photo-Fenton like reaction were discussed. The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of carbon spheres. In addition, the heterogeneous process led to better recyclability of this type of catalyst.

  4. Self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres into hierarchically organized nanostructured supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Jung, Euiyeon; Goodman, Matthew D; Schweizer, Kenneth S; Tatsuda, Narihito; Yano, Kazuhisa; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-06

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon electrode containing both nanoscale and microscale porosity, which has been hierarchically organized to provide efficient ion and electron transport. The electrode organization is provided via the colloidal self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres (MSCSs). The periodic close-packing of the MSCSs provides continuous pores inside the 3D structure that facilitate ion and electron transport (electrode electrical conductivity ∼0.35 S m(-1)), and the internal meso- and micropores of the MSCS provide a good specific capacitance. The capacitance of the 3D-ordered porous MSCS electrode is ∼58 F g(-1) at 0.58 A g(-1), 48% larger than that of disordered MSCS electrode at the same rate. At 1 A g(-1) the capacitance of the ordered electrode is 57 F g(-1) (95% of the 0.24 A g(-1) value), which is 64% greater than the capacitance of the disordered electrode at the same rate. The ordered electrode preserves 95% of its initial capacitance after 4000 charging/discharging cycles.

  5. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huan; Hu Xijun; Ka Ming Ng; Feng Jiyun

    2009-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  6. Matrimid® derived carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for ethylene/ethane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren; Rungta, Meha; Koros, William J.

    2011-01-01

    materials in realistic gas separations. The very challenging ethylene/ethane separation is the primary target of this work. Matrimid® derived CMS hollow fiber membranes have been investigated in this work. Resultant CMS fiber showed interesting separation

  7. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.; Johnson, J. R.; Williams, P. J.; Koros, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system

  8. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping

    2009-10-27

    Nanoparticles are often used as seeds to grow one-dimensional nanomaterials or as core materials to prepare core-shell nanostructures. On the other hand, the presynthesized inorganic nanoparticles can also be used as starting building blocks to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2, and polyaniline (PAN). In particular, multifunctional roles of oleate-surfactant-protected TiO2 nanoparticles have been revealed in this study: they provide starting sites for polymerization of aniline on the surface of SiO2 mesospheres; they land on the inner surface of polyaniline shell to form a secondary material phase; they work as initial crystalline seeds for homogeneous growth of interior TiO2 shell; and they serve as primary nanobuilding blocks to form exterior TiO2 shell on the polyaniline via self-assembly. With the assistance of the TiO2 nanoparticles, a total of six complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanocomposites (SiO 2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2/PAN, SiO 2/TiO2/PAN/TiO2, TiO2/PAN, TiO 2/PAN/TiO2, and TiO2/TiO2) have been made in this work through controlled self-assembly, templating growth, polymerization, and homogeneous seeded growth. Applicability of these nanostructures in photocatalytic applications has also been demonstrated by our preliminary investigations. The easy separation of used catalysts after reaction seems to be advantageous because of relatively large external diameters of the lightweight nanocomposites. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Microporous Carbon Spheres Solid Phase Membrane Tip Extraction for the Analysis of Nitrosamines in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Salisu Musa; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A simple solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) utilizing microporous carbon spheres (MCS) was developed for the analysis of nitrosamines in aqueous samples. The method termed MCS-SPMTE was optimized for various important extraction parameters namely conditioning organic solvent, extraction time, effects of salt addition and pH change, desorption time, desorption solvent and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, the method indicated good linearity in the range of 10-100 μg/ L with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.9984. The method also demonstrated good reproducibility with % RSDs values ranging from 2.2 - 8.9 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method ranged from 3.2 - 4.8 μg/ L and 10.9 - 15.9 μg/L respectively. Recoveries for both tap-water and lake water samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 83.2 - 107.5 %. (author)

  10. Modification of polystyrene-based activated carbon spheres to improve adsorption of dibenzothiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Liang, Xiaoyi; Qiao, Wenming; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Rui; Ling, Licheng

    2009-01-01

    Polystyrene-based activated carbon spheres (PACS) were modified with either air, HNO 3, (NH 4) 2S 2O 8, H 2O 2 or H 2 to improve their adsorption properties of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The texture and surface chemistry of PACS were characterized by N 2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), acid-base titration and elemental analysis. The results showed that HNO 3 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 treatments introduced large amount of acidic groups such as carboxylic, lactones and anhydride groups, while air and H 2O 2 had relatively mild effects and introduced a small quantity of phenol, carbonyl and ether groups. In the HNO 3 treatment, the acidic groups might be fixed on the internal and external surface of PACS, which may act as active sites of adsorption, resulting in increase of the adsorption amount by 45%. Whereas H 2O 2 and (NH 4) 2S 2O 8 treatments might fix more oxygen-containing groups on the external surface, which may hinder DBT molecule enter into micropores, leading to rather lower adsorption capacity with the extent of oxidation. So, the concentration, distribution and types of the acidic functional groups are responsible for the removal of DBT.

  11. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O 2 batteries, Na-O 2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O 2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO 2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO 2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO 2 cubes in Na-O 2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O 2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO 2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO 2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O 2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hierarchical nanostructured hollow spherical carbon with mesoporous shell as a unique cathode catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baizeng; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minsik; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-03-07

    Hierarchical nanostructured spherical carbon with hollow macroporous core in combination with mesoporous shell has been explored to support Pt cathode catalyst with high metal loading in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hollow core-mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC) has unique structural characteristics such as large specific surface area and mesoporous volume, ensuring uniform dispersion of the supported high loading (60 wt%) Pt nanoparticles with small particle size, and well-developed three-dimensionally interconnected hierarchical porosity network, facilitating fast mass transport. The HCMSC-supported Pt(60 wt%) cathode catalyst has demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared with carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones. Furthermore, the HCMSC-supported Pt(40 wt%) or Pt(60 wt%) outperforms the HCMSC-supported Pt(20 wt%) even at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2) in the cathode, which is completely different from the VC-supported Pt catalysts. The capability of supporting high loading Pt is supposed to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC due to the anticipated significant reduction in the amount of catalyst support required, diffusion layer thickness and fabricating cost of the supported Pt catalyst electrode.

  13. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binbin; Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang; Yang, Baocheng

    2017-08-01

    Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO2 capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl2-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl2 dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl2/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 178.9 W kg-1 within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO2 capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large micropore proportion prepared at 800 °C exhibited an exceptional CO2 uptake capacity at ambient pressures of up to 4.23 mmol g-1 at 0 °C.

  14. Immobilizing LaFeO3 nanoparticles on carbon spheres for enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton like performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaixuan; Niu, Helin; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Gao, Yuanhao

    2017-05-01

    LaFeO3 nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of monodisperse carbon spheres have been obtained through a facile and environmentally friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. The LaFeO3/C nanocomposite was evaluated as photo-Fenton like catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The LaFeO3/C nanocomposite possesses high specific surface area compared with pure LaFeO3 and significantly enhanced photo-Fenton like catalytic performance. The possible formation process of the LaFeO3/C nanocomposite and the mechanism for photo-Fenton like reaction were discussed. The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of carbon spheres. In addition, the heterogeneous process led to better recyclability of this type of catalyst.

  15. A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to prepare europium-doped titania hollow phosphors and their sensitized luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xuan; Yang Ling; Zhang Nianchun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres crystal and then the energy is relaxed to the defect states of TiO{sub 2} host. The energy can transfer to the crystal states of Eu{sup 3+} ions ({sup 7}F{sub j}, j = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), which results in efficient photoluminescence. The fluorescent intensity of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres was 2.2 times as strong as that of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} bulk material. - Abstract: Monodisperse europium-activated titania hollow phosphors had been synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method using carbon spheres as hard templates. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and photoluminescence spectrum. The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band

  16. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Binbin; Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang; Yang, Baocheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Convenient and large-scale synthesis route for N-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere. • The resultant own spherical morphology, tunable hierarchical porosity, high surface area. • The optimal material exhibits a high CO_2 capture capacity of 4.23 mmol g"−"1. • It shows a large voltage window of 1.8 V for symmetric cell in 0.5 M Na_2SO_4. - Abstract: Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO_2 capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl_2-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH_3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 600–800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl_2 dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl_2/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A g"−"1. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg"−"1 at a power density of 178.9 W kg"−"1 within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na_2SO_4 aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO_2 capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large micropore proportion prepared at 800 °C exhibited an exceptional CO_2 uptake

  17. Modification of polystyrene-based activated carbon spheres to improve adsorption of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liang Xiaoyi [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: xyliang@ecust.edu.cn; Qiao Wenming; Liu Chaojun; Liu Xiaojun; Zhang Rui; Ling Licheng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2009-01-01

    Polystyrene-based activated carbon spheres (PACS) were modified with either air, HNO{sub 3}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or H{sub 2} to improve their adsorption properties of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The texture and surface chemistry of PACS were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), acid-base titration and elemental analysis. The results showed that HNO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} treatments introduced large amount of acidic groups such as carboxylic, lactones and anhydride groups, while air and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had relatively mild effects and introduced a small quantity of phenol, carbonyl and ether groups. In the HNO{sub 3} treatment, the acidic groups might be fixed on the internal and external surface of PACS, which may act as active sites of adsorption, resulting in increase of the adsorption amount by 45%. Whereas H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} treatments might fix more oxygen-containing groups on the external surface, which may hinder DBT molecule enter into micropores, leading to rather lower adsorption capacity with the extent of oxidation. So, the concentration, distribution and types of the acidic functional groups are responsible for the removal of DBT.

  18. Ag/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang, E-mail: liaozhang2003@163.com; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Glucose is carbonized as carbon balls in the 180 °C hydrothermal carbonization process, which plays a role of a soft template. Carbon spherical shell is rich in many hydroxyls, which have good hydrophilicity and surface reactivity. When Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} is added to the aqueous solution of Glucose, the hydrophilic -OH will adsorb Fe{sup 3+} to form coordination compound by coordination bond. α-FeOOH is formed on the surface of carbon balls by hydrothermal reaction. After calcination at 500 °C, carbon spheres react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which disappears in the air. Meanwhile α-FeOOH is calcined to form α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres.

  19. Fe-Catalyzed Synthesis of Porous Carbons Spheres with High Graphitization Degree for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Shi, Hongwei; Zhuo, Xin; Hu, Yalin

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a facile and efficient Fe-catalyzed method for fabrication of porous carbons spheres with high graphitization degree (GNPCs) using glucose as carbon precursor at relatively low carbonization temperature. GNPCs not only have relatively large accessible ion surface area to accommodate greater capacity but also high graphitization degree to accelerate ion diffusion. As a typical application, we demonstrate that GNPCs exhibit excellent electrochemical performance for use in supercapacitors, with high specific capacity of 150.6 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 and good rate capability and superior cycling stability over 10,000 cycles, confirming their potential application for energy storage. Moreover, it is believed that this method offers a new strategy for synthesis of porous carbons with high graphitization degree.

  20. Controllable Electrochemical Activities by Oxidative Treatment toward Inner-Sphere Redox Systems at N-Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical activity of the surface of Nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-CNH, N-doped DLC toward the inner sphere redox species is controllable by modifying the surface termination. At the oxygen plasma treated N-doped DLC surface (O-DLC, the surface functional groups containing carbon doubly bonded to oxygen (C=O, which improves adsorption of polar molecules, were generated. By oxidative treatment, the electron-transfer rate for dopamine (DA positively charged inner-sphere redox analyte could be improved at the N-doped DLC surface. For redox reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol, which induces an inevitable fouling of the anode surface by forming passivating films, the DLC surfaces exhibited remarkably higher stability and reproducibility of the electrode performance. This is due to the electrochemical decomposition of the passive films without the interference of oxygen evolution by applying higher potential. The N-doped DLC film can offer benefits as the polarizable electrode surface with the higher reactivity and higher stability toward inner-sphere redox species. By making use of these controllable electrochemical reactivity at the O-DLC surface, the selective detection of DA in the mixed solution of DA and uric acid could be achieved.

  1. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  2. Effect of Sphere Properties on Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cast Composite Metal Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Garcia-Avila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-steel composite metal foams (Al-S CMF are manufactured using steel hollow spheres, with a variety of sphere carbon content, surface roughness, and wall porosity, embedded in an Aluminum matrix through gravity casting technique. The microstructural and mechanical properties of the material were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and quasi-static compressive testing. Higher carbon content and surface roughness in the sphere wall were responsible for an increase in formation of intermetallic phases which had a strengthening effect at lower strain levels, increasing the yield strength of the material by a factor of 2, while higher sphere wall porosity resulted in a decrease on the density of the material and improving its cushioning and ductility maintaining its energy absorption capabilities.

  3. Synthesis of TiC Nanoparticles Anchored on Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Enhanced Polysulfide Adsorption in Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bokai; Chen, Yong; Li, De; Yin, Lihong; Mo, Yan

    2016-12-08

    A novel spatial confinement strategy based on a carbon/TiO 2 /carbon sandwich structure is proposed to synthesize TiC nanoparticles anchored on hollow carbon nanospheres (TiC@C) through a carbothermal reduction reaction. During the synthesis process, two carbon layers not only serve as reductant to convert TiO 2 into TiC nanoparticles, but also create a spatial confinement to suppress the aggregation of TiO 2 , resulting in the formation of well-dispersed TiC nanoparticles. This unique TiC@C structure shows an outstanding long-term cycling stability at high rates owing to the strong physical and chemical adsorption of lithium polysulfides (i.e., a high capacity of 732.6 mA h g -1 at 1600 mA g -1 ) and it retains a capacity of 443.2 mA h g -1 after 1000 cycles, corresponding to a decay rate of only 0.0395 % per cycle. Therefore, this unique TiC@C composite could be considered as an important candidate for the cathode material in Li-S batteries. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Combined use of lightweight magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-coated hollow glass spheres and electrically conductive reduced graphene oxide in an epoxy matrix for microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wgdfrp@whut.edu.cn; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin based lightweight composites comprising Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared. Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic are used for analysis of the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and RGO composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites are enhanced. RL values less than −10 dB are obtained in a wide frequency range and the corresponding bandwidth can reach up to 3.6 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness is chosen. The density of the hybrid composite is in the range of 0.57–0.72 g/cm{sup 3}, which is attractive candidate for a new type of lightweight microwave absorber. - Highlights: • Lightweight composites comprising HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and RGO were prepared. • The RL less than −10 dB can reach up to 3.6 GHz with layer thickness of 2.5 mm. • The density of the composites is in the range of 0.57−0.72 g/cm{sup 3}.

  5. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jianhua, E-mail: fjh2008@126.com; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO{sub 3} crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO{sub 3} crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0 mg/mL. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate • Calcification mechanisms in the presence of both protein and polysaccharides • Biomineralization under the action of protein and polysaccharides.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing the effect of carbon fiber reinforced polymer on the crashworthiness of aluminum square hollow beam for crash box application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Jayanth, K.; Sarkar, I.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Crashworthiness of a material is a measure of its ability to absorb energy during a crash. A well-designed crash box is instrumental in protecting the costly vehicle components. A square, hollow, hybrid beam of aluminum/CFRP was subjected to dynamic axial load to analyze the effect of five different lay-up sequences on its crashworthiness. The beam was placed between two plates. Boundary conditions were imposed on them to simulate a frontal body crash test model. Modeling and dynamic analysis of composite structures was done on ABAQUS. Different orientation of carbon fibers varies the crashworthiness of the hybrid beam. Addition of CFRP layer showed clear improvement in specific energy absorption and crush force efficiency compared to pure aluminum beam. Two layers of CFRP oriented at 90° on Aluminum showed 52% increase in CFE.

  9. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Madeline T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  10. Dual Carbon-Confined SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres Enabling High Performance for the Reversible Storage of Alkali Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Shao, Qi; Li, Qiang; Duan, Qian; Li, Yanhui; Wang, Heng-Guo

    2018-04-25

    To explore a universal electrode material for the high-performance electrochemical storage of Li + , Na + , and K + ions remains a big challenge. Herein, we propose a "trinity" strategy to coat the SnO 2 hollow nanospheres using the dual carbon layer from the polydopamine-derived nitrogen-doped carbon and graphene. Thereinto, hollow structures with sufficient void space could buffer the volume expansion, whereas dual carbon-confined strategy could not only elastically prevent the aggregation of nanoparticle and ensure the structural integrity but also immensely improve the conductivity and endow high rate properties. Benefiting from the effective strategy and specific structure, the dual carbon-confined SnO 2 hollow nanosphere (denoted as G@C@SnO 2 ) can serve as the universal host material for alkali metal ions and enable their rapid and reversible storage. As expected, the resulting G@C@SnO 2 as a universal anode material shows reversible alkali-metal-ion storage with high performance. We believe this that strategy could pave the way for constructing other metal-oxide-based dual carbon-confined high-performance materials for the future energy storage applications.

  11. A high energy and power sodium-ion hybrid capacitor based on nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanowires anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Ye, Chao; Chen, Xinzhi; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2018-04-01

    The sodium ion hybrid capacitor (SHC) has been attracting much attention. However, the SHC's power density is significantly confined to a low level due to the sluggish ion diffusion in the anode. Herein, we propose to use an electrode with a high double layer capacitance as the anode in the SHC instead of insertion anodes. To this aim, nitrogen doped hollow carbon nanowires (N-HCNWs) with a high specific surface area are prepared, and the high capacitive contribution during the sodium ion storage process is confirmed by a series of electrochemical measurements. A new SHC consisting of a N-HCNW anode and a commercial active carbon (AC) cathode is fabricated for the first time. Due to the hybrid charge storage mechanism combining ion insertion and capacitive process, the as-fabricated SHC strikes a balance between the energy density and power density, a energy density of 108 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 9 kW kg-1 can be achieved, which overwhelms the electrochemical performances of most reported AC-based SHCs.

  12. In situ spectroscopic evidence for neptunium(V)-carbonate inner-sphere and outer-sphere ternary surface complexes on hematite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Moran, P B; Honeyman, B D; Davis, J A

    2007-06-01

    Np(V) surface speciation on hematite surfaces at pH 7-9 under pC2 = 10(-3.45) atm was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In situ XAS analyses suggest that bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere ternary surface species coexist at the hematite-water interface at pH 7-8.8, and the fraction of outer-sphere species gradually increases from 27 to 54% with increasing pH from 7 to 8.8. The results suggest that the heretofore unknown Np(V)-carbonato ternary surface species may be important in predicting the fate and transport of Np(V) in the subsurface environment down gradient of high-level nuclear waste respositories.

  13. Assembly of cerium(III)-stabilized polyoxotungstate nanoclusters with SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}/TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} templates. From single polyoxoanions to inorganic hollow spheres in dilute solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo [Institute of Functional Materials Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Science of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Li, Hao-Long [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University. Changchun (China)

    2013-08-12

    A versatile one-pot strategy was employed to synthesize three cerium(III)-stabilized polyoxotungstates nanoclusters by combining cerium linkers and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}/TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} heteroanion templates: K{sub 32}Na{sub 16}[{(XO_3)W_1_0O_3_4}{sub 8}{Ce_8(H_2O)_2_0}(WO{sub 2}){sub 4}-(W{sub 4}O{sub 12})].n H{sub 2}O [X=Se, n=81 (1); X=Te, n=114 (2)] and K{sub 12}Na{sub 22}[{(SeO_3)W_1_0O_3_4}{sub 8}{Ce_8(H_2O)_2_0}(WO{sub 2}){sub 4}-{(W_4O_6)Ce_4(H_2O)_1_4(SeO_3)_4(NO_3)_2}] . 79 H{sub 2}O (3), which are the first lanthanide-containing polyoxotungstates with selenium or tellurium heteroatoms. The three clusters were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, UV/Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their electrochemical, photoluminescence, and magnetic properties were investigated. Their behavior in solution was studied by transmission electron microscopy, which showed that their single polyoxoanions assemble into intact, uniform-sized, purely inorganic hollow spheres in dilute water/acetone solution. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. High-performance supercapacitors of carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres coated on flexible carbon fibre paper: Effects of oxygen-containing group contents, electrolytes and operating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Wutthiprom, Juthaporn; Suktha, Phansiri; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Chanlek, Narong; Shepherd, Celine; Hadzifejzovic, Emina; Moloney, Mark G.; Foord, John S.; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-01-01

    Although functionalized carbon-based materials have been widely used as the supercapacitor electrodes, the optimum contents of the functional groups, the charge storage mechanisms, and the effects of electrolytes and operating temperature have not yet been clearly investigated. In this work, carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres (c-HCN) with different functional group contents synthesized by an oxidation process of carbon nanospheres with nitric acid were coated on flexible carbon fibre paper and used as the supercapacitor electrodes. An as-fabricated supercapacitor of the c-HCN with a finely tuned 6.2 atomic % of oxygen of the oxygen-containing groups in an ionic liquid electrolyte exhibits a specific capacitance of 390 F g"−"1, a specific energy of 115 Wh kg"−"1, and a maximum specific power of 13548 W kg"−"1 at 70 °C. The charge storage mechanism investigated is based on the chemical adsorption of the ionic liquid electrolyte on the c-HCN electrode. This process is highly reversible leading to high capacity retention. The supercapacitor in this work may be practically used in many high energy and power applications.

  15. A facile production of microporous carbon spheres and their electrochemical performance in EDLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Li; He, Yuede

    2012-03-01

    In the absence of activation process, we prepared a series of carbon particles from saccharine, in which hydrothermal carbonization method was used. These particles have spherical or near-spherical morphology, controllable monodisperse particle size from the analyses of SEM. Raman and XRD results show that they are nongraphitizable. The BET surface area of these carbon spherules is around 400-500 m2 g-1 and the microporosity is about 84%, suggesting that the carbon particles are rich in micropores. The electrochemical behaviors were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cycle voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the specific capacitance of sucrose-based carbon spherule reached 164 F g-1 in 30% KOH electrolyte and a high volumetric capacitance over 170 F cm-3 was obtained. These carbon spherules could be promising materials for EDLC according to their facile preparation way, low cost and high packing density.

  16. Carbon-based layer-by-layer nanostructures: from films to hollow capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkee; Han, Jung Yeon; Yoon, Hyunsik; Joo, Piljae; Lee, Taemin; Seo, Eunyong; Char, Kookheon; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2011-11-01

    Over the past years, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has been widely developed as one of the most powerful techniques to prepare multifunctional films with desired functions, structures and morphologies because of its versatility in the process steps in both material and substrate choices. Among various functional nanoscale objects, carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets, are promising candidates for emerging science and technology with their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. In particular, carbon-based functional multilayer coatings based on the LbL assembly are currently being actively pursued as conducting electrodes, batteries, solar cells, supercapacitors, fuel cells and sensor applications. In this article, we give an overview on the use of carbon materials in nanostructured films and capsules prepared by the LbL assembly with the aim of unraveling the unique features and their applications of carbon multilayers prepared by the LbL assembly.

  17. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  18. Characterisation and catalytic properties of Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Francisco A. A.; Castro, Antonio J. R.; Filho, Josue M.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Campos, Adriana; Oliveira, Alcineia C.

    2012-01-01

    Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles were inserted into templated carbon using a nanocasting technique and evaluated for the dehydration of glycerol. NiO and CeO 2 preferentially yielded 5 nm uniformly sized particles that filled the mesoporous carbon via a geometric confinement effect. Ru generated Ru o and RuO 2 nanoparticles that selectively migrated towards the carbon surface and did not undergo sintering, whereas Co nanoparticles containing CoO and Co 3 O 4 showed the opposite behaviour. The stabilising effects of the Ce and Ru nanoparticles on the carbon matrix effectively prevented the aggregation of small particles, resulting in superior catalytic performance in glycerol dehydration.

  19. In situ fabrication of nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers composite as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Hu, Zhibiao; Liu, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shuirong; Liu, Hongtao; Sang, Shangbin

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new design route to fabricate nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite through an in situ growth method. The NiAl-LDH thin layers which grow on hollow carbon nanofibers have an average thickness of 13.6 nm. The galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the NiAl-LDH/CNFs composite yields an impressive specific capacitance of 1613 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH solution, the composite shows a remarkable specific capacitance of 1110 F g-1 even at a high current density of 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the composite remains a specific capacitance of 1406 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1, indicating the composite has excellent high-current capacitive behavior and good cycle stability in compared to pristine NiAl-LDH.

  20. Flue gas carbon capture using hollow fiber membrane diffuser-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, D.; Chandranegara, A. S.; Widodo, S.; Khoiruddin; Wenten, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, CO2 removal from flue gas using membrane diffuser-separator was investigated. Hollow fiber polypropylene membrane was used as the diffuser while pure water was used as the absorbent. Separation performance of the membrane diffuser-separator as a function of CO2 concentration (6-28%-vol.) and flow rate (gas: 0.8-1.55 L.min-1 and liquid: 0.2-0.7 L.min-1) was investigated and optimized. It was found that CO2 removal was significantly affected by CO2 concentration in the feed gas. On the other hand, CO2 flux was more influenced by flow rates of liquid and gas rather than concentration. The optimized CO2 removal (64%) and flux (1 x 10-4 mol.m-2.s-1) were obtained at the highest gas flow rate (1.55 L.min-1), the lowest liquid flow rate (0.2 L.min-1), and 6.2%-vol. of CO2 concentration. Outlet gas of the membrane diffuser system tends to carry some water vapor, which is affected by gas and liquid flow rate. Meanwhile, in the steady-state operation of the separator, the gas bubbles generated by the membrane diffuser take a long time to be completely degassed from the liquid phase, thus a portion of gas stream was exiting separator through liquid outlet.

  1. Carbon ion beam is more effective to induce cell death in sphere-type A172 human glioblastoma cells compared with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fujimori, Akira

    2014-12-01

    To obtain human glioblastoma cells A172 expressing stem cell-related protein and comparison of radiosensitivity in these cells with X-rays and carbon beam. Human monolayer-type A172 glioblastoma cells were maintained in normal medium with 10% bovine serum. In order to obtain sphere-type A172 cells the medium was replaced with serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors. Both types of A172 cells were irradiated with either X-rays or carbon ion beams and their radiosensitivity was evaluated. Serum-free medium induced expression of stem cell-related proteins in A172 cells along with the neurosphere-like appearance. These sphere-type cells were found resistant to both X-rays and carbon ion beams. Phosphorylation of histone H2A family member X persisted for a longer period in the cells exposed to carbon ion beams than in those exposed to X-rays and it disappeared quicker in the sphere type than in the monolayer type. Relative radioresistance of the sphere type cells was smaller for carbon ion beams than for X-rays. We demonstrated that glioblastoma A172 cells with induced stem cell-related proteins turned resistant to irradiation. Accelerated heavy ion particles may have advantage over X-rays in overcoming the tumor resistance due to cell stemness.

  2. Characterisation and catalytic properties of Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Francisco A. A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Langmuir Lab de Adsorcao e Catalise (Brazil); Castro, Antonio J. R.; Filho, Josue M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Viana, Bartolomeu C. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Campos, Adriana [CETENE Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Oliveira, Alcineia C., E-mail: alcineia@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Langmuir Lab de Adsorcao e Catalise (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Ni, Co, Ce and Ru nanoparticles were inserted into templated carbon using a nanocasting technique and evaluated for the dehydration of glycerol. NiO and CeO{sub 2} preferentially yielded 5 nm uniformly sized particles that filled the mesoporous carbon via a geometric confinement effect. Ru generated Ru{sup o} and RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles that selectively migrated towards the carbon surface and did not undergo sintering, whereas Co nanoparticles containing CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} showed the opposite behaviour. The stabilising effects of the Ce and Ru nanoparticles on the carbon matrix effectively prevented the aggregation of small particles, resulting in superior catalytic performance in glycerol dehydration.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Gd2O3 Hollow Microspheres Using a Template-Directed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uniform rare-earth gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 hollow microspheres, as formed through a urea-assisted homogenous precipitation process using carbon spheres as a template and a subsequent heat treatment, were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet surface area measurement. The results indicate that the final products can be indexed to a cubic Gd2O3 phase with high purity and have a uniform morphology at 500 nm in diameter and 20 nm in shell thickness. The as-synthesized Gd2O3 hollow microspheres exhibited a superior photooxidation activity to that of Gd2O3 powder and an effect similar to P25, significantly broadening the potential of Gd2O3 hollow microspheres for many practical applications.

  4. Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon Nanosphere – Sulfur Composite as a Cathode for Li-S Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of technical challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycle life, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species, which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li 2 S 2 /Li 2 S), which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performances. These findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  5. Interfacial Reaction Dependent Performance of Hollow Carbon Nanosphere – Sulfur Composite as a Cathode for Li-S Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie, E-mail: jie.xiao@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of technical challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycle life, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species, which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S), which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performances. These findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  6. Voltage-Gated Transport of Nanoparticles across Free-Standing All-Carbon-Nanotube-Based Hollow-Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaoliang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Yu, Hongtao; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-15

    Understanding the mechanism underlying controllable transmembrane transport observed in biological membranes benefits the development of next-generation separation membranes for a variety of important applications. In this work, on the basis of common structural features of cell membranes, a very simple biomimetic membrane system exhibiting gated transmembrane performance has been constructed using all-carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based hollow-fiber membranes. The conductive CNT membranes with hydrophobic pore channels can be positively or negatively charged and are consequently capable of regulating the transport of nanoparticles across their pore channels by their "opening" or "closing". The switch between penetration and rejection of nanoparticles through/by CNT membranes is of high efficiency and especially allows dynamic control. The underlying mechanism is that CNT pore channels with different polarities can prompt or prevent the formation of their noncovalent interactions with charged nanoparticles, resulting in their rejection or penetration by/through the CNT membranes. The theory about noncovalent interactions and charged pore channels may provide new insight into understanding the complicated ionically and bimolecularly gated transport across cell membranes and can contribute to many other important applications beyond the water purification and resource recovery demonstrated in this study.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and surface conductivity of nanocomposites with hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres as fillers in polymethylmethacrylate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qingshan; Zhou, Bing; Bhargava, Gaurang

    2017-08-01

    Hollow graphitized carbon nanosphere (CNS) materials with inner diameter of 20 to 50 nm and shell thickness of 10 15 nm were synthesized from the polymerization of resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) in the presence of a well-characterized iron polymeric complex (IPC). The CNS with unique nanostructures was used to fabricate CNS-polymer composites by dispersing CNS as fillers in the polymer matrix. Aggregation of CNS in polymer composites is usually a challenging issue. In this work, we employed in situ polymerization method and melt-mixing method to fabricate CNS-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composites and compared their difference in terms of CNS dispersion in the composites and surface electrical conductivity. Four probes technique was utilized to measure the surface electrical conductivity of the CNS-PMMA composites. The measurements on four points and four silver painted lines on the thin film of CNS-PMMA composites were compared. The in situ polymerization method was found more efficient for better CNS dispersion in PMMA matrix and lower percolation conductivity threshold compared to the melt-mixing method. The enhanced electrical conductivity for CNS-PMMA composites may be attributed to the stronger covalent CNS-PMMA bonding between the surface functional groups and the MMA moieties.

  8. Switchable transport strategy to deposit active Fe/Fe3C cores into hollow microporous carbons for efficient chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Hua; Li, Wen-Cui; Sun, Tao; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-11-25

    Magnetic hollow structures with microporous shell and highly dispersed active cores (Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles) are rationally designed and fabricated by solution-phase switchable transport of active iron species combined with a solid-state thermolysis technique, thus allowing selective encapsulation of functional Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles in the interior cavity. These engineered functional materials show high loading (≈54 wt%) of Fe, excellent chromium removal capability (100 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption rate (8766 mL mg(-1) h(-1)), and easy magnetic separation property (63.25 emu g(-1)). During the adsorption process, the internal highly dispersed Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles supply a driving force for facilitating Cr(VI) diffusion inward, thus improving the adsorption rate and the adsorption capacity. At the same time, the external microporous carbon shell can also efficiently trap guest Cr(VI) ions and protect Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles from corrosion and subsequent leaching problems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Yeast Cells-Derived Hollow Core/Shell Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Microparticles for Sustainable Electrocatalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, X.; Zou, X.; Meng, Y.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Chen, H.; Voiry, D.; Goswami, A.; Chhowalla, M.; Asefa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2015), s. 1978-1986 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : yeast * heteroatom-doped carbon * oxygen reduction * ORR * hydrazine electrooxidation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 7.145, year: 2015

  10. Pilot Scale Production of Activated Carbon Spheres Using Fluidized Bed Reactor and Its Evaluation for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagesh Kumar; Sathe, Manisha

    2017-12-01

    Large scale production of activated carbon is need of ongoing research due to its excellent adsorption capacity for removal of heavy metals from contaminated solutions. In the present study, polymeric precursor polystyrene beads [Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, 46 m2/g; carbon content, 40.64%; crushing strength, 0.32 kg/sphere] were used to produce a new variant of activated carbon, Activated Carbon Spheres (ACS) in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. ACS were prepared by carbonization of polymeric precursor at 850 °C followed by activation of resultant material with steam. Prepared ACS were characterized using scanning electron microscope, CHNS analyzer, thermogravimetric analyzer, surface area analyzer and crushing strength tester. The produced ACS have 1009 m2/g BET surface area, 0.89 cm3/g total pore volume, 92.32% carbon content and 1.1 kg/sphere crushing strength with less than 1% of moisture and ash content. The ACS were also evaluated for its potential to remove hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated solutions. The chromium removal is observed to be 99.1% at initial concentration 50 mg/l, pH 2, ACS dose 1 g/l, contact time 2 h, agitation 120 rpm and temperature 30 °C. Thus ACS can be used as an adsorbent material for the removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated solutions.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of different chromophoric dyes in aqueous phase using La and Mo doped TiO{sub 2} hybrid carbon spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Waseem; Haque, M.M. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Muneer, M., E-mail: m.muneer.ch@amu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Fleisch, M.; Hakki, A.; Bahnemann, D. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • La and Mo doped TiO{sub 2} hybrid carbon spheres have been synthesized using hydrothermal method. • The characterization of La and Mo doped TiO{sub 2} hybrid carbon spheres uniform morphology having anatase phase and good structural stability. • TiO{sub 2} hybrid carbon spheres with dopant concentration of 2.0% (La) and 1.5% (Mo) showed the highest photocatalytic activity as compared to the other dopant concentrations for the degradation of all the dyes under investigation. - Abstract: La and Mo-doped TiO{sub 2} coated carbon spheres have been synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The prepared materials were characterized by standard analytical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectroscopic analysis showed that the particles are in anatase phase. The EDX and SEM images showed that La/Mo-doped TiO{sub 2} are present on the surface of the carbon spheres. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles were tested by studying the degradation of three different chromophoric dyes, i.e., Acid Yellow 29 (azo dye), Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 (triphenylmethane dye) and Acid Green 25 (anthraquinone dye) as a function of time on irradiation in aqueous suspension. TiO{sub 2} particle with dopant concentration of 2.0% La and 1.5% Mo showed the highest photocatalytic activity as compared to the other dopant concentrations for the degradation of all the dyes under investigation.

  12. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  13. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  14. Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2-CuxS double-shelled hollow spheres for enhanced chemo-/photothermal anti-cancer therapy and dual-modal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Yang, Guixin; Wang, Xingmei; Lv, Ruichan; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Gulzar, Arif; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large specific surface area and uniform shape is composed of an inner shell of luminescent Y2O3:Yb,Er and an outer mesoporous silica shell. Ultra small CuxS nanoparticles (about 2.5 nm) served as photothermal agents, and a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX) was then attached onto the surface of mesoporous silica, forming a DOX-DSHS-CuxS composite. The composite exhibits high anti-cancer efficacy due to the synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT) induced by the attached CuxS nanoparticles and the enhanced chemotherapy promoted by the heat from the CuxS-based PTT when irradiated by 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) light. Moreover, the composite shows excellent in vitro and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) and up-conversion fluorescence (UCL) imaging properties owing to the doped rare earth ions, thus making it possible to achieve the target of imaging-guided synergistic therapy.Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large

  15. Application of β-cyclodextrin-modified, carbon nanotube-reinforced hollow fiber to solid-phase microextraction of plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Ha, Wei; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2014-12-29

    A new, efficient, and environmental friendly solid-phase microextraction (SPME) medium based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a hollow fiber (HF) was prepared. Functionalized β-CD was covalently linked to the surface of the carboxylic CNTs and then the obtained nanocomposite was immobilized into the wall pores of HFs under ultrasonic-assisted effect. The scanning electron microscope was used to inspect surface characteristics of fibers, demonstrating the presence of nanocomposites in their wall pores. The reinforced HF was employed in SPME, and its extraction performance was evaluated by analyzing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA) in vegetables. Without any tedious clean-up procedure, analytes were extracted from the sample to the adsorbent and organic solvent immobilized in HFs and then desorbed in acetonitrile prior to chromatographic analysis. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method provided 275- and 283-fold enrichment factors of NAA and 2-NOA, low limits of detection and quantification (at an ngg(-1) level), satisfactory spiked recoveries, good inter-fiber repeatability, and batch-to-batch reproducibility. The selectivity of the developed fiber was investigated to three structurally similar compounds and two reference compounds with recognition coefficients up to 3.18. The obtained results indicate that the newly developed fiber is a feasible, selective, green, and cost-effective microextraction medium and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of naphthalene-derived plant hormones in complex matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An ultrasensitive hollow-silica-based biosensor for pathogenic Escherichia coli DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Lee, Yook Heng; Futra, Dedi; Tan, Ling Ling; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ibrahim, Nik Nuraznida Nik; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-03-01

    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs. Furthermore, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the HSiSs have four times more surface area than silica spheres that have no pores. These aminated HSiSs were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing a layer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a AuNP/HSiS hybrid sensor membrane matrix. Aminated DNA probes were grafted onto the AuNP/HSiS-modified screen-printed electrode via imine covalent bonds with use of glutaraldehyde cross-linker. The DNA hybridization reaction was studied by differential pulse voltammetry using an anthraquinone redox intercalator as the electroactive DNA hybridization label. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response over a wide target sequence concentration range of 1.0×10 -12 -1.0×10 -2 μM, with a low detection limit of 8.17×10 -14 μM (R 2 = 0.99). The improved performance of the DNA biosensor appeared to be due to the hollow structure and rough surface morphology of the hollow silica particles, which greatly increased the total binding surface area for high DNA loading capacity. The HSiSs also facilitated molecule diffusion through the silica hollow structure, and substantially improved the overall DNA hybridization assay. Graphical abstract Step-by-step DNA biosensor fabrication based on aminated hollow silica spheres.

  17. Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad

    2014-12-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL(-1)) and (40.0-150.0ngkg(-1))] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review on Preparation Techniques of TiO2 Hollow Spheres and Their Applications in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell and Lithium Ion Battery%TiO2空心球制备及在染料敏化太阳能电池和锂离子电池中应用的研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘作花; 许秀玲; 周国伟

    2016-01-01

    空心球结构的半导体氧化物具有密度低、比表面积大、机械和热稳定性好等优点。空心球结构对 TiO2纳米材料的电化学性能有着显著的优化作用,TiO2空心球作为一种重要的半导体氧化物具有良好的物理和化学性质,在多种领域均表现出潜在的应用价值,制备大小和壳层数均可控的半导体TiO2空心球已引起了研究者的广泛关注。主要综述了在硬模板、软模板和无模板条件下TiO2空心球的制备方法;同时还介绍了其在染料敏化太阳能电池和锂离子电池方面的最新研究进展;最后,对TiO2空心球的可控合成前景进行了展望。%Semiconductor oxide materials with hollow spherical structures have attracted enormous attention due to their low density,large specific area,mechanical and thermal stability.As one of the important semiconductor oxide materials,TiO2 hollow spheres have excellent electrochemical properties.Owing to the excellent physical and chemical properties for potential application in multiple fields,design and synthesis of semiconductor TiO2 with tuna-ble size,shells and interior architecture have attracted great research interest.In this paper,the synthesis of TiO2 hol-low spheres in different methods,such as hard template,soft template and template-free methods are summarized. The progress of the applications of these materials in dye-sensitized solar cell and lithium ion battery are also dis-cussed.Finally,the future development of the controllable fabrication of TiO2 hollow spheres is looked forward.

  19. A one-step carbonization route towards nitrogen-doped porous carbon hollow spheres with ultrahigh nitrogen content for CO 2 adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu; Zou, Houbing; Zeng, Shangjing; Pan, Ying; Wang, Runwei; Wang, Xue; Sun, Qingli; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun

    2015-01-01

    -formaldehyde nanospheres as hard templates and nitrogen sources. The N-PCHSs were completely characterized and were found to exhibit considerable CO2 adsorption performance (4.42 mmol g-1).

  20. Synergistic interaction and controllable active sites of nitrogen and sulfur co-doping into mesoporous carbon sphere for high performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taeseob; Kim, Myeongjin; Park, Dabin; Kim, Jooheon

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped mesoporous carbon sphere (NSMCS) was prepared as a metal-free catalyst by an economical and facile pyrolysis process. The mesoporous carbon spheres were derived from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the carbon source and the nitrogen and sulfur dopants were derived from urea and p-benzenedithiol, respectively. The doping level and chemical states of nitrogen and sulfur in the prepared NSMCS can be easily adjusted by controlling the pyrolysis temperature. The NSMCS pyrolyzed at 900 °C (NSMCS-900) exhibited higher oxygen reduction reaction activity than the mesoporous carbon sphere doped solely with nitrogen or sulfur, due to the synergistic effect of co-doping. Among all the NSMCS samples, NSMCS-900 exhibited excellent ORR catalytic activity owing to the presence of a highly active site, consisting of pyridinic N, graphitic N, and thiophene S. Remarkably, the NSMCS-900 catalyst was comparable with commercial Pt/C, in terms of the onset and the half-wave potentials and showed better durability than Pt/C for ORR in an alkaline electrolyte. The approach demonstrated in this work could be used to prepare promising metal-free electrocatalysts for application in energy conversion and storage.

  1. Assembly, growth, and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles in hollow carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Alessandro; Giménez-López, Maria del Carmen; Fay, Michael W; Rance, Graham A; Solomonsz, William A; Chamberlain, Thomas W; Brown, Paul D; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2012-03-27

    Graphitized carbon nanofibers (GNFs) act as efficient templates for the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) adsorbed on the interior (and exterior) of the tubular nanostructures. Encapsulated AuNPs are stabilized by interactions with the step-edges of the individual graphitic nanocones, of which GNFs are composed, and their size is limited to approximately 6 nm, while AuNPs adsorbed on the atomically flat graphitic surfaces of the GNF exterior continue their growth to 13 nm and beyond under the same heat treatment conditions. The corrugated structure of the GNF interior imposes a significant barrier for the migration of AuNPs, so that their growth mechanism is restricted to Ostwald ripening. Conversely, nanoparticles adsorbed on smooth GNF exterior surfaces are more likely to migrate and coalesce into larger nanoparticles, as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy imaging. The presence of alkyl thiol surfactant within the GNF channels changes the dynamics of the AuNP transformations, as surfactant molecules adsorbed on the surface of the AuNPs diminished the stabilization effect of the step-edges, thus allowing nanoparticles to grow until their diameters reach the internal diameter of the host nanofiber. Nanoparticles thermally evolved within the GNF channel exhibit alignment, perpendicular to the GNF axis due to interactions with the step-edges and parallel to the axis because of graphitic facets of the nanocones. Despite their small size, AuNPs in GNF possess high stability and remain unchanged at temperatures up to 300 °C in ambient atmosphere. Nanoparticles immobilized at the step-edges within GNF are shown to act as effective catalysts promoting the transformation of dimethylphenylsilane to bis(dimethylphenyl)disiloxane with a greater than 10-fold enhancement of selectivity as compared to free-standing or surface-adsorbed nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  2. Multiwall carbon nanotube- zirconium oxide nanocomposite hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for determination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water, coffee and tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Mahnaz Nozohour; Yamini, Yadollah; Asiabi, Hamid

    2018-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (HF-SPME) followed by HPLC-UV to determine the ultra-trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes in complex coffee and tea samples. HF-SPME can be effectively used as an alternative to the direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) method in complex matrices. The DI-SPME method suffers from serious limitation in dirty and complicated matrices with low sample clean-up, while the HF-SPME method has high clean-up and selectivity due to the high porosity of hollow fiber that can pick out analyte from complicated matrices. As a hollow fiber sorbent, a novel multiwall carbon nanotube/zirconium oxide nanocomposite (MWCNT/ZrO 2 ) was fabricated. The excellent adsorption of PAHs on the sorbent was attributed to the dominant roles of π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the wide linear range of 0.1-200 μg L -1 with coefficients of determination better than 0.998 and low detection limits of 0.033-0.16 μg L -1 with satisfactory precision (RSD tea samples were in the range of 92.0-106.0%. Compared to other methods, MWCNT/ZrO 2 hollow fiber solid phase microextraction demonstrated a good capability for determination of PAHs in complex coffee and tea samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facile synthesis and stable cycling ability of hollow submicron silicon oxide–carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong-Yeon; Nguyen, Dan Thien [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joon-Sup [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung-Wan, E-mail: swsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Hollow submicron SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite material was synthesized using Si{sup 4+}-citrate chelation. • Composite material possessed a homogeneous distribution of SiO{sub 2} and carbon. • Composite electrode delivered ⩾600 mAh/g with a stable cycling stability. • This materials design and synthesis provides a useful platform for scalable production. - Abstract: Advanced SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite anode active material for lithium-ion battery has been synthesized through a simple chelation of silicon cation with citrate in a glyme-based solvent. The resultant composite material demonstrates a homogeneous distribution of constituents over the submicron particles and a unique hollow spherical microstructure, which provides an enhanced electrical conductivity and better accommodation of volume change of silicon during electrochemical charge–discharge cycling, respectively. As a result, the composite electrode exhibits a high cycling stability delivering the capacity retention of 91% at the 100th cycle and discharge capacities of 662–602 mAh/g and coulombic efficiencies of 99.8%. This material synthesis is scalable and cost-effective in preparing various submicron or micron composite electrode materials.

  4. N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO as non-precious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linlin; Guo, Xingpeng; Zhang, Guoan

    2017-08-01

    It is still a great challenge in preparing non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and long-term stability to substitute for precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Herein, we report a novel and facile catalyst-N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO (CoO@NS-CSs), where biomass glucose spheres act as carbon precursor and H2S, NH3 derived from the decomposition of thiourea not only provide N, S sources but also can etch carbon spheres to produce nanoporous structure. CoO@NS-CSs catalyst exhibits excellent ORR activity with a high onset potential of 0.946 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.821 V vs. RHE through a four-electron pathway in alkaline solution, which is comparable to commercial Pt/C catalyst (onset potential: 0.926 V vs. RHE, half-wave potential: 0.827 V vs. RHE). Furthermore, both the long-term stability and methanol-tolerance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst are superior to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The excellent ORR performance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst can be attributed to its micro-mesopore structure, high specific surface area (667 m2 g-1), and highly dispersed CoO. This work manifests that the obtained CoO@NS-CSs catalyst is promising to be applied to fuel cells.

  5. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: binbinchang@infm.hhstu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nano-composite and Application, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Convenient and large-scale synthesis route for N-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere. • The resultant own spherical morphology, tunable hierarchical porosity, high surface area. • The optimal material exhibits a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 4.23 mmol g{sup −1}. • It shows a large voltage window of 1.8 V for symmetric cell in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO{sub 2} capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl{sub 2}-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH{sub 3} atmosphere at a temperature range of 600–800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl{sub 2} dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl{sub 2}/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 178.9 W kg{sup −1} within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO{sub 2} capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large

  7. Carbon-covered Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow cubic hierarchical porous composite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shouhui, E-mail: csh2k@jxnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Rihui; Chen, Yaqin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li, E-mail: lwanggroup@aliyun.com [Jiangxi Normal University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, Prussian blue nanocrystals, a kind of cubic metal-organic frameworks, was firstly covered by a uniform layer of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin, and then followed with heat treatment at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the morphologies, phase, pore size, and electrochemical performance of the pyrolysis products were studied in this work. The composite generated at 600 {sup ∘}C, FexC600, was a hollow cubic composite of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} covered by a thin RF-derived carbon layer. The carbon layer on FexC600 was a robust and conductive protective layer, which can accommodate Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs and withstand the huge volume change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} during the process of discharge and charge. When used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, FexC600 showed excellent electrochemical performance. It delivered a discharge capacity of 1126 mAh g{sup −1} with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8% at the current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 100 times discharge/charge cycling. It even delivered a capacity of 492 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. This cubic hollow composite would be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Carbon-covered Fe_3O_4 hollow cubic hierarchical porous composite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Zhou, Rihui; Chen, Yaqin; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Prussian blue nanocrystals, a kind of cubic metal-organic frameworks, was firstly covered by a uniform layer of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin, and then followed with heat treatment at different pyrolysis temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the morphologies, phase, pore size, and electrochemical performance of the pyrolysis products were studied in this work. The composite generated at 600 "∘C, FexC600, was a hollow cubic composite of Fe_3O_4 covered by a thin RF-derived carbon layer. The carbon layer on FexC600 was a robust and conductive protective layer, which can accommodate Fe_3O_4 NPs and withstand the huge volume change of Fe_3O_4 during the process of discharge and charge. When used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries, FexC600 showed excellent electrochemical performance. It delivered a discharge capacity of 1126 mAh g"−"1 with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8% at the current density of 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 times discharge/charge cycling. It even delivered a capacity of 492 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 500 mA g"−"1. This cubic hollow composite would be a promising alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Core-shell composite of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets supported on graphitized hollow carbon microspheres for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Beibei; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a core-shell composite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets grown on hollow carbon microspheres is synthesized by a hydrothermal and a subsequent annealing route. The result shows that well-graphitized hollow-carbon@highlycrystallineMoS 2 (HC@MoS 2 ) was obtained after the four-step reaction. And it is found that the synthesized MoS 2 is consist of 2H and 1T phases. The lithium storage property of the composite is investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from the special morphology and structure, a stable capacity of 970 mAh g −1 for over 100 cycles at a current density of 0.25 A g −1 is realized on the material. Even at a high current density of 4 A g −1 , a reversible capacity as high as 560 mAh g −1 is delivered. Moreover, the reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of the material are explored and discussed in detail.

  10. Geometrical Dynamics in a Transitioning Superconducting Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claycomb J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical works have concentrated on calculating the Casimir effect in curved spacetime. In this paper we outline the forward problem of metrical variation due to the Casimir effect for spherical geometries. We consider a scalar quantum field inside a hollow superconducting sphere. Metric equations are developed describing the evolution of the scalar curvature after the sphere transitions to the normal state.

  11. Direct fabrication of metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure as efficient cathode catalysts of fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanqi; Liu, Mingda; Nie, Huagui; Gu, Cancan; Liu, Ming; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Keqin; Chen, Xi’an; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-01-01

    Despite the good progress in developing carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the current metal-free carbon catalysts are still far from satisfactory for large-scale applications of fuel cell. Developing hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure is considered to be an ideal method to inhibit graphene stacking and improve their catalytic performance. Herein, we fabricated metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from assembly of SiO_2 spheres. To our knowledge, although much researches involving the synthesis of graphene balls have been reported, investigations into the direct metal-free catalytic growth of hollow graphene balls are rare. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic performance shows that the resulting hollow graphene balls have significantly high catalytic activity. More importantly, such catalysts also possess much improved stability and better methanol tolerance in alkaline media during the ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The outstanding performances coupled with an easy and inexpensive preparing method indicated the great potential of the hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure in large-scale applications of fuel cell.Graphical AbstractHollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure have been successfully fabricated, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from 3D assembly of SiO_2 spheres. The hollow graphene balls can exhibit a high catalytic activity, long-term stability, and an excellent methanol tolerance for the oxygen reduction reaction

  12. Direct fabrication of metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure as efficient cathode catalysts of fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanqi; Liu, Mingda; Nie, Huagui, E-mail: huaguinie@126.com; Gu, Cancan; Liu, Ming; Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yang201079@126.com; Yang, Keqin; Chen, Xi’an; Huang, Shaoming, E-mail: smhuang@wzu.edu.cn [Wenzhou University, Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory (China)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the good progress in developing carbon catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the current metal-free carbon catalysts are still far from satisfactory for large-scale applications of fuel cell. Developing hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure is considered to be an ideal method to inhibit graphene stacking and improve their catalytic performance. Herein, we fabricated metal-free hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. To our knowledge, although much researches involving the synthesis of graphene balls have been reported, investigations into the direct metal-free catalytic growth of hollow graphene balls are rare. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic performance shows that the resulting hollow graphene balls have significantly high catalytic activity. More importantly, such catalysts also possess much improved stability and better methanol tolerance in alkaline media during the ORR compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The outstanding performances coupled with an easy and inexpensive preparing method indicated the great potential of the hollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure in large-scale applications of fuel cell.Graphical AbstractHollow graphene balls with a self-supporting structure have been successfully fabricated, through using a new strategy that involves direct metal-free catalytic growth from 3D assembly of SiO{sub 2} spheres. The hollow graphene balls can exhibit a high catalytic activity, long-term stability, and an excellent methanol tolerance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  13. Synthesis and characterization hollow spherical La0.7Sr0.2Ca0.1Co0.9Fe0.1O3–δ (LSCCT for cathode of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hollow spheres structures of La0.7Sr0.2Ca0.1Co0.9Fe0.1O3–δ (LSCCT have been synthesized via hydrothermal method using carbon spheres as template. The structure and electrical conductivity of obtained samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and direct current (DC four-probe method respectively. The results show that hollow spheres structures of LSCCT with the mean particle size of 0,9 - 1,2 μm is single perovskite. The electrical conductivity of the samples is higher than 100 S/cm from 600 to 800 ℃ and can meet the demand of the electrical properties for the cathode materials.

  14. Problems in the Identification of Application Areas of Hollow Spheres and Hollow Sphere Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Christian

    Victor Hugo (1802-1865) is attributed the verifiably false quotation that nothing is as powerful as an idea, whose time has come. Be that as it may, this quotation is at first a causality statement, which combines the presence of a certain idea in connection with specific basic conditions (time) as almost inevitable for a certain successful development. At first thought this linkage, that if an idea finds its perfect timing it will be successful, seems to be evident. By “time” we not only mean the chronological period, but as an abstract category of environmental conditions that occur at this time at a specific place.

  15. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  18. Facile synthesis of the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohua [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Su, Shuai; Wu, Guangli; Li, Caizhu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Qin, Zhe [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Lou, Xiangdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); Zhou, Jianguo, E-mail: zhoujgwj@163.com [School of Environment, Key Laboratory of Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control (Ministry of Education), Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Engineering Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was synthesized. • A green facile synthesis method was used. • Ag/ZnO@C exhibited better photocatalytic performance than Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C, and ZnO. • Dye and metronidazole both can be decomposed by Ag/ZnO@C. - Abstract: To utilize sunlight more effectively in photocatalytic reactions, the flower-like ternary heterostructure of Ag/ZnO encapsulating carbon spheres (Ag/ZnO@C) was successfully synthesized by a green and facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The carbon spheres (CSs) were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets, forming flower-like microstructures, and Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were deposited on the surface of the ZnO nanosheets. The Ag/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to those of Ag/ZnO, ZnO@C and pure ZnO for the degradation of Reactive Black GR and metronidazole under sunlight and visible light irradiation. This was attributed to the enhanced visible light absorption and effective charge separation based on the synergistic effect of ZnO, Ag NPs, and CSs. Due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag NPs and surface photosensitizing effect of CSs, Ag/ZnO@C exhibited enhanced visible light absorption. Meanwhile, Ag NPs and CSs can both act as rapid electron transfer units to improve the separation of photogenerated charge carriers in Ag/ZnO@C. The primary active species were determined, and the photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. This work demonstrates an effective way to improve the photocatalytic performance of ZnO and provides information for the facile synthesis of noble metal/ZnO@C ternary heterostructure.

  19. Fabrication of hollow carbon nanospheres introduced with Fe and N species immobilized palladium nanoparticles as catalysts for the semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene under mild reaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Fushan; Li, Xinlin; Liu, Yansheng; Liu, Yang; Ma, Jiantai

    2017-05-01

    Palladium nanoparticles immobilized on hollow carbon nanospheres introduced with both Fe and N species, denoted as Pd/Fe-N/C, have been designed as an efficient, heterogeneous, environmentally friendly catalyst for the semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene in liquid-phase under mild conditions (298 K, H2 1 atm) without any additive. A high selectivity towards styrene (higher than 96.2%) was achieved with the total conversion of phenylacetylene within 80 min. The synergistic effect of doped N and Fe with Pd might be an important influence on improving the catalytic performance. Moreover, the Pd/Fe-N/C could be easily recycled by centrifugation and is reusable without obvious decrease of catalytic activity and selectivity. Therefore, the Pd/Fe-N/C nanocatalyst is highly attractive as selective hydrogenation heterogeneous catalyst for important industrial reactions.

  20. Poly(acrylic acid) conjugated hollow mesoporous carbon as a dual-stimuli triggered drug delivery system for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Chang; Wang, Shengyu; Jiao, Jian; Di, Donghua; Jiang, Tongying; Zhao, Qinfu, E-mail: zqf021110505@163.com; Wang, Siling, E-mail: silingwang@syphu.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we described the development of the redox and pH dual stimuli-responsive drug delivery system and combination of the chemotherapy and photothermal therapy for cancer treatment. The poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was conjugated on the outlets of hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) via disulfide bonds. PAA was used as a capping to block drug within the mesopores of HMC for its lots of favorable advantages, such as good biocompatibility, appropriate molecular weight to block the mesopores of HMC, extension of the blood circulation, and the improvement of the dispersity of the nano-carriers in physiological environment. The DOX loaded DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a high drug loading amount up to 51.9%. The in vitro drug release results illustrated that DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed redox and pH dual-responsive drug release, and the release rate could be further improved by the near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Cell viability experiment indicated that DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a synergistic therapeutic effect by combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. This work suggested that HMC-SS-PAA exhibited dual-responsive drug release property and could be used as a NIR-adsorbing drug delivery system for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. - Highlights: • Poly(acrylic acid) was grafted on hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) via disulfide bonds. • The grafted PAA could increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMC. • The DOX-loaded DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a high drug loading efficiency up to 51.9%. • DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed redox/pH dual-responsive and NIR-triggered drug release. • DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed a chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy effect.

  1. Poly(acrylic acid) conjugated hollow mesoporous carbon as a dual-stimuli triggered drug delivery system for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Chang; Wang, Shengyu; Jiao, Jian; Di, Donghua; Jiang, Tongying; Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Siling

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we described the development of the redox and pH dual stimuli-responsive drug delivery system and combination of the chemotherapy and photothermal therapy for cancer treatment. The poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was conjugated on the outlets of hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) via disulfide bonds. PAA was used as a capping to block drug within the mesopores of HMC for its lots of favorable advantages, such as good biocompatibility, appropriate molecular weight to block the mesopores of HMC, extension of the blood circulation, and the improvement of the dispersity of the nano-carriers in physiological environment. The DOX loaded DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a high drug loading amount up to 51.9%. The in vitro drug release results illustrated that DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed redox and pH dual-responsive drug release, and the release rate could be further improved by the near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Cell viability experiment indicated that DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a synergistic therapeutic effect by combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. This work suggested that HMC-SS-PAA exhibited dual-responsive drug release property and could be used as a NIR-adsorbing drug delivery system for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. - Highlights: • Poly(acrylic acid) was grafted on hollow mesoporous carbon (HMC) via disulfide bonds. • The grafted PAA could increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMC. • The DOX-loaded DOX/HMC-SS-PAA had a high drug loading efficiency up to 51.9%. • DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed redox/pH dual-responsive and NIR-triggered drug release. • DOX/HMC-SS-PAA showed a chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy effect.

  2. Effect of Pore Size on the Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behavior of Porous Liquids Based on Hollow Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting; Zheng, Yaping; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Peipei; Wang, Yudeng; Yao, Dongdong

    2018-01-05

    Porous liquids are an expanding class of material that has huge potential in gas separation and gas adsorption. Pore size has a dramatic influence on the gas adsorption of porous liquids. In this article, we chose hollow silica nanoparticles as cores, 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propanesulfonic acid (SIT) as corona, and inexpensive industrial reagent polyether amine (M2070) as canopy to obtain a new type of porous liquids. Hollow silica nanospheres with different pore sizes were chosen to investigate the influence of porosity size on CO 2 adsorption capacity of porous liquids. Their chemical structure, morphology, thermal behavior and possible adsorption mechanism are discussed in detail. It was proved that with similar grafting density, porous liquid that has bigger pore size possesses a better CO 2 adsorption capacity (2.182 mmol g -1 under 2.5 MPa at 298 K). More than that, this article demonstrates a more facile and low-cost method to obtain porous liquids with good CO 2 adsorption capacity, recyclability, and huge variability. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation of porous carbon spheres from 2-keto-l-gulonic acid mother liquor by oxidation and activation for electric double-layer capacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-Sheng; Dang, Ya-Li; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy is proposed for the increase of specific surface area (SSA) of porous carbon sphere (PCS) by oxidation and activation. 2-keto-l-gulonic acid mother liquor (GAML) as a high-pollution waste has a relatively high value of reutilization. For its high value-added utilization, GAML is used as the precursor for preparation of PCS as carbon-based electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitor. PCS is prepared by hydrothermal carbonization, carbonization and KOH activation, and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O is used as an oxidizing agent during carbonization. The as-prepared PCS has excellent porosity and high SSA of 2478 m 2  g -1 . Meanwhile, the pore structure of PCS can be controlled by the adjustment of carbonization parameters (carbonization temperature and the loading of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O). Besides, the SSA and specific capacitance of PCS can be increased remarkably when Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O is added in carbonization. The specific capacitance of PCS can reach 303.7 F g -1 at 40 mA g -1 . PCSs as electrode material have superior electrochemical stability. After 8000 cycles, the capacitance retention is 98.3% at 2 A g -1 . The electric double-layer capacitance of PCS is improved when CS is carbonized with Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O, and the economic and environmental benefits are achieved by the effective recycle of GAML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Carefully designed oxygen-containing functional groups and defects of porous carbon spheres with UV-O3 treatment and their enhanced catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiliang; Huang, Xiaosheng; Lu, Gongxuan; Tang, Zhicheng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the support surface properties (surface oxygen-containing functional groups and structure defects) of porous carbon spheres (PCSs) were carefully designed by as UV assisted O3 technology. CO catalytic oxidation reactions performed over the supported Pd-Ce catalysts on modified porous carbon spheres. Results illustrated that the Pd-Ce/PCSs catalysts exhibited high CO catalytic activity, which were increased at first, and then decreased with UV assistant-O3 treatment time. The Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst exhibited superior activity and T100 was only 15 °C. Moreover, the Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst obtained an excellent stability, and 100% CO conversion could be maintained as the time on stream evolutes up to 16h in the presence of H2O in the feed. Based on characterization results, there were two main factors: (a) the surface area and pore volume were decreased with UV-O3 treatment, leading to the enhancement of Pd-Ce particle size, and the decrease of Pd-Ce nanoparticle dispersion and mass transfer efficiency, as well as the decrease of catalytic activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs, (b) the surface oxygen content and defect sites of PCSs were raised by UV-O3 treatment, which could improve surface loading of Pd, Ce and enhance Pdsbnd Osbnd Ce bonding interactions, thereby increasing the activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs.

  5. A facile route to synthesize multiporous MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 spinel quasi-hollow spheres with improved lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfa; Xiong, Shenglin; Li, Xiaowei; Qian, Yitai

    2013-02-01

    A facile and general way for the synthesis of porous and hollow complex oxides is highly desirable owing to their significant applications for energy storage and other fields. In this contribution, uniform Mn0.33Co0.67CO3 and Co0.33Mn0.67CO3 microspheres are firstly fabricated solvothermally just by tuning the molar ratio of Mn and Co. Subsequently, the growth of multiporous MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 quasi-hollow microspheres by topotactic chemical transformation from the corresponding precursors are realized through a non-equilibrium heat treatment process. Topotactic conversion further demonstrated that the much larger CoMn2O4 pores than those of MnCo2O4 are possibly due to the longer transfer distance of ions. When evaluated as anode materials for LIBs (lithium ion batteries), after 25 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the resultant MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 quasi-hollow microspheres possessed reversible capacities of 755 and 706 mA h g-1, respectively. In particular, the MnCo2O4 samples could deliver a reversible capacity as high as 610 mA h g-1 even at a higher current density of 400 mA g-1 with excellent electrochemical stability after 100 cycles of testing, indicating its potential application in LIBs. We believe that such good performance results from the appropriate pore size and quasi-hollow nature of MnCo2O4 microspheres, which can effectively buffer the large volume variation of anodes based on the conversion reaction during Li+ insertion/extraction. The present strategy is simple but very effective, and due to its versatility, it can be extended to other binary, even ternary complex metal oxides with high-performance in LIBs.A facile and general way for the synthesis of porous and hollow complex oxides is highly desirable owing to their significant applications for energy storage and other fields. In this contribution, uniform Mn0.33Co0.67CO3 and Co0.33Mn0.67CO3 microspheres are firstly fabricated solvothermally just by tuning the molar ratio of Mn and Co

  6. Synthesis of Hollow Silica by Stober Method with Double Polymers as Templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anhthu; Park, Chang Woo; Kim, Sang Hern

    2014-01-01

    The hollow SiO 2 spheres with uniform size were synthesized by a modified stoeber method under the control of polyelectrolytes (PSS and PAA) as templates. This synthetic route includes the formation of spherical colloid micelle in ethanol solution, hydrolysis of TEOS under control of ammonia, and the removal of polyelectrolyte by washing or calcination. Hollow silica spheres with controllable core diameters between 100 and 270 nm and wall thickness between 15 and 50 nm have been synthesized. The influence of template solution concentration and solvent and dispersant on the formation of silica hollow spheres is studied and reported in detail

  7. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaViolette, Randall A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States); Benson, Michael T. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B{sub 48}H{sub 24}, C{sub 48}H{sub 48}, C{sub 96}H{sub 80} (formed by bonding two C{sub 48}H{sub 48} molecules), N{sub 48}H{sub 24}, Al{sub 48}H{sub 24}, and Si{sub 48}H{sub 48}; B{sub 24}O{sub 24}, C{sub 24}O{sub 24}, N{sub 24}O{sub 24}, Al{sub 24}O{sub 24}, and Si{sub 24}O{sub 24}. Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C{sub 48}H{sub 48} and the C{sub 24}O{sub 24} molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C{sub 48} fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Density functional calculations of hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules with a 48-atom framework: Hydrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, aluminum, and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaViolette, Randall A.; Benson, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    We computed via first-principles density functional theory calculations (employing both the local density and generalized gradient approximations) the dimensions, bond lengths and angles, binding energy, and HOMO-LUMO gap of the following hypothetical neutral hollow octahedral molecules: B 48 H 24 , C 48 H 48 , C 96 H 80 (formed by bonding two C 48 H 48 molecules), N 48 H 24 , Al 48 H 24 , and Si 48 H 48 ; B 24 O 24 , C 24 O 24 , N 24 O 24 , Al 24 O 24 , and Si 24 O 24 . Each molecule consists of a large hollow framework of six puckered eight-membered rings whose planes are either mutually perpendicular or parallel, so that each molecule possesses only eight- and nine-membered rings. The hydrides have their hydrogen atoms attached only to the two-atom bridging sites on the framework. The oxides have their oxygen atoms occupying exclusively the two-atom bridging sites of the framework alternating with the (B, C, N, Al, Si) atoms exclusively occupying the three-atom bridging sites. We also calculated the infrared spectra of the C 48 H 48 and the C 24 O 24 molecules. For the sake of comparison, we also examined the hypothetical octahedral C 48 fullerene cuboctohedron (possessing four-, six-, and eight-membered rings) studied by Dunlap and Taylor. The molecules based on carbon would be the most stable; those based on nitrogen would be the least stable, if at all. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Hollow MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Emil

    Miniaturization of electro mechanical sensor systems to the micro range and beyond has shown impressive sensitivities measuring sample properties like mass, viscosity, acceleration, pressure and force just to name a few applications. In order to enable these kinds of measurements on liquid samples...... a hollow MEMS sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested. Combined density, viscosity, buoyant mass spectrometry and IR absorption spectroscopy are possible on liquid samples and micron sized suspended particles (e.g. single cells). Measurements are based on changes in the resonant behavior...... of these sensors. Optimization of the microfabrication process has led to a process yield of almost 100% .This is achieved despite the fact, that the process still offers a high degree of flexibility. By simple modifications the Sensor shape can be optimized for different size ranges and sensitivities...

  10. Stem/progenitor cells derived from the cochlear sensory epithelium give rise to spheres with distinct morphologies and features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating colonies, so-called spheres, when cultured in nonadherent conditions. We noticed that the sphere population derived from mouse cochlear sensory epithelium cells was heterogeneous, consisting of morphologically distinct sphere types, hereby classified as solid, transitional, and hollow. Cochlear sensory epithelium-derived stem/progenitor cells initially give rise to small solid spheres, which subsequently transition into hollow spheres, a change that is accompanied by epithelial differentiation of the majority of sphere cells. Only solid spheres, and to a lesser extent, transitional spheres, appeared to harbor self-renewing stem cells, whereas hollow spheres could not be consistently propagated. Solid spheres contained significantly more rapidly cycling Pax-2-expressing presumptive otic progenitor cells than hollow spheres. Islet-1, which becomes upregulated in nascent sensory patches, was also more abundant in solid than in hollow spheres. Likewise, hair cell-like cells, characterized by the expression of multiple hair cell markers, differentiated in significantly higher numbers in cell populations derived from solid spheres. We conclude that cochlear sensory epithelium cell populations initially give rise to small solid spheres that have self-renewing capacity before they subsequently convert into hollow spheres, a process that is accompanied by loss of stemness and reduced ability to spontaneously give rise to hair cell-like cells. Solid spheres might, therefore, represent

  11. Synthesis of an ultradense forest of vertically aligned triple-walled carbon nanotubes of uniform diameter and length using hollow catalytic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliyan, Ankur; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Fukuda, Takahiro; Uchida, Takashi; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2014-01-22

    It still remains a crucial challenge to actively control carbon nanotube (CNT) structure such as the alignment, area density, diameter, length, chirality, and number of walls. Here, we synthesize an ultradense forest of CNTs of a uniform internal diameter by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) modified with ligand as a catalyst. The diameters of the HNPs and internal cavities in the HNPs are uniform. A monolayer of densely packed HNPs is self-assembled on a silicon substrate by spin coating. HNPs shrink via the collapse of the internal cavities and phase transition from iron oxide to metallic iron in hydrogen plasma during the PECVD process. Agglomeration of catalytic NPs is avoided on account of the shrinkage of the NPs and ligand attached to the NPs. Diffusion of NPs into the substrate, which would inactivate the growth of CNTs, is also avoided on account of the ligand. As a result, an ultradense forest of triple-walled CNTs of a uniform internal diameter is successfully synthesized. The area density of the grown CNTs is as high as 0.6 × 10(12) cm(-2). Finally, the activity of the catalytic NPs and the NP/carbon interactions during the growth process of CNTs are investigated and discussed. We believe that the present approach may make a great contribution to the development of an innovative synthetic method for CNTs with selective properties.

  12. Measurement of neutron spectra generated by a 62 AMeV carbon-ion beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Amgarou, K.; Domingo, C.; Russo, S.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Pelliccioni, M.; Esposito, A.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Gentile, A.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrons constitute an important component of the radiation environment in hadron therapy accelerators. Their energy distribution may span from thermal up to hundred of MeV. The characterization of these fields in terms of dosimetric or spectrometric quantities is crucial for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. To date, the Extended Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, a measurement campaign was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a 62 AMeV carbon ion is available. The beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. The ERBSSs of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona-Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were used to measure the resulting neutron fields. The two ERBSSs use different detectors and sphere diameters, and have been independently calibrated. The FRUIT code was used to unfold the results.

  13. Measurement of neutron spectra generated by a 62 AMeV carbon-ion beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Amgarou, K.; Domingo, C. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Russo, S.; Cirrone, G.A.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali dei Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Pelliccioni, M.; Esposito, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pola, A.; Introini, M.V. [Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gentile, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2012-07-21

    Neutrons constitute an important component of the radiation environment in hadron therapy accelerators. Their energy distribution may span from thermal up to hundred of MeV. The characterization of these fields in terms of dosimetric or spectrometric quantities is crucial for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. To date, the Extended Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, a measurement campaign was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a 62 AMeV carbon ion is available. The beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign with respect to the beam-line. The ERBSSs of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were used to measure the resulting neutron fields. The two ERBSSs use different detectors and sphere diameters, and have been independently calibrated. The FRUIT code was used to unfold the results.

  14. Measurement of neutron spectra generated by a 62 AMeV carbon-ion beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Amgarou, K.; Domingo, C.; Russo, S.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Pelliccioni, M.; Esposito, A.; Pola, A.; Introini, M. V.; Gentile, A.

    2012-07-01

    Neutrons constitute an important component of the radiation environment in hadron therapy accelerators. Their energy distribution may span from thermal up to hundred of MeV. The characterization of these fields in terms of dosimetric or spectrometric quantities is crucial for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. To date, the Extended Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, a measurement campaign was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a 62 AMeV carbon ion is available. The beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. The ERBSSs of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona-Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were used to measure the resulting neutron fields. The two ERBSSs use different detectors and sphere diameters, and have been independently calibrated. The FRUIT code was used to unfold the results.

  15. High-Rate and Long-Term Cycle Stability of Li-S Batteries Enabled by Li2S/TiO2-Impregnated Hollow Carbon Nanofiber Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinran; Bi, Xuanxuan; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yi; Du, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2018-05-16

    The high theoretical energy density of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries makes them an alternative battery technology to lithium ion batteries. However, Li-S batteries suffer from low sulfur loading, poor charge transport, and dissolution of lithium polysulfide. In our study, we use the lithiated S, Li 2 S, as the cathode material, coupled with electrospun TiO 2 -impregnated hollow carbon nanofibers (TiO 2 -HCFs), which serve as the conductive agent and protective barrier for Li 2 S in Li-S batteries. TiO 2 -HCFs provide much improved electron/ionic conductivity and serve as a physical barrier, which prevents the dissolution of lithium polysulfides. The Li 2 S/TiO 2 -HCF composite delivers a discharge capacity of 851 mA h g Li 2 S -1 at 0.1C and the bilayer TiO 2 -HCFs/Li 2 S/TiO 2 -HCF composite delivers a high specific capacity of 400 mA h g Li 2 S -1 at 5C.

  16. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preparation of hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo ferrite with high microwave absorbing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hong-zhen, E-mail: duanhz2000@163.com; Zhou, Fang-ling; Cheng, Xia; Chen, Guo-hong; Li, Qiao-ling

    2017-02-15

    Hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo-ferrites were synthesized by template-based-deposition and surface reaction method with carbon sphere as the template. The phase structure, morphology, magnetic properties and wave absorbing properties of the sample were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), Scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), Vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) and a network vector analyzer (NVA), respectively. The results indicated that the particle size of the carbon sphere sample prepared by hydrothermal method was about 0.5 µm and the particle size of the Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample prepared by template-based method was about 300 nm. The influence of the amount of rare earth element on the magnetic and absorbing properties of sample was studied. The saturation magnetization and coercivity decreased gradually with the increase of the content of Ce. When the content of Ce was 0.02, the maximal saturation magnetization value and coercivity was 75.72 emu• g{sup −1} and 789.88 Oe, respectively. The associated ferrite hollow spheres have good absorbing performance, and the return loss value was −18.8 dB at 5500 MHz. - Highlights: • Hollow microspheres of Ce{sup 3+} doped NiCo-ferrites were synthesized by template-based-deposition and surface reaction method. • The influence of rare earth Ce{sup 3+} on the magnetic and absorbing properties of sample was studied. • When the content of Ce was 0.02, the maximal saturation magnetization value and coercivity was 75.72 emu• g{sup −1} and 789.88 Oe, respectively.

  18. N-doped carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phytohormones in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2018-08-01

    A N-doped carbon nanotubes-reinforced hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (N-doped CNTs-HF-SPME) method was developed for determination of two naphthalene-derived phytohormones, 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), at trace levels in tomatoes. N-doped CNTs were dispersed in ultrapure water with the assistance of surfactant, and then immobilized into the pores of hollow fiber by capillary forces and sonification. The resultant N-doped CNTs-HF was wetted with 1-octanol, subsequently immersed into the tomato samples to extract the target analytes under a magnetic stirring, and then desorbed with methanol by sonication prior to chromatographic analysis. Compared with CNTs, the surface hydrophilicity of N-doped CNTs was improved owing to the doping of nitrogen atoms, and a uniform dispersion was formed, thus greatly simplifying the preparation process and reducing waste of materials. In addition, N-doped CNTs-HF exhibits a more effective extraction performance for NAA and 2-NOA on account of the introduction of Lewis-basic nitrogen. It is worth to mention that owing to the clean-up function of HF, there are not any complicated sample pretreatment procedures prior to the microextraction. To achieve the highest extraction efficiency, important microextraction parameters including the length and the concentration level of N-doped CNTs in surfactant solution, extraction time, desorption conditions such as the type and volume of solvents, pH value, stirring rate and volume of the donor phase were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method showed 165- and 123-fold enrichment factors of NAA and 2-NOA, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility, good linearity with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990, low limits of detection and quantification (at ng g -1 levels), and satisfactory recoveries in the range of 83.10-108.32% at three spiked levels. The proposed method taking

  19. A self-template and self-activation co-coupling green strategy to synthesize high surface area ternary-doped hollow carbon microspheres for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shaomin; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhimin; Xu, Qun

    2018-04-06

    Development of facile and cost-effective routes to achieve hierarchical porous and heteroatoms-doped carbon architectures is urgently needed for high-performance supercapacitor application. In our study, ternary-doped (nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen) hollow carbon microspheres (NPO-HCSs) are fabricated by one-step pyrolysis of single poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-phloroglucinol) (PCPP) microsphere, which is generated through a facile polymerization between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and phloroglucinol at mild conditions. The whole preparation process is not used any additional template or activating agent. The obtained NPO-HCS-950 with average diameter of 580 nm and shell thickness of about 80 nm have a high specific surface area (2390 m 2  g -1 ), a large pore volume (1.35 cm 3  g -1 ), hierarchically interconnected pore texture, and uniform ternary heteroatom doping (O: 3.04 at%; N: 1.33 at% and P: 0.67 at%). As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the specific capacitance of the NPO-HCS-950 reaches 253 F g -1 of 1 A g - 1 and 176 F g -1 at 20 A g -1 , revealing superior rate performance. The capacity retention after 10,000 consecutive charge-discharge cycles at 20 A g -1 is up to 98.9%, demonstrating excellent cycling stability. Moreover, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor using NPO-HCS-950 exhibits a relatively high energy density of 17.6 W h kg -1 at a power density of 800 W kg -1 . Thus, a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors is obtained through a facile, green and scalable synthesis route. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO 3 (WO 3 /C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO 3 /C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO 3 /C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li + insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li + conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO 3 /C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g -1 at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g -1 ) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g -1 at a current density of 0.2 A g -1 . At a high current density of 6 A g -1 , 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO 3 /C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg -1 at a power density of 173.6 W kg -1 and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g -1 after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO 3 /C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  1. N-doped hollow urchin-like anatase TiO2@C composite as a novel anode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yalan; Wang, Shengbin; Fang, Baizeng; Song, Ge; Wilkinson, David P.; Zhang, Shichao

    2018-05-01

    N-doped hollow urchin-like anatase TiO2 spheres (HUTSs) with carbon coating (HUTS@C) are prepared through a facile and scalable hydrothermal reaction followed by coating of polypyrrole and carbonization. The HUTS is composed of radially grown anatase nanorods and possesses an enhanced percentage of exposed {001} facets compared with P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. After the carbon coating, the HUTS@C retains the hollow nanostructure although covered with an N-doped carbon layer. As an anode for Li-ion batteries, the HUTS@C delivers a higher capacity of 165.1 mAh g-1 at 1C after 200 cycles and better rate capability (111.7 mAh g-1 at 10C) than the HUTS. Further electrochemical studies reveal that the HUTS@C has a better electrochemical reversibility, lower charge-transfer resistance, and higher Li-ion diffusion coefficient due to its unique nanosctructure including the hollow core, anatase phase of TiO2 microspheres with high exposed {001} facets and the N-doped carbon layer, which facilitates mass transport and enhances electrical conductivity.

  2. One step synthesis of Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@carboxylate-rich carbon spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Lingling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Luo, Zhijun, E-mail: lzj@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Chao [Maple Leaf International High School, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Functional groups of sodium gluconate play synergetic roles in the formation of Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@carboxylate-rich carbon core–shell nanosturctures (Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs). Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs exhibits significant enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • One step synthesis of Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@carboxylate-rich carbon spheres. • Functional groups of sodium gluconate play synergetic roles in the formation of Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs. • Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@carboxylate-rich carbon core-shell nanosturctures (Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs) have been synthesized via a one-step method. The core–shell nanosturctures of the as-prepared samples were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The formation of Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs core–shell nanosturctures should attribute to the synergetic roles of different functional groups of sodium gluconate. Bi@Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}@CRCSs exhibits significant enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) and shows an O{sub 2}-dependent feature. According to trapping experiments of radicals and holes, hydroxyl radicals were not the main active oxidative species in the photocatalytic degradation of MB, but O{sub 2}·{sup −} are the main active oxidative species.

  3. Composition-property relationships in multifunctional hollow mesoporous carbon nanosystems for PH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging and on-demand drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengjian; Qian, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Linlin; Peng, Weijun; Chen, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The construction of intelligent stimuli-responsive nanosystems can substantially improve the sensitivity/resolution/specificity of diagnostic imaging and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of chemotherapy for cancer treatment. This work reports on a generic construction strategy to achieve a multiple stimuli-responsive theranostic system for cancer simply by optimizing the chemical compositions of inorganic nanoplatforms to avoid the tedious and complicated synthetic procedure for traditional organic or organic/inorganic nanosystems. Based on the ``breaking up'' nature of manganese oxides and specific features of the carbonaceous framework to interact with aromatic drug molecules, manganese oxide nanoparticles were elaborately integrated into hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules by a simple in situ framework redox strategy to realize concurrent pH-sensitive T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pH-/HIFU-responsive on-demand drug release. The ultrasensitive disease-triggered MRI performance has been successfully demonstrated by a 52.5-fold increase of longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 10.5 mM-1 s-1) and on nude mice 4T1 xenograft. The pH- and HIFU-triggered doxorubicin release and enhanced therapeutic outcome against multidrug resistance of cancer cells were systematically confirmed. In particular, the fabricated inorganic composite nanocapsules were found to feature unique biological behaviours, such as antimetastasis effect, extremely low hemolysis against red blood cells and high in vivo histocompatibility. This report on the successful construction of a pure inorganic nanosystem with multiple stimuli-responsivenesses may pave the way to new methods for the development of intelligent nanofamilies for cancer therapy.The construction of intelligent stimuli-responsive nanosystems can substantially improve the sensitivity/resolution/specificity of diagnostic imaging and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of chemotherapy for cancer treatment. This work reports

  4. In Situ Synthesis of Mn3 O4 Nanoparticles on Hollow Carbon Nanofiber as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-26

    The practical applications of Mn 3 O 4 in lithium-ion batteries are greatly hindered by fast capacity decay and poor rate performance as a result of significant volume changes and low electrical conductivity. It is believed that the synthesis of nanoscale Mn 3 O 4 combined with carbonaceous matrix will lead to a better electrochemical performance. Herein, a convenient route for the synthesis of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles grown in situ on hollow carbon nanofiber (denoted as HCF/Mn 3 O 4 ) is reported. The small size of Mn 3 O 4 particles combined with HCF can significantly alleviate volume changes and electrical conductivity; the strong chemical interactions between HCF and Mn 3 O 4 would improve the reversibility of the conversion reaction for MnO into Mn 3 O 4 and accelerate charge transfer. These features endow the HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite with superior cycling stability and rate performance if used as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite delivers a high discharge capacity of 835 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g -1 , and 652 mA h g -1 after 240 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . Even at 2000 mA g -1 , it still shows a high capacity of 528 mA h g -1 . The facile synthetic method and outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-prepared HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite make it a promising candidate for a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  6. Facile preparation of ZIF-8@Pd-CSS sandwich-type microspheres via in situ growth of ZIF-8 shells over Pd-loaded colloidal carbon spheres with aggregation-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Zhang, Xiongfu, E-mail: xfzhang@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Haiou; Yan, Xinjuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Zhang; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform-sized colloidal carbon spheres were synthesized from low-cost glucose. • Pd nanoparticles were loaded onto the carbon spheres via self-reduction method. • A layer of ZIF-8 shell was in situ grown over the Pd-loaded carbon spheres. • The ZIF-8@Pd-CCS showed leach-proof and aggregation-resistant properties of Pd. - Abstract: Aiming to enhance the stability of noble metal nanoparticles that are anchored on the surface of colloidal carbon spheres (CCSs), we designed and prepared a new kind of sandwich-structured ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microsphere. Typically, uniform CCSs were first synthesized by the aromatization and carbonization of glucose under hydrothermal conditions. Subsequently, noble metal nanoparticles, herein Pd nanoparticles, were attached to the surface of CCSs via self-reduction route, followed by in situ assembly of a thin layer of ZIF-8 over the Pd nanoparticles to form the sandwich-type ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra confirmed the presence of crystalline ZIF-8, while TEM analysis revealed that the ZIF-8 shells were closely bound to the Pd-loaded CCSs. The shell thickness could be tuned by varying the ZIF-8 assembly cycles. Further, liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1-hexene as the probe reaction was carried out over the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres and results showed that the prepared microspheres exhibited excellent agglomeration-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles, thus leading to the good reusability of the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres.

  7. Application of carbon nanotubes modified with a Keggin polyoxometalate as a new sorbent for the hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase extraction of trace naproxen in hair samples with fluorescence spectrophotometry using factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Ezzat; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Bamoharram, Fatemeh Farrash

    2015-07-01

    A sensitive technique to determinate naproxen in hair samples was developed using hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase combined with fluorescence spectrophotometry. The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with a Keggin polyoxometalate into a silica matrix prepared by the sol-gel method was reported. In this research, the Keggin carbon nanotubes /silica composite was used in the pores and lumen of a hollow fiber as the hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase extraction device. The device was used for the microextraction of the analyte from hair and water samples under the optimized conditions. An orthogonal array experimental design with an OA24 (4(6) ) matrix was employed to optimize the conditions. The effect of six factors influencing the extraction efficiency was investigated: pH, salt, volume of donor and desorption phase, extraction and desorption time. The effect of each factor was estimated using individual contributions as response functions in the screening process. Analysis of variance was employed for estimating the main significant factors and their contributions in the extraction. Calibration curve plot displayed linearity over a range of 0.2-10 ng/mL with detection limits of 0.072 and 0.08 ng/mL for hair and aqueous samples, respectively. The relative recoveries in the hair and aqueous matrices ranged from 103-95%. The relative standard deviation for fiber-to-fiber repeatability was 3.9%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Measurement of residual stress in a sphere by x-ray under the consideration of its penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Osamu; Ukai, Takayoshi

    1981-01-01

    It was pointed out in the case of a plate that when stress gradient is large, the use of the X-ray with large penetration depth caused large measurement error. In this paper, the theoretical equations for measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray, taking penetration depth into account, are proposed, and the example of application is shown. As the method of measuring the residual stress in a hollow sphere with X-ray, only the method of combining external surface removal and external surface irradiation is practically in use. It was assumed that a sphere is isotropic, and that the residual stress is a function of the radius only. First, the theory of measuring the residual stress in a sphere with X-ray taking penetration depth into account is explained, and the equations for calculating the residual stresses in tangential and radial directions are derived. As the example of applying this theory, the distribution of the residual stress in a steel ball for a ball bearing was measured with Cr characteristic X-ray. The ball of 30 mm diameter was made of high-carbon chromium bearing steel, grade 2, (JIS SUJ2) and quenched and tempered. The removal of the thin layer was made by chemical etching and electrolysis. The measured values and the calculated values are shown. (Kako, I.)

  9. Simultaneous quantification of arginine, alanine, methionine and cysteine amino acids in supplements using a novel bioelectro-nanosensor based on CdSe quantum dot/modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode via Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Sara; Es'haghi, Zarrin

    2017-11-30

    A number of four amino acids have been simultaneously determined at CdSe quantum dot-modified/multi-walled carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode in different bodybuilding supplements. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized and applied to construct a modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode. FT-IR, TEM, XRD and EDAX methods were applied for characterization of the synthesized CdSe QDs. The electro-oxidation of arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Then the Taguchi's method was applied using MINITAB 17 software to find out the optimum conditions for the amino acids determination. Under the optimized conditions, the differential pulse (DP) voltammetric peak currents of Arg, Ala, Met and Cys increased linearly with their concentrations in the ranges of 0.287-33670μM and detection limits of 0.081, 0.158, 0.094 and 0.116μM were obtained for them, respectively. Satisfactory results were achieved for calibration and validation sets. The prepared modified electrode represents a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of the four amino acids which makes it suitable for the detection of each in presence of others in real samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobó, Dorina G.; Berkesi, Dániel; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e.g. catalysis, adsorption and drug delivery. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups. Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven. The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. pH function. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions.

  11. Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions by new phosphorus-containing carbon spheres synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-bin Zhang; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Zhi-wei Zhou; Xiao-hong Cao; Yun-hai Liu; Guo-xuan Xiong; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; Ping Liang; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan

    2014-01-01

    The novel phosphorus-rich hydrothermal carbon spheres (HCSs-PO 4 ) have been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of phosphoric acid. The textural and surface chemistry properties were characterized using Boehm titrations, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The content of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of HCSs increased from 0.053 to 1.009 mmol g -1 by phosphate group modification. The adsorption ability of HCSsPO 4 has been explored for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption process could be well defined by the Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity of HCSs increased from 80.00 to 285.70 mg g -1 after phosphate group modification. And thermodynamic parameters indicated the adsorption process was feasible,endothermic and spontaneous. Selective adsorption studies showed that the HCSs-PO 4 could selectively remove U(VI), and the selectivity coefficients had been improved in the presence of co-existing ions, Na(I), Ni(II), Sr(II), Mn(II), Mg(II) and Zn(II). Complete removal (99.9 %) of U(VI) from 1.0 L industry wastewater containing 15.0 mg U(VI) ions was possible with 12.0 g HCSs-PO 4 . (author)

  12. Synthesis of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ hollow microspheres via homogeneous precipitation route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Ai, Ying-Liang Liu, Li-Yuan Xiao, Hou-Jin Wang and Jian-Xin Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A phosphorescent material in the form of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ hollow microspheres was prepared by homogeneous precipitation using monodispersed carbon spheres as hard templates. Y2O3:Eu3+ hollow microspheres were first synthesized to serve as the precursor. Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ powders were obtained by calcinating the precursor in a CS2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, morphology and optical properties of the composites were characterized. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the purity of the Y2O2S phase. Electron microscopy observations revealed that the Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ particles inherited the hollow spherical shape from the precursor after being calcined in a CS2 atmosphere and that they had a diameter of 350–450 nm and a wall thickness of about 50–80 nm. After ultraviolet radiation at 265 or 325 nm for 5 min, the particles emitted strong red long-lifetime phosphorescence originating from Eu3+ ions. This phosphorescence is associated with the trapping of charge carriers by Ti4+ and Mg2+ ions.

  13. The Processing of Titanium Hydride Powders into Uniform Hollow Spheres

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurysz, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... Slurry suitability is dictated by the solids loading and degree of dispersion, the influence of polymer additives on rheology and the evaporation of acetone, and the minimization of impurities...

  14. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in clinical practice, which depends on the magnitude of the applied load, the ... component design for its excellent wear and corrosion resistance (Chandra et al ... The nearly uniform distribution of particles in the com- posite was checked using ...

  15. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang; Liang, Hanfeng; Shi, Huanhuan; Mei, Gui; Xu, Xun; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  16. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang

    2017-08-12

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  17. Emulsion-phase synthesis of honeycomb-like Mg{sub 5}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O micro-spheres and subsequent decomposition to MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Guo, E-mail: gaogaoguoguo@yahoo.com.c [Department of Bio-Nano-Science and Engineering, National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xiang Lan, E-mail: xianglan@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Herein we report a simple emulsion-phase route for the synthesis of honeycomb-like basic magnesium carbonate (BMC, Mg{sub 5}(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O) micro-spheres at 80 {sup o}C. Magnesium(II) salts in water are precipitated by sodium carbonate in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Scanning electron microscopy shows the obtained BMC samples are composed of a lot of micro-spheres (diameter ranging from 8 to 10 {mu}m) which are interweaved by a lot of nano-sized thin sheets (thickness of 20-30 nm and length >1 {mu}m). The BMC micro-spheres prepared by this approach are porous and appear to be hollow structures. The size and shape of BMC are related to the CTAB concentration and temperature. The lower concentration of CTAB resulted in the decrease of the micro-spheres sizes. When the temperature was elevated to 110 {sup o}C, hexagonal tablets (thickness of 20 nm, length of each side varies from 400 to 600 nm) can be prepared. After the calcinations for BMC at 600 {sup o}C for 2 h, BMC are almost completely converted to MgO. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that the obtained MgO samples have a poly-crystalline feature. The possible formation mechanism of BMC micro-spheres has been discussed.

  18. High-performance non-enzymatic catalysts based on 3D hierarchical hollow porous Co3O4 nanododecahedras in situ decorated on carbon nanotubes for glucose detection and biofuel cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyue; Zhang, Xiaohua; Huang, Junlin; Chen, Jinhua

    2018-03-01

    In this work, high-performance non-enzymatic catalysts based on 3D hierarchical hollow porous Co 3 O 4 nanododecahedras in situ decorated on carbon nanotubes (3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs) were successfully prepared via direct carbonizing metal-organic framework-67 in situ grown on carbon nanotubes. The morphology, microstructure, and composite of 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micropore and chemisorption analyzer, and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical characterizations indicated that 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs present considerably catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation and could be promising for constructing high-performance electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensors and glucose/O 2 biofuel cell. When used for non-enzymatic glucose detection, the 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs modified glassy carbon electrode (3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs/GCE) exhibited excellent analytical performance with high sensitivity (22.21 mA mM -1  cm -2 ), low detection limit of 0.35 μM (S/N = 3), fast response (less than 5 s) and good stability. On the other hand, when the 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs/GCE worked as an anode of a biofuel cell, a maximum power density of 210 μW cm -2 at 0.15 V could be obtained, and the open circuit potential was 0.68 V. The attractive 3D hierarchical porous structural features, the large surface area, and the excellent conductivity based on the continuous and effective electron transport network in 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs endow 3D Co 3 O 4 -HPND/CNTs with the enhanced electrochemical performance and promising applications in electrochemical sensing, biofuel cell, and other energy storage and conversion devices such as supercapacitor. Graphical abstract High-performance non-enzymatic catalysts for enzymeless glucose sensing and biofuel cell based on 3D hierarchical hollow porous Co 3 O 4 nanododecahedras anchored on carbon nanotubes were successfully prepared via direct carbonizing

  19. The fabrication of a carbon nanotube array using a catalyst-poisoning layer in the inverse nano-sphere lithography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Tsung-Han; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Shih-Chin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Joseph Palathinkal, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the fabrication of periodic CNT arrays was developed in this study, which involves the use of the inverse nano-sphere lithography (INSL) process. Mo of a honeycomb pattern, acting as a catalyst-poisoning layer, was produced by the nano-sphere lithography (NSL) process; the Mo poisoned the catalyst and prevented CNT growth where deposited, and as a result, a periodic CNT pattern was obtained. Using this method, the uniformity of the CNT array can be improved by preventing the negative effect of arrangement defects in self-assembled monolayers. The size and the period of the CNT array can be adjusted by careful selection of the polystyrene (PS) sphere diameter. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis revealed that the Co catalyst was ineffective on the areas of Mo deposition due to the diffusion of Co into the Mo layer.

  20. The fabrication of a carbon nanotube array using a catalyst-poisoning layer in the inverse nano-sphere lithography method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Tsung-Han; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Shih-Chin; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Joseph Palathinkal, Thomas, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-29

    A new method for the fabrication of periodic CNT arrays was developed in this study, which involves the use of the inverse nano-sphere lithography (INSL) process. Mo of a honeycomb pattern, acting as a catalyst-poisoning layer, was produced by the nano-sphere lithography (NSL) process; the Mo poisoned the catalyst and prevented CNT growth where deposited, and as a result, a periodic CNT pattern was obtained. Using this method, the uniformity of the CNT array can be improved by preventing the negative effect of arrangement defects in self-assembled monolayers. The size and the period of the CNT array can be adjusted by careful selection of the polystyrene (PS) sphere diameter. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis revealed that the Co catalyst was ineffective on the areas of Mo deposition due to the diffusion of Co into the Mo layer.

  1. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H2O2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe2O3/GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H2O2 in this paper.

  2. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  3. Shape evolution of new-phased lepidocrocite VOOH from single-shelled to double-shelled hollow nanospheres on the basis of programmed reaction-temperature strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ning, Bo; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2009-07-06

    Solid templates have been long regarded as one of the most promising ways to achieve single-shelled hollow nanostructures; however, few effective methods for the construction of multishelled hollow objects from their solid template counterparts have been developed. We report here, for the first time, a novel and convenient route to synthesizing double-shelled hollow spheres from the solid templates via programming the reaction-temperature procedures. The programmed temperature strategy developed in this work then provides an essential and general access to multishelled hollow nanostructures based on the designed extension of single-shelled hollow objects, independent of their outside contours, such as tubes, hollow spheres, and cubes. Starting from the V(OH)(2)NH(2) solid templates, we show that the relationship between the hollowing rate and the reaction temperature obey the Van't Hoff rule and Arrhenius activation-energy equation, revealing that it is the chemical reaction rather than the diffusion process that guided the whole hollowing process, despite the fact that the coupled reaction/diffusion process is involved in the hollowing process. Using the double-shelled hollow spheres as the PCM (CaCl(2).6H(2)O) matrix grants much better thermal-storage stability than that for the nanoparticles counterpart, revealing that the designed nanostructures can give rise to significant improvements for the energy-saving performance in future "smart house" systems.

  4. Development of free-flowing peppermint essential oil-loaded hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles via atomization with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to overcome the issues related to the volatility and strong smell that limit the efficient utilization of essential oils as "natural" antimicrobials in the food industry. Peppermint essential oil-loaded hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles were successfully formed using a novel "green" method based on atomization of CO 2 -expanded lipid mixture. The highest essential oil loading efficiency (47.5%) was achieved at 50% initial essential oil concentration at 200bar expansion pressure and 50μm nozzle diameter, whereas there was no significant difference between the loading efficiencies (35%-39%) at 5%, 7%, 10%, and 20% initial essential oil concentrations (p>0.05). Particles generated at all initial essential oil concentrations were spherical but increasing the initial essential oil concentration to 20% and 50% generated a less smooth particle surface. After 4weeks of storage, 61.2%, 42.5%, 0.2%, and 2.0% of the loaded essential oil was released from the particles formed at 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% initial essential oil concentrations, respectively. This innovative simple and clean process is able to form spherical hollow micro- and nanoparticles loaded with essential oil that can be used as food grade antimicrobials. These novel hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles are alternatives to the solid lipid nanoparticles, and overcome the issues associated with the solid lipid nanoparticles. The dry free-flowing products make the handling and storage more convenient, and the simple and clean process makes the scaling up more feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Axisymmetric Vibration of Piezo-Lemv Composite Hollow Multilayer Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nehru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axisymmetric vibration of an infinite piezolaminated multilayer hollow cylinder made of piezoelectric layers of 6 mm class and an isotropic LEMV (Linear Elastic Materials with Voids layers is studied. The frequency equations are obtained for the traction free outer surface with continuity conditions at the interfaces. Numerical results are carried out for the inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by LEMV (It is hypothetical material layers and the dispersion curves are compared with that of a similar 3-layer model and of 3 and 5 layer models with inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

  6. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  7. Synthesis and microwave absorption property of graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes modified with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaojiu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tihong; Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Dai, Shenglong

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple procedure to fabricate graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids coated with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 sphere. Characterizations have been carried out to investigate the morphology, crystalline structure of the composites by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe3O4 particles have the morphologies of multi-lacuna; moreover, some spheres are hollow. As a kind of potential microwave absorption material, the composites are lightweight and exhibit excellent microwave absorbing ability in the range of 2-16 GHz.

  8. Fabrication of Pt/Au concentric spheres from triblock copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Haeng-Deog; Park, Soojin; Russell, Thomas P

    2010-02-23

    Dispersion of an aqueous H(2)PtCl(6) solution into a trifluorotoluene (TFT) solution of a polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) triblock copolymer produced an emulsion-induced hollow micelle (EIHM), comprising a water nanodroplet stabilized by PEO, H(2)PtCl(6)/P2VP, and PS, sequentially. The following addition of an aqueous LiAuCl(4) solution into the dispersion led to a coordination of LiAuCl(4) and PEO. The resulting spherical EIHM structure was transformed to a hollow cylindrical micelle by the fusion of spherical EIHM with the addition of methanol. This structural transition was reversible by the alternative addition of methanol and TFT. Oxygen plasma was used to generate Pt/Au concentric spheres and hollow cylindrical Pt/Au nano-objects.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles for bio-encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisno, Satoshi, E-mail: seino@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Suga, Kent; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2017-04-01

    Hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. Au/SiO{sub 2} nanospheres fabricated by a radiochemical process were used as templates for ferrite templating. After the ferrite plating process, Au/SiO{sub 2} templates were fully coated with magnetite nanoparticles. Dissolution of the SiO{sub 2} core lead to the formation of hollow magnetic nanospheres with Au nanoparticles inside. The hollow magnetic nanospheres consisted of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} grains, with an average diameter of 60 nm, connected to form the sphere wall, inside which Au grains with an average diameter of 7.2 nm were encapsulated. The Au nanoparticles immobilized on the SiO{sub 2} templates contributed to the adsorption of the Fe ion precursor and/or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} seeds. These hollow magnetic nanospheres are proposed as a new type of nanocarrier, as the Au grains could specifically immobilize biomolecules inside the hollow sphere. - Highlights: • A procedure to synthesize hollow magnetic nanospheres with Au inside was reported. • The Au nanoparticles inside the hollow showed high Au-S binding affinity. • The nanospheres are expected to be suitable as a new magnetic carrier for DDS.

  10. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  11. Template-free synthesis and luminescent properties of hollow Ln:YOF (Ln = Eu or Er + Yb) microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Castro, E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, Isla de La Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); García-Sevillano, J.; Cussó, F. [Dpto. Física de Materiales, C-04, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ocaña, M., E-mail: mjurado@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, Isla de La Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Hollow lanthanide doped YOF spheres have been synthesised through a template-free procedure. • Strong red emissions are observed for Eu-doped spheres under UV illumination. • Concentration quenching of luminescence takes place in the spheres at very high Eu doping levels. • Bright red emission is observed for Er, Yb codoped spheres, making this matrix advantageous for biomedical imaging. - Abstract: A method for the synthesis of hollow lanthanide doped yttrium oxyfluoride (YOF) spheres in the micrometer size range with cubic structure based on the pyrolysis at 600 °C of liquid aerosols generated from aqueous solutions containing the corresponding rare earth chlorides and trifluoroacetic acid has been developed. This procedure, which has been used for the first time for the synthesis of YFO based materials, is simpler and advantageous when compared with other methods usually employed for the production of hollow spheres since it does not require the use of sacrificial templates. In addition, it is continuous, which is desirable because of practical reasons. The procedure is also suitable for doping the YOF spheres with europium cations resulting in down converting red phosphors when activated with UV light, or for co-doping with both Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} giving rise to up-converting phosphors, which emit intense red light under near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Because of their optical properties and hollow architecture, the developed materials may find applications in optoelectronic devices and biotechnology.

  12. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  13. 毫米级介孔炭球的合成及应用研究进展%Progress on Synthesis and Applications of Millimeter-sized Mesoporous Carbon Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志敏; 张志宾; 董亚雨; 戴荧; 曹小红; 乐长高; 刘云海

    2017-01-01

    常见的介孔炭材料多为纳米级且存在传质效率低等缺点,从而限制了其在许多领域中的应用.介绍了国内外关于介孔炭材料合成技术,以及利用硬模板法和软模板法合成具有高比表面积、独特空间构型、物理化学性能稳定的毫米级介孔炭球(MCSs)的研究状况,也阐述了MCSs在生物医学、气体吸附和催化领域的应用现状,展望了MCSs在表面改性及放射性核素分离与富集领域的应用前景.%The common mesoporous carbon materials are nanoscale and possess lower efficiency for mass transfer which limit its applications in many fields.The synthetic technology of mesoporous carbon materials are introduced domestic and overseas.The research status on synthesizing millimeter-sized mesoporous carbon spheres(MCSs) by hard template method and soft template method with high specific surface area,powder size of millimeter,unique space structure and physicochemical properties are discussed.Additionally,the applications situations of MCSs in biomedicine,gas adsorption and catalytic field are also discoursed.The application prospect of millimeter-sized mesoporous carbon spheres in surface functionalization and radioactive nuclide concentration field is outlook.

  14. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer and analytical modeling using a composite hollow fiber (CHF) membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (Ka) for CO were examined in a composite hollow fiber (CHF) membrane bioreactor. The mass transfer experiments were conducted at various inlet gas pressures (from 5 to 30 psig (34.5-206.8 kPa(g))) and recirculation flow rates (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 mL/min) through CHF module. The highest Ka value of 946.6 1/h was observed at a recirculation rate of 1500 mL/min and at an inlet gas pressure of 30 psig(206.8 kPa(g)). The findings of this study confirm that the use of CHF membranes is effective and improves the efficiency CO mass transfer into the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  16. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  17. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulov, S.B.; Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I.; Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV.

  18. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Kabanova, N.V.; Sysoeva, T.I. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Antonov, R.A.; Anyuhina, A.M.; Bronvech, E.A.; Chernov, D.V.; Galkin, V.I. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tkaczyk, W. [Department of Experimental Physics of University of Lodz (Poland); Finger, M. [Karlov University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sonsky, M. [COMPAS Consortium, Turnov (Czech Republic)

    2009-12-15

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  19. Incorporation of high-level nuclear waste in gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Bond, W.D.; Angelini, P.; Stinton, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Waste sludge is incorporated in gel spheres by the method of internal gelation. Gel spheres containing up to 90 wt % waste have been produced from defense and commercial wastes. A generic cesium-bearing waste form has been developed. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coatings reduce the leachability of all tested articles to the detection limits

  20. Bubble coalescence suppression driven carbon monoxide (CO)-water mass transfer increase by electrolyte addition in a hollow fiber membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) for microbial CO conversion to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Nulee; Yasin, Muhammad; Kang, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yeubin; Park, Gwon Woo; Park, Shinyoung; Chang, In Seop

    2018-05-04

    This study investigated the effects of electrolytes (CaCl 2 , K 2 HPO 4 , MgSO 4 , NaCl, and NH 4 Cl) on CO mass transfer and ethanol production in a HFMBR. The hollow fiber membranes (HFM) were found to generate tiny gas bubbles; the bubble coalescence was significantly suppressed in electrolyte solution. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k L a) increased up to 414% compared to the control. Saturated CO (C ∗ ) decreased as electrolyte concentrations increased. Overall, the maximum mass transfer rate (R max ) in electrolyte solution ranged from 106% to 339% of the value obtained in water. The electrolyte toxicity on cell growth was tested using Clostridium autoethanogenum. Most electrolytes, except for MgSO 4 , inhibited cell growth. The HFMBR operation using a medium containing 1% MgSO 4 achieved 119% ethanol production compared to that without electrolytes. Finally, a kinetic simulation using the parameters got from the 1% MgSO 4 medium predicted a higher ethanol production compared to the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scattering characteristics of relativistically moving concentrically layered spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Timothy J.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Breakall, James K.; Bohren, Craig F.

    2018-02-01

    The energy extinction cross section of a concentrically layered sphere varies with velocity as the Doppler shift moves the spectral content of the incident signal in the sphere's co-moving inertial reference frame toward or away from resonances of the sphere. Computations for hollow gold nanospheres show that the energy extinction cross section is high when the Doppler shift moves the incident signal's spectral content in the co-moving frame near the wavelength of the sphere's localized surface plasmon resonance. The energy extinction cross section of a three-layer sphere consisting of an olivine-silicate core surrounded by a porous and a magnetite layer, which is used to explain extinction caused by interstellar dust, also depends strongly on velocity. For this sphere, computations show that the energy extinction cross section is high when the Doppler shift moves the spectral content of the incident signal near either of olivine-silicate's two localized surface phonon resonances at 9.7 μm and 18 μm.

  2. The sphere-PAC fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Sphere-PAC fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-PAC fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  3. The sphere-pac fuel code 'SPHERE-3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Nordstroem, L.A.; Hellwig, C.

    2001-01-01

    Sphere-pac fuel is an advanced nuclear fuel, in which the cladding tube is filled with small fuel spheres instead of the more usual fuel pellets. At PSI, the irradiation behaviour of sphere-pac fuel is calculated using the computer code SPHERE-3. The paper describes the present status of the SPHERE-3 code, and some results of the qualification process against experimental data. (author)

  4. Synthesis of CdS hollow/solid nanospheres and their chain-structures by membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shumin; Wu Qingsheng; Jia Runping; Liu Xinbo

    2008-01-01

    CdS hollow/solid nanospheres and their chain-structures were successfully synthesized through supporting liquid membrane (SLM) system with bio-membrane. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been used for the characterization of the products. The average diameters of CdS solid/hollow spheres are about 10, 40 nm, respectively. The wall of the hollow spheres is about 5 nm. CdS products are all cubic face-centered structure with the cell constant a = 5.830 A. We also explore the morphology, structure and possible synthesis mechanism. A possible template mechanism has been proposed for the production of the hollow CdS nanocrystals, that is, CdS nanoparticles grow along the non-soakage interface between CHCl3 and reactant solution. During this process, the organic functional groups were crucial to the control of crystal morphologies

  5. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

  6. Hollow bunches production

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Hollow bunches address the issue of high-brightnessbeams suffering from transverse emittance growth in a strongspace charge regime. During the Proton Synchrotron (PS)injection plateau, the negative space charge tune shift canpush the beam onto theQy=6integer resonance. Modify-ing the longitudinal bunch profile in order to reduce the peakline charge density alleviates the detrimental impact of spacecharge. To this end we first produce longitudinally hollowphase space distributions in the PS Booster by exciting aparametric resonance with the phase loop feedback system.These inherently flat bunches are then transferred to the PS,where the beam becomes less prone to the emittance growthcaused by the integer resonance.During the late 2016 machine development sessions inthe PS Booster we profited from solved issues from 2015and managed to reliably extract hollow bunches of1.3eVsmatched longitudinal area. Furthermore, first results to cre-ate hollow bunches with larger longitudinal emittances to-wards the LHC Inject...

  7. Amending the Structure of Renewable Carbon from Biorefinery Waste-Streams for Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoi Chun; Goswami, Monojoy; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Naskar, Amit K

    2018-05-29

    Biorefineries produce impure sugar waste streams that are being underutilized. By converting this waste to a profitable by-product, biorefineries could be safeguarded against low oil prices. We demonstrate controlled production of useful carbon materials from the waste concentrate via hydrothermal synthesis and carbonization. We devise a pathway to producing tunable, porous spherical carbon materials by modeling the gross structure formation and developing an understanding of the pore formation mechanism utilizing simple reaction principles. Compared to a simple hydrothermal synthesis from sugar concentrate, emulsion-based synthesis results in hollow spheres with abundant microporosity. In contrast, conventional hydrothermal synthesis produces solid beads with micro and mesoporosity. All the carbonaceous materials show promise in energy storage application. Using our reaction pathway, perfect hollow activated carbon spheres can be produced from waste sugar in liquid effluence of biomass steam pretreatment units. The renewable carbon product demonstrated a desirable surface area of 872 m 2 /g and capacitance of up to 109 F/g when made into an electric double layer supercapacitor. The capacitor exhibited nearly ideal capacitive behavior with 90.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  8. Spinning the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, David; Dzienkowski, Eric; Lashof-Regas, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We construct various exact analytical solutions of the SO(3) BMN matrix model that correspond to rotating fuzzy spheres and rotating fuzzy tori. These are also solutions of Yang Mills theory compactified on a sphere times time and they are also translationally invariant solutions of the N=1"∗ field theory with a non-trivial charge density. The solutions we construct have a ℤ_N symmetry, where N is the rank of the matrices. After an appropriate ansatz, we reduce the problem to solving a set of polynomial equations in 2N real variables. These equations have a discrete set of solutions for each value of the angular momentum. We study the phase structure of the solutions for various values of N. Also the continuum limit where N→∞, where the problem reduces to finding periodic solutions of a set of coupled differential equations. We also study the topology change transition from the sphere to the torus.

  9. Controlled synthesis of ZnO hollow microspheres via precursor-template method and its gas sensing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Jinchai; Xiong, Hui; Dai, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zn powder as precursor template for synthesis ZnO hollow spheres. ► Different precursor templates result in different ZnO nanostructures. ► Different experimental conditions enable growth of different surface morphologies of ZnO sphere. ► ZnO hollow sphere materials have good gas sensing performance for detecting ethanol gas. - Abstract: Using Zn powder as precursor templates, ZnO hollow microspheres were successfully prepared by thermal evaporation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was found that different size and shape of precursor resulted in different ZnO nanostructures. When varying experimental conditions, such as air flow rate and working pressure, ZnO hollow spheres with different surface morphologies could be obtained. The advantages of the present synthetic technology are simple, relatively low cost, and high reproducibility. A gas sensor was fabricated from the as-prepared ZnO hollow microspheres and tested to the ethanol gas at different operating temperatures.

  10. Transition Metal Hollow Nanocages as Promising Cathodes for the Long-Term Cyclability of Li–O2 Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Chatterjee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a step towards efficient and cost-effective electrocatalytic cathodes for Li–O2 batteries, highly porous hausmannite-type Mn3O4 hollow nanocages (MOHNs of a large diameter of ~250 nm and a high surface area of 90.65 m2·g−1 were synthesized and their physicochemical and electrochemical properties were studied in addition to their formation mechanism. A facile approach using carbon spheres as the template and MnCl2 as the precursor was adopted to suit the purpose. The MOHNs/Ketjenblack cathode-based Li–O2 battery demonstrated an improved cyclability of 50 discharge–charge cycles at a specific current of 400 mA·g−1 and a specific capacity of 600 mAh·g−1. In contrast, the Ketjenblack cathode-based one can sustain only 15 cycles under the same electrolytic system comprised of 1 M LiTFSI/TEGDME. It is surmised that the unique hollow nanocage morphology of MOHNs is responsible for the high electrochemical performance. The hollow nanocages were a result of the aggregation of crystalline nanoparticles of 25–35 nm size, and the mesoscopic pores between the nanoparticles gave rise to a loosely mesoporous structure for accommodating the volume change in the MOHNs/Ketjenblack cathode during electrocatalytic reactions. The improved cyclic stability is mainly due to the faster mass transport of the O2 through the mesoscopic pores. This work is comparable to the state-of-the-art experimentations on cathodes for Li–O2 batteries that focus on the use of non-precious transition materials.

  11. In-line carbon nanofiber reinforced hollow fiber-mediated liquid phase microextraction using a 3D printed extraction platform as a front end to liquid chromatography for automatic sample preparation and analysis: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawit, Chanatda; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Varanusupakul, Pakorn; Miró, Manuel

    2018-08-01

    A novel concept for automation of nanostructured hollow-fiber supported microextraction, combining the principles of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and sorbent microextraction synergically, using mesofluidic platforms is proposed herein for the first time, and demonstrated with the determination of acidic drugs (namely, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac and naproxen) in urine as a proof-of-concept applicability. Dispersed carbon nanofibers (CNF) are immobilized in the pores of a single-stranded polypropylene hollow fiber (CNF@HF) membrane, which is thereafter accommodated in a stereolithographic 3D-printed extraction chamber without glued components for ease of assembly. The analytical method involves continuous-flow extraction of the acidic drugs from a flowing stream donor (pH 1.7) into an alkaline stagnant acceptor (20 mmol L -1 NaOH) containing 10% MeOH (v/v) across a dihexyl ether impregnated CNF@HF membrane. The flow setup features entire automation of the microextraction process including regeneration of the organic film and on-line injection of the analyte-laden acceptor phase after downstream neutralization into a liquid chromatograph (LC) for reversed-phase core-shell column-based separation. Using a 12-cm long CNF@HF and a sample volume of 6.4 mL, linear dynamic ranges of ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen, taken as models of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, spanned from ca. 5-15 µg L -1 to 500 µg L -1 with enhancement factors of 43-97 (against a direct injection of 10 µL standards into LC), and limits of detection from 1.6 to 4.3 µg L -1 . Relative recoveries in real urine samples ranged from 97% to 105%, thus demonstrating the reliability of the automatic CNF@HF-LPME method for in-line matrix clean-up and determination of drugs in urine at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A binder-free NiCo2O4 nanosheet/3D elastic N-doped hollow carbon nanotube sponge electrode with high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Yue, Shihong; Lu, Liang; Jin, Fengqiao; Han, Qiwei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liu, Jie

    2017-11-09

    To increase the volumetric and gravimetric capacitances of supercapacitors, a new class of electrode materials with high electrochemical activity and favorable structures is extremely desired. In this work, a hollow novel nitrogen-doped 3D elastic single-walled carbon nanotube sponge (NSCS) which is ultra lightweight with the lowest density of 0.8 mg cm -3 , and has a high open surface structure for electrolyte accessibility and excellent compressible properties as the electrode scaffold has been successfully fabricated by the pyrolysis method which could produce the carbon nanotube sponge easily on a large scale without high-cost and time-consuming processes. Moreover, a NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheet supported on the NSCS has been successfully fabricated. The highest volumetric and gravimetric capacitance of this electrode is 790 F cm -3 at 1.43 g cm -3 and 1618 F g -1 at 0.54 g cm -3 with excellent cycling stability. The density of NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS electrode was adjusted by mechanical compression and the most favorable density of the film for both high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances obtained was 1.21 g cm -3 . The thick NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS film of 72 μm has been fabricated at this favorable density, presenting both high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances of 597 F cm -3 and 1074 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , respectively, indicating that the structure of the NSCS is extremely feasible for obtaining a thick film electrode with excellent volumetric and gravimetric capacitances. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor of NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS//NGN/CNTs was fabricated, exhibiting a high gravimetric energy density of 47.65 W h kg -1 at 536 W kg -1 and a volumetric energy density of 33.44 W h L -1 at 376.16 W L -1 .

  13. Hollow Nanospheres Array Fabrication via Nano-Conglutination Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Shi, Lifang; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Hu, Song

    2015-09-01

    Hollow nanospheres array is a special nanostructure with great applications in photonics, electronics and biochemistry. The nanofabrication technique with high resolution is crucial to nanosciences and nano-technology. This paper presents a novel nonconventional nano-conglutination technology combining polystyrenes spheres (PSs) self-assembly, conglutination and a lift-off process to fabricate the hollow nanospheres array with nanoholes. A self-assembly monolayer of PSs was stuck off from the quartz wafer by the thiol-ene adhesive material, and then the PSs was removed via a lift-off process and the hollow nanospheres embedded into the thiol-ene substrate was obtained. Thiolene polymer is a UV-curable material via "click chemistry" reaction at ambient conditions without the oxygen inhibition, which has excellent chemical and physical properties to be attractive as the adhesive material in nano-conglutination technology. Using the technique, a hollow nanospheres array with the nanoholes at the diameter of 200 nm embedded into the rigid thiol-ene substrate was fabricated, which has great potential to serve as a reaction container, catalyst and surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoenergetic Hollow Spherical Hexanitrostibene (HNS Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherization of nanoenergetic materials is the best way to improve the sensitivity and increase loading densities and detonation properties for weapons and ammunition, but the preparation of spherical nanoenergetic materials with high regularization, uniform size and monodispersity is still a challenge. In this paper, nanoenergetic hollow spherical hexanitrostibene (HNS derivatives were fabricated via a one-pot copolymerization strategy, which is based on the reaction of HNS and piperazine in acetonitrile solution. Characterization results indicated the as-prepared reaction nanoenergetic products were HNS-derived oligomers, where a free radical copolymerization reaction process was inferred. The hollow sphere structure of the HNS derivatives was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging technology. The properties of the nanoenergetic hollow spherical derivatives, including thermal decomposition and sensitivity are discussed in detail. Sensitivity studies showed that the nanoenergetic derivatives exhibited lower impact, friction and spark sensitivity than raw HNS. Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC results showed that continuous exothermic decomposition occurred in the whole temperature range, which indicated that nanoenergetic derivatives have a unique role in thermal applications. Therefore, nanoenergetic hollow spherical HNS derivatives could provide a new way to modify the properties of certain energetic compounds and fabricate spherical nanomaterials to improve the charge configuration.

  15. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  16. Mercury - the hollow planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  17. ORGANIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie HAINES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The critical analysis of Habermas’ Public Sphere Theory and the comparative undertaking to the current day enables us to assert that in contemporary society, public sphere is no longer a political public sphere, this dimension being completed by a societal dimension, the public sphere has extended and now we can talk about partial public spheres in an ever more commercial environment. The new rebuilding and communication technologies create a new type of public character: the visible sphere – non-located, non-dialogical and open. Information and communication are more and more involved in the restructuring of capitalism on an international scale and the reorganization of leadership and management systems. The reevaluation of the public sphere, public opinion, communication allows us to define public sphere according to the profound mutations from today’s democratic societies.

  18. Hollow magnetic nano-CO3O4/polystyrene microspheres synthesized through radiation induced interfacial polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Mozhen; Wang Shufeng; Zhang Zhicheng

    2010-01-01

    Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (around 8 nm) were synthesized hydrothermally by dissolving Co 2+ in the mixture of ethanol and water, and then decorated with oleic acid to endow them with hydrophobic surface nature. After that, nano-particles were added into emulsion which consisted by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, styrene and cetyl alcohol. Hollow magnetic composite spheres were prepared by irradiated the emulsion with γ-rays. The final products are thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, which showed the formation of hollow magnetic composite spheres. The influence of addition dosage of nano-particles, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the types of nano-particles on the average size and shape of hollow composites were studied. The effects of nano-particles to the polymerization of styrene were studied by kinetics. Nano-particles are capsulated by polystyrene to form hollow composites, which confirmed by XPS results. Finally, magnetic property of hollow composites is compared with pure nano-Co 3 O 4 . (authors)

  19. Fabrication of silica hollow particles using yeast cells as a template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shenglan; Lin, Liqin; Chen, Xiaofang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Biao

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic hollow particles have attracted great interest in recent years. In this study, silica micro spheres were produced. Yeast cells were used as a biological template. The silica shell was synthesized by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in water-alcohol mixtures as solvent using ammonia as a catalyst according to the Stoeber process. Various approaches including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. The results showed that the thermally treated samples were SiO2 hollow microspheres with a diameter varying between 1-5μm.

  20. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  1. VMware vSphere Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guthrie, Forbes; Saidel-Keesing, Maish

    2011-01-01

    The only book focused on designing VMware vSphere implementations.VMware vSphere is the most widely deployed virtualization platform today. Considered the most robust and sophisticated hypervisor product, vSphere is the de facto standard for businesses, both large and small. This book is the only one of its kind to concisely explain how to execute a successful vSphere architecture, tailored to meet your company's needs. Expert authors share with you the factors that shape the design of a vSphere implementation. Learn how to make the right design decisions for your environment.Explores the late

  2. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hollow V2O5 microspheres for supercapacitor electrode with pseudocapacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yifu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hollow V2O5 microspheres (HVOM were fabricated using NH4VO3, ethylene glycol and carbon spheres as the starting materials by a template solvothermal approach and subsequent calcination. The morphology and composition were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET. The results showed that the obtained HVOM were constructed from nanoparticles with rough surface. The electrochemical properties of HVOM as a supercapacitor electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD. HVOM displayed excellent pseudocapacitance property and their specific capacitances were 488 F·g–1, 455 F·g–1, 434 F·g–1 and 396 F·g–1 at the current density of 0.5 A·g–1, 1 A·g–1, 2 A·g–1 and 5 A·g–1, respectively. They also exhibited an excellent energy density of 8.784 × 105 J·kg–1 at a power density of 900 W·kg–1 . The good electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized HVOM make them a promising candidate as a cathode material for supercapacitors.

  4. Beyond fuzzy spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, T R; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Shreecharan, T

    2010-01-01

    We study polynomial deformations of the fuzzy sphere, specifically given by the cubic or the Higgs algebra. We derive the Higgs algebra by quantizing the Poisson structure on a surface in R 3 . We find that several surfaces, differing by constants, are described by the Higgs algebra at the fuzzy level. Some of these surfaces have a singularity and we overcome this by quantizing this manifold using coherent states for this nonlinear algebra. This is seen in the measure constructed from these coherent states. We also find the star product for this non-commutative algebra as a first step in constructing field theories on such fuzzy spaces.

  5. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  6. Simultaneous chemical modification and structural transformation of Stöber silica spheres for integration of nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin; Zeng, Huachun

    2012-01-01

    ) hollow spheres, on which zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have been deposited and assembled sequentially in solution phase. A series of complex Ru/ZnO/Zn-SiO 2 nanocatalysts has been thus been integrated onto the zinc-doped SiO 2

  7. Fabrication of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} bi-functional composites with hierarchical and hollow structures and their application in water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinhui, E-mail: lillian09281@hotmail.com; Zhang, Na; Chen, Jianxin, E-mail: chjx2000@126.com; Li, Ruijuan; Li, Liang; Li, Kunyu [Hebei University of Technology, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education (China)

    2016-02-15

    The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} bi-functional composites with hierarchical and hollow structures are fabricated through a hydrothermal route. The adsorption performance and photocatalytic activity of the composites towards Pb{sup 2+} are investigated in this work. Different adsorption kinetics models and equilibrium models are used to explore the adsorption behavior of hierarchical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. Experimental data show that adsorption kinetics of the hierarchical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres can be fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model, while the isothermal data can be perfectly described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the hierarchical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres is 32.36 mg g{sup −1}. Moreover, the hierarchical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres possess photocatalytic oxidation character under simulated solar light irradiation. The results demonstrate that the hierarchical α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres, as effective and cheap materials, can be applied to the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

  8. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  9. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  10. Preparation of Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Hollow Nanocolloids with Enhanced Electrochemical Property for Supercapacitors Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Wan, Zhanghui; Yang, Tiezhu; Zhao, Mengen; Lv, Xinyan; Wang, Hao; Ren, Xiuli; Mei, Xifan

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured functional materials with hollow interiors are considered to be good candidates for a variety of advanced applications. However, synthesis of uniform hollow nanocolloids with porous texture via wet chemistry method is still challenging. In this work, nickel cobalt precursors (NCP) in sub-micron sized spheres have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The subsequent sulfurization process in hydrothermal system has changed the NCP to nickel cobalt sulfide (NCS) with porous texture. Importantly, the hollow interiors can be tuned through the sulfurization process by employing different dosage of sulfur source. The derived NCS products have been fabricated into supercapacitor electrodes and their electrochemical performances are measured and compared, where promising results were found for the next-generation high-performance electrochemical capacitors. PMID:27114165

  11. Surfactant-assisted solvothermal preparation of submicrometer-sized hollow hematite particles and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Suoyuan; Wang Enbo; Gao Lei; Wu Di; Song Yanli; Xu Lin

    2006-01-01

    Submicrometer-sized hollow hematite particles were prepared through a surfactant-assisted solvothermal process. The amount of FeCl 3 .H 2 O and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and the acidity of the solution were systematically altered to study their effects on the final results. Hollow hematite particles with shapes from sphere, ellipsoid to peanut were obtained. Their sizes range from 500 nm to 2 μm with shell thickness from 100 to 500 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction were applied to investigate the products' crystallinity, purity, morphology, size and structural features. Finally, the study on the photocatalysis of Fe 2 O 3 for the destruction of diethyl phthalate in water was carried out. The result proved that Fe 2 O 3 hollow particles were effective photocatalysts for the degradation of DEP, with 96.8% destruction ratio being obtained within 60 min

  12. Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-07-13

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g-1 with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Pele's tears and spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Quane, S.; Russell, K.

    2011-12-01

    Pele's tears are a well known curiosity commonly associated with low viscosity basaltic explosive eruptions. However, these pyroclasts are rarely studied in detail and there is no full explanation for their formation. These intriguing pyroclasts have smooth glassy surfaces, vesiculated interiors, and fluidal morphologies tending towards droplets and then spheres as they decrease in size to Pele's tears from the 1959 fire-fountaining eruption of Kilauea Iki involving size and density measurements. Using thin section and SEM analysis we also consider their internal and external morphologies, porosity and bubble size distributions, and surface textures. Finally we consider the mechanisms of magma fragmentation, timescales of relaxation, and cooling rates that are responsible for their formation.

  15. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  16. Switching a Nanocluster Core from Hollow to Non-hollow

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-03-24

    Modulating the structure-property relationship in atomically precise nanoclusters (NCs) is vital for developing novel NC materials and advancing their applications. While promising biphasic ligand-exchange (LE) strategies have been developed primarily to attain novel NCs, understanding the mechanistic aspects involved in tuning the core and the ligand-shell of NCs in such biphasic processes is challenging. Here, we design a single phase LE process that enabled us to elucidate the mechanism of how a hollow NC (e.g., [Ag44(SR)30]4-, -SR: thiolate) converts into a non-hollow NC (e.g., [Ag25(SR)18]-), and vice versa. Our study reveals that the complete LE of the hollow [Ag44(SPhF)30]4- NCs (–SPhF: 4-fluorobenzenethiolate) with incoming 2,4-dimethylbenzenethiol (HSPhMe2) induced distortions in the Ag44 structure forming the non-hollow [Ag25(SPhMe2)18]- by a disproportionation mechanism. While the reverse reaction of [Ag25(SPhMe2)18]- with HSPhF prompted an unusual dimerization of Ag25, followed by a rearrangement step that reproduces the original [Ag44(SPhF)30]4-. Remarkably, both the forward and the backward reactions proceed through similar size intermediates that seem to be governed by the boundary conditions set by the thermodynamic and electronic stability of the hollow and non-hollow metal cores. Furthermore, the resizing of NCs highlights the surprisingly long-range effect of the ligands which are felt by atoms far deep in the metal core, thus opening a new path for controlling the structural evolution of nanoparticles.

  17. The Electrospun Ceramic Hollow Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hollow nanofibers are largely gaining interest from the scientific community for diverse applications in the fields of sensing, energy, health, and environment. The main reasons are: their extensive surface area that increases the possibilities of engineering, their larger accessible active area, their porosity, and their sensitivity. In particular, semiconductor ceramic hollow nanofibers show greater space charge modulation depth, higher electronic transport properties, and shorter ion or electron diffusion length (e.g., for an enhanced charging–discharging rate. In this review, we discuss and introduce the latest developments of ceramic hollow nanofiber materials in terms of synthesis approaches. Particularly, electrospinning derivatives will be highlighted. The electrospun ceramic hollow nanofibers will be reviewed with respect to their most widely studied components, i.e., metal oxides. These nanostructures have been mainly suggested for energy and environmental remediation. Despite the various advantages of such one dimensional (1D nanostructures, their fabrication strategies need to be improved to increase their practical use. The domain of nanofabrication is still advancing, and its predictable shortcomings and bottlenecks must be identified and addressed. Inconsistency of the hollow nanostructure with regard to their composition and dimensions could be one of such challenges. Moreover, their poor scalability hinders their wide applicability for commercialization and industrial use.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Hollow Magnetic Alloy (GdNi2, Co5Gd Nanospheres Coated with Gd2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform magnetic hollow nanospheres (GdNi2, Co5Gd coated with Gd2O3 have been successfully prepared on a large scale via a urea-based homogeneous precipitation method using silica (SiO2 spheres as sacrificed templates, followed by subsequent heat treatment. Nitrogen sorption measurements and scanning electron microscope reveal that these hollow-structured magnetic nanospheres have the mesoporous shells that are composed of a large amount of uniform nanoparticles. After reduction treatment, these nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetism that might have potential applications in medicine. Furthermore, the developed synthesis route may provide an important guidance for the preparation of other multifunctional hollow spherical materials.

  19. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya. Ramesh .... It was as if the Himalayas were hollow inside. ... block would be consistent with the ground elevation in such a ... Alternative models and possible preference: Many refinements of.

  20. Determination of elastic modulus for hollow spherical shells via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Qian; Qian, Menglu [Institute of Acoustic, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, Dangzhong, E-mail: dgaocn@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method. • The simulated results demonstrate that the natural frequencies of a hollow sphere are more strongly dependent on Young’s modulus than Poisson's ratio. • The Young’s moduli of polymer capsules with an sub-millimeter inner radius are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%. - Abstract: The elastic property of a capsule is one of the essential parameters both in engineering applications and scientific understanding of material nature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method, and a combined resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(RUS), which consists of a piezoelectric-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(PZT-RUS) and a laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(LRUS), is developed for determining the elastic modulus of capsule. To understand the behavior of natural frequencies varying with elastic properties, the dependence of natural frequencies on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are calculated numerically. Some representative polymer capsules are measured using PZT-RUS and LRUS. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the Young’s moduli of these capsules are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%.

  1. Polyethyleneimine-Functionalized Polyamide Imide (Torlon) Hollow-Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie; Qiu, Wulin; Lively, Ryan P.; Lee, Jong Suk; Rownaghi, Ali A.; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emitted from existing coal-fired power plants is a major environmental concern due to possible links to global climate change. In this study, we expand upon previous work focused on aminosilane-functionalized polymeric hollow

  2. Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Samir Bhaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of  functions in  spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in    spaces for  by modulus of smoothness of functions.

  3. Hollow nanotubular toroidal polymer microrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeong; Baek, Kangkyun; Kim, Myungjin; Yun, Gyeongwon; Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Ilha; Kim, Jeehong; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Park, Chan Gyung; Sung, Wokyung; Kim, Kimoon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the remarkable progress made in the self-assembly of nano- and microscale architectures with well-defined sizes and shapes, a self-organization-based synthesis of hollow toroids has, so far, proved to be elusive. Here, we report the synthesis of polymer microrings made from rectangular, flat and rigid-core monomers with anisotropically predisposed alkene groups, which are crosslinked with each other by dithiol linkers using thiol-ene photopolymerization. The resulting hollow toroidal structures are shape-persistent and mechanically robust in solution. In addition, their size can be tuned by controlling the initial monomer concentrations, an observation that is supported by a theoretical analysis. These hollow microrings can encapsulate guest molecules in the intratoroidal nanospace, and their peripheries can act as templates for circular arrays of metal nanoparticles.

  4. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  5. Hollow fiber liquid supported membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1987-01-01

    The hollow fiber system are well known and developed in the scientific literature because of their applicability in the process separation units. The authors approach to a mathematical model for a particular hollow fiber system, usin liquid membranes. The model has been developed in order to obtain a suitable tool for a sensitivy analysis and for a scaling-up. This kind of investigation is very usefull from an engineering point of view, to get a spread range of information to build up a pilot plant from the laboratory scale

  6. Hollow objects of desire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, A.

    1992-01-01

    Called an academinc curiosity only a few years ago the cage-like fullerenes now receive a lot of interest from research institutes and industry. The soot-containing combustion of hydrocarbons could become a low-cost source for this type of carbons. (orig.) [de

  7. Adsorption and magnetic removal of neutral red dye from aqueous solution using Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, Mahmood; Guo, Chen; Guan Yueping; Ishfaq, Ahmad; Liu Huizhou

    2010-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 hollow nanospheres were prepared via a simple one-pot template-free hydrothermal method and were fully characterized. These magnetic spheres have been investigated for application as an adsorbant for the removal of dye contaminants from water. Because of the high specific surface area, nano-scale particle size, and hollow porous material, Fe 3 O 4 hollow spheres showed favorable adsorption behavior for Neutral red. Factors affecting adsorption, such as, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were evaluated. Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms were selected to explicate the interaction of the dye and magnetic adsorbant. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The overall trend followed an increase of the sorption capacity with increasing dye concentration with a maximum of 90% dye removal. The monolayer adsorption capacity of magnetic hollow spheres (0.05 g) for NR in the concentration range studied, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 deg. C and pH 6, was found to be 105 mg g -1 . Adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption processes are spontaneous and endothermic. The combination of the superior adsorption and the magnetic properties of Fe 3 O 4 nanospheres can be useful as a powerful separation tool to deal with environmental pollution.

  8. Preparation and crystallization of hollow α-Fe2O3 microspheres following the gas-bubble template method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, L. de los Santos; León Félix, L.; Espinoza Suarez, S.M.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.G.; Mitrelias, T.; Holmes, S.; Moreno, N.O.; Albino Aguiar, J.; Barnes, C.H.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report the formation of hollow α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. This technique is simple and it does not require hard templates, surfactants, special conditions of atmosphere or complex steps. After reacting Fe(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O and citric acid in water by sol–gel, the precursor was annealed in air at different temperatures between 180 and 600 °C. Annealing at 550 and 600 °C generates bubbles on the melt which crystallize and oxidizes to form hematite hollow spheres after quenching. The morphology and crystal evolution are studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. We found that after annealing at 250–400 °C, the sample consist of a mixture of magnetite, maghemite and hematite. Single hematite phase in the form of hollow microspheres is obtained after annealing at 550 and 600 °C. The crystallization and crystal size of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature. A possible mechanism for hollow sphere formation is presented. - Highlights: • Formation of hollow hematite microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. • This technique does not require hard templates or special conditions of atmosphere. • Annealing promotes the transition magnetite to maghemite to hematite. • Crystallization of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature.

  9. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  10. Hollow core plasma channel generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Heinrich Martin

    2018-03-01

    The use of a hollow plasma channel in plasma-based acceleration has beneficial properties for the acceleration of electron and positron bunches. In the scope of the FLASHForward facility at DESY, the generation of such a plasma structure is examined. Therefore, the generation of a ring-shaped laser intensity profile with different techniques is analyzed. From the obtained intensity profiles the electron density of a hollow plasma channel is simulated in the focal region. Different parameters are scanned to understand their influence on the electron density distribution - an important parameter being, for example, the radius of the central region of the channel. In addition to the simulations, experiments are presented, during which a laser pulse is transformed into a hollow beam with a spiral phase plate. Subsequently, it forms a plasma during the interaction with hydrogen, where the plasma is imaged with interferometry. For energies above 0.9 mJ a hollow plasma structure can be observed at the location of first plasma formation.

  11. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Washington; Irving

    1987-01-01

    Part Ⅰ On the Eastern shore of the Hudson River there was a little valley, among high hills, which was one of the quietest places in the whole world. This little valley had long been known by the name of SIeepy Hollow. Many strange stories about ghosts were told and retold in the village situated there.

  12. Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culfaz, Pmar Zeynep; Culfaz, P.Z.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a corrugated outer microstructure were prepared from a PES/PVP blend. The effect of spinning parameters such as air gap, take-up speed, polymer dope viscosity and coagulation value on the microstructure and membrane characteristics was investigated. Fibers

  13. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2017-11-28

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  14. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From......), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity...

  15. Differential Calculus on Quantum Spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Welk, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We study covariant differential calculus on the quantum spheres S_q^2N-1. Two classification results for covariant first order differential calculi are proved. As an important step towards a description of the noncommutative geometry of the quantum spheres, a framework of covariant differential calculus is established, including a particular first order calculus obtained by factorization, higher order calculi and a symmetry concept.

  16. Facile synthesis and electrochemical properties of continuous porous spheres assembled from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets for reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Lu, Huihui; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Ma, Liying

    2018-05-01

    Hollow or continuous porous hierarchical MoS2/C structures with large Li-ion and electron transport kinetics, and high structural stability are urgent needs for their application in lithium ion batteries. In this regard, a novel continuous porous micro-sphere constructed from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets is successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone surfactant serves as carbon source and supporter, while the CS2 works as soft template and sulfur source during hydrothermal process. The morphologies, structures, and electrochemical properties are systematically characterized. Importantly, it should be noted that the unique porous micro-spheres with merits of rich-defect, expanded-interlayer, few-layer (integrating carbon are favorable for lithium ion batteries application. When the uniform composites are used as lithium ion batteries anode materials, they deliver a high reversible capacity, excellent cycling performance (average capacity fading of 0.037% per cycle at 0.2 A g-1), and good rate capability.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of porous double-shelled Mn2O3 hollow microspheres as a superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yu; Yu, Yan; Jin, Yi; Guan, Yi-Biao; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are prepared by a multi-step. • synthesis procedure. • Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 spheres are prepared for comparison. • The double-shelled hollow Mn 2 O 3 is superior in electrochemical properties. - Abstract: By means of a specially designed multi-step synthesis procedure involving steps of precipitation, controlled oxidation, selective etching and calcination, porous double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are synthesized. Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 are also similarly synthesized for comparison. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements are employed to investigate their structures and compositions. Galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of Mn 2 O 3 /Li cells. The results show that the hierarchical hollow structured (double-shelled, hollow and yolk-structured) Mn 2 O 3 anode materials deliver higher reversible capacities and excellent cycling stabilities than the solid Mn 2 O 3 . Moreover, among the three hierarchical hollow structured samples, the double shelled sample possesses the best cycling performance, especially at a high current density

  18. Multifunctional Mesoporous Carbon Capsules and their Robust Coatings for Encapsulation of Actives: Antimicrobial and Anti-bioadhesion Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gargi; Mittal, Nitesh; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2017-06-14

    We present the synthesis and applications of multifunctional hollow porous carbon spheres with well-ordered pore architecture and ability to encapsulate functional nanoparticles. In the present work, the applications of hollow mesoporous carbon capsules (HMCCs) are illustrated in two different contexts. In the first approach, the hollow capsule core is used to encapsulate silver nanoparticles to impart antimicrobial characteristics. It is shown that silver-loaded HMCCs (concentration ∼100 μg/mL) inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacterial colonies of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) up to 96% and 83%, respectively. In the second part, the fabrication of hierarchical micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic coatings of HMCCs (without encapsulation with silver nanoparticles) is evaluated for anti-bioadhesion properties. Studies of protein adsorption and microorganism and platelet adhesion have shown a significant reduction (up to 100%) for the HMCC-based superhydrophobic surfaces compared with the control surfaces. Therefore, this unique architecture of HMCCs and their coatings with the ability to encapsulate functional materials make them a promising candidate for a variety of applications.

  19. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  20. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  1. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Stanley H [Placitas, NM; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Schmidt, Carrie [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  2. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  3. Modeling the Electrostatics of Hollow Shell Suspensions: Ion Distribution, Pair Interactions, and Many-Body Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Yannick; Meireles, Martine

    2016-10-11

    Electrostatic interactions play a key role in hollow shell suspensions as they determine their structure, stability, thermodynamics, and rheology and also the loading capacity of small charged species for nanoreservoir applications. In this work, fast, reliable modeling strategies aimed at predicting the electrostatics of hollow shells for one, two, and many colloids are proposed and validated. The electrostatic potential inside and outside a hollow shell with a finite thickness and a specific permittivity is determined analytically in the Debye-Hückel (DH) limit. An expression for the interaction potential between two such hollow shells is then derived and validated numerically. It follows a classical Yukawa form with an effective charge depending on the shell geometry, permittivity, and inner and outer surface charge densities. The predictions of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation with this pair potential to determine equations of state are then evaluated by comparison to results obtained with a Brownian dynamics algorithm coupled to the resolution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann and Laplace equations (PB-BD simulations). The OZ equation based on the DLVO-like potential performs very well in the dilute regime as expected, but also quite well, and more surprisingly, in the concentrated regime in which full spheres exhibit significant many-body effects. These effects are shown to vanish for shells with small thickness and high permittivity. For highly charged hollow shells, we propose and validate a charge renormalization procedure. Finally, using PB-BD simulations, we show that the cell model predicts the ion distribution inside and outside hollow shells accurately in both electrostatically dilute and concentrated suspensions. We then determine the shell loading capacity as a function of salt concentration, volume fraction, and surface charge density for nanoreservoir applications such as drug delivery, sensing, or smart coatings.

  4. Synthesis and characterizations of spherical hollow composed of AgI nanoparticle using AgBr as the precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Zhou Kui

    2011-01-01

    Hollow spheres of AgI with an average radius of 100-200 nm have been prepared by a simple reaction between AgBr suspension and KI in the presence of gelatin. Gelatin played a decisive role as an inhibitor of the direct attack of I - ions to AgBr surfaces and coagulation of the growing AgI in producing the spherical AgI particles. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra techniques. The band gaps are estimated to be 2.95 eV according to the results of optical measurements of the hollow spheres of AgI.

  5. Hierarchical Graphene-Encapsulated Hollow SnO2@SnS2 Nanostructures with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangwang; Xie, Zhiqiang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Dietrich, Grant; Dooley, Kerry M; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-14

    Complex hierarchical structures have received tremendous attention due to their superior properties over their constitute components. In this study, hierarchical graphene-encapsulated hollow SnO2@SnS2 nanostructures are successfully prepared by in situ sulfuration on the backbones of hollow SnO2 spheres via a simple hydrothermal method followed by a solvothermal surface modification. The as-prepared hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposite can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting excellent cyclability with a capacity of 583 mAh/g after 100 electrochemical cycles at a specific current of 200 mA/g. This material shows a very low capacity fading of only 0.273% per cycle from the second to the 100th cycle, lower than the capacity degradation of bare SnO2 hollow spheres (0.830%) and single SnS2 nanosheets (0.393%). Even after being cycled at a range of specific currents varied from 100 mA/g to 2000 mA/g, hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites maintain a reversible capacity of 664 mAh/g, which is much higher than single SnS2 nanosheets (374 mAh/g) and bare SnO2 hollow spheres (177 mAh/g). Such significantly improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical hollow structure, which not only effectively alleviates the stress resulting from the lithiation/delithiation process and maintaining structural stability during cycling but also reduces aggregation and facilitates ion transport. This work thus demonstrates the great potential of hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites for applications as a high-performance anode material in next-generation lithium ion battery technology.

  6. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  7. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by the conversion of borate glass at near room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Aihua; Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres, consisting of a hollow core and a porous shell, were prepared by converting Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass microspheres in dilute phosphate solution at 37 o C. The results confirmed that Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass was transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the shell wall of the microsphere was built from hydroxyapatite particles, and these particles spontaneously align with one another to form a porous sphere with an interior cavity. Increase in phosphate concentration resulted in an increase in the reaction rate, which in turn had an effect on shell wall structure of the hollow hydroxyapatite microsphere. For the Li 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass microspheres reacted in low-concentration K 2 HPO 4 solution, lower reaction rate and a multilayered microstructure were observed. On the other hand, the glass microspheres reacted in higher phosphate solution converted more rapidly and produced a single hydroxyapatite layer. Furthermore, the mechanism of forming hydroxyapatite hollow microsphere was described.

  8. Facile synthesis of hollow dendritic Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles for enhanced methanol oxidation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ning; Wang, Ke; Shan, Xinyao; Bai, Qiang; Wang, Lina; Xiao, Hailian; Liu, Manhong; Colvin, Vicki L; Yu, William W

    2017-11-14

    Hollow dendritic Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by a double template method: Ag nanoparticles as the hard template to obtain hollow spheres by a galvanic replacement reaction between PtCl 6 2- and metallic Ag and surfactant micelles (Brij58) as the soft template to generate porous dendrites. The formation of a Ag/Pt alloy phase was confirmed by XRD and HRTEM. Elemental mapping and line scanning revealed the formation of the hollow architecture. We studied the effects of the Ag/Pt ratio, surfactant and reaction temperature on the morphology. In addition, we explored the formation process of hollow dendritic Ag/Pt nanoparticles by tracking the morphologies of the nanostructures formed at different stages. In order to improve the electrocatalytic property, we controlled the size of the nanoparticles and the thickness of the shell by adjusting the amount of the precursor. We found that these Ag/Pt alloy nanoparticles exhibited high activity (440 mA mg -1 ) and stability as an electrocatalyst for catalyzing methanol oxidation.

  9. Optimization of Deacetylation Process for Regenerated Cellulose Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA hollow fibers were spun from a CA+ Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP/H2O dope solution and regenerated by deacetylation. The complete deacetylation time of 0.5 h was found at a high concentration (0.2 M NaOH ethanol (96% solution. The reaction rate of deacetylation with 0.5 M NaOH was faster in a 50% ethanol compared to a 96 vol.% ethanol. The hydrogen bond between CA and tertiary amide group of PVP was confirmed. The deacetylation parameters of NaOH concentration, reaction time, swelling time, and solution were investigated by orthogonal experimental design (OED method. The degree of cross-linking, the residual acetyl content, and the PVP content in the deacetylated membranes were determined by FTIR analysis. The conjoint analysis in the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS software was used to analyze the OED results, and the importance of the deacetylation parameters was sorted as Solution > Swelling time > Reaction time > Concentration. The optimal deacetylation condition of 96 vol.% ethanol solution, swelling time 24 h, the concentration of NaOH (0.075 M, and the reaction time (2 h were identified. The regenerated cellulose hollow fibers under the optimal deacetylation condition can be further used as precursors for preparation of hollow fiber carbon membranes.

  10. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 nanowires grown on hollow NiO microspheres with superior electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Meiqing; Ren, Bo; Yu, Lei; Song, Dalei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires. • The NiO hollow spheres were comprised of many NiO particles. • The Co 3 O 4 nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. • The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell nanocomposites have good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites as a promising supercapacitor material have been fabricated by facile hydrothermal process. The structure and morphology of the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires, and the nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results suggested that the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites had good electrochemical reversibility and displayed superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (510 F g −1 ). Moreover, NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites showed excellent cyclic performanceafter 1000 cycles

  11. Embedding of Hollow Polymer Microspheres with Hydrophilic Shell in Nafion Matrix as Proton and Water Micro-Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assimilating hydrophilic hollow polymer spheres (HPS into Nafion matrix by a loading of 0.5 wt % led to a restructured hydrophilic channel, composed of the pendant sulfonic acid groups (–SO3H and the imbedded hydrophilic hollow spheres. The tiny hydrophilic hollow chamber was critical to retaining moisture and facilitating proton transfer in the composite membranes. To obtain such a tiny cavity structure, the synthesis included selective generation of a hydrophilic polymer shell on silica microsphere template and the subsequent removal of the template by etching. The hydrophilic HPS (100–200 nm possessed two different spherical shells, the styrenic network with pendant sulfonic acid groups and with methacrylic acid groups, respectively. By behaving as microreservoirs of water, the hydrophilic HPS promoted the Grotthus mechanism and, hence, enhanced proton transport efficiency through the inter-sphere path. In addition, the HPS with the –SO3H borne shell played a more effective role than those with the –CO2H borne shell in augmenting proton transport, in particular under low humidity or at medium temperatures. Single H2-PEMFC test at 70 °C using dry H2/O2 further verified the impactful role of hydrophilic HPS in sustaining higher proton flux as compared to pristine Nafion membrane.

  12. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  13. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroscience in the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere.

  15. Horseradish peroxidase-loaded nanospheres attached to hollow gold nanoparticles as signal enhancers in an ultrasensitive immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ya; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Yuxia

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemical signal amplification strategy for use in immunoassays. The highly responsive immunoelectrode was constructed in the following way: (1) The surface of a gold electrode was covered with a layer single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chitosane functionalized with L-cysteine; (2) Gold nanoparticles containing protein A and anti-alpha-fetoprotein (anti-AFP) were then covalently attached to the surface via the thiol groups of the chitosane. The electrode is then exposed to the analyte (AFP) which then is bound by the antibody. In the next step, a gold-conjugated secondary antibody is added that was prepared in the following way: (1) Horseradish peroxidase was crosslinked and the resulting spheres were coated with hollow gold nanoparticles (hollow Au-NPs) to give nanospheres of ∼100 nm in diameter. (2) These were the coated with thionine and, in a last step, with secondary antibody. The use of these materials has several attractive features: The HRP-NPs functionalized with hollow Au-NPs possess a large surface area that can load the large amount of secondary antibody. Thionine (Thi) is highly redox active and improves the intensity of the signal. Carbon nanotubes were used because they possess an excellent electron transfer rate and large surface area. Following incubation of the modified electrode (a) with a sample containing AFP, (b) then with the secondary antibody, and (c) with washing buffer, the electrode is placed in a solution containing H 2 O 2 . The HRP in the smart secondary antibody causes the catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 and the results in an electrical current that is linearly related to the concentration of AFP in the 0.025 to 5.0 ng mL −1 concentration range. The detection limit for AFP is as low as 8.3 pg mL −1 . We believe that this novel kind of immunoassay represents a promising tool for use in sensitive clinical assays. (author)

  16. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  17. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional

  18. Hollow rods for the oil producing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalimova, L M; Elyasheva, M A

    1970-01-01

    Hollow sucker rods have several advantages over conventional ones. The hollow rods actuate the well pump and at the same time conduct produced fluids to surface. When paraffin deposition occurs, it can be minimized by injecting steam, hot oil or hot water into the hollow rod. Other chemicals, such as demulsifiers, scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, etc., can also be placed in the well through the hollow rods. This reduces cost of preventive treatments, reduces number of workovers, increases oil production, and reduces cost of oil. Because the internal area of the rod is small, the passing liquids have a high velocity and thereby carry sand and dirt out of the well. This reduces pump wear between the piston and the plunger. Specifications of hollow rods, their operating characteristics, and results obtained with such rods under various circumstances are described.

  19. Hydrothermal assisted synthesis of iron oxide-based magnetic silica spheres and their performance in magnetophoretic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caparros, C., E-mail: ccaparros@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Benelmekki, M.; Martins, P.M. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Xuriguera, E. [Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Silva, C.J.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Martinez, Ll.M. [Sepmag Technologies, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, 08290 Barcelona (Spain); Lanceros-Mendez, S. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    Porous Magnetic Silica (PMS) spheres of about 400 nm diameter were synthesised by one-pot process using the classical Stber method combined with hydrothermal treatment. Maghemite nanoparticles ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were used as fillers and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as templating agent. The application of the hydrothermal process (120 Degree-Sign C during 48 h) before the calcination leads to the formation of homogeneous and narrow size distribution PMS spheres. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Infrared measurements (FTIR) and Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) methods were used to determine the composition and morphology of the obtained PMS spheres. The results show a homogeneous distribution of the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in the silica matrix with a 'hollow-like' morphology. Magnetophoresis measurements at 60 T m{sup -1} show a total separation time of the PMS spheres suspension of about 16 min. By using this synthesis method, the limitation of the formation of silica spheres without incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles is overcome. These achievements make this procedure interesting for industrial up scaling. The obtained PMS spheres were evaluated as adsorbents for Ni{sup 2+} in aqueous solution. Their adsorption capacity was compared with the adsorption capacity of magnetic silica spheres obtained without hydrothermal treatment before calcination process. PMS spheres show an increase of the adsorption capacity of about 15% of the initial dissolution of Ni{sup 2+} without the need to functionalize the silica surface. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous and controlled size porous magnetic silica spheres were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetophoretic removing of Ni{sup 2+} processes was successfully preformed at HLGMF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMS show higher Ni{sup 2+} removing capacity than spheres without hydrothermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMS can be

  20. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  1. Sea urchin-like mesoporous carbon material grown with carbon nanotubes as a cathode catalyst support for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsu, Chun-Han; Li, Wan-Ting; Jhan, Jing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A sea urchin-like carbon (UC) material with high surface area (416 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), adequate electrical conductivity (59.6 S cm{sup -1}) and good chemical stability was prepared by growing carbon nanotubes onto mesoporous carbon hollow spheres. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles was then anchored on the UC, where the Pt nanoparticles were prepared using benzylamine as the stabilizer. For this Pt loaded carbon, cyclic voltammogram measurements showed an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) (114.8 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) compared to the commonly used commercial E-TEK catalyst (65.2 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The durability test demonstrates that the carbon used as a support exhibited minor loss in EAS of Pt. Compared to the E-TEK (20 wt%) cathode catalyst, this Pt loaded UC catalyst has greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, less cathode flooding and considerably improved performance, resulting in an enhancement of ca. 37% in power density compared with that of E-TEK. Based on the results obtained, the UC is an excellent support for Pt nanoparticles used as cathode catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. (author)

  2. Hierarchical NiO-SiO2 composite hollow microspheres with enhanced adsorption affinity towards Congo red in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chunsheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Bicheng; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-03-15

    Hollow microspheres and hierarchical porous nanostructured materials with desired morphologies have gained remarkable attention for their potential applications in environmental technology. In this study, NiO-SiO2 hollow microspheres were prepared by co-precipitation with SiO2 and nickel salt as precursors, followed by dipping in alkaline solution and calcination. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized hollow spheres were composed of a SiO2 shell and hierarchical porous NiO nanosheets on the surface. Adsorption experiments suggested that NiO-SiO2 composite particles were powerful adsorbents for removal of Congo red from water, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 204.1 mg/g. The high specific surface areas, hollow structures, and hierarchical porous surfaces of the hollow composite particles are suitable for various applications, including adsorption of pollutants, chemical separation, and water purification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and properties of hollow glass microspheres for use in laser fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.

    1983-11-01

    We review the preparation of high quality, hollow-glass microspheres for use in laser driven fusion experiments at LLNL. The primary focus of this paper is on the liquid-droplet method for making glass spheres, which has been in use at LLNL for over six years. We have combined the results from previous studies with our current results to present a detailed description of the preparation and the composition and physical properties of the glass microspheres. We also present a mathematical model that simulates the microsphere formation process. Examples are given of the application of the model to study the effects of various process parameters.

  4. Preparation and properties of hollow glass microspheres for use in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    We review the preparation of high quality, hollow-glass microspheres for use in laser driven fusion experiments at LLNL. The primary focus of this paper is on the liquid-droplet method for making glass spheres, which has been in use at LLNL for over six years. We have combined the results from previous studies with our current results to present a detailed description of the preparation and the composition and physical properties of the glass microspheres. We also present a mathematical model that simulates the microsphere formation process. Examples are given of the application of the model to study the effects of various process parameters

  5. Rapid synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride powders by metathesis reaction between CaCN2 and C2Cl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Linlin; Bi Jianqiang; Bai Yujun; Qi Yongxin; Zhu Huiling; Wang Chengguo; Wu Jiwei; Lu Chengwei

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nitride powders were rapidly synthesized at low temperature via the chemical metathesis reaction between CaCN 2 and C 2 Cl 6 . X-ray diffraction results confirm the formation of crystalline graphitic carbon nitride. Besides the dominant morphology of nanoparticles, flakes, nanorods, hollow and solid spheres can be observed by transmission electron microscopy. The absorption peaks of C-N, C=N and s-triazine rings, as well as the absence of C≡N peak in the infrared spectra, further verify the formation of graphite-like sp 2 -bonded structure with planar networks. Elemental analysis gives an atomic ratio of N/C around 0.3. X-ray photoelectron spectra exhibit the existence of chemical bonding between C and N

  6. Preparation and crystallization of hollow α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microspheres following the gas-bubble template method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, L. de los Santos, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); León Félix, L. [Laboratorio de Cerámicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Laboratory of Magnetic Characterization, Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brasilia (Brazil); Espinoza Suarez, S.M.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.G. [Laboratorio de Cerámicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Mitrelias, T.; Holmes, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Moreno, N.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Sao Cristóvao, Sergipe (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J. [Laboratório de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avançados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife (Brazil); Barnes, C.H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J.J Thomson Av., Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    In this work we report the formation of hollow α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. This technique is simple and it does not require hard templates, surfactants, special conditions of atmosphere or complex steps. After reacting Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O and citric acid in water by sol–gel, the precursor was annealed in air at different temperatures between 180 and 600 °C. Annealing at 550 and 600 °C generates bubbles on the melt which crystallize and oxidizes to form hematite hollow spheres after quenching. The morphology and crystal evolution are studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. We found that after annealing at 250–400 °C, the sample consist of a mixture of magnetite, maghemite and hematite. Single hematite phase in the form of hollow microspheres is obtained after annealing at 550 and 600 °C. The crystallization and crystal size of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature. A possible mechanism for hollow sphere formation is presented. - Highlights: • Formation of hollow hematite microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. • This technique does not require hard templates or special conditions of atmosphere. • Annealing promotes the transition magnetite to maghemite to hematite. • Crystallization of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature.

  7. The effect of iron catalyzed graphitization on the textural properties of carbonized cellulose : Magnetically separable graphitic carbon bodies for catalysis and remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Beale, Andrew M.; Soulimani, Fouad; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Van De Kleut, Dirk; Koelewijn, Jacobus M.; Geus, John W.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas pyrolysis of pristine microcrystalline cellulose spheres yields nonporous amorphous carbon bodies, pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose spheres loaded with iron salts leads to the formation of magnetically separable mesoporous graphitic carbon bodies. The microcrystalline cellulose

  8. CNT-embedded hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with high adsorption and photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, Dayoung; Lee, Young-Seak, E-mail: youngslee@cnu.ac.kr

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CNT-embedded hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were successfully fabricated via electrospinning, impregnation, and calcination. • The highest degradation ratio achieved using the CNT-embedded hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. • Incorporation of embedded CNTs both increased the adsorption capability and enhanced the photodegradation activity. - Abstract: Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared for use as photocatalysts through electrospinning, impregnation, and calcination using multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) with various ratios of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and further characterized by SEM, TGA, BET and XRD. The results demonstrated the successful fabrication of hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with embedded CNTs. The CNT-embedded hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers prepared in this study exhibited improved photocatalytic activity compared to plain hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers based on the conversion of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The highest degradation ratio produced by the CNT-embedded hollow TiO{sub 2} nanofibers was approximately 62% after 70 min, which represented an increase of more than 80% over that of TiO{sub 2}. It was found that the enhanced efficiency of MB removal could be attributed not only to the adsorption capability of the CNTs but also to electron transfer between the CNTs and the TiO{sub 2}.

  9. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, Ronald [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Grace [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dai, Ying [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fan, Yanfang [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Christopher [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalyanaraman, Jayashree [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kawajiri, Yoshiaki [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lively, Ryan [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); McCool, Benjamin [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Realff, Matthew [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rezaei, Fateme [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Searcy, Katherine [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sholl, David [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Subramanian, Swernath [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  10. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  11. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a know