WorldWideScience

Sample records for hollandicus hispaniolan amazon

  1. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2009-06-01

    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  2. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  3. Agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; da Cunha, Anderson; Smith, Julie; Tully, Thomas N; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Serra, Verna; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-11-15

    To determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane. Validation study. 16 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values. There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, -14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful. Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.

  4. Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Keuler, Nicholas S; Klauer, Julia M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. 3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.

  5. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly

  6. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  7. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  9. Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Braun, Jana M; Cox, Sherry K; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

  10. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Gerhardt, Lillian; Cox, Sherry

    2013-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  12. Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Bas; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Owens, Sean D; Hass, Carlyle; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated. Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity. Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  14. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  15. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  16. Evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Wiggans, K Tomo; Kass, Philip H; Houck, Emma; Murphy, Christopher J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. Randomized crossover study. 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration. A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments. Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Compounded Intravenous and Oral Gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. To determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions were administered at 30 mg/kg IV to 2 birds, 10 mg/kg PO to 3 birds, and 30 mg/kg PO to 3 birds. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 9 different time points after drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for gabapentin concentration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with both a nonlinear mixed-effect approach and a noncompartmental analysis. The best compartmental, oral model was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles resulting from different dosing scenarios. Mild sedation was observed in both study birds after intravenous injection. Computer simulation of different dosing scenarios with the mean parameter estimates showed that 15 mg/kg every 8 hours would be a starting point for oral dosing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots based on effective plasma concentrations reported for human patients; however, additional studies need to be performed to establish a therapeutic dose.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  20. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Court, Michael H; Zhu, Zhaohui; Summa, Noémie; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-09-01

    Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean C max of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

  2. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  3. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  5. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  6. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Smith, Dale A; Mosley, Cornelia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

  8. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Thomas N; Osofsky, Anna; Jowett, Peter L H; Hosgood, Giselle

    2003-12-01

    Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve synapses. Blood samples from 22 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were assayed for cholinesterase levels by two different techniques. Using the modified Michel method, the whole-blood cholinesterase activity levels ranged from 0.082 to 0.616 deltapH/hr with a mean value of 0.35 deltapH/hr. A reference range (0.08-0.62 deltapH/hr) for cholinesterase was established in birds. The modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was used to measure AChE activity by adding acetylthiocholine or pseudocholinesterase (plasma cholinesterase) activity by adding butyrylthiocholine. The reference range of the AChE activity using the modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was 0-1.12 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.48 micromol/ml/min, and for pseudocholinesterase the range was 0.09-0.98 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.53 micromol/ml/min.

  10. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  11. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  12. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  13. Effects of leuprolide acetate on selected blood and fecal sex hormones in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrais).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaphake, Eric; Fecteau, Kellie; DeWit, Martine; Greenacre, Cheryl; Grizzle, Judith; Jones, Michael; Zagaya, Nancy; Abney, L Kim; Oliver, Jack

    2009-12-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide acetate is used commonly to anage reproductive problems in pet birds. To determine the effect of leuprolide acetate on plas a and fecal hormone levels in a psittacine species, a single 800 microg/kg dose of the 30-day depot form of leuprolide acetate was administered IM in 11 healthy, nonbreeding adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and plasma and fecal hormone levels were measured before and after leuprolide administration. At pooled baseline to 21 days postleuprolide acetate administration, sample collection day was significantly associated with plasma 17beta-estradiol and androstenedione levels and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels (evaluated in females only). Both plasma androstenedione and plasma 17beta-estradiol levels decreased significantly from baseline to a nadir at 7 days postleuprolide acetate administration but did not differ significantly 14 days later from that nadir or from pooled baseline samples, suggesting that the effect of leuprolide on hormone levels remained about 2 weeks. Fecal 17beta-estradiol levels increased significantly from the nadir at 7 days postleuprolide to 21 days postleuprolide administration, with trends of the level at 21 days postleuprolide being higher than the pooled baseline level and of decreasing levels from pooled baseline to 7 days postleuprolide administration. Plasma luteinizing hormone and fecal testosterone levels did not change significantly from baseline levels after leuprolide administration over the 2-day period. No significant correlations were found between plasma hormone and fecal hormone levels. These results suggest that measurement of plasma androstenedione, plasma 17beta-estradiol, and fecal 17beta-estradiol levels might be useful in assessing the effects of 30-day depot leuprolide acetate in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  14. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-06-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM) to 2 birds, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after administration. Based on the results obtained, a main study was done in which piperacillin/tazobactam was administered at 2 different doses. In 3 birds, the initial dose of piperacillin (87 mg/kg)/tazobactam (11 mg/kg) IM was administered, and in 3 birds, the dose was doubled to piperacillin (174 mg/kg)/tazobactam (22 mg/kg) IM. In all 6 birds, blood samples were obtained at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minutes and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 hours after administration. Quantification of plasma piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations was determined by validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. After intramuscular administration, the mean ± standard error values of T 1/2 (h) was 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.07, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.09 and 0.25 ± 0.10, C max (μg/mL) was 86.34 ± 20.62 and 9.03 ± 2.88, and C max /dose was 0.99 ± 0.24 and 0.83 ± 0.26 for piperacillin (87 mg/kg) and tazobactam (11 mg/kg), respectively. When the doses were doubled, the T 1/2 (h) was 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.34 ± 0.02, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.06, C max (μg/mL) was 233.0 ± 6.08 and 22.13 ± 2.35, and C max /dose was 1.34 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.11 for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. Results indicate that piperacillin is rapidly absorbed and reaches high initial concentrations; however, it is also rapidly eliminated in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and tazobactam has similar pharmacokinetics as piperacillin. Administration of piperacillin at 87 mg/kg IM q3-4h is recommended for this species

  15. [Pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (Amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (Amazona a. aestiva)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, M; Straub, J; Schumacher, J; Gompf, R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2005-02-01

    Colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. An electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 MHz. After assessment of cardiac function in 2-D-echocardiography, blood flow across the left and the right atrioventricular valve and across the aortic valve was determined using color-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic inflow (mean value +/- standard deviation) into the left ventricle was 0.17 +/- 0.02 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.18 +/- 0.03 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Diastolic inflow into the right ventricle was 0.22 +/- 0.05 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.22 +/- 0.04 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Velocity across the aortic valve was 0.84 +/- 0.07 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.83 +/- 0.08 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Systolic pulmonary flow could not be detected in any of the birds in this study. No significant differences were evident between the two species examined. Results of this study indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a promising technique to determine blood flow in the avian heart. Further studies in other avian species are needed to establish reference values for assessment of cardiac function in diseased birds.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (Amazon

  17. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  18. Measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  20. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pariaut, Romain; Gaschen Dvm, Lorrie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-02-01

    To establish a computed tomography (CT)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots. 13 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed. Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65). CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.

  1. Measuring the Level of Agreement Between Cloacal Gram's Stains and Bacterial Cultures in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Mitchell, Mark A; Whittington, Julia K; Roy, Alma; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-12-01

    Cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are routinely performed during avian physical examinations to assess the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Although cloacal or fecal Gram's stains and bacterial cultures are considered routine diagnostic procedures, the level of agreement between the individual tests has not been determined. To investigate the level of agreement between results from Gram's stain and bacterial culture when used to assess cloacal or fecal samples from psittacine birds, samples were taken from 21 clinically healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) and tested by Gram's stain cytology and bacterial culture. Most bacteria (97.2%) identified by Gram's stain were gram positive. However, gram-negative organisms were identified in 7 of 21 (33.3%; 95% confidence interval: 13.3%-53.3%) birds. Escherichia coli was the only gram-negative organism identified on culture. Agreement between results of Gram's stain and culture was fair (weighted κ = 0.27). The results of this study suggest that Gram's stains and bacterial culture may need to be performed with a parallel testing strategy to limit the likelihood of misclassifying the microbial flora of psittacine patients.

  2. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney; Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Arnold, Robert D; Tully, Thomas N; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration-time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

  5. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  6. Angiofibroma in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, G A; Miller, J L; Steinberg, H; Mans, C

    2015-01-01

    Human angiofibromas are rare and arise typically in the nasopharynx. In veterinary medicine they have only been described in the dog. Microscopically, angiofibromas consist of irregular groups of blood vessels within a stroma of connective tissue, with oedema and secondary inflammation often present. A cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) was presented with an oral mass that consisted of aggregates of blood vessels surrounded by a connective tissue stroma, with the presence of oedema and secondary inflammation. Tumours of the oral cavity are uncommon in birds and to the authors' knowledge this is the first case of avian angiofibroma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFECT OF ROUTINE HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION ON BLOOD LEUKOCYTE CONCENTRATIONS AND PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE IN CAPTIVE HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS ( AMAZONA VENTRALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Ammersbach, Melanie; Gaunt, Stephen D; Fuller, Rory G; Romero, L Michael

    2018-06-01

      Increased glucocorticoids cause a characteristic stress leukogram in mammalian taxa. It is assumed that avians exhibit a similar response, but to date, there have been no controlled studies to correlate serial endogenous corticosterone levels to hematologic values. An established flock of 18 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis) was used as a model in a crossover study. The treatment group was subjected to the stress of transport, restraint, and common clinical procedures with serial blood samples collected at 20-min intervals for hematology and corticosterone levels; the control group was sampled at the same intervals. Longitudinal data analysis was performed with linear mixed modeling. For all hematologic analytes, the baseline value had a significant positive effect on subsequent values (all P < 0.001). The white blood cell, heterophil, and eosinophil counts and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased over time in the treatment group, whereas it remained stable in the control group ( P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, respectively, for the time*treatment effect). Lymphocyte absolute counts decreased over time, although not significantly; the decrease was significant for the relative lymphocyte count in the treatment group. Monocytes and basophils were not significantly altered. The treatment group had a higher mean corticosterone level overall than the control group by approximately 60% ( P = 0.008). The mean corticosterone level also increased over time in both groups by three- to fourfold ( P < 0.001) by 20 min then plateaued. These results demonstrate that some significant hematologic changes may arise with routine handling and transportation of birds and should be accounted for in hematologic interpretation of cell counts.

  8. Use of phenol red thread tests to evaluate tear production in clinically normal Amazon parrots and comparison with Schirmer tear test findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Eric S; Carboni, Deborah A; Kearney, Michael T; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-11-15

    To determine phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in eyes of clinically normal Hispaniolan Amazon parrots before and after topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent and compare findings with Schirmer tear test (STT) values. Evaluation study. 24 Amazona ventralis parrots from a research colony. On 4 occasions (1-week intervals), all birds underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes, which included (in sequence) performance of a PRTT and an STT; topical ocular application of proparacaine hydrochloride; and performance of another PRTT and another STT. Correlations between PRTT and STT values recorded with and without topical anesthesia were assessed. Without topical anesthesia, mean +/- SD PRTT value was 12.5 +/- 5.0 mm/15 s (range, 1 to 25 mm/15 s). With topical anesthesia, the PRTT value was 12.6 +/- 5.4 mm/15 s (range, 2 to 24 mm/15 s). Without topical anesthesia, mean STT value was 7.9 +/- 2.6 mm/min (range, 0 to 13 mm/min). With topical anesthesia, the STT value was 5.1 +/- 3.3 mm/min (range, 0 to 18 mm/min). The correlation of PRTT and STT values recorded with or without topical anesthesia was weak (r = 0.51 and r = 0.32, respectively). Results indicated that the PRTT and STT were both viable methods for measurement of tear production in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Topical application of an ophthalmic anesthetic agent did not have a significant effect on the PRTT values but significantly decreased the STT values.

  9. Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency secondary to chronic herpesvirus pancreatitis in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, David N; Falcon, Michelle; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K

    2007-06-01

    A cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) examined because of weight loss, polydipsia, and polyuria was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on the presence of glucosuria and marked hyperglycemia. Medical attempts to manage the diabetes mellitus were unsuccessful, and the bird was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the pancreas revealed a chronic active pancreatitis with herpesviral inclusions in many of the pancreatic acinar and duct cells. Psittacid herpesvirus-1 (PsHV-1) DNA was amplified from the lesion by polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of the amplicon showed it to be the genotype 1 variant, which is most commonly associated with Pacheco's disease, an acute rapidly fatal systemic infection. The findings in this case suggest that the PsHV-1 genotype may also cause a localized disease of the pancreas. Infection with this virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with pancreatitis with or without diabetes mellitus.

  10. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  11. Feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Pariaut, Romain; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-03-01

    To establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained. Validation study. 18 birds including 3 pigeons (Columbia livia), 3 barred owls (Strix varia), 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 goose (Anser anser), 1 mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 1 Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), 2 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 2 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 2 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and 1 military macaw (Ara militaris). For each bird, anesthesia was induced and maintained by use of isoflurane. A pediatric, multiplane transesophageal ultrasound probe was passed into the esophagus and adjusted to the level of the heart for echocardiography. Probe positions were recorded via fluoroscopy, and associated imaging planes were described. TEE was performed successfully in all birds except the pelicans, 1 Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and the red-fronted macaws. Five imaging planes of the heart were consistently viewed from 3 positions of the probe (identified as caudal, middle, and cranial positions relative to the cardiac silhouette). M-mode echocardiography of the left ventricle and the aortic root was performed. Color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasonographic images of in- and outflow regions were obtained. One Hispaniolan Amazon parrot died as a result of esophageal perforation. TEE examination of birds was feasible and provided a larger number of imaging planes with better resolution and details than those typically achieved via a transcoelomic approach. However, TEE should be performed with caution in psittacines.

  12. Reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda M; Gaunt, Stephen D; Kearney, Michael T; Rich, Gregory A; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-12-01

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. This is the first published report of reference intervals for Mg in association with Ca and P levels for psittacine species. One milliliter of blood was collected from 26 Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 24 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The plasma concentrations of Ca, P, and Mg were determined for each sample. Statistical analyses were performed including all data (analysis 1) and after exclusion of the subjects with Ca > or = 14.00 mg/dl (3.5 mmol) (analysis 2). The data from analysis 1 have a narrower interval than that observed in analysis 2. Following the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk, alpha = 0.05), the univariate and mean procedures were run. For the reference intervals, the lower and upper values were used, after elimination of the outliers calculated by Blom scores from the ranked variables. The analysis 1 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.40 mg/dl (2.20-2.60 mmol/L), P = 1.80-4.40 mg/dl (0.58-1.42 mmol/L), Mg = 1.80-3.10 mg/dl (0.74-1.27 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 1 references were Ca = 8.20-20.20 mg/dl (2.05-5.05 mmol/L), P = 2.50-5.90 mg/dl (0.81-1.91 mmol/L), Mg = 2.10-3.40 mg/dl (0.82-1.4 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 1.81-3.77. The analysis 2 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.30 mg/dl (2.20-2.58 mmol/L), P = 1.80-3.80 mg/dl (0.58-1.23 mmol/L), Mg = 1.90-3.00 mg/dl (0.82-1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 2 references were Ca = 1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 1.67-3.50. The results of this study are important for evaluating Mg concentrations in relation to the Ca and P parameters in psittacines. This information will be particularly helpful for veterinarians evaluating the hypocalcemic syndrome in African grey parrots and other disease processes

  13. Exploring the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus fecal microbiome, bacterial inhabitants of a worldwide pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Alcaraz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome. Methods In this paper, we analyzed the gut microbiome from fecal samples of three healthy adult cockatiels by massive sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we compared the cockatiel fecal microbiomes with those of other bird species, including poultry and wild birds. Results The vast majority of the bacteria found in cockatiels were Firmicutes, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were poorly represented. A total of 19,280 different OTUs were detected, of which 8,072 belonged to the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Discussion It is relevant to study cockatiel the microbiomes of cockatiels owing to their wide geographic distribution and close human contact. This study serves as a reference for cockatiel bacterial diversity. Despite the large OTU numbers, the diversity is not even and is dominated by Firmicutes of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Cockatiels and other wild birds are almost depleted of Bacteroidetes, which happen to be abundant in poultry-related birds, and this is probably associated with the intensive human manipulation of poultry bird diets. Some probable pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Serratia, appeared to be frequent inhabitants of the fecal microbiome of cockatiels, whereas other potential pathogens were not detected.

  14. Amazon`s strategic analysis approaching the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Rúa de la Plaza, José

    2018-01-01

    Amazon.com has not stopped growing since its foundation in 1994, and has become the leading company in the world of e-commerce. Amazon emerged from a great idea of its founder Jeff Bezos, who has managed to turn an online books store into a company that is constantly thinking about its customers and trying to innovate, either improving existing products and services, developing new ones or entering new markets. Amazon takes advantage of economies of scale that derive from its excellent dis...

  15. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

  16. The diets of Hispaniolan colubrid snakes : I. Introduction and prey genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert W

    1984-05-01

    Approximately 1590 Hispaniolan colubrid snakes representing six genera and eight species were examined for prey remains (Alsophis cantherigerus, Antillophis parvifrons, Darlingtonia haetiana, Hypsirhynchus ferox, Ialtris dorsalis, Uromacer catesbyi, U. frenatus, and U. oxyrhynchus). The snakes were collected at many localities over a span of 80 years.Of 426 prey items, 77.9% were lizards (of which 69.6% were anoles), 19% frogs, 2.6% birds and mammals, and 0.5% other snakes. Darlingtonia was the only snake that did not exploit lizards; it fed exclusively on Eleutherodactylus frogs, including egg clutches. Disregarding Darlingtonia, there is no size class of Hispaniolan colubrids between 20-90 cm SVL that does not prey primarily on Anolis. Certain prey genera are added to, or deleted from, diets depending on snake size, but the data suggest that snake SVL alone does little to dictate what prey genera (or groups) are eaten. Shannon-Wiener values (H') indicate that Darlingtonia has the narrowest trophic niche, while Alsophis and Ialtris have the widest. Values of H' are not correlated with snake SVL, but highly significant (Peats diurnally active (anoles) and diurnally quiescent (hylid frogs) prey with almost equal frequency.Within Maglio's cantherigerus species assemblage, in which an Alsophis cantherigerus-like snake was ancestral to the other species, and in which longsnouted Uromacer are the most morphologically derived, there is an obvious trend toward trophic specialization on Hispaniola. The West Indies have provided an ideal natural laboratory for the investigation of many aspects of vertebrate ecology, and an arena in which to test theories of island biogeography. The most extensively studied West Indian vertebrates have been the lizards of the iguanid genus Anolis. Conversely, the ecology of West Indian snakes has been largely ignored. This is surprising in light of the fact that much has been written about Anolis predation, but little has been written about

  17. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

  18. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  19. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0 upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km. In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1 observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2 also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also

  20. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  1. The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope boats--providing a dental service on the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Shona M C

    2013-01-01

    The Vine Trust's Amazon Hope Project is a medical and dental programme providing healthcare to communities along the Amazon River in Peru. Volunteers from the UK and other countries work alongside Peruvian staff employed by their partner organization, Union Biblica del Peru, to provide a health service from a boat which serves communities on several tributaries who otherwise would have no other access to care. The dental programme involves a basic restorative and extraction service, with scope to develop a preventive programme. Dentists'and DCPs' skills are transferable globally: this article illustrates how one volunteer dental project is working to provide relevant and sustainable dental health care in the Amazon jungle.

  2. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Divino, Jose Angelo; McAleer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world's environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Para (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil's North region. Th...

  3. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  4. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  5. How many more dams in the Amazon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundisi, J.G.; Goldemberg, J.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Saraiva, A.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary

  6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  7. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  8. AMAZON HADOOP FRAMEWORK USED IN BUSINESS FOR BIG DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ankush Verma*, Dr Neelesh Jain

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon MapReduce programming model, introduced by Amazon, a simple and efficient way of performing distributed computation over large data sets on the web especially for e-commerce. Amazon EMR work on Master/Slave Architecture using Amazon EMR for map and reduce big data. Amazon EC2 use cloud computing is a central part of designed web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. Here we also discuss about the Benefit and limitation of using Amazon EMR. Amazon S3 use eas...

  9. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  10. Amazon Web Services- a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Narendula, Rammohan

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a set (more than 25) of proprietary web-based services owned by Amazon.com. All these services ranging from simple storage to sophisticated database services constitute the cloud platform oered by Amazon. An extensive list of customers for AWS include Dropbox, UniLever, Airbnb, Nasdaq, Netflix. As of 2007, there are more than 300K developers actively using AWS. It is one of the pioneers which brought the cloud computing closer to masses helping number of start...

  11. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  12. Cities may save some threatened species but not their ecological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Luna

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Urbanization is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss worldwide. Wildlife responses to urbanization, however, are greatly variable and, paradoxically, some threatened species may achieve much larger populations in urban than in natural habitats. Urban conservation hotspots may therefore help some species avoid regional or even global extinctions, but not conserve their often overlooked ecological functions in the wild. We aim to draw attention to this issue using two species of globally threatened parrots occurring in the Dominican Republic: the Hispaniolan amazon (Amazona ventralis and the Hispaniolan parakeet (Psittacara chloropterus. Methods We conducted a large-scale roadside survey in June 2017 across the country to estimate the relative abundance of parrots in natural habitats, rural habitats, and cities. We combined this with informal interviews with local people to collect information on past and current human impacts on parrot populations. We also looked for foraging parrots to assess their potential role as seed dispersers, an ecological function that has been overlooked until very recently. Results Relative abundances of both parrot species were negligible in rural areas and very low in natural habitats. They were generally between one and two orders of magnitude lower than that of congeneric species inhabiting other Neotropical ecosystems. Relative abundances were six times higher in cities than in natural habitats in the case of the Hispaniolan parakeet and three times higher in the case of the Hispaniolan amazon. People indicated hunting for a source food and to mitigate crop damage as causes of parrot population declines, and a vigorous illegal trade for parrots (131 individuals recorded, 75% of them poached very recently, mostly obtained from protected areas where the last small wild populations remain. We observed parrots foraging on 19 plant species from 11 families, dispersing the fruits of 14 species by

  13. Vulnerability of Amazon forests to storm-driven tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holm, Jennifer A.; Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Rifai, Sami W.; Riley, William J.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Koven, Charles D.; Knox, Ryan G.; McGroddy, Megan E.; Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Urquiza-Muñoz, Jose; Tello-Espinoza, Rodil; Alegria Muñoz, Waldemar; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Higuchi, Niro

    2018-05-01

    Tree mortality is a key driver of forest community composition and carbon dynamics. Strong winds associated with severe convective storms are dominant natural drivers of tree mortality in the Amazon. Why forests vary with respect to their vulnerability to wind events and how the predicted increase in storm events might affect forest ecosystems within the Amazon are not well understood. We found that windthrows are common in the Amazon region extending from northwest (Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, and west Brazil) to central Brazil, with the highest occurrence of windthrows in the northwest Amazon. More frequent winds, produced by more frequent severe convective systems, in combination with well-known processes that limit the anchoring of trees in the soil, help to explain the higher vulnerability of the northwest Amazon forests to winds. Projected increases in the frequency and intensity of convective storms in the Amazon have the potential to increase wind-related tree mortality. A forest demographic model calibrated for the northwestern and the central Amazon showed that northwestern forests are more resilient to increased wind-related tree mortality than forests in the central Amazon. Our study emphasizes the importance of including wind-related tree mortality in model simulations for reliable predictions of the future of tropical forests and their effects on the Earth’ system.

  14. Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ning; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Marengo, Jose A; Nobre, Carlos A; Subramaniam, Ajit; Mariotti, Annarita; Neelin, J David

    2008-01-01

    A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest

  15. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  16. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2018-01-01

    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  17. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  18. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  19. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  20. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  1. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

  2. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  3. Is Amazon the next Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver; Köhler, Karoline Henrike

    2015-01-01

    Dominant or apparently dominant internet platform increasingly become subject to both antitrust investigations and further-reaching political calls for regulation. While Google is currently in the focus of the discussion, the next candidate is already on the horizon - the ubiquitous online trading platform Amazon. Competitors and suppliers but also famous economists like Paul Krugman unite in criticizing Amazon's market power and alleged abuse of it. In this paper, we collect the multitude of...

  4. Amazon Forests’ Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth’s climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests’ response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation index (VI data to assess Amazon forests’ response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6 MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1 the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; (2 the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3 in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

  5. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  6. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  7. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  8. The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Garcia-Carreras, L.

    2015-11-01

    We completed a meta-analysis of regional and global climate model simulations (n = 96) of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Across all simulations, mean (±1σ) change in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall was -12 ± 11%. Variability in simulated rainfall was not explained by differences in model resolution or surface parameters. Across all simulations we find a negative linear relationship between rainfall and deforestation extent, although individual studies often simulate a nonlinear response. Using the linear relationship, we estimate that deforestation in 2010 has reduced annual mean rainfall across the Amazon basin by 1.8 ± 0.3%, less than the interannual variability in observed rainfall. This may explain why a reduction in Amazon rainfall has not consistently been observed. We estimate that business-as-usual deforestation (based on deforestation rates prior to 2004) would lead to an 8.1 ± 1.4% reduction in annual mean Amazon basin rainfall by 2050, greater than natural variability.

  9. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  10. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  11. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  12. Occurrence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in pet and exotic birds in 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pearson, J E; Mixson, M A; Cassidy, D R

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) was diagnosed in domestic psittacine birds in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Texas, California, and Nevada. In the first four states, the disease assumed outbreak proportions. The affected psittacine birds--yellow-headed Amazon parrots (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix), yellow-naped Amazon parrots (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and conures (unknown species)--exhibited respiratory and/or central nervous system signs. The velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) was isolated from cloacal and tracheal swabs and various tissues, such as the lung, trachea, distal intestine, and spleen. The origin of the birds could not be established. The disease in the six states was promptly controlled, with no evidence that domestic poultry had been exposed. Also, VVNDV was isolated from quarantined birds intended for importation into the United States. Included were 53 moustached parakeets (Psittacula alexandri fasciata), a mynah (Gracula religiosa), a drongo (Dicrurus sp.), and three partridges (family Phasianidae). Groups of birds that yielded VVNDV were denied entry into the United States. Birds that are illegally imported and therefore not tested for the presence of foreign animal pathogens are a potential source of VVNDV and a threat to domestic poultry and caged birds.

  13. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

    2017-03-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  14. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangrande, Scott E.; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  15. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  16. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  17. Ozone measurements in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Several scientists of the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espacias, or INPE; headquarters at Sāo Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo) went to Manaus (3°S, 60°W), in the central region of the Amazon forest during July-August 1985 to study the atmosphere of the equatorial rainforest. The expedition to the Amazon was part of a large binational atmospheric chemistry field campaign that was organized to measure several atmospheric gases of the forest environment. This was definitely the largest scientific field expedition in this field ever performed on Brazilian territory.

  18. Experimental induction of proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus inoculated with brain homogenates containing avian bornavirus 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Asaf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD is a fatal disorder of psittacine birds worldwide. The disease is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the central and peripheral nervous systems, leading to gastrointestinal motility and/or central nervous system dysfunction. Recently, we detected a significant association between avian bornavirus (ABV infection and clinical signs of PDD in psittacines. However, it remains unclear whether ABV infection actually causes PDD. To address this question, we examined the impact of ABV inoculation on the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus. Results Five cockatiels were inoculated via multiple routes (intramuscular, intraocular, intranasal, and oral with a brain homogenate derived from either a PDD(+ avian bornavirus 4 (ABV4 (+ case (n = 3 inoculees or from a PDD(- ABV(- control (n = 2 inoculees. The control birds remained free of clinical or pathological signs of PDD, and tested ABV(- by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In contrast, all three cockatiels inoculated with ABV4(+ brain homogenate developed gross and microscopic PDD lesions, and two exhibited overt clinical signs. In numerous tissues, ABV RT-PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of ABV4 RNA nearly identical to that in the inoculum. ABV was detected in the central nervous system of the three ABV-inoculees by IHC. Pyrosequencing to investigate the viral flora in the ABV4(+ inoculum uncovered 7 unique reads sharing 73–100% nucleotide sequence identity with previously identified ABV sequences and 24 reads sharing 40–89% amino acid sequence identity with viruses in the Retroviridae and Astroviridae families. Of these candidate viral species, only ABV RNA was recovered from tissues of the inoculated birds. Conclusion In this study, the clinical and pathological manifestations of PDD were induced by inoculation of cockatiels with brain homogenates containing avian bornavirus 4. By using high throughput

  19. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Rammig, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation–atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complexnetwork approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. ...

  1. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  2. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.

  3. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convince the investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubt of investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategic shift to operate as a provider of technical services and business consulting in the area of business-to-consumer e-commerce. At the same time it should reduce the range of the items sold on-line to, say, books and CDs, and treat this part of its b...

  4. Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

  5. Unusual presentation of an Amazon parrot (Amazon a species) with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.P.; Hahn, K.A.; Jones, M.P.; Petersen, M.G.; Toal, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Non-haematopoietic hepatic malignancies are uncommon in birds. The clinical presentation (i.e, chronic buphthalmos) and non-specific radiographic findings observed in this adult Amazon parrot (Amazona spp,) were not consistent with previous reports describing the natural behaviour of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in birds

  6. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  7. Amazon: Navigating the Jungle of a Business

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh Theroux, Brett; Rais El Fenni, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    This project investigated Amazon.com, Inc’s business model and environment, particularly, the effect of Amazon’s implementation of a drone delivery system and the Amazon Fire TV, and its related services. This was achieved through an examination of four areas, the four working questions; revolving around an analysis and discussion of Amazon’s business model and environment, with particular focus on the two new features. Also, an analysis and discussion of how Amazon’s business model could be ...

  8. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  9. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  10. Trophic opportunism of central Amazon floodplain fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mortillaro, J. M.; Pouilly, Marc; Wach, M.; Freitas, C. E. C.; Abril, G.; Meziane, T.

    2015-01-01

    The food web of the central Amazon basin displays one of the largest discrepancies in food source utilisation versus availability for consumers. While C-4 macrophytes dominate the primary producing biomass in floodplains, the food web is dominated by the use of C-3 carbon sources. Amazon fish species have wide-ranging diets and show feeding flexibility in response to spatial and temporal patterns in food source availability. Fish are therefore expected to use a range of available resources. F...

  11. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.Com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper results are gaining knowledge of thenumber of visitors and Sales that accurred at Amazon.com. The Conclusions is about the impact of increasing customer Satisfaction in the business process e-commerce in the Amazone.com.

  13. The changing hydrology of a dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries around the world are expanding hydropower to meet growing energy demand. In the Brazilian Amazon, >200 dams are planned over the next 30 years, and questions about the impacts of current and future hydropower in this globally important watershed remain unanswered. In this context, we applied a hydrologic indicator method to quantify how existing Amazon dams have altered the natural flow regime and to identify predictors of alteration. The type and magnitude of hydrologic alteration varied widely by dam, but the largest changes were to critical characteristics of the flood pulse. Impacts were largest for low-elevation, large-reservoir dams; however, small dams had enormous impacts relative to electricity production. Finally, the “cumulative” effect of multiple dams was significant but only for some aspects of the flow regime. This analysis is a first step toward the development of environmental flows plans and policies relevant to the Amazon and other megadiverse river basins. PMID:29109972

  14. The Legal Protection of Ecoturism on Amazon State

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Dias Cabral

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the ...

  15. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  16. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  17. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied

  18. The Amazon's energetic paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented

  19. Following Saharan Dust Outbreak Toward The Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Koren, I.; Rudich, Y.; Flores, M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of the Amazon rainforest on earth climatic system is well recognized. To keep forest wellbeing and the fragile balance between the rainforest and the atmosphere, the Amazon must contain a satisfactory amount of nutrients to support the plants. The extensive rain and floods wash most of the soluble nutrients from the rainforest soil, leaving behind acidic kaolinite clay or sandy soil, with limited minerals for plant growth. It was suggested that lack of mineral in the soil may be replenished by deposition of Saharan mineral dust. Using remote sensing data (from the A-train satellites constellation) following with in-situ measurements (as part of the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMZE) campaign), ground-based data (from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET)) and back trajectory calculations, we analyzed Saharan dust transport toward the Amazon basin during the AMZE period (Feb 7 to Mar 14, 2008). Dust mass, sink, vertical distribution and surface wind speeds were analyzed over the Bodele depression (located in Chad), where most of the dust is emitted, along the Atlantic Ocean and near the Brazilian coastline. Using an integrated data analysis approach we followed dust packages from their emission in the Sahara to their sink in the Amazon forest.

  20. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  1. Tree rings and rainfall in the equatorial Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato-Souza, Daniela; Stahle, David W.; Barbosa, Ana Carolina; Feng, Song; Torbenson, Max C. A.; de Assis Pereira, Gabriel; Schöngart, Jochen; Barbosa, Joao Paulo; Griffin, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Amazon basin is a global center of hydroclimatic variability and biodiversity, but there are only eight instrumental rainfall stations with continuous records longer than 80 years in the entire basin, an area nearly the size of the coterminous US. The first long moisture-sensitive tree-ring chronology has been developed in the eastern equatorial Amazon of Brazil based on dendrochronological analysis of Cedrela cross sections cut during sustainable logging operations near the Rio Paru. The Rio Paru chronology dates from 1786 to 2016 and is significantly correlated with instrumental precipitation observations from 1939 to 2016. The strength and spatial scale of the precipitation signal vary during the instrumental period, but the Rio Paru chronology has been used to develop a preliminary reconstruction of February to November rainfall totals from 1786 to 2016. The reconstruction is related to SSTs in the Atlantic and especially the tropical Pacific, similar to the stronger pattern of association computed for the instrumental rainfall data from the eastern Amazon. The tree-ring data estimate extended drought and wet episodes in the mid- to late-nineteenth century, providing a valuable, long-term perspective on the moisture changes expected to emerge over the Amazon in the coming century due to deforestation and anthropogenic climate change.

  2. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boun...

  3. The Impacts of Amazon Deforestation on Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Leah

    Variability in eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation are known to affect Amazonian precipitation, but to what extent do changing Amazonian vegetation and rainfall impact eastern Pacific SST? The Amazon rainforest is threatened by many factors including climate change and clearing for agricultural reasons. Forest fires and dieback are more likely due to increased frequency and intensity of droughts in the region. It is possible that extensive Amazon deforestation can enhance El Nino conditions by weakening the Walker circulation. Correlations between annual rainfall rates over the Amazon and other atmospheric parameters (global precipitation, surface air temperature, low cloud amount, 500 hPa vertical velocity, surface winds, and 200 hPa winds) over the eastern Pacific indicate strong relationships among these fields. Maps of these correlations (teleconnection maps) reveal that when the Amazon is rainy SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific are cold, rainfall is suppressed over the central and eastern Pacific, low clouds are prominent over the eastern and southeastern Pacific, and subsidence over the central and eastern Pacific is enhanced. Precipitation in the Amazon is also consistent with a strong Walker circulation (La Nina conditions), manifest as strong correlations with the easterly surface and westerly 200 hPa zonal winds. Coupling between Amazon rainfall and these fields are seen in observations and model data. Correlations were calculated using data from observations, reanalysis data, two models under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), and an AMIP run with the model used in this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.1.1). Although the correlations between Amazon precipitation and the aforementioned fields are strong, they do not show causality. In order to investigate the impact of tropical South American deforestation on the

  4. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Rammig, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss

  5. Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Sladky, Kurt K; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Stading, Ben R; Klauer, Julia M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Brown, Carolyn S; Heath, Timothy D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) method for inducing arthritis in parrots and to compare the analgesic efficacy of long-acting liposome-encapsulated butorphanol (LEBT), carprofen, or a combination of both. 20 Hispaniolan parrots. MSU was injected into a tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Four treatments were compared (LEBT [15 mg/kg, SC] administered once at time 0; injections of carprofen [3 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h] starting at time 0; administration of LEBT plus carprofen; and a control treatment of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Weight load testing and behavioral scoring were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours. Injection of MSU into the intertarsal joint induced arthritis, which resolved within 30 hours. Treatment with LEBT or LEBT plus carprofen resulted in significantly greater weight-bearing load on the limb with induced arthritis, compared with the control treatment. Treatment with carprofen alone caused a slight but nonsignificant improvement in weight-bearing load on the arthritic limb, compared with the control treatment. Behaviors associated with motor activity and weight bearing differed between the control and analgesic treatments. Butorphanol was an effective treatment for pain associated with arthritis, but carprofen administered every 12 hours was insufficient. Injection of MSU to induce arthritis in a single joint was a good method for evaluating tonic pain in parrots, and measurement of the weight-bearing load was accurate for assessment of arthritic pain; however, behavioral changes associated with pain were subtle.

  6. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of two Brazilian anthropogenic Amazon dark earth sites, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; de Souza, Rosineide Cardoso; de Souza Cannavan, Fabiana; Patricio, André; Pylro, Victor Satler; Hanada, Rogério Eiji; Mui, Tsai Siu

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soil is considered one of the world's most fertile soils. These soils differs from conventional Amazon soils because its higher organic content concentration. Here we describe the metagenome sequencing of microbial communities of two sites of Anthropogenic Amazon Dark Earth soils from Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. The raw sequence data are stored under Short Read Accession number: PRJNA344917.

  7. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets

  8. Towards the integration of StoRM on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, S; Magnoni, L; Zappi, R [INFN-CNAF, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: sergio.andreozzi@cnaf.infn.it, E-mail: luca.magnoni@cnaf.infn.it, E-mail: riccardo.zappi@cnaf.infn.it

    2008-07-15

    In Grid systems, a core resource being shared among geographically-dispersed communities of users is the storage. For this resource, a standard interface specification (Storage Resource Management or SRM) was defined and is being evolved in the context of the Open Grid Forum. By implementing this interface, all storage resources part of a Grid could be managed in an homogenous fashion. In this work, we consider the extension of StoRM (STOrage Resource Manager, an implementation of SRM v2.2) in order to integrate a new type of storage resource: the Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Amazon S3 is a simple Web services interface offering access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of Web sites. By performing this integration, we offer to the Grid community the capability to manage and access an incredible amount of storage resources freeing them from considering the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they have enough storage available. The characteristics of StoRM are suitable for a smooth integration with Amazon S3. In particular, StoRM is designed to be easily adapted to the underlying storage resource via a plug-in mechanism, therefore a new plugin for integration with the Amazon S3 Web Service will be written. As regards the access policies, StoRM translates the Grid authorization rules into the Amazon S3 ones and applies them to the Amazon Web Services identity.

  9. Towards the integration of StoRM on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, S; Magnoni, L; Zappi, R

    2008-01-01

    In Grid systems, a core resource being shared among geographically-dispersed communities of users is the storage. For this resource, a standard interface specification (Storage Resource Management or SRM) was defined and is being evolved in the context of the Open Grid Forum. By implementing this interface, all storage resources part of a Grid could be managed in an homogenous fashion. In this work, we consider the extension of StoRM (STOrage Resource Manager, an implementation of SRM v2.2) in order to integrate a new type of storage resource: the Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Amazon S3 is a simple Web services interface offering access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of Web sites. By performing this integration, we offer to the Grid community the capability to manage and access an incredible amount of storage resources freeing them from considering the costs associated with server maintenance, or whether they have enough storage available. The characteristics of StoRM are suitable for a smooth integration with Amazon S3. In particular, StoRM is designed to be easily adapted to the underlying storage resource via a plug-in mechanism, therefore a new plugin for integration with the Amazon S3 Web Service will be written. As regards the access policies, StoRM translates the Grid authorization rules into the Amazon S3 ones and applies them to the Amazon Web Services identity

  10. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2010-07-01

    Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution). Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (2.1 mm day-1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day-1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  11. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  12. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  13. From where does the Amazon forest gets its water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, G.; Fan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon receives abundant annual rainfall but parts of it experience a multi-month dry season. Here we ask: what is the water source that sustains the dry-season ET? Where over the Amazon it is largely local and recent rain (hence ET shutting down in dry season), or past rain that is stored in the deep soils and the groundwater (deep roots tapping deep reservoirs sustaining ET), or is it rain that fell on higher grounds (through topography-driven lateral convergence)? Using synthesis of isotope and other tracer observations and basin-wide inverse modeling (shallow soil, deep soil, with and without groundwater, with and without dynamic rooting depth), we attempt to tease out these components. The results shed light on likely ET sources and how future global change may preferentially impact Amazon ecosystem functioning.

  14. Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J; Galford, Gillian L; Moran, Chris J; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2017-10-18

    Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil's Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km 2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone. Pathways leading to such impacts include mining infrastructure establishment, urban expansion to support a growing workforce, and development of mineral commodity supply chains. Mining-induced deforestation is not unique to Brazil; to mitigate adverse impacts of mining and conserve tropical forests globally, environmental assessments and licensing must considered both on- and off-lease sources of deforestation.

  15. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  16. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic...

  18. Impact of Atmospheric Albedo on Amazon Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A. V.; Thompson, S. E.; Dracup, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The vulnerability of the Amazon region to climate and anthropogenic driven disturbances has been the subject of extensive research efforts, given its importance in the global and regional climate and ecologic systems. The evaluation of such vulnerabilities requires the proper understanding of physical mechanisms controlling water and energy balances and how the disturbances change them. Among those mechanisms, the effects of atmospheric albedo on evapotranspiration have not been fully explored yet and are explored in this study. Evapotranspiration in the Amazon is sustained at high levels across all seasons and represents a large fraction of water and energy surface budgets. In this study, statistical analysis of data from four flux towers installed at Amazon primary forest sites was employed to quantify the impact of atmospheric albedo, mostly resulted from cloudiness, on evapotranspiration and to compare it to the effect of water limitation. Firstly, the difference in eddy-flux derived evapotranspiration at the flux towers under rainy and non-rainy antecedent conditions was tested for significance. Secondly, the same statistical comparison was performed under cloudy and clear sky conditions at hourly and daily time scales, using the reduction in incoming solar radiation as an indicator of cloudiness. Finally, the sensitivity of seasonal evapotranspiration totals to atmospheric albedo resulted from rainfall patterns is evaluated. That was done by sampling daily evapotranspiration estimates from empirical probability distribution functions conditioned to rainfall occurrence and then varying the number of dry days in each season. It was found that light limitation is much more important than water limitation in the Amazon, resulting in up to 43% reduction in daily evapotranspiration. Also, this effect varies by location and by season, the largest impact being in wet season, from December do January. Moreover, seasonal evapotranspiration totals were found to be

  19. LBA-ECO LC-07 JERS-1 SAR Wetlands Masks and Land Cover, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three Amazon Basin wetland image products: (1) a Central Amazon Wetlands Mask, (2) a Central Amazon Wetlands Vegetative-hydrologic Land Cover...

  20. Hypoxia adaptation in fish of the Amazon: a never-ending task

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ance, fish of the Amazon have developed multiple adaptive solutions which occur at all biological levels. These solutions are thought to represent adaptive convergence rather than phylogenetic relatedness. Fish of the ..... these adjustments, morpho-functional adaptations of gills ..... Ecology of the flshes in the Amazon and.

  1. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  2. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  3. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  4. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10 -3 , dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1 -1 . This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1 -1 ), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 ± .09 dpm g -1 ) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g -1 ). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10 15 dpm yr -1 ) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean

  5. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  6. The Climate Effects of Deforestation the Amazon Rainforest under Global Warming Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, D.; Avissar, R.

    2006-12-01

    Replacement of tropical rainforests has been observed to have a strong drying effect in Amazon simulations, with effects reaching high into the atmospheric column and into the midlatitudes. The drying effects of deforestation, however, can be moderated by the effects of global warming, which should accelerate the hydrologic cycle of the Amazon. The effects of a prescribed, time-varying Amazon deforestation done in conjunction with a steady, moderate increase in CO2 concentrations are determined using a climate model. The model agrees with previous studies when each forcing is applied individually - compared to a control run, Amazon deforestation decreases the local precipitation and global warming increases it. When both are applied, however, the precipitation and other hydrologic variables decrease, but to a lesser extent than when deforestation alone was applied. In effect, the two effects act opposite to one another and bring the simulated climate closer to that of the control.

  7. Basin-Wide Amazon Forest Tree Mortality From a Large 2005 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Guimaraes, G.; Zeng, H.; Raupp, C.; Marra, D. M.; Ribeiro, G.; Saatchi, S. S.; Higuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Blowdowns are a recurrent characteristic of Amazon forests and are produced, among others, by squall lines. Squall lines are aligned clusters (typical length of 1000 km, width of 200 km) of deep convective cells that produce heavy rainfall during the dry season and significant rainfall during the wet season. These squall lines (accompanied by intense downbursts from convective cells) have been associated with large blowdowns characterized by uprooted, snapped trees, and trees being dragged down by other falling trees. Most squall lines in Amazonia form along the northeastern coast of South America as sea breeze-induced instability lines and propagate inside the continent. They occur frequently (~4 times per month), and can reach the central and even extreme western parts of Amazonia. Squall lines can also be generated inside the Amazon and propagate toward the equator. In January 2005 a squall line propagated from south to north across the entire Amazon basin producing widespread forest tree mortality and contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Over the Manaus region (3.4 x104 km2), disturbed forest patches generated by the squall produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. The elevated mortality observed in the Central Amazon in 2005 is unlikely to be related to the 2005 Amazon drought since drought did not affect Central or Eastern Amazonia. Assuming a similar rate of forest mortality across the basin, the squall line could have potentially produced tree mortality estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. This vulnerability is likely to increase in a warming climate with models projecting an increase in storm intensity.

  8. Net Heterotrophy in the Amazon Continental Shelf Changes Rapidly to a Sink of CO2 in the Outer Amazon Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefèvre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon continental shelf and adjacent oceanic area were sampled for inorganic and organic carbon parameters in order to improve data coverage and understanding of carbon cycling dynamics within this important region. Seasonal coverage of the Amazon plume on the French Guiana continental shelf further north, was provided by CO2 monitoring using a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guiana (2006–2016. Salinity ranged from 1 to 36 (transects in April 2013, and May 2014. At salinity below 10, strong outgassing was observed with fugacity of CO2 (fCO2 over 2,000 μatm. This region displayed net heterotrophy, fueled by organic matter with terrestrial origin, as shown by δ13C and δ15N values of suspended particles. A δ13C cross shelf average of −31% was measured during May 2014, contrasting with oceanic values in excess of −20%. The reactivity of this terrestrial material resulted in the local production of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as fluorescent humic compounds. Further offshore, the dilution of freshwater by ocean waters created a sink for CO2, enhanced by biological activity. The strongest CO2 drawdowns, associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations, were observed on the French Guiana continental shelf in the outer Amazon plume, with fCO2 values below 150 μatm. Here, a CO2 sink was present almost throughout the year, with a seasonal maximum of −9.2 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 observed in June 2015. However, both the CO2 and salinity distributions could vary significantly within a few days, confirming the presence of many eddies in this region. The Amazon continental shelf hence behaved as a transition zone between an inshore source of CO2 to the atmosphere and an offshore sink. Some marine phytoplankton production was detected but occurred mainly close to the French Guiana shelf. A mean net CO2 outgassing of 44 ± 43.6 mmol m−2d−1 was estimated for the area. Quantifying the CO2 flux for the entire Amazon

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  10. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.com

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2014-01-01

    The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper resu...

  11. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  12. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  13. Desmidias (zygnemaphyceae) of a small tributary of the Amazons River in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Avellaneda, Marcela; Duque, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    This is a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater algae of the Colombian Amazon region. Two of the 13 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia and 10 are new records for the Colombian Amazon. Ecological characteristics are given for these desmids

  14. Estuarine beaches of the Amazon coast: environmental and recreational characterization

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Rosigleyse C.; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez Quintana, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon coast is rich in natural resources, with highly valued natural landscapes and ecological systems. These environments include estuarine beaches, which are important areas for recreational activities. The present study provides an environmental and recreational diagnosis of three of these estuarine beaches on the Amazon coast (Colares, Maruda, and Murubira). The study was conducted in July, 2012, 2013 and 2015. An set of variables was assessed: (i) physical variables (hydrodynamics),...

  15. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000

  16. Forcing and mixing processes in the Amazon estuary: a study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizerra, M.O.M.; Pontes, R.K. da S.; Carmo, A.M.C.; Rosario, R.P.; Gallo, M.N.; Vinzon, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    The research area of this paper is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), more precisely at the river mouth (parallels 00 0 30 ' N and 1 0 30 ' N meridians 049 0 00 ' W and 050 0 00 ' W). This paper presents the results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazon River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. This paper purports to contribute towards better interpreting the dynamic effect in hydrodynamic, meteorological and hydro geographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn from an examination of the issues and related research is that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be seen approximately 100 km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at Amazon estuary quadrature entrainment processes are predominant and are the responsible for increased salinity in surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is secondary to it. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the front saline position over the internal Amazon continental platform. d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides. e) The progressive behavior of the tidal wave in its propagation in the Northern Channel as well as the effect of morphology on

  17. Social and health dimensions of climate change in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S; de Lima, Ana C B; Schramski, Sam; Adams, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon region has been part of climate change debates for decades, yet attention to its social and health dimensions has been limited. This paper assesses literature on the social and health dimensions of climate change in the Amazon. A conceptual framework underscores multiple stresses and exposures created by interactions between climate change and local social-environmental conditions. Using the Thomson-Reuter Web of Science, this study bibliometrically assessed the overall literature on climate change in the Amazon, including Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Anthropology, Environmental Science/Ecology and Public, Environmental/Occupational Health. From this assessment, a relevant sub-sample was selected and complemented with literature from the Brazilian database SciELO. This sample discusses three dimensions of climate change impacts in the region: livelihood changes, vector-borne diseases and microbial proliferation, and respiratory diseases. This analysis elucidates imbalance and disconnect between ecological, physical and social and health dimensions of climate change and between continental and regional climate analysis, and sub-regional and local levels. Work on the social and health implications of climate change in the Amazon falls significantly behind other research areas, limiting reliable information for analytical models and for Amazonian policy-makers and society at large. Collaborative research is called for.

  18. Repeat-Pass Multi-Temporal Interferometric SAR Coherence Variations with Amazon Floodplain and Lake Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Alsdorf, D.

    2006-12-01

    Monitoring discharge in the main channels of rivers and upland tributaries as well as storage changes in floodplain lakes is necessary for understanding flooding hazards, methane production, sediment transport, and nutrient exchange. Interferometric processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data may enable hydrologists to detect environmental and ecological changes in hydrological systems over space and time. An aim of our experiments is to characterize interferometric SAR coherence variations that occur in Amazon aquatic habitats. We analyze coherence variations in JERS-1 data at three central Amazon sites; Lake Balbina, the Cabaliana floodplain, and the confluence of the Purus and Amazon rivers. Because radar pulse interactions with inundated vegetation typically follow a double-bounce travel path which returns energy to the antenna, coherence will vary with vegetation type, physical baseline, and temporal baseline. Balbina's vegetation consists mostly of forest and inundated trunks of dead, leafless trees as opposed to Cabaliana and Amazon- Purus (dominated by flooded forests), thus it serves to isolate the vegetation signal. Coherence variations with baselines were determined from 253 interferograms at Balbina, 210 at Calbaliana, and 153 at Purus. The average temporal and perpendicular baselines (mean std.) are 574 394 days and 1708 1159 m at Balbina, 637 435 days and 1381 981 m at Cabaliana, and 587 425 days and 1430 964 m at Purus. Balbina has a stronger coherence than either Cabaliana or Amazon-Purus. With results of Mann-Whitney statistical tests, Balbina has a difference between terre-firme and flooded coherence values plotted with perpendicular baseline but Cabaliana and Amazon-Purus do not show this difference. Balbina has a linearly decreasing trend in coherence plotted with temporal baseline whereas Cabaliana and Amazon-Purus have a steep drop-off, non- linear change. A strong annual periodicity is evident on power spectrums of the coherence values

  19. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  20. Extreme Drought Events Revealed in Amazon Tree Ring Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.

  1. How Do Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures Influence the Seasonal Distribution of Precipitation in the Equatorial Amazon?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chen, Mingxuan; Wang, Hui

    2001-10-01

    Although the correlation between precipitation over tropical South America and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Pacific and Atlantic has been documented since the early twentieth century, the impact of each ocean on the timing and intensity of the wet season over tropical South America and the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. Numerical experiments have been conducted using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model Version 3 to explore these impacts. The results suggest the following.1)Seasonality of SSTs in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic has an important influence on precipitation in the eastern Amazon during the equinox seasons. The eastern side of the Amazon is influenced both by the direct thermal circulation of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and by Rossby waves. These processes are enhanced by the seasonal cycles of SSTs in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. SSTs affect Amazon precipitation much less during the solstice seasons and in the western Amazon.2)The seasonality of SSTs in the Atlantic more strongly affects Amazon rainfall than does that of the Pacific. Without the former, austral spring in the eastern equatorial Amazon would be a wet season, rather than the observed dry season. As a consequence of the lag at that time of the southward seasonal migration of the Atlantic SSTs behind that of the insolation, the Atlantic ITCZ centers itself near 10°N, instead of at the equator, imposing subsidence and low-level anticyclonic flow over the eastern equatorial Amazon, thus drying the air above the planetary boundary layer and reducing the low-level moisture convergence. Consequently, convection in the eastern Amazon is suppressed despite strong surface heating.3)Seasonality of the SSTs in the tropical Pacific also tends to reduce precipitation in the eastern Amazon during both spring and fall. In spring, subsidence is enhanced not only through a zonal direct circulation, but also through

  2. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  3. Hypoxia adaptation in fish of the Amazon: a never-ending task | Val ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to seasonal long-term changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, water bodies of the Amazon present periodic short-term episodes of hypoxia and even anoxia. To preserve gas exchange and acid base balance, fish of the Amazon have developed multiple adaptive solutions which occur at all biological ...

  4. Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Tomlinson, Jason M; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A T; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T

    2016-11-17

    The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear. Here we present aircraft- and ground-based measurements under clean conditions during the wet season in the central Amazon basin. We find that high concentrations of small aerosol particles (with diameters of less than 50 nanometres) in the lower free troposphere are transported from the free troposphere into the boundary layer during precipitation events by strong convective downdrafts and weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This rapid vertical transport can help to maintain the population of particles in the pristine Amazon boundary layer, and may therefore influence cloud properties and climate under natural conditions.

  5. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  6. Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha R.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Basso, Luana S.; Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt; Bastviken, David; Hornibrook, Edward R. C.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Marotta, Humberto; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf; Gloor, Emanuel; Miller, John Bharat; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests and tropical peat swamp forests, representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (δ13C) of -66.2 ± 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 ± 1.8 to 21.2 ± 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 ± 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a ‘top-down’ regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 ± 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our ‘top-down’ and combined ‘bottom-up’ estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  7. Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Basso, Luana S; Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt; Bastviken, David; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gatti, Luciana V; Marotta, Humberto; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf; Gloor, Emanuel; Miller, John Bharat; Gauci, Vincent

    2017-12-14

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH 4 ), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain, the largest natural geographic source of CH 4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH 4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling, pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH 4 emissions. Here we report CH 4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH 4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests and tropical peat swamp forests, representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (δ 13 C) of -66.2 ± 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 ± 1.8 to 21.2 ± 2.5 teragrams of CH 4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 ± 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a 'top-down' regional estimate of CH 4 emissions of 42.7 ± 5.6 teragrams of CH 4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH 4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our 'top-down' and combined 'bottom-up' estimates, indicating that large CH 4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH 4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH 4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH 4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  8. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  9. Trace elements distribution in bottom sediments from Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Nadai Fernandes, E. de; Oliveira, H. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Amazon River discharges into a dynamic marine environment where there have been many interactive processes affecting dissolved and particulate solids, either those settling on the shelf or reaching the ocean. Trace elemental concentration, especially of the rare earth elements, have been determined by neutron activation analysis in sixty bottom sediment samples of the Amazon River estuary, providing information for the spatial and temporal variation study of those elements. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  10. The economic value of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil Costa, Marcos; Pires, Gabrielle; Fontes, Vitor; Brumatti, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The rainy Amazon climate allowed important activities to develop in the region as large rainfed agricultural lands and hydropower plants. The Amazon rainforest is an important source of moisture to the regional atmosphere and helps regulate the local climate. The replacement of forest by agricultural lands decreases the flux of water vapor into the atmosphere and changes the precipitation patterns, which may severely affect such economic activities. Assign an economic value to this ecosystem service may emphasize the significance to preserve the Amazon rainforest. In this work, we provide a first approximation of the quantification of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest using the marginal production method. We use climate scenarios derived from Amazon deforestation scenarios as input to crop and runoff models to assess how land use change would affect agriculture and hydropower generation. The effects of forest removal on soybean production and on cattle beef production can both be as high as US 16 per year per ha deforested, and the effects on hydropower generation can be as high as US 8 per year per ha deforested. We consider this as a conservative estimate of a permanent service provided by the rainforest. Policy makers and other Amazon agriculture and energy businesses must be aware of these numbers, and consider them while planning their activities.

  11. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  12. Progress Towards Improved MOPITT-based Biomass Burning Emission Inventories for the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Arellano, A. F.; Fischer, E. V.; González-Alonso, L.; Val Martin, M.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Gloor, M.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The 17-year long record of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from the MOPITT satellite instrument is uniquely suited for studying the interannual variability of biomass burning emissions. Data assimilation methods based on Ensemble Kalman Filtering are currently being developed to infer CO emissions within the Amazon Basin from MOPITT measurements along with additional datasets. The validity of these inversions will depend on the characteristics of the MOPITT CO retrievals (e.g., retrieval biases and vertical resolution) as well as the representation of chemistry and dynamics in the chemical transport model (CAM-Chem) used in the data assimilation runs. For example, the assumed vertical distribution ("injection height") of the biomass burning emissions plays a particularly important role. We will review recent progress made on a project to improve biomass burning emission inventories for the Amazon Basin. MOPITT CO retrievals over the Amazon Basin are first characterized, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in-situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in MOPITT retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The seasonal and geographical variability of smoke injection height over the Amazon Basin is then analyzed using a MISR plume height climatology. This work has led to the development of a new fire emission injection height parameterization that was implemented in CAM-Chem and GEOS-Chem.. Finally, we present initial data assimilation results for the Amazon Basin and evaluate the results using available field campaign measurements.

  13. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover Holdings, Inc. a/k/a Andover Energy Holdings, Inc... securities of Amazon [[Page 14853

  14. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; Marchi, Massimo De; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km 2 , an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  15. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  16. Analisis E-Bisnis Terhadap Amazon dan Aquarelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawaty Tanuar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing the two sites, the characteristics of e-commerce sites could be studied. As a result, there are striking differences between these two sites, where Amazon is more oriented to sales, while Aquarelle more on customer-oriented impact to the design and implementation of their e-business. 

  17. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  18. The Battle for Critical Internet Resources: South America vs. Amazon.com, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vargas-Leon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the controversy about the allocation of critical Internet resources generated by ICANN's new gTLD program with a particular focus on the .AMAZON TLD. Methodology/approach/design – This article presents an exploratory case study about the .AMAZON controversy. The initial analysis of this ongoing research is based on data collected from various reports and media coverage on ICANN's new gTLD policy. The article draws from political economy theory to analyze disputes about critical Internet resources. Findings – This article discusses preliminary findings of the .AMAZON case, a contested prime example in ICANN's efforts to extend the Internet's domain name space. Practical implications – The findings may inform related controversies in the gTLD program and contribute to a differentiated understanding of CIR allocation in Internet governance, and respective policy-making. Originality/value – The value of this article is the specific discussion of the .AMAZON case in the larger context of ICANN's new gTLD program, and its analysis that describes the controversy from a property rights perspective.

  19. The Battle for Critical Internet Resources: South America vs. Amazon.com, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vargas-Leon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the controversy about the allocation of critical Internet resources generated by ICANN's new gTLD program with a particular focus on the .AMAZON TLD. Methodology/approach/design – This article presents an exploratory case study about the .AMAZON controversy. The initial analysis of this ongoing research is based on data collected from various reports and media coverage on ICANN's new gTLD policy. The article draws from political economy theory to analyze disputes about critical Internet resources. Findings – This article discusses preliminary findings of the .AMAZON case, a contested prime example in ICANN's efforts to extend the Internet's domain name space. Practical implications – The findings may inform related controversies in the gTLD program and contribute to a differentiated understanding of CIR allocation in Internet governance, and respective policy-making. Originality/value – The value of this article is the specific discussion of the .AMAZON case in the larger context of ICANN's new gTLD program, and its analysis that describes the controversy from a property rights perspective.

  20. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  1. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  2. Charcoal chronology of the Amazon forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulart, Ana Carolina; Macario, Kita D.; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Bachelet, Caroline; Pereira, Bruna B.; Levis, Carolina; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Feldpausch, Ted R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon region holds a wide variety of ethnic groups and microclimates, enabling different interactions between humans and environment. To better understand the evolution of this region, ancient remains need to be analysed by all possible means. In this context, the study of natural and/or

  3. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

    2009-03-06

    Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

  4. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J.; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively. PMID:19549819

  5. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2010-05-01

    Some recent climate modeling results suggested a possible dieback of the Amazon rainforest under future climate change, a prediction that raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable as rainfall is projected to increase in nearly all models. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge of the Amazon and further south in central Brazil, are in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. Firstly, a decline in precipitation of 22% in the southern Amazon's dry season (May-September) reduces soil moisture, despite an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to nonlinear responses in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season rainfall: (1) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure; (2) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient, and to lesser degree a warmer eastern equatorial Pacific. Secondly, evaporation demand will increase due to the general warming, further reducing soil moisture. In terms of ecosystem response, higher maintenance cost and reduced productivity under warming may also have additional adverse impact. The drying corresponds to a lengthening of the dry season by 11 days. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of 20% in vegetation carbon stock in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Further, VEGAS predicts enhancement of fire risk by 10-15%. The increase in fire is primarily due to the reduction in soil moisture, and the decrease in dry season rainfall, which

  6. Historical satellite data used to map Pan-Amazon forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Desch, Arthur; Curry, Troy; Altstatt, Alice; Devers, Didier; Townshend, John; Tucker, Compton

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is well documented and the contributions of Brazilian deforestation to global change have been extensively discussed in both scientific and popular literature [e.g., Skole and Tucker, 1993]. However, deforestation within the non-Brazilian tropics of South America has received much less attention. The Pan-Amazon region covering Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia comprises ˜2 million km2 of tropical forest that is under increasing pressure from logging and development. Wall-to-wall high-resolution forest cover maps are needed to properly document the complex distribution patterns of deforestation in the Pan-Amazon [Tucker and Townshend, 2000]. The Deforestation Mapping Group at the University of Marylands Global Land Cover Facility is using Landsat data to generate tropical forest cover maps in this region (Figure l). The study shows that while rates of forest loss are generally lower than those in Brazil, there are hot spots where deforestation rates run as high as 2,200 km2 yr1.

  7. In Search of the Amazon - Brazil, the United States and the Nature of a Region

    OpenAIRE

    Garfield, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Chronicling the dramatic history of the Brazilian Amazon during the Second World War, Seth Garfield provides fresh perspectives on contemporary environmental debates. His multifaceted analysis explains how the Amazon became the object of geopolitical rivalries, state planning, media coverage, popular fascination, and social conflict. In need of rubber, a vital war material, the United States spent millions of dollars to revive the Amazon's rubber trade. In the name of development and national...

  8. Separating the Effects of Tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST-driven Climate Variability on Amazon Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon forests store an estimated 25% percent of global terrestrial carbon per year1, 2, but the responses of Amazon carbon uptake to climate change is highly uncertain. One source of this uncertainty is tropical sea surface temperature variability driven by teleconnections. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a key driver of year-to-year Amazon carbon exchange, with associated temperature and precipitation changes favoring net carbon storage in La Nina years, and net carbon release during El Nino years3. To determine how Amazon climate and terrestrial carbon fluxes react to ENSO alone and in concert with other SST-driven teleconnections such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), we force the atmosphere (CAM5) and land (CLM4) components of the CESM(BGC) with prescribed monthly SSTs over the period 1950—2014 in a Historical control simulation. We then run an experiment (PAC) with time-varying SSTs applied only to the tropical equatorial Pacific Ocean, and repeating SST seasonal cycle climatologies elsewhere. Limiting SST variability to the equatorial Pacific indicates that other processes enhance ENSO-driven Amazon climate anomalies. Compared to the Historical control simulation, warming, drying and terrestrial carbon loss over the Amazon during El Nino periods are lower in the PAC simulation, especially prior to 1990 during the cool phase of the AMO. Cooling, moistening, and net carbon uptake during La Nina periods are also reduced in the PAC simulation, but differences are greater after 1990 during the warm phase of the AMO. By quantifying the relationships among climate drivers and carbon fluxes in the Historical and PAC simulations, we both assess the sensitivity of these relationships to the magnitude of ENSO forcing and quantify how other teleconnections affect ENSO-driven Amazon climate feedbacks. We expect that these results will help us improve hypotheses for how Atlantic and Pacific climate trends will affect future Amazon carbon carbon

  9. The Visibility of Work among Ticuna Women in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Caldas Torres

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Amazon Indian craftsmanship, done by Ticuna Women. Crafts are shown to be an important product in the strong positive development in the rural Amazon community. It works with data observed and collected in research done as a consultant for Sebrae/Amazonas in 2004. It shows how women work is an organizing element of the domestic economy for the Ticuna ethnicity. A principal feature of the sexual division of labor places women as having more responsibility for family maintenance.

  10. The Amazon hydrometeorology: Climatology, variability and links to changes in weather patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Katia De Avila

    My thesis focuses on improving the quantification of the hydrological cycle and understanding the atmospheric processes that link weather to climate in the Amazon River basin. By using ERA40 and independent observations, I assess how well we can estimate the surface water budget in the Amazon River basin. I find that ERA40 basin wide annual precipitation (P) overall agrees with observations showing a slight underestimation of 10% in average, whereas runoff (R) is underestimated by a larger margin (˜25%). Observed residual of precipitation and runoff (denoted as P-R) is better estimated by ERA40 P-R than actual ET which includes soil moisture nudging. The causes for said discrepancies were found to partly relate to soil moisture nudging that needs to be applied during the dry season to produce realistic ET and compensate for the low soil moisture recharge during the previous wet season. Insufficient recharge may in part be caused by underestimation of rainfall amount and intensity; moreover the shallow root layer in the model does not represent the deep soil water reservoir characteristic of the Amazonian forest. Whether the hydrological cycle and weather patterns in the Amazon have changed during the past few decades is a highly debatable but central question for detecting climate change in the region. The second part of my thesis focus on the physical links between rainfall changes detected in observations, and changes of synoptic scale systems as represented by ERA40. My results suggest that an observed delayed wet season onset is consistent with a decreasing number of cold air incursion (CAI) days in southern Amazon for the period 1979--2001. The variability of CAI into southern Amazon is related to the variability of SST upstream of South America in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. A Singular Value Decomposition Analysis (SVD) between CAI days and global SST reveal three main modes of co-variability. The first mode describes the effect of the El Nino

  11. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the Western Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkafli, Z.; Buytaert, W.; Manz, B.; Rosas, C. V.; Willems, P.; Lavado-Casimiro, W.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research because of its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rainforests in carbon cycling. Climate change has also a direct hydrological impact, and increasing efforts have focused on understanding the hydrological dynamics at continental and subregional scales, such as the Western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming...

  12. Foraminifera and Thecamoebians as hydrodynamic indicators for Amazon estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, L. L.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Santos, V. F.; Souza-Vieira, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Amazon mangrove forest in Brazilian territory is one of the most extended in the world. It goes from Ponta do Tubarao (4S e 43W) to Cape Orange (5N e 51W) along 2,250 km of coast line. Because the Amazon River System influence, it can be divided into two regions; one with river influence toward north and the other without river influence. In order to characterize the mangrove environment hydrodynamic on both sides of the Amazon River System, foraminifera and thecamoebians assemblages were investigated in the sediment of two estuaries; Araguari to the North (1 15S - 50 30W) and Caete to the South (0 50S - 46 30W). For both estuaries forams and thecamoebians species distribution are atypical relative to other world regions. In both, there are only few calcareous forams and almost all are small and possible of being transported in suspension. Typical estuarine species were not identified. The typical mangrove forams which are agglutinated species were dominant in both estuaries. However, the Caete estuary has a large number of forams species (29), indicating better efficiency in mixing fresh and salt water in comparison to the Araguari. On the other hand, the Araguari has big richness of thecamoebians species (15) indicating fresh water prevalence. The fresh water predominance is due to the Amazon water plume being diverted to the Amapa coast where the Araguari estuary is located. The foraminifera species was also used to determine the salt water penetration in the estuary. In the Caete estuary, salt water penetrates to about 40 km while in the Araguari it does coincide with the limit of the bore tide wave "pororoca" penetration, 45 km. Based on the species succession (forams to thecamoebians species) the Araguary estuary can be divided into three regions controlled by turbidity: the outer, middle and inner estuary. The Caete species succession is not that clear and only could be divided based on salinity into outer and inner estuary. In both estuaries forams and

  13. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.

  14. Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K.; Kodali, A.; Szubert, M.; Ganguly, S.; Bongard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  15. Rainfall trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the past eight decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamurty, Prakki; de Castro, Aline Anderson; Tota, Julio; da Silva Gularte, Lucia Eliane; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall series at 18 stations along the major rivers of the Brazilian Amazon Basin, having data since 1920s or 1930s, are analyzed to verify if there are appreciable long-term trends. Annual, rainy-season, and dry-season rainfalls are individually analyzed for each station and for the region as a whole. Some stations showed positive trends and some negative trends. The trends in the annual rainfall are significant at only six stations, five of which reporting increasing trends (Barcelos, Belem, Manaus, Rio Branco, and Soure stations) and just one (Itaituba station) reporting decreasing trend. The climatological values of rainfall before and after 1970 show significant differences at six stations (Barcelos, Belem, Benjamin Constant, Iaurete, Itaituba, and Soure). The region as a whole shows an insignificant and weak downward trend; therefore, we cannot affirm that the rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin is experiencing a significant change, except at a few individual stations. Subregions with upward and downward trends are interspersed in space from the far eastern Amazon to western Amazon. Most of the seasonal trends follow the annual trends, thus, indicating a certain consistency in the datasets and analysis.

  16. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  17. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-08-13

    The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2) of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  18. Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Keane, Brian; Ross, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or “blocks” that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover ∼688,000 km2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. Conclusions/Significance Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories. PMID:18716679

  19. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  20. Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

  1. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  2. Hydrological Retrospective of floods and droughts: Case study in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchuig Correa, Sly; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Carlo Espinoza Villar, Jhan; Collischonn, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have reported an increase in intensity and frequency of hydrological extreme events in many regions of the Amazon basin over last decades, these events such as seasonal floods and droughts have originated a significant impact in human and natural systems. Recently, methodologies such as climatic reanalysis are being developed in order to create a coherent register of climatic systems, thus taking this notion, this research efforts to produce a methodology called Hydrological Retrospective (HR), that essentially simulate large rainfall datasets over hydrological models in order to develop a record over past hydrology, enabling the analysis of past floods and droughts. We developed our methodology on the Amazon basin, thus we used eight large precipitation datasets (more than 30 years) through a large scale hydrological and hydrodynamic model (MGB-IPH), after that HR products were validated against several in situ discharge gauges dispersed throughout Amazon basin, given focus in maximum and minimum events. For better HR results according performance metrics, we performed a forecast skill of HR to detect floods and droughts considering in-situ observations. Furthermore, statistical temporal series trend was performed for intensity of seasonal floods and drought in the whole Amazon basin. Results indicate that better HR represented well most past extreme events registered by in-situ observed data and also showed coherent with many events cited by literature, thus we consider viable to use some large precipitation datasets as climatic reanalysis mainly based on land surface component and datasets based in merged products for represent past regional hydrology and seasonal hydrological extreme events. On the other hand, an increase trend of intensity was realized for maximum annual discharges (related to floods) in north-western regions and for minimum annual discharges (related to drought) in central-south regions of the Amazon basin, these features were

  3. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  4. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce

  5. Utvärdering av Amazon Machine Learning för taggsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Madosh, Farzana; Lundsten, Erik

    2017-01-01

    How companies deal with machine learning is currently a highly-discussed topic, as it can facilitate corporate manual work by training computers to recognize patterns and thus automate the working procedure. However, this requires resources and knowledge in the field. As a result, various companies like Amazon and Google provide machine learning services without requiring the user to have deep knowledge in the area. This study evaluates Amazon Machine Learning program for a tag system with da...

  6. The trace-elements of the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.M.Q.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1981-05-01

    The distribution of the trace-elements AL, Si, P, S, CL, K, Ca, Ti, Fe and V in the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin was determined by means of samples collected between August 23 and September 2 of 1980, at a remote place located in the Amazon Forest, about 30 Km NE of the city of Manaus, Brazil. 33 samples were succesfully analyzed by the PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) by using α-particle beam of the Pelletron Accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo, and the results revealed that the trace-elements S and K have a large predominance, mainly as fine particle size relative to the others; this fact is consistent with the statement that the natural cycles of these two elements are critically involved in the biophysical processes responsible for the life of the tropical rain forest of the Amazon. (Author) [pt

  7. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  8. Cancer mortality and oil production in the Amazon Region of Ecuador, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Morimoto, Libby; Lau, Edmund

    2009-02-01

    To compare cancer mortality rates in Amazon cantons (counties) with and without long-term oil exploration and extraction activities. Mortality (1990 through 2005) and population census (1990 and 2001) data for cantons in the provinces of the northern Amazon Region (Napo, Orellana, Sucumbios, and Pastaza), as well as the province with the capital city of Quito (Pichincha province) were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Ecuador, Instituto Nacional del Estadistica y Censos (INEC). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate total and cause-specific mortality in the study regions. Among Amazon cantons with long-term oil extraction, activities there was no evidence of increased rates of death from all causes (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.95-1.01) or from overall cancer (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92), and relative risk estimates were also lower for most individual site-specific cancer deaths. Mortality rates in the Amazon provinces overall were significantly lower than those observed in Pichincha for all causes (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.81-0.83), overall cancer (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.43-0.49), and for all site-specific cancers. In regions with incomplete cancer registration, mortality data are one of the few sources of information for epidemiologic assessments. However, epidemiologic assessments in this region of Ecuador are limited by underreporting, exposure and disease misclassification, and study design limitations. Recognizing these limitations, our analyses of national mortality data of the Amazon Region in Ecuador does not provide evidence for an excess cancer risk in regions of the Amazon with long-term oil production. These findings were not consistent or supportive of earlier studies in this region that suggested increased cancer risks.

  9. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court NW, Washington, DC 20003 (United States); Orta-Martinez, Marti, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or, E-mail: martiorta@gmail.co [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  10. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Orta-Martinez, Marti

    2010-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  11. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  12. Helping the Amazon's Caboclos riverine communities cope with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... Tides expand the Amazon's delta's lacework of rivers and streams twice a day, ... last longer, causing more environmental damage and threatening their communities. ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  13. Amazonía y el medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Mesa, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Editorial: Amazonía: responsabilidad de todos -- Ecología y economía -- El patrimonio cultural amazónico -- La universidad y el liderazgo investigativo -- cooperación internacional -- Realizaciones y perspectivas -- Por una política de investigación ambiental

  14. Spectral tuning of Amazon parrot feather coloration by psittacofulvin pigments and spongy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-12-01

    The feathers of Amazon parrots are brightly coloured. They contain a unique class of pigments, the psittacofulvins, deposited in both barbs and barbules, causing yellow or red coloured feathers. In specific feather areas, spongy nanostructured barb cells exist, reflecting either in the blue or blue-green wavelength range. The blue-green spongy structures are partly enveloped by a blue-absorbing, yellow-colouring pigment acting as a spectral filter, thus yielding a green coloured barb. Applying reflection and transmission spectroscopy, we characterized the Amazons' pigments and spongy structures, and investigated how they contribute to the feather coloration. The reflectance spectra of Amazon feathers are presumably tuned to the sensitivity spectra of the visual photoreceptors.

  15. Estimation of the evapotranspiration in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Nova, N.A.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of a water balance for the Amazon Basin constitutes a problem of difficult solution, not only on the account of its extension and characteristics, but also for lack of sufficient meteorological and hydrological data. In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of the main components of the water balance, a study was made with data from the Brazilian Amazon Region and from some observation stations in other countries. An energy balance was made and based on this balance the water balance of the region was established, having the Penman method been adapted to forest conditions. The data obtained indicate that 90% of the evaportranspiration is due to the energy balance. The evaportranspiration in this area should be very close to the potential evaportranspiration, and the average found was of the order of 4mm/day, i.e., 1460mm/year. As a first approximation it was found that the Amazon Basin system receives 14,4X10 12 m 3 water/year through precipitation, this total being balanced by a surface discharge of 5,5 x10 12 m 3 /year and an evaportranspiration of 8,9x10 12 m 3 /year. Since transpiration by plants represents 61,8% of the water balance, all seems to indicate that intensive deforestation shall bring about alterations of the hydrological cycle [pt

  16. Forecasting Malaria in the Western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Pizzitutti, F.; Berky, A.; Feingold, B.; Mena, C.; Janko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Reported cases of malaria in the western Amazon regions of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador have more than tripled since 2011. Responding to this epidemic has been challenging given large-scale environmental impacts and demographic changes combined with changing financial and political priorities. In Peru alone, malaria cases increased 5-fold since 2011. Reasons include changes in the Global Malaria Fund, massive flooding in 2012, the "mega" El Nino in 2016, and continued natural resource extraction via logging and mining. These challenges prompted the recent creation of the Malaria Cero program in 2017 with the goal to eradicate malaria by 2021. To assist in malaria eradiation, a team of investigators supported by NASA have been developing an Early Warning System for Malaria. The system leverages demographic, epidemiological, meteorological and land use/cover data to develop a four-component system that will improve detection of malaria across the western Amazon Basin. System components include a land data assimilation system (LDAS) to estimate past and future hydrological states and flux, a seasonal human population model to estimate population at risk and spatial connectivity to high risk transmission areas, a sub-regional statistical model to identify when and where observed malaria cases have exceeded those expected, and an Agent Based Model (ABM) to integrate human, environmental, and entomological transmission dynamics with potential strategies for control. Data include: daily case detection reports between 2000 and 2017 from all health posts in the region of Loreto in the northern Peruvian Amazon; LDAS outputs (precipitation, temperature, humidity, solar radiation) at a 1km and weekly scale; satellite-derived estimates of land cover; and human population size from census and health data. This presentation will provide an overview of components, focusing on how the system identifies an outbreak and plans for technology transfer.

  17. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufalino, L; Mendes, L M; Tonoli, G H D; Fonseca, A; Rodrigues, A; Cunha, P I; Marconcini, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers

  18. Potential for producing bio-fuel in the Amazon deforested areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-05-01

    This paper analyzes the possibility of producing bio-fuel in the Amazon degraded lands. The aim here is to combine environmental concerns with an improvement of local people well-being. Firstly, a historical analysis is conducted in order to figure out the major deforestation driving forces in Amazon and to help to arrive at a feasible energy choice. Secondly, the geographical area is chosen. It is the spatial boundaries of Carajas Iron Ore Program in the southeastern Amazon where most of the deforestation has taken place in the last few decades. For this specific context, palm oil is chosen as a technological energy alternative due to its social production structure, its environmental benefits and its productivity . A quantified analysis is realized in terms of income generation (2000-3000 US dollars/family/yr), job creation (200,000-300,000 families settled), land required and restored (2-3.2 million ha), and carbon emission from fossil fuel avoided (13.1 Mt C). Some recommendations related to institutional and economic barriers are proposed in order to encourage the technology penetration in the market. (Author)

  19. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  20. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  1. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  2. The Amazons and an analysis of breast mutilation from a plastic surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalar, Ahmet

    2007-03-01

    The Amazon philosophy has been increasing in popularity because of the evolving status of women in society. Many references point to Themiscrya on the southern coast of the Black Sea in Anatolia as the Amazon homeland. The primary objective of this article is to discuss the different femininity of the Amazons and their breast mutilation from the perspective of a plastic surgeon who has been living in this region that the Amazons inhabited. Findings from archaeology, linguistics, anthropology, medicine, history, psychology, and the fine arts were integrated. The hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the method of breast mutilation include amputation, cauterization, breast searing, and breast pinching. It is generally believed that the primary purpose was to facilitate the efficient use of a bow. Another explanation would be that breast mutilation was performed for medical reasons, including the prevention of breast pain, the development of a tender lump, or cancer. There is another school of thought on this involving religious and sociological reasons that breast mutilation was a badge of honor for warrior women and a sign that a woman had become a real warrior and a sacrifice to Artemis as a sign of service. Much indirect proof and archaeological evidence point to their historical existence. The Amazons, who lived in an autonomous and original social model, changed their image and function to suit the needs of the society and the times.

  3. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  4. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p forests.

  5. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point

    OpenAIRE

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. For...

  6. Holocene provenance shift of suspended particulate matter in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Natalie; Lucassen, Friedrich; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Kasemann, Simone A.

    2018-06-01

    The strontium (Sr), neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope signatures of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in rivers reflect the radiogenic isotope signatures of the rivers' drainage basin. These signatures are not significantly affected by weathering, transport or depositional cycles, but document the sedimentary contributions of the respective sources. We report new Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios and element concentrations of modern SPM from the Brazilian Amazon River basin and document the past evolution of the basin by analyzing radiogenic isotopes of a marine sediment core from the slope off French Guiana archiving the last 40 kyr of Amazon River SPM, and the Holocene section of sediment cores raised between the Amazon River mouth and the slope off French Guiana. The composition of modern SPM confirms two main source areas, the Andes and the cratonic Shield. In the marine sediment core notable changes occurred during the second phase of Heinrich Stadial 1 (i.e. increased proportion of Shield rivers SPM) and during the last deglaciation (i.e. increased proportion of Madeira River SPM) together with elsewhere constant source contributions. Furthermore, we report a prominent offset in Sr and Nd isotopic composition between the average core value (εNd: -11.7 ± 0.9 (2SD), 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7229 ± 0.0016 (2SD)) and the average modern Amazon River SPM signal (εNd: -10.5 ± 0.5 (2SD), 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7213 ± 0.0036 (2SD)). We suggest that a permanent change in the Amazon River basin sediment supply during the late Holocene to a more Andean dominated SPM was responsible for the offset.

  7. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alisson F.; Carr, David L.

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+ n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  8. Investigating smoke's influence on primary production throughout the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, M. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Zender, C. S.; Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    Smoke from annual burning in the Amazon causes large reduction in surface insolation and increases the diffuse fraction of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). These effects have competing influence on gross primary production (GPP). Recent studies indicate that the sign of net influence depends on aerosol optical depth, but the magnitude of smoke's effect on continental-scale carbon cycling is very poorly constrained and may constitute an important term of fire's net impact on carbon storage. To investigate widespread effects of Amazon smoke on surface radiation properties, we apply a version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model with prognostic aerosol transport, driven with re-analysis winds. Carbon aerosol emissions are derived from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). We use AERONET observations to identify model biases in aerosol optical depth, single-scatter albedo, and surface radiative forcing, and prescribe new aerosol optical properties based on field observations to improve model agreement with AERONET data. Finally, we quantify a potential range of smoke-induced change in large-scale GPP based on: 1) ground measurements of GPP in the Amazon as a function of aerosol optical depth and diffuse fraction of PAR, and 2) empirical functions of ecosystem-scale photosynthesis rates currently employed in models such as the Community Land Model (CLM).

  9. African Dust Fertilizing the Amazon Rainforest: An Assessment with Seven-year Record of CALIOP Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Chin, M.; Yuan, T.; Bian, H.; Prospero, J. M.; Omar, A. H.; Remer, L. A.; Winker, D. M.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of transported African dust in boreal winter and spring is considered an important nutrient input for the Amazon Basin, though its magnitude is not well qunatified. This study provides a remote sensing observation-based estimate of dust deposition in the Amazon Basin using a 7-year (2007-2013) record of three dimensional (3D) distributions of aerosol in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). It is estimated that the 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin amounts to 15.1 ~ 32.1 Tg a-1 (Tg = 1012 g). This imported dust could provide 0.012 ~ 0.025 Tg P a-1 or equivalent to 12 ~ 26 g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which largely compensates the hydrological loss of P. The CLAIOP-based estimate agrees better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than what has been reported in literature. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The trans-Atlantic transport and deposition of dust shows strong interannual variations that are found to correlate with the North Atlantic Oscillation index in the winter season and anticorrelate with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index on an annual basis. Uncertainties associated with the estimate will also be discussed.

  10. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential contribution of groundwater to dry-season ET in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Fan, Ying

    2010-05-01

    Climate and land ecosystem models simulate vegetation stress in the Amazon forest in the dry season, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies indicating an adequate water supply. The question is: how does the vegetation obtain sufficient water, and what is missing in the models? Shallow model soil and rooting depth is a factor; the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution) may be another, but another cause may lie in the buffering effect of the groundwater found in nature but absent in models. We present observational and modeling evidence that the vast groundwater store, consequence of high annual rainfall combined with poor drainage in the Amazon, may provide a stable source for dry-season photosynthesis. The water table beneath the Amazon is sufficiently shallow (38% area 2mm/day to dry-season evapotranspiration, a non-negligible portion of tower-observed flux of 3-4mm/day, the latter including canopy-interception loss and open-water evaporation. This may have important implications to our understanding of Amazonia ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Current models, lacking groundwater, predict a significant reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under current climate and large-scale dieback under projected future climate converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a net source and accelerating warming. If groundwater is considered in the models, the magnitude of the responses and feedbacks may be reduced.

  12. Progress in Remote Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende de Sousa, Celio Helder; Hilker, Thomas; Waring, Richard; Mendes De Moura, Yhasmin; Lyapustin, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Although quantifying the massive exchange of carbon that takes place over the Amazon Basin remains a challenge, progress is being made as the remote sensing community moves from using traditional, reflectance-based vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), to the more functional Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI). This new index, together with satellite-derived estimates of canopy light interception and Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), provide improved estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP). This paper traces the development of these new approaches, compares the results of their analyses from multiple years of data acquired across the Amazon Basin and suggests further improvements in instrument design, data acquisition and processing. We demonstrated that our estimates of PRI are in generally good agreement with eddy-flux tower measurements of photosynthetic light use efficiency (epsilon) at four sites in the Amazon Basin: r(exp 2) values ranged from 0.37 to 0.51 for northern flux sites and to 0.78for southern flux sites. This is a significant advance over previous approaches seeking to establish a link between global-scale photosynthetic activity and remotely-sensed data. When combined with measurements of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), PRI provides realistic estimates of seasonal variation in photosynthesis over the Amazon that relate well to the wet and dry seasons. We anticipate that our findings will steer the development of improved approaches to estimate photosynthetic activity over the tropics.

  13. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is assumed to have a stimulating effect ("CO2 fertilization effect") on forest growth and resilience. Empirical evidence, however, for the existence and strength of such a tropical CO2 fertilization effect is scarce and thus a major impediment for constraining the uncertainties in Earth System Model projections. The implications of the tropical CO2 effect are far-reaching, as it strongly influences the global carbon and water cycle, and hence future global climate. In the scope of the Amazon Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we addressed these uncertainties by assessing the CO2 fertilization effect at ecosystem scale. AmazonFACE is the first FACE experiment in an old-growth, highly diverse tropical rainforest. Here, we present a priori model-based hypotheses for the experiment derived from a set of 12 ecosystem models. Model simulations identified key uncertainties in our understanding of limiting processes and derived model-based hypotheses of expected ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 that can directly be tested during the experiment. Ambient model simulations compared satisfactorily with in-situ measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes, as well as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks. Models consistently predicted an increase in photosynthesis with elevated CO2, which declined over time due to developing limitations. The conversion of enhanced photosynthesis into biomass, and hence ecosystem carbon sequestration, varied strongly among the models due to different assumptions on nutrient limitation. Models with flexible allocation schemes consistently predicted an increased investment in belowground structures to alleviate nutrient limitation, in turn accelerating turnover rates of soil organic matter. The models diverged on the prediction for carbon accumulation after 10 years of elevated CO2, mainly due to contrasting assumptions in their phosphorus cycle representation. These differences define the expected

  14. Phylogeography of the dark fruit-eating bat Artibeus obscurus in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Wallax Augusto Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Rodrigues-Antunes, Symara; de Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves; Aguiar, Gilberto Ferreira de Souza; de Sousa e Silva-Junior, José; Marques-Aguiar, Suely Aparecida; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Artibeus obscurus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is endemic to South America, being found in at least 18 Brazilian states. Recent studies revealed that different populations of this genus present distinct phylogeographic patterns; however, very little is known on the population genetics structure of A. obscurus in the Amazon rainforest. Here, using a fragment (1010bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b from 87 samples, we investigated patterns of genetic divergence among populations of A. obscurus from different locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest and compared them with other Brazilian and South American regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), fixation index (Fst) analysis, and phylogeographic patterns showed divergence between two major monophyletic groups, each one corresponding to a geographic region associated with the Atlantic and Amazon forest biomes. The Atlantic forest clusters formed a monophyletic group with a high bootstrap support and a fragmented distribution that follows the pattern predicted by the Refuge Theory. On the other hand, a different scenario was observed for the Amazon forest, where no fragmentation was identified. The AMOVA results revealed a significant geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation, with 70% found within populations across the studied populations (Fst values ranging from 0.05864 to 0.09673; φST = 0.55). The intrapopulational analysis revealed that one population (Bragança) showed significant evidence of population expansion, with the formation of 2 distinct phylogroups, suggesting the occurrence of a subspecies or at least a different population in this region. These results also suggest considerable heterogeneity for A. obscurus in the Amazon region.

  15. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  16. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  17. Recovery of Methane Consumption by Secondary Forests in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K. D.; Meredith, L. K.; Piccini, W.; Pedrinho, A.; Nüsslein, K.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Mui, T. S.; Saleska, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and its atmospheric global mole fraction has roughly doubled since the start of the industrial revolution. The tropics are thought to be a major CH4 emitter, with the Amazon River Basin estimated to contribute 7 % of the annual flux to the atmosphere. The Amazon has experienced extensive land use change during the past 30 years, but we lack an understanding of the qualitative and quantitative effects of land use change on CH4 flux from the Amazon and the associated reasons. To illuminate the factors controlling CH4 flux across land use gradients in the Amazon we measured the CH4 fluxes and will measure the associated stable isotopic composition from pastures, primary forests, and secondary forests, at Ariquemes (Western Amazon, more deforested), and Santarem (Eastern Amazon, less deforested), Brazil. The sites near Santarem were sampled in June of 2016 and the sites near Ariquemes were sampled in March and April of 2017, both at the end of the wet season. Little difference was observed between land use types in Santarem with each land use type slightly consuming atmospheric CH4. However, pasture fluxes at Ariquemes were higher (+520 μg-C m-2 hr-1) than in primary (0 μg-C m-2 hr-1) and secondary forests (-20 μg-C m-2 hr-1; p = 6*10-4). CH4 flux from individual Santarem sites was not correlated with environmental variables. CH4 flux from Airquemes was correlated with several parameters across all samples including soil temperature (p = 7*10-4), and soil humidity (p = 0.02). Despite the fact that pastures experienced higher soil temperatures than forest soils this appears to be a low predictor of CH4 flux from these environments as it was seen at both Santarem and Ariquemes. The analysis of the stable isotopic composition of CH4 from these chambers will aid in understanding the competing processes of microbial CH4 consumption and production in these soils and why pastures may become CH4 sources and

  18. A geomorphological assessments of the distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain sediment storage budget is examined along the 1,000 km reach of the lower Amazon River based on extensive sets of remote sensing data and field measurements. Incorporating the washload discharges at gauge stations at the main channel and major tributaries, we analyzed the roles of vast floodplain on the Amazon River seasonal variability in sediment discharges. Annual washload accumulation rate on floodplain along the reach in between Manacapuru and Obidos of is estimated to be 79 Mt over inter-annual average. Period that the net loss over to the floodplain of washload coincide with discharge rising phase of the Amazon River at Obidos, when the river water level rises to make hydrologic connections to floodplain. Only during the early falling phase (July-August), 3.6 Mt of washload net gain occurred in a year, which was less than 5% of the annual net loss to the floodplain. To assess the spatial distribution of sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, we incorporated various hydro-geomorphic factors regarding floodplain geomorphic styles and morphometric parameters, such floodplain width, levee heights, water-saturated area, suspended sediment distribution over floodplain and distribution of impeded floodplain. Impeded floodplain that contains numerous large rounded lakes is the definition of active sediment sinks along the lower Amazon, which seasonally stores most of the water and traps sediment from the river. The results of these hydro-geomorphic factors collectively indicate that the extent and magnitudes of sediment sinks becomes larger downstream (from Manacapuru to Monte Alegre), which is proportionally related to the development of the water-saturated floodplain. This indicates the nonlinear geomorphic evolution of the Amazon floodplain through its longitudinal profile since the late Holocene that downstream reaches are still to be infilled with sediments (incomplete floodplain) thus acting as sediment sinks.

  19. Response of the Amazon rainforest to late Pleistocene climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Merkel, Ute; Mulitza, Stefan; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Schefuß, Enno

    2017-12-01

    Variations in Amazonian hydrology and forest cover have major consequences for the global carbon and hydrological cycles as well as for biodiversity. Yet, the climate and vegetation history of the lowland Amazon basin and its effect on biogeography remain debated due to the scarcity of suitable high-resolution paleoclimate records. Here, we use the isotopic composition (δD and δ13C) of plant-waxes from a high-resolution marine sediment core collected offshore the Amazon River to reconstruct the climate and vegetation history of the integrated lowland Amazon basin for the period from 50,000 to 12,800 yr before present. Our results show that δD values from the Last Glacial Maximum were more enriched than those from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and the present-day. We interpret this trend to reflect long-term changes in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, with overall drier conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results thus suggest a dominant glacial forcing of the climate in lowland Amazonia. In addition to previously suggested thermodynamic mechanisms of precipitation change, which are directly related to temperature, we conclude that changes in atmospheric circulation are crucial to explain the temporal evolution of Amazonian rainfall variations, as demonstrated in climate model experiments. Our vegetation reconstruction based on δ13C values shows that the Amazon rainforest was affected by intrusions of savannah or more open vegetation types in its northern sector during Heinrich Stadials, while it was resilient to glacial drying. This suggests that biogeographic patterns in tropical South America were affected by Heinrich Stadials in addition to glacial-interglacial climate variability.

  20. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  1. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de, P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 cases annually in the 1990s. Rondônia state was particularly hard hit, with thousands of new immigrants suffering malaria attacks. It is argued that the environmental change caused by deforestation has...

  2. Climatic and ecological future of the Amazon: likelihood and causes of change

    OpenAIRE

    B. Cook; N. Zeng; J.-H. Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Some recent climate modeling results suggested a possible dieback of the Amazon rainforest under future climate change, a prediction that raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest...

  3. The Battle for Critical Internet Resources: South America vs. Amazon.com, Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Vargas-Leon; Andreas Kuehn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – To analyze the controversy about the allocation of critical Internet resources generated by ICANN's new gTLD program with a particular focus on the .AMAZON TLD. Methodology/approach/design – This article presents an exploratory case study about the .AMAZON controversy. The initial analysis of this ongoing research is based on data collected from various reports and media coverage on ICANN's new gTLD policy. The article draws from political economy theory to analyze disputes about...

  4. Changes in the Carbon Cycle of Amazon Ecosystems During the 2010 Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christophera; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubino, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production (NPP) in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon River basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to forests outside the main river floodplains.

  5. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO 2 uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO 2 to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  6. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  7. Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sophie E; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Yandell, Brian S; Adams, William M

    2010-01-01

    Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

  8. The Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds, and Rainfall over the Rain Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S. T. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Artaxo, P. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Machado, L. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Manzi, A. O. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; Souza, R. A. F. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Schumacher, C. [Texas A& amp,M University, College Station, Texas; Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Biscaro, T. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Brito, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Calheiros, A. [National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Jardine, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Medeiros, A. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Portela, B. [National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; de Sá, S. S. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Adachi, K. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Aiken, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Albrecht, R. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Alexander, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Andreae, M. O. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Barbosa, H. M. J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Buseck, P. [Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona; Chand, D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Comstock, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Day, D. A. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Fisch, G. [Aeronautic and Space Institute, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Fortner, E. [Aerodyne, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts; Giangrande, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Gilles, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California; Goldstein, A. H. [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California; Guenther, A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Hubbe, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Jimenez, J. L. [University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Keutsch, F. N. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Kim, S. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; Laskin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McKinney, K. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mei, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Miller, M. [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Nascimento, R. [Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil; Pauliquevis, T. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Pekour, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Peres, J. [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Petäjä, T. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Pöhlker, C. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Pöschl, U. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Rizzo, L. [Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Schmid, B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shilling, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Dias, M. A. Silva [University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Smith, J. N. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; Tomlinson, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Tóta, J. [Federal University of West Para, Santarém, Pará, Brazil; Wendisch, M. [University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

    2017-05-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment took place around the urban region of Manaus in central Amazonia across two years. The urban pollution plume was used to study the susceptibility of gases, aerosols, clouds, and rainfall to human activities in a tropical environment. Many aspects of air quality, weather, terrestrial ecosystems, and climate work differently in the tropics than in the more thoroughly studied USA, employed an unparalleled suite of measurements at nine ground sites and onboard two aircraft to investigate the flow of background air into Manaus, the emissions into the air over the city, and the advection of the pollution downwind of the city. Herein, to visualize this train of processes and its effects, observations aboard a low-flying aircraft are presented. Comparative measurements within and adjacent to the plume followed the emissions of biogenic volatile organic carbon compounds (BVOCs) from the tropical forest, their transformations by the atmospheric oxidant cycle, alterations of this cycle by the influence of the pollutants, transformations of the chemical products into aerosol particles, the relationship of these particles to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and the differences in cloud properties and rainfall for background compared to polluted conditions. The observations of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment illustrate how the hydrologic cycle, radiation balance, and carbon recycling may be affected by present-day as well as future economic development and pollution over the Amazonian tropical forest.

  9. Passive microwave observations of inundation area and the area/stage relation in the Amazon River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Novo, E.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Inundation patterns in Amazon River floodplains are revealed by analysis of the 37GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite. Flooded area is estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for 12 longitudinal reaches along the Amazon River main stem in Brazil as well as for three major tributaries (the Jurua, Purus and Madeira rivers). The total area along the Amazon River main stem that was flooded (including both floodplain and open water) varied between 19 000 and 91 000 km 2 . The correlation between flooded area and river stage is used to develop a predictive relationship and reconstruct regional inundation patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem over the past 94 years of stage records (1903± 1996). The mean flooded area along the Amazon River during this 94-year period was 46 800 km 2 , of which the openwater surfaces of river channels and floodplain lakes comprised about 20 700 km 2 . (author)

  10. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae, in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  11. Crop damage of Eriotheca gracilipes (Bombacaceae) by the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, Psittacidae), in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-11-01

    Seed predation has major effects on the reproductive success of individuals, spatial patterns of populations, genetic variability, interspecific interactions and ultimately in the diversity of tree communities. At a Brazilian savanna, I evaluated the proportional crop loss of Eriotheca gracilipes due the Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) during a fruiting period. Also, I analyzed the relationship between proportional crop loss to Amazons and both fruit crop size and the distance from the nearest damaged conspecific. Trees produced from 1 to 109 fruits, so that Amazons foraged more often on trees bearing larger fruit crop size, while seldom visited less productive trees. Moreover, the relationship between fruit crop sizes and the number of depredated fruits was significant. However, when only damaged trees were assessed, I found a negative and significant relation between fruit crop size and proportional crop loss to Blue-Fronted Amazons. Taking into account this as a measure more directly related to the probability of seed survival, a negative density dependent effect emerged. Also, Amazons similarly damaged the fruit crops of either close or distant neighboring damaged trees. Hence, in spite of Blue-Fronted Amazons searched for E. gracilipes bearing large fruit crops, they were swamped due to the presence of more fruits than they could eat. Moderate seed predation by Blue-Fronted Amazons either at trees with large fruit crops or in areas where fruiting trees were aggregated implies in an enhanced probability of E. gracilipes seed survival and consequent regeneration success.

  12. Datový sklad v prostředí Amazon Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kuželka, Kryštof

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to investigate the potential of utilizing Hadoop and Amazon Redshift in the Amazon Web Services ("AWS") cloud, in order to design and implement a data warehouse, the efficacy of which will be tested afterwards. Contributions of this work include: documenting the technologies in the AWS cloud in Czech, demonstration of the design and performance tests of the data warehouse and the ETL part. Another considerable benefit is the added value to the company for...

  13. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  14. Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models. (letter)

  15. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

  16. Changes in the carbon cycle of Amazon ecosystems during the 2010 drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Christopher [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Klooster, Steven; Hiatt, Cyrus; Genovese, Vanessa [California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA (United States); Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos, E-mail: chris.potter@nasa.gov [Planetary Skin Institute, Silicon Valley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Satellite remote sensing was combined with the NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) carbon cycle simulation model to evaluate the impact of the 2010 drought (July through September) throughout tropical South America. Results indicated that net primary production in Amazon forest areas declined by an average of 7% in 2010 compared to 2008. This represented a loss of vegetation CO{sub 2} uptake and potential Amazon rainforest growth of nearly 0.5 Pg C in 2010. The largest overall decline in ecosystem carbon gains by land cover type was predicted for closed broadleaf forest areas of the Amazon river basin, including a large fraction of regularly flooded forest areas. Model results support the hypothesis that soil and dead wood carbon decomposition fluxes of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere were elevated during the drought period of 2010 in periodically flooded forest areas, compared to those for forests outside the main river floodplains.

  17. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.

  18. Lidar observed seasonal variation of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    Both light and water are important environmental factors governing tree growth. Responses of tropical forests to their changes are complicated and can vary substantially across different spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest is the dry-season greening-up of Amazon forests, a phenomenon undergoing considerable debates whether it is real or a "light illusion" caused by artifacts of passive optical remote sensing techniques. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon forests using lidar observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We found that the net greening of canopy layer coincides with the wet-to-dry transition period, and its net browning occurs mostly at the late dry season. The understory also shows a seasonal cycle, but with an opposite variation to canopy and minimal correlation to seasonal variations in rainfall or radiation. Our results further suggest a potential interaction between canopy layers in the light regime that can optimize the growth of Amazon forests during the dry season. This light regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the dry-season greening-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  19. Environment, energy and economic development in Amazon; Desenvolvimento economico-energetico e o meio ambiente na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Alveal, Carmem [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Reis, Hugo Regis do [Companhia Nacional de Defesa e pelo Desenvolvimento da Amazonia (CNDDA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Mesquita, Alvaro Augusto [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This paper shows the aspects related to the sustainable development of the brazilian Amazon region. The aspects of human-forest relations, electric power generation, land ownership, brazilian indians populations, all of these related to the social and economical development for the Amazon region

  20. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  1. Radon concentrations profiles over the brazilian Amazon basin during wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Dias, P.L.S.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric radon measurements were performed airborne in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during the wet season ABLE-2B experiment. The vertical profiles of radon showed a small decrease of concentration with increasing altitude at a rate varying from 6.5 to 11 x 10 - 2 Bq m - 3 km - 1. The calculation of the flux balance of radon in the troposphere above the Amazon Basin indicated a residual flux at the upper boundary of the measurement domain (6 km) of 0.14 atom cm - 2 s - 1. This residue may be associated with the turbulent transport of radon due to cloud activity. (author)

  2. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future risk in Amazon forests

    OpenAIRE

    Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Pereira, José Miguel Cardoso; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest’s future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climatedriven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and ...

  3. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  4. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

  5. New species of Microcentrum Scudder, 1862 (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Phaneropteridae) from Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Sovano, Rafael S; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J

    2015-03-26

    A regional study is performed for the Amazonian species of the genus Microcentrum Scudder, 1862, its proposed Microcentrum punctifrons Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1891 as nomen dubium n. stat. and two new species are described: Microcentrum amacayacu Cadena-Casteñada, Sovano n. sp. and Microcentrum xavieri Sovano, Cadena-Casteñada n. sp. the Colombian and Brazilian Amazon, respectively. A list and a key to the Amazonian species are also provided, along with a discussion on their distribution, according to endemism areas established to Amazon rainforest.

  6. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  7. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress. PMID:27638214

  8. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  9. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched ...

  10. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, N; Takizawa, Y; Hisamatsu, S; Abe, T; Abe, Y; Motohashi, Y

    1998-01-01

    A wide regional mercury pollution in Amazon, Brazil is closely associated with goldmining that has been carried out in the basin of tributaries of the Amazon since the eighteenth century. Possible involvement has been discussed on atmospheric circulation in distributing the volatile pollutant. We developed a portable air sampler for the collection of mercury compounds and determined atmospheric mercury concentrations at several sites in Brazil including the basin of the Amazon tributaries. The mean concentration of total mercury was between 9.1 and 14.0 ng/m(3) in the basin of the Uatumã River located in the tropical rain forest far from goldmining sites and from urbanized area. These mercury levels exceeded the background level previously reported in rural area and, furthermore, were higher than concentrations observed in Rio de Janeiro and in Manaus that were compatible with the reference values for urban area. Mercury concentrations were also determined in gold refineries in the basin of the Tapajos River, and detected at a significant but not a health deteriorating level. Although only preliminary data were available, the present observations were in favor of the hypothesis that mercury is distributed widely by long distant transport by the atmospheric circulation after released at gold mining sites.

  11. The complexity of amazon culture and its repercussions on the organization and representation of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luiz Cardoso Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It explores and analyzes the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in the context of organization and information representation. It presents concepts of culture in order to support reflections about the studied domain. Method: The supporting theoretical reference is focused on the Ranganathan’s Faceted Classification Theory and on the Theory of Integrated Levels from the Classification Research Group, as theoretical-methodological basis to build a classificatory structure model. The selection of concepts took place based on the terms resulted from an oral research in three geographical cities of Amazon: Bragança, Castanhal and Marajó archipelago. Results: The analysis of etymological origins of the words indicated the influence of foreign culture from the European, African, Asiatic and American continents in the Amazon language. Conclusions: The analysis of those results showed the feasibility of developing a working methodology in order to outline a classification structure and a set of concepts to represent the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in its fundamental roots as a basis for the building of organizing systems of knowledge.

  12. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  13. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  14. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Amazon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio; Artaxo, Paulo

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the atmospheric aerosols characterization that exist in different regions of Amazon basin. The biogenic aerosol emission by forest, as well as the atmospheric emissions of particulate materials due to biomass burning, were analyzed. Samples of aerosol particles were collected during three years in two different locations of Amazon region using Stacked Unit Filters. In order to study these samples some analytical nuclear techniques were used. The high concentrations of aerosols as a result of biomass burning process were observed in the period of june-september

  15. The fate of particle-reactive radionuclides on the Amazon and Yangtze continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water column and seabed samples collected from the continental shelves adjacent to the Yangtze and Amazon Rivers were analyzed for particle-reactive radionuclides ( 234 Th, 228 Th, 210 Pb), and their respective parent nuclides ( 238 U, 228 Ra, 226 Ra). On the Amazon shelf, dissolved 238 U activities increase with increasing salinity to a shelf maximum (4.6 dpm 1 -1 ) that is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.5 dpm 1 -1 ) because uranium is desorbed from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings of bottom sediments and advected into the overlying water column during periodic resuspension events. As a result, measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates (by a factor of 5) the flux of dissolved uranium from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean. K e values decrease with increased SSC and range from 10 5 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Th and from 10 4 ·10 6 ml g -1 for Po and Pb. The approach to equilibrium can best be described as a two-step process that is initially rapid (rate constants: 10-100 d -1 , during the first 30 minutes), but becomes less rapid (rate constants: 1-4 d -1 ) as equilibrium is attained. Distribution coefficients for 234 Th, 228 Th and 210 Pb exhibit large spatial variability on the Amazon shelf (range: 10 3 - 10 6 ml g -1 ) and on the Yangtze shelf (range: 10 4 - 10 6 ml g -1 ). On the Amazon shelf, particle residence time is short (2-3 hours) relative to scavenging residence time (15-20 hours) therefore, only 1-31% of equilibrium between dissolved and particulate thorium is attained. On the Yangtze shelf, particle residence time is long (12-89 hours) relative to scavenging time (2-23 hours) resulting in K d values near (97-100%) equilibrium

  16. Applying NASA Imaging Radar Datasets to Investigate the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Alexander, P. M.; Cracraft, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity rich biome and plays a significant role into shaping Earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of this basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity and its response to climate change. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired during that time over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying geomorphologic features and vegetation communities within the context of improving the understanding of evolutionary processes, and their utility in aiding interpretation of datasets from Earth-orbiting satellites to support a basin-wide characterization across the Amazon. We derive maps of landcover and river branching structure from UAVSAR imagery. We compare these maps to those derived using imaging radar datasets from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS PALSAR and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Results provide an understanding of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon planalto as well as its relationship to geologic processes and will support interpretation of the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. Portions of this work have been carried out within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility.This work is carried out with support from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

  17. Water stress detection in the Amazon using radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Paget, Aaron; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.; Barros, Fernanda de V.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest plays an important role in the global water and carbon cycle, and though it is predicted to continue drying in the future, the effect of drought remains uncertain. Developments in remote sensing missions now facilitate large-scale observations. The RapidScat scatterometer (Ku band) mounted on the International Space Station observes the Earth in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit, which allows for studying changes in the diurnal cycle of radar backscatter over the Amazon. Diurnal cycles in backscatter are significantly affected by the state of the canopy, especially during periods of increased water stress. We use RapidScat backscatter time series and water deficit measurements from dendrometers in 20 trees during a 9 month period to relate variations in backscatter to increased tree water deficit. Morning radar bacskcatter dropped significantly with increased tree water deficit measured with dendrometers. This provides unique observational evidence that demonstrates the sensitivity of radar backscatter to vegetation water stress, highlighting the potential of drought detection and monitoring using radar.

  18. Highly reactive light-dependent monoterpenes in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A. B.; Jardine, K. J.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Martins, G.; Durgante, F.; Carneiro, V.; Higuchi, N.; Manzi, A. O.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    Despite orders of magnitude difference in atmospheric reactivity and great diversity in biological functioning, little is known about monoterpene speciation in tropical forests. Here we report vertically resolved ambient air mixing ratios for 12 monoterpenes in a central Amazon rainforest including observations of the highly reactive cis-β-ocimene (160 ppt), trans-β-ocimene (79 ppt), and terpinolene (32 ppt) which accounted for an estimated 21% of total monoterpene composition yet 55% of the upper canopy monoterpene ozonolysis rate. All 12 monoterpenes showed a mixing ratio peak in the upper canopy, with three demonstrating subcanopy peaks in 7 of 11 profiles. Leaf level emissions of highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for up to 1.9% of photosynthesis confirming light-dependent emissions across several Amazon tree genera. These results suggest that highly reactive monoterpenes play important antioxidant roles during photosynthesis in plants and serve as near-canopy sources of secondary organic aerosol precursors through atmospheric photooxidation via ozonolysis.

  19. Weather forecasting for Eastern Amazon with OLAM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The OLAM model has as its characteristics the advantage to represent simultaneously the global and regional meteorological phenomena using the application of a grid refinement scheme. During the REMAM project the model was applied for a few case studies to evaluate its performance on numerical weather prediction for the eastern Amazon region. Case studies were performed for the twelve months of the year of 2009. The model results for those numerical experiments were compared with the observed data for the region of study. Precipitation data analysis showed that OLAM is able to represent the average mean accumulated precipitation and the seasonal features of the events occurrence, but can't predict the local total amount of precipitation. However, individual evaluation for a few cases had shown that OLAM was able to represent the dynamics and forecast a few days in advance the development of coastal meteorological systems such as the squall lines that are one of the most important precipitating systems of the Amazon.

  20. Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

  1. A vicious circle of fire, deforestation and climate change: an integrative study for the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonicke, K.; Rammig, A.; Gumpenberger, M.; Vohland, K.; Poulter, B.; Cramer, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is threatened by deforestation due to wood extraction and agricultural production leading to increasing forest fragmentation and forest degradation. These changes in land surface characteristics and water fluxes are expected to further reduce convective precipitation. Under future climate change the stability of the Amazon rainforest is likely to decrease thus leading to forest dieback (savannization) or forest degradation (secondarization). This puts the Amazon rainforest at risk to reduce the generation of precipitation, to act as a carbon sink and biodiversity hotspot. Fires increased in the past during drought years and in open vegetation thereby further accelerating forest degradation. Deforestation as a result of socioeconomic development in the Amazon basin is projected to further increase in the 21st century and brings climate-induced changes forward. Combined effects of deforestation vs. climate change on the stability of the Amazon rainforest and the role of fire in this system need to be quantified in an integrated study. We present simulation results from future climate (AR4) and deforestation (SimAmazon) experiments using the LPJmL-SPITFIRE vegetation model. Land use change is the main driving factor of forest degradation before 2050, whereas extreme climate change scenarios lead to forest degradation by the end of 2100. Forest fires increase with increasing drought conditions during the 21st century. The resulting effects on vegetation secondarization and savannization and their feedbacks on fire spread and emissions will be presented. The effect of wildfires and intentional burning on forest degradation under future climate and socioeconomic change will be discussed, and recommendations for an integrated land use and fire management are given.

  2. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca; de Carvalho, Osmar Abilio

    2007-01-01

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  3. The Pulse of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. G.; Moura, J. M. S.; Mitsuya, M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Holmes, R. M.; Galy, V.; Drake, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers integrate over a fixed and definable area (the watershed), with their discharge and chemistry at any given point a function of upstream processes. As a consequence, examination of riverine discharge and chemistry can provide powerful indictors of change within a watershed. To assess the validity of this approach long-term datasets are required from fluvial environments around the globe. The Amazon River delivers one-fifth of the total freshwater discharged to the ocean and so represents a fundamentally important site for examination of long-term major ion, trace element, nutrient, and organic matter (OM) export. Here we describe data from a multi-year, monthly sampling campaign of the Amazon River at Obidos (Para, Brazil). Clear seasonality in all analyte fluxes is apparent and is linked to hydrology, however dissolved OM composition appears dominated by allochthonous sources throughout the year as evidenced by optical parameters indicative of high molecular weight and high relative aromatic content. Annual loads of some analytes for 2011-2013 inclusive varied by up to 50%, highlighting significant variability in flux from year to year that was linked to inter-annual hydrologic shifts (i.e. higher fluxes in wetter years). Finally, encompassing both intra- and inter-annual variability, a robust correlation was observed between chromophoric dissolved OM (CDOM) absorbance and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration highlighting the potential to improve DOC flux estimates at this globally significant site via CDOM measurements from in situ technologies or remote sensing techniques.

  4. A user experience evaluation of Amazon Kindle mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Musa, Ja'afaru; Mortada, Salah

    2017-10-01

    There is a dramatic increase in the development of mobile applications in recent years. This makes the usability evaluation of these mobile applications an important aspect in the advancement and application of technology. In this paper, a laboratory-based usability evaluation was carried out on the Amazon Kindle app using 15 users who performed 5 tasks on the Kindle e-book mobile app. A post-test questionnaire was administered to elicit users' perception on the usability of the application. The results demonstrate that almost all the participants were satisfied with services provided by the Amazon Kindle e-book mobile app. On all the four user experience factors examined, namely, perceived ease-of-use, perceived visibility, perceived enjoyabilty, and perceived efficiency, the evaluation outcome shows that the participants had a good and rich mobile experience with the application.

  5. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies based on terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show depleted δ13C values (-33 to -36‰) in most samples, indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples. Enriched values (-31 to -33‰) are only found in a few samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers (-152 to -168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (-142 to -154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside the plume showed more enriched values. Although the variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate that long

  6. Rare models: Roger Casement, the Amazon, and the ethnographic picturesque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    In 1910 Roger Casement was sent by the British government to investigate the alleged humanitarian abuses of the Peruvian Amazon Company in the Putumayo, a disputed border zone in North West Amazonia. Casement brought more than verbal and written testimony back to London. On 26 June, some six months after he returned from the Amazon, Casement collected two Amerindian boys - Omarino and Ricudo - from Southampton docks. This paper will reconstruct the brief period that these young men spent in Britain in the summer of 1911 and assess, in particular, to what extent they were treated as 'exhibits' by Casement, who not only introduced them to leading members of the British establishment but also arranged for them to be painted and photographed following contemporary ethnographic conventions.

  7. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  8. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO-LIMA C. A. R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  9. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. R. M. ARAUJO-LIMA

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  10. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-05-27

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. Forest fires, drought and logging increase susceptibility to further burning while deforestation and smoke can inhibit rainfall, exacerbating fire risk. If sea surface temperature anomalies (such as El Niño episodes) and associated Amazon droughts of the last decade continue into the future, approximately 55% of the forests of the Amazon will be cleared, logged, damaged by drought or burned over the next 20 years, emitting 15-26Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. Several important trends could prevent a near-term dieback. As fire-sensitive investments accumulate in the landscape, property holders use less fire and invest more in fire control. Commodity markets are demanding higher environmental performance from farmers and cattle ranchers. Protected areas have been established in the pathway of expanding agricultural frontiers. Finally, emerging carbon market incentives for reductions in deforestation could support these trends.

  11. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  12. Impact of Amazon deforestation on climate simulations using the NCAR CCM2/BATS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model validation and results are briefly presented for a simulation of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. This initial study is made using assumptions regarding deforestation similar to those in earlier studies with several versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) couples to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The model used is a revised version of the NCAR CCM Version 2 coupled to BATS Version 1e. This paper discusses the portion of validation dealing with the distribution of precipitation; the simulation displays very good agreement with observed rainfall rates for the austral summer. Preliminary results from an 8-year simulation of deforestation are similar to that of previous studies. Annual precipitation and evaporation are reduced, while surface air temperatures show a slight increase. A substantial bimodal pattern appears in the results, with the Amazon decrease of precipitation and temperature increase accompanied by changes in the opposite sign to the southeast of the Amazon. Similar patterns have occurred in other studies, but not always in exactly the same locations. Evidently, how much of the region of rainfall increase occurs in the deforested area over the Amazon strongly affects the inferred statistics. It is likely that this pattern depends on the model control climatology and possibly other features. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Martin, S. T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kleinman, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thalman, R. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol indirect effects, which represent the impact of aerosols on climate through influencing the properties of clouds, remain one of the main uncertainties in climate predictions (Stocker et al. 2013). Reducing this large uncertainty requires both improved understanding and representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models, including the cloud activation properties of aerosols. The Atmospheric System Research (ASR) science program plan of January 2010 states that: “A key requirement for simulating aerosol-cloud interactions is the ability to calculate cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei (CCN and IN, respectively) concentrations as a function of supersaturation from the chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol.” The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity (Manaus)—in particular, the differences in cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions between polluted and pristine conditions. One key question of GoAmazon2014/5 is: “What is the influence of the Manaus pollution plume on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of the aerosol particles and the secondary organic material in the particles?” To address this question, we measured size-resolved CCN spectra, a critical measurement for GoAmazon2014/5.

  14. The Expansion of the Economic Frontier and the Diffusion of Violence in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feitosa Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the occupation of the Amazon and the expansion of large-scale economic activities have exerted a significant negative impact on the Amazonian environment and on the health of the Amazon’s inhabitants. These processes have altered the context of the manifestation of health problems in time and space and changed the characteristics of the spatial diffusion of health problems in the region. This study analyzed the relationships between the various economic processes of territorial occupation in the Amazon and the spatial diffusion of homicidal violence through the configuration of networks of production, as well as the movements of population and merchandise. Statistical data on violence, deforestation, the production of agricultural items, and socio-economic variables, georeferenced and available for the 771 municipalities of the Legal Amazon were used in this study. The results suggest that the diffusion of violence closely follows the economic expansion front, which is related to deforestation and livestock production but has little relation to grain production, demonstrating steps and typologies of recent occupation in the Amazon that promote violence. These spatial patterns reveal environmental and socio-economic macro-determinants that materialize in geographic space through the construction of highways and the formation of city networks.

  15. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronza, Amanda Lee

    2010-01-01

    TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests,

  16. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Microsatellites for the gynogenetic Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa: useful tools for detection of mutation rate, ploidy determination and overall genetic diversity. Kathrin P. Lampert Dunja K. Lamatsch Susanne Schories Armin Hopf Francisco J. García De León ...

  17. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  18. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  19. Satellite-based Analysis of CO Variability over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Tilmes, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin exert significant influence on both climate and air quality but are highly variable from year to year. The ability of models to simulate the impact of biomass burning emissions on downstream atmospheric concentrations depends on (1) the quality of surface flux estimates (i.e., emissions inventories), (2) model dynamics (e.g., horizontal winds, large-scale convection and mixing) and (3) the representation of atmospheric chemical processes. With an atmospheric lifetime of a few months, carbon monoxide (CO) is a commonly used diagnostic for biomass burning. CO products are available from several satellite instruments and allow analyses of CO variability over extended regions such as the Amazon Basin with useful spatial and temporal sampling characteristics. The MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere') instrument was launched on the NASA Terra platform near the end of 1999 and is still operational. MOPITT is uniquely capable of measuring tropospheric CO concentrations using both thermal-infrared and near-infrared observations, resulting in the ability to independently retrieve lower- and upper-troposphere CO concentrations. We exploit the 18-year MOPITT record and related datasets to analyze the variability of CO over the Amazon Basin and evaluate simulations performed with the CAM-chem chemical transport model. We demonstrate that observed differences between MOPITT observations and model simulations provide important clues regarding emissions inventories, convective mixing and long-range transport.

  20. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  1. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  2. A Comparison of Traditional Book Reviews and Amazon.com Book Reviews of Fiction Using a Content Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Sich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study compared the quality and helpfulness of traditional book review sources with the online user rating system in Amazon.com in order to determine if one mode is superior to the other and should be used by library selectors to assist in making purchasing decisions. Methods - For this study, 228 reviews of 7 different novels were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Of these, 127 reviews came from traditional review sources and 101 reviews were published on Amazon.com. Results - Using a checklist developed for this study, a significant difference in the quality of reviews was discovered. Reviews from traditional sources scored significantly higher than reviews from Amazon.com. The researcher also looked at review length. On average, Amazon.com reviews are shorter than reviews from traditional sources. Review rating—favourable, unfavourable, or mixed/neutral—also showed a lack of consistency between the two modes of reviews. Conclusion - Although Amazon.com provides multiple reviews of a book on one convenient site, traditional sources of professionally written reviews would most likely save librarians more time in making purchasing decisions, given the higher quality of the review assessment.

  3. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  4. Evaluation of last extreme drought events in Amazon basin using remotely sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisset, Jéssica S.; Gouveia, Célia M.; Libonati, Renata; Peres, Leonardo; Machado-Silva, Fausto; França, Daniela A.; França, José R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Amazon basin has experienced several intense droughts among which were highlighted last recent ones in 2005 and 2010. Climate models suggest these events will be even more frequent due to higher concentration of greenhouse gases that are also driven forward by alteration in forest dynamics. Environmental and social impacts demand to identify these intense droughts and the behavior of climate parameters that affect vegetation. This present study also identifies a recent intense drought in Amazon basin during 2015. Meteorological parameters and vegetation indices suggest this event was the most severe already registered in the region. We have used land surface temperature (LST), vegetation indices, rainfall and shortwave radiation from 2000 to 2015 to analyze and compare droughts of 2005, 2010 and 2015. Our results show singularities among the three climate extreme events. The austral winter was the most affected season in 2005 and 2010, but not in 2015 when austral summer presented extreme conditions. Precipitation indicates epicenter of 2005 in west Amazon corroborating with previous studies. In 2010, the west region was strongly affected again together with the northwest and the southeast areas. However, 2015 epicenters were concentrated in the east of the basin. In 2015, shortwave radiation has exceeded the maximum values of 2005 and temperature the maximum value of 2010. Vegetation indices have shown positive and negative anomalies. Despite of heterogenous response of Amazon forest to drought, hybrid vegetation indices using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST highlights the exceptionality of 2015 drought episode that exhibits higher vegetation water stress than the cases of 2010 and 2005. Finally, this work has shown how meteorological parameters influence droughts and the effects on vegetation in Amazon basin. Complexity of climate, ecosystem heterogeneity and high diversity of Amazon forest are response by idiosyncrasies of each drought. All

  5. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  6. Pilvipalvelut: Microsoft Azure vs. Amazon Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aro, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutustua kahteen suosittuun pilvipalveluntarjoajaan, Microsoft Azureen ja Amazon Web Serviceen, sekä vertailla miten ne eroavat toisistaan ominaisuuksiltaan, palveluiltaan ja hinnoittelultaan. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli antaa hyvä yleiskuva vertailtavista pilvipalveluntarjoajista, niiden tarjoamista palveluista, ja niiden sopivuudesta yrityksen pilviratkaisuksi. Vertailu tehtiin yrityksen näkökulmasta. Työn alussa tarkasteltiin pilvipalveluita yleisesti ...

  7. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-30

    Recognized as one of the world's most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region's complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon's tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  9. Poverty in the Brazilian Amazon: An Assessment of Poverty Focused on the State of Para

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The states in the Brazilian Amazon have made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the last decade. Despite this progress, the poverty rate in the Amazon is among the highest in Brazil. As of 2000, rural poverty is the greatest challenge. In Par?, not only is the headcount poverty rate of 58.4 percent in rural areas more than 55 percent higher than headcount pover...

  10. Climatic factors driving vegetation declines in the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Zhao

    Full Text Available Along with global climate change, the occurrence of extreme droughts in recent years has had a serious impact on the Amazon region. Current studies on the driving factors of the 2005 and 2010 Amazon droughts has focused on the influence of precipitation, whereas the impacts of temperature and radiation have received less attention. This study aims to explore the climate-driven factors of Amazonian vegetation decline during the extreme droughts using vegetation index, precipitation, temperature and radiation datasets. First, time-lag effects of Amazonian vegetation responses to precipitation, radiation and temperature were analyzed. Then, a multiple linear regression model was established to estimate the contributions of climatic factors to vegetation greenness, from which the dominant climate-driving factors were determined. Finally, the climate-driven factors of Amazonian vegetation greenness decline during the 2005 and 2010 extreme droughts were explored. The results showed that (i in the Amazon vegetation greenness responded to precipitation, radiation and temperature, with apparent time lags for most averaging interval periods associated with vegetation index responses of 0-4, 0-9 and 0-6 months, respectively; (ii on average, the three climatic factors without time lags explained 27.28±21.73% (mean±1 SD of vegetation index variation in the Amazon basin, and this value increased by 12.22% and reached 39.50±27.85% when time lags were considered; (iii vegetation greenness in this region in non-drought years was primarily affected by precipitation and shortwave radiation, and these two factors altogether accounted for 93.47% of the total explanation; and (iv in the common epicenter of the two droughts, pixels with a significant variation in precipitation, radiation and temperature accounted for 36.68%, 40.07% and 10.40%, respectively, of all pixels showing a significant decrease in vegetation index in 2005, and 15.69%, 2.01% and 45.25% in

  11. LBA-ECO LC-01 Hydrography, Morphology, Edaphology Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides map images of hydrographic, morphologic, and edaphic features for the northern Amazon Basin in eastern Ecuador. The hydrographic...

  12. The Amazon River’s Ecosystem: Where Land Meets the Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas; Sawakuchi, Henrique; Richey, Jeffrey

    2018-01-18

    What happens to plant matter on its journey down the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean? One research group investigated the region where river and ocean meet to fill in this part of the story.

  13. Sustainable Amazon : Limitations and Opportunities for Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Robert R.; Arima, Eugenio; Verissimo, Adalberto; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Barreto, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    The report contributes to the debate surrounding land use in the Brazilian Amazon. It sets the context by reviewing the evidence concerning the deleterious effect of increasing levels of rainfall on agricultural settlement, and productivity. Next, it compares the economic future of an Amazonian community, under the traditional "predatory logging followed by ranching" model, and under susta...

  14. Learning big data with Amazon Elastic MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amarkant

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers and system administrators who want to learn about Big Data analysis using Amazon Elastic MapReduce. Basic Java programming knowledge is required. You should be comfortable with using command-line tools. Prior knowledge of AWS, API, and CLI tools is not assumed. Also, no exposure to Hadoop and MapReduce is expected.

  15. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  16. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 Hydrography, Morphology, Edaphology Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides map images of hydrographic, morphologic, and edaphic features for the northern Amazon Basin in eastern Ecuador. The hydrographic data are...

  18. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  19. Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.

  20. [Globalization, inequality, and transmission of tropical diseases in the Venezuelan Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto-Abella, Carlos; Graterol-Mendoza, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalization appears to be causing greater inequalities and increased vulnerability to tropical diseases around the world. The Venezuelan Amazon population, especially the rural indigenous population, displays among the worst health indicators in the Americas. High infant mortality rates in remote indigenous populations indicate that such communities have been affected by the globalization of disease, rather than favored by globalization of health. Globalization has also influenced public policies in the country, affecting the efficiency of control programs targeting tropical diseases. A new global pact for the sustainable development of the planet is needed, supported by the globalization of human values and rights. In Venezuela, new policies for the indigenous health sector, more resources, and greater autonomy could help reduce the inequities described here in the Venezuelan Amazon.

  1. Incorporating phylogenetic information for the definition of floristic districts in hyperdiverse Amazon forests: Implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Pitman, Nigel C A; Ter Steege, Hans; Mogollón, Hugo; Ceron, Carlos; Palacios, Walter; Oleas, Nora; Fine, Paul V A

    2017-11-01

    Using complementary metrics to evaluate phylogenetic diversity can facilitate the delimitation of floristic units and conservation priority areas. In this study, we describe the spatial patterns of phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and evolutionary distinctiveness of the hyperdiverse Ecuador Amazon forests and define priority areas for conservation. We established a network of 62 one-hectare plots in terra firme forests of Ecuadorian Amazon. In these plots, we tagged, collected, and identified every single adult tree with dbh ≥10 cm. These data were combined with a regional community phylogenetic tree to calculate different phylogenetic diversity (PD) metrics in order to create spatial models. We used Loess regression to estimate the spatial variation of taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity as well as phylogenetic endemism and evolutionary distinctiveness. We found evidence for the definition of three floristic districts in the Ecuadorian Amazon, supported by both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity data. Areas with high levels of phylogenetic endemism and evolutionary distinctiveness in Ecuadorian Amazon forests are unprotected. Furthermore, these areas are severely threatened by proposed plans of oil and mining extraction at large scales and should be prioritized in conservation planning for this region.

  2. Um estudo da simulação de serviços da Amazon ec2 utilizando o simulador Cloudsim

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Guzmán, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    English: In the first part of the project, is made a theoric study of Cloud Computing's technology and Amazon's company. After this, it has a introduction about the simulador CloudSim. The second part is devoted to the adaptation of CloudSim with the Amazon's Company, the extration of estadistics and theirs conclusions Castellano: En la primera parte del proyecto se hace un estudio teórico de la tecnología de la Computación en Nube y de la empresa Amazon. Es seguido por una introducción al...

  3. Two new Morganella species from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo DS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new Morganella species, M. albostipitata and M. rimosa were found during studies of gasteroid fungi in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. The new taxa are described, and illustrated with photographs and line drawings, and taxonomical comments are made.

  4. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Po...

  5. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, David E; Silva, Luciete A

    2007-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  6. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  7. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available LA CONTRIBUTION ANDINE A LA BIOGEOCHIMIE DE L’AMAZONE. Les fleuves andins ont vraisemblablement un rôle déterminant sur la biogéochimie de l’Amazone au Brésil. Les données disponibles sur le C organique, le NO3- et le PO43- des fleuves andins montrent des concentrations très variables et ne révèlent aucune relation avec leur altitude ou leur position dans le bassin. En général, les concentrations des fleuves andins sont semblables à celles du chenal principal et de ses principaux affluents. L’explication des phénomènes d’altération du matériel provenant des Andes ne peut être que spéculative. Cependant, l’atténuation du signal andin est liée à la décomposition et à l’ajout de matériel en aval des Andes. Les analyses de 13C sur la matière organique particulaire ou soluble du chenal principal de l’Amazone mettent en évidence qu’une fraction andine persiste dans le système fluvial qui se jette dans l’océan Atlantique. En 1994, un nouveau programme international de recherche a commencé pour mieux caractériser la biogéochimie des fleuves andins. CONTRIBUCIÓN ANDINA A LA BIOGEOQUÍMICA DEL RÍO AMAZONAS. Los ríos andinos podrían ejercer una influencia significativa sobre la biogeoquímica del Río Amazonas. Las concentraciones en C orgánico, NO3- y PO43- de los ríos andinos son altamente variables y no presentan claros patrones geográficos o altitudinos. En general, las concentraciones presentan valores similares a aquéllos observados en el Río Amazonas. Actualmente sólo existen explicaciones especulativas de los procesos que modifican el material de origen andino sin embargo, la atenuación de la señal andina es una consecuencia del proceso de descomposición y de la añadidura de materiales provenientes de las planicies bajas. El contenido de 13C en el material orgánico del Río Amazonas constituye una evidencia concreta de que cierta fracción del material andino persiste y es transportado hacia el

  8. Reflections on hydroelectric dams in the Amazon: water, energy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Koiffmann Becker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses the deployment of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon having as a starting point the relations between water and hydropower consumption at different scales of analyses. So, if all parts of the world are affected by global processes, they are not in the same way. The global scale is dominated by the apocalyptic discourse of increasing water scarcity and global warming, requiring the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases through the use of renewable energy and new technologies. On a Brazilian national scale, the problems are, rather, how to manage the abundance of water with social and territorial justice, and how to stop the loss of 20% of the electricity produced. Finally, it is at the regional scale - in the Amazon - that major problems arise: i the biggest paradox between the abundance of water and social inaccessibility to this resource; ii most of the dams planned for the country will be built there, with the risk of negative impacts already known; iii the obligation of building sluices at all the proposed dams, suggested by the industrial sector in name of the rivers navigation, will serve, in fact, to export commodities produced in the Brazilian central region. An ethical question is, therefore, posed to society and to Brazilian government: are really needed so many hydroelectric dams in the Amazon?

  9. Photovoltaics and eco-tourism in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D. [Dulas Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    The Explorama company caters for tourists in the jungles along the Amazon in Peru where the mains electricity (if present at all) is notoriously unreliable. The company therefore generates electricity through photovoltaic cells so that the tourists can enjoy home comforts such as lights, fans, air-conditioning, radio, freezers and refrigerators. The paper discusses the various units supplying the electric power. (uk)

  10. Impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo L B; Guzha, Alphonce C; Lamparter, Gabriele; Amorim, Ricardo S S; Couto, Eduardo G; Hughes, Harold J; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Gerold, Gerhard

    2018-04-14

    Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs. pasture) in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Our results indicate that the conversion of natural landscapes to pastures increases carbon and nutrient fluxes via streamflow in both biomes. These changes were the greatest in total inorganic carbon in the Amazon and in potassium in the Cerrado, representing a 5.0- and 5.5-fold increase in the fluxes of each biome, respectively. We found that stormflow, which is often neglected in studies on stream hydrochemistry in the tropics, plays a substantial role in the carbon and nutrient fluxes, especially in the Amazon biome, as its contributions to hydrochemical fluxes are mostly greater than the volumetric contribution to the total streamflow. These findings demonstrate that assessments of the impacts of deforestation in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes should also take into account rapid hydrological pathways; however, this can only be achieved through collection of high-temporal-resolution data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers, the oldest human societies. The green criminological perspective also implies that the definition of victimisation is being enlarged: not only (future) humans, but also non-humans can be considered...

  12. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  13. Evapotranspiration estimation using a parameter-parsimonious energy partition model over Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Agee, E.; Wang, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The increased frequency and severity of droughts in the Amazon region have emphasized the potential vulnerability of the rainforests to heat and drought-induced stresses, highlighting the need to reduce the uncertainty in estimates of regional evapotranspiration (ET) and quantify resilience of the forest. Ground-based observations for estimating ET are resource intensive, making methods based on remotely sensed observations an attractive alternative. Several methodologies have been developed to estimate ET from satellite data, but challenges remained in model parameterization and satellite limited coverage reducing their utility for monitoring biodiverse regions. In this work, we apply a novel surface energy partition method (Maximum Entropy Production; MEP) based on Bayesian probability theory and nonequilibrium thermodynamics to derive ET time series using satellite data for Amazon basin. For a large, sparsely monitored region such as the Amazon, this approach has the advantage methods of only using single level measurements of net radiation, temperature, and specific humidity data. Furthermore, it is not sensitive to the uncertainty of the input data and model parameters. In this first application of MEP theory for a tropical forest biome, we assess its performance at various spatiotemporal scales against a diverse field data sets. Specifically, the objective of this work is to test this method using eddy flux data for several locations across the Amazonia at sub-daily, monthly, and annual scales and compare the new estimates with those using traditional methods. Analyses of the derived ET time series will contribute to reducing the current knowledge gap surrounding the much debated response of the Amazon Basin region to droughts and offer a template for monitoring the long-term changes in global hydrologic cycle due to anthropogenic and natural causes.

  14. Trace elements and radionuclides in the Connecticut River and Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Connecticut River, its estuary and the Amazon River plume were studied to elucidate processes which control the flux of nuclides to the sea. Major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, Bicarbonate) and selected trace elements (Ra, Ba, Cu, Si) are introduced to the Connecticut River in proportion to the total dissolved load of various groundwaters. Si, Ra, and Ba are subject to removal from solution by seasonal diatom productivity; whereas the other groundwater-derived elements are found in proportion to TDS both time and space. These nuclides are released in the estuary when a portion of the Ra, Ba, and Si in riverine biogenic detritus is trapped in salt marshes and coves bordering the estuary where it redissolves and is exported to the main river channel at ebb tide. In the Amazon River estuary, the Ra and Ba are released in mid-salinity waters. Ra and Ba together with Si are subsequently removed by diatom productivity as reflected in increased Ra and Ba in the suspended particles and depleted dissolved nuclide concentrations in samples from the high productivity zone. In both the Connecticut River system and the Amazon River plume, Cu behaves conservatively; whereas the fates of Fe and Al are linked to soil-derived humic acids. Trace elements in Amazon plume sediments are found simply in proportion to the percentage of fine-grained size materials, despite low Th-228/Ra-228 mean residence times in the plume and the presence of Cs-137 in the sediment column. Estimates of the total flux of nuclides to the oceans can best be calculated on a mass balance basis using groundwater inputs. Unless significant repositories for nuclides exist in the river-estuarine system, the groundwater flux of dissolved nuclides is net flux to the ocean despite the reactions which occur in both rivers and estuaries

  15. Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ariane

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Therefore, an in vivo study on the properties of Amazon caiman's fat and its antioxidant activity is suggested to investigate its possible biotechnological use as nutraceutical, such as the fish oils that have already been manufactured by the pharmaceutical companies. Conflict of interest. The authors have not ...

  16. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  17. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yannick; Morton, Douglas; Hartin, Corinne; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Cardoso Pereira, José Miguel; Hurtt, George; Asrar, Ghassem

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change - Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 - projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4-28 times more forest in 2080-2100 than during 1990-2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9-5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  18. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Druffel, E. R. M; Bauer, J. E; Griffin, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Deforestation Scenarios, Amazon Basin: 2002-2050

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of the two modeled scenarios for future patterns of deforestation across the Amazon Basin from 2002 to 2050. This larger defined...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Deforestation Scenarios, Amazon Basin: 2002-2050

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of the two modeled scenarios for future patterns of deforestation across the Amazon Basin from 2002 to 2050. This larger...

  1. Contrasting the microbiomes from forest rhizosphere and deeper bulk soil from an Amazon rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jose Pedro; Hoffmann, Luisa; Cabral, Bianca Catarina Azeredo; Dias, Victor Hugo Giordano; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cezar; Boschiero, Clarissa; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Silva, Rosane

    2018-02-05

    Pristine forest ecosystems provide a unique perspective for the study of plant-associated microbiota since they host a great microbial diversity. Although the Amazon forest is one of the hotspots of biodiversity around the world, few metagenomic studies described its microbial community diversity thus far. Understanding the environmental factors that can cause shifts in microbial profiles is key to improving soil health and biogeochemical cycles. Here we report a taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome from the rhizosphere of Brosimum guianense (Snakewood), a native tree, and bulk soil samples from a pristine Brazilian Amazon forest reserve (Cuniã), for the first time by the shotgun approach. We identified several fungi and bacteria taxon significantly enriched in forest rhizosphere compared to bulk soil samples. For archaea, the trend was the opposite, with many archaeal phylum and families being considerably more enriched in bulk soil compared to forest rhizosphere. Several fungal and bacterial decomposers like Postia placenta and Catenulispora acidiphila which help maintain healthy forest ecosystems were found enriched in our samples. Other bacterial species involved in nitrogen (Nitrobacter hamburgensis and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) and carbon cycling (Oligotropha carboxidovorans) were overrepresented in our samples indicating the importance of these metabolic pathways for the Amazon rainforest reserve soil health. Hierarchical clustering based on taxonomic similar microbial profiles grouped the forest rhizosphere samples in a distinct clade separated from bulk soil samples. Principal coordinate analysis of our samples with publicly available metagenomes from the Amazon region showed grouping into specific rhizosphere and bulk soil clusters, further indicating distinct microbial community profiles. In this work, we reported significant shifts in microbial community structure between forest rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from an Amazon

  2. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Monitoring stress-related mass variations in Amazon trees using accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Gentine, P.; Hut, R.; Guerin, M. F.; Leus, G.; Oliveira, R. S.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2016-12-01

    Containing half of the world's rainforests, the Amazon plays a key role in the global water and carbon budget. However, the Amazon remains poorly understood, but appears to be vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, and future droughts have the potential to considerably change the global water and carbon budget. Field measurements will allow further investigations of the effects of moisture stress and droughts on tree dynamics, and its impact on the water and carbon budget. This study focuses on studying the diurnal mass variations of seven Amazonian tree species. The mass of trees is influenced by physiological processes within the tree (e.g. transpiration and root water uptake), as well as external loads (e.g. intercepted precipitation). Depending on the physiological traits of an individual tree, moisture stress and drought affect processes such as photosynthesis, assimilation, transpiration, and root water uptake. In turn, these have their influence on diurnal mass variations of a tree. Our study uses measured three-dimensional displacement and acceleration of trees, to detect and quantify their diurnal (bio)mass variations. Nineteen accelerometers and dendrometers were installed on seven different tree species in the Amazon rainforest, covering an area of 250 x 250 m. The selected species span a wide range in wood density (0.5 - 1.1), diameter (15 - 40 cm) and height (25 - 60 m). Acceleration was measured with a frequency of 10 Hz, from August 2015 to June 2016, covering both the wet and dry season. On-site additional measurements of net radiation, wind speed at three heights, temperature, and precipitation as available every 15 minutes. Dendrometers measured variation in xylem and bark thickness every 5 minutes. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm was applied to the acceleration time series to estimate the frequency spectrum of each tree. A correction was necessary to account for the dominant effect of wind. The resulting spectra reveal

  4. Multi-decadal Hydrological Retrospective: Case study of Amazon floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchuig Correa, Sly; Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias de; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Collischonn, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Recently developed methodologies such as climate reanalysis make it possible to create a historical record of climate systems. This paper proposes a methodology called Hydrological Retrospective (HR), which essentially simulates large rainfall datasets, using this as input into hydrological models to develop a record of past hydrology, making it possible to analyze past floods and droughts. We developed a methodology for the Amazon basin, where studies have shown an increase in the intensity and frequency of hydrological extreme events in recent decades. We used eight large precipitation datasets (more than 30 years) as input for a large scale hydrological and hydrodynamic model (MGB-IPH). HR products were then validated against several in situ discharge gauges controlling the main Amazon sub-basins, focusing on maximum and minimum events. For the most accurate HR, based on performance metrics, we performed a forecast skill of HR to detect floods and droughts, comparing the results with in-situ observations. A statistical temporal series trend was performed for intensity of seasonal floods and droughts in the entire Amazon basin. Results indicate that HR could represent most past extreme events well, compared with in-situ observed data, and was consistent with many events reported in literature. Because of their flow duration, some minor regional events were not reported in literature but were captured by HR. To represent past regional hydrology and seasonal hydrological extreme events, we believe it is feasible to use some large precipitation datasets such as i) climate reanalysis, which is mainly based on a land surface component, and ii) datasets based on merged products. A significant upward trend in intensity was seen in maximum annual discharge (related to floods) in western and northwestern regions and for minimum annual discharge (related to droughts) in south and central-south regions of the Amazon basin. Because of the global coverage of rainfall datasets

  5. THE MITOMIDIATIZED NARRATIVES PROPAGANDED ABOUT THE AMAZON BY THE publiCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cezar Silva dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Como ponto de partida na reflexão sobre o uso de lendas e mitos nas narrativas publicitárias como forma de “vender” ideias e produtos, buscamos, com este artigo, discutir a mitomiadiatização pela atividade publicitária do potencial mercadológico que o imaginário amazônico exerce sobre diversos públicos-alvo com relação às lendas, os mitos e as “histórias” contadas sobre a região amazônica.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Amazônia; publiCIDADE; Mitomidiatização; Lendas; Guaraná.     ABSTRACT As a starting point in the reflection on the use of legends and myths in advertising narratives as a way to "sell" ideas and products, we seek, with this article, to discuss the mitomiadiatization by advertising activity of the market potential that the Amazon imaginary exerts on various public- Target with regard to legends, myths and "stories" told about the Amazon region.   KEYWORDS: Amazônia; advertising; Mitochondriatization; Legends; Guarana.     RESUMEN Como punto de partida en el pensamiento sobre el uso de leyendas y mitos en las narrativas de publicidad como una forma de "vender" ideas y productos, nuestro objetivo, con este artículo, discutimos mitomiadiatização la actividad publicitaria del potencial de mercado que las imágenes Amazon tiene en varias públicos- objetivo con respecto a las leyendas, mitos y las "historias" dijo sobre la región amazónica. PALABRAS CLAVE: Amazon; publicidad; Mitomidiatização; leyendas; Guaraná. Arquivamento e preservação de longo prazo do arquivo em: OpenDepot / Edina (The University of Edinburgh:  em processo de inclusão/indexação SSOAR-GESIS – Leibniz-Institut (Alemanha:  HAL (França: em processo de inclusão/indexação

  6. Incorporating phylogenetic information for the definition of floristic districts in hyperdiverse Amazon forests: Implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; ter Steege, Hans; Mogollón, Hugo; Ceron, Carlos; Palacios, Walter; Oleas, Nora; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using complementary metrics to evaluate phylogenetic diversity can facilitate the delimitation of floristic units and conservation priority areas. In this study, we describe the spatial patterns of phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and evolutionary distinctiveness of the hyperdiverse Ecuador Amazon forests and define priority areas for conservation. We established a network of 62 one‐hectare plots in terra firme forests of Ecuadorian Amazon. In these plots...

  7. Deep mycoses in Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhari, S; Cunha, M G; Schettini, A P; Talhari, A C

    1988-09-01

    Patients with deep mycoses diagnosed in dermatologic clinics of Manaus (state of Amazonas, Brazil) were studied from November 1973 to December 1983. They came from the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and the Federal Territory of Roraima. All of these regions, with the exception of Pará, are situated in the western part of the Amazon Basin. The climatic conditions in this region are almost the same: tropical forest, high rainfall, and mean annual temperature of 26C. The deep mycoses diagnosed, in order of frequency, were Jorge Lobo's disease, paracoccidioidomycosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, mycetoma, cryptococcosis, zygomycosis, and histoplasmosis.

  8. Interannual rainfall variability in the Amazon basin and sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and the tropical Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchail, Josyane; Cochonneau, Gérard; Molinier, Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Chaves, Adriana Goretti De Miranda; Guimarães, Valdemar; de Oliveira, Eurides

    2002-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the Amazon basin is studied in relation to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial Pacific and the northern and southern tropical Atlantic during the 1977-99 period, using the HiBAm original rainfall data set and complementary cluster and composite analyses.The northeastern part of the basin, north of 5 °S and east of 60 °W, is significantly related with tropical SSTs: a rainier wet season is observed when the equatorial Pacific and the northern (southern) tropical Atlantic are anomalously cold (warm). A shorter and drier wet season is observed during El Niño events and negative rainfall anomalies are also significantly associated with a warm northern Atlantic in the austral autumn and a cold southern Atlantic in the spring. The northeastern Amazon rainfall anomalies are closely related with El Niño-southern oscillation during the whole year, whereas the relationships with the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies are mainly observed during the autumn. A time-space continuity is observed between El Niño-related rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon, those in the northern Amazon and south-eastern Amazon, and those in northern South America and in the Nordeste of Brazil.A reinforcement of certain rainfall anomalies is observed when specific oceanic events combine. For instance, when El Niño and cold SSTs in the southern Atlantic are associated, very strong negative anomalies are observed in the whole northern Amazon basin. Nonetheless, the comparison of the cluster and the composite analyses results shows that the rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon are not always associated with tropical SST anomalies.In the southern and western Amazon, significant tropical SST-related rainfall anomalies are very few and spatially variable. The precipitation origins differ from those of the northeastern Amazon: land temperature variability, extratropical perturbations and moisture advection are important rainfall factors, as well

  9. The Amazon reveals its secrets--partly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Julio L.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

  10. Input of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, E. R. M.; Bauer, J. E.; Griffin, S.

    2005-03-01

    We report concentrations and isotope measurements (radiocarbon and stable carbon) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) in waters collected from the mouth of the Amazon River and the North Brazil Current. Samples were collected in November 1991, when the Amazon hydrograph was at its annual minimum and the North Brazil Current had retroflected into the equatorial North Atlantic. The DIC Δ14C results revealed postbomb carbon in river and ocean waters, with slightly higher values at the river mouth. The low DIC δ13C signature of the river end-member (-11‰) demonstrates that about half of the DIC originated from the remineralization of terrestrially derived organic matter. A linear relationship between DIC and salinity indicates that DIC was mixed nearly conservatively in the transition zone from the river mouth to the open ocean, though there was a small amount (≤10%) of organic matter remineralization in the mesohaline region. The POC Δ14C values in the river mouth were markedly lower than those values from the western Amazon region (Hedges et al., 1986). We conclude that the dominant source of POC near the river mouth and in the inner Amazon plume during November 1991 was aged, resuspended material of significant terrestrial character derived from shelf sediments, while the outer plume contained mainly marine-derived POC.

  11. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  12. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo FP Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

  13. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo FP; Orfano, Alessandra S; Bahia, Ana C; Duarte, Ana PM; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Melo, Fabrício F; Pessoa, Felipe AC; Oliveira, Giselle A; Campos, Keillen MM; Villegas, Luis Martínez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simões, Rejane C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M; Lima, José BP; Barbosa, Maria GV; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila FC

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence. PMID:25742262

  14. Ecosystem heterogeneity determines the ecological resilience of the Amazon to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi M; Zhang, Ke; Longo, Marcos; Baccini, Alessandro; Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Segalin de Andrade, Ana Cristina; Brienen, Roel J W; Erwin, Terry L; Feldpausch, Ted R; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo; Nuñez Vargas, Percy; Prieto, Adriana; Silva-Espejo, Javier Eduardo; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2016-01-19

    Amazon forests, which store ∼ 50% of tropical forest carbon and play a vital role in global water, energy, and carbon cycling, are predicted to experience both longer and more intense dry seasons by the end of the 21st century. However, the climate sensitivity of this ecosystem remains uncertain: several studies have predicted large-scale die-back of the Amazon, whereas several more recent studies predict that the biome will remain largely intact. Combining remote-sensing and ground-based observations with a size- and age-structured terrestrial ecosystem model, we explore the sensitivity and ecological resilience of these forests to changes in climate. We demonstrate that water stress operating at the scale of individual plants, combined with spatial variation in soil texture, explains observed patterns of variation in ecosystem biomass, composition, and dynamics across the region, and strongly influences the ecosystem's resilience to changes in dry season length. Specifically, our analysis suggests that in contrast to existing predictions of either stability or catastrophic biomass loss, the Amazon forest's response to a drying regional climate is likely to be an immediate, graded, heterogeneous transition from high-biomass moist forests to transitional dry forests and woody savannah-like states. Fire, logging, and other anthropogenic disturbances may, however, exacerbate these climate change-induced ecosystem transitions.

  15. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T; Hyman, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  16. On Dams in the Amazon Basin, Teleconnected Impacts, and Neighbors Unaware of the Damage to their Natural Resources and Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study, Latrubesse et al., (2017) demonstrated that the accumulated negative environmental effects of more than one hundred existing dams and at least 288 proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. The authors introduced a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index (DEVI) to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The current and potential vulnerabilities of different regions of the Amazon basin was assessed, and the results highlighted the need for a more efficient and integrative legal framework involving all nine countries of the basin in an anticipatory assessment to minimize the negative socio-environmental and biotic impacts of hydropower developments. Here we present expanded information on the potential impacts of dams in the lower Amazon and the northeast Atlantic coast of South America, and revisit our proposed integrative strategies for basin management which are based on the adaptation and functionality of the institutional and legal framework already existing in the Amazon countries. Participative strategies involving members from the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) countries, and additional members (for example, France), such as the creation of a basin committee -as defined by the Brazilian Law of Waters of Brazil-, and the creation of an Amazon Basin Panel allowing the participation of scientists that could have a policy-relevant role but should be not policy-prescriptive, are also discussed. ReferencesLatrubesse, E., Arima E. Dunne T., Park E., Baker V, Horta F.,Wight, C., Wittmann F., Zuanon, J., Baker P., Ribas C, Norgaard R., Filizola N., Ansar A., Flyvbjerg B., Stevaux, J. 2017. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin. Nature, 546, 363-369.

  17. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  18. Simulating fire regimes in the Amazon in response to climate change and deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Rafaella Almeida; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel; Coe, Michael; Rodrigues, Hermann; Assunção, Renato

    2011-07-01

    Fires in tropical forests release globally significant amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and may increase in importance as a result of climate change. Despite the striking impacts of fire on tropical ecosystems, the paucity of robust spatial models of forest fire still hampers our ability to simulate tropical forest fire regimes today and in the future. Here we present a probabilistic model of human-induced fire occurrence for the Amazon that integrates the effects of a series of anthropogenic factors with climatic conditions described by vapor pressure deficit. The model was calibrated using NOAA-12 night satellite hot pixels for 2003 and validated for the years 2002, 2004, and 2005. Assessment of the fire risk map yielded fitness values > 85% for all months from 2002 to 2005. Simulated fires exhibited high overlap with NOAA-12 hot pixels regarding both spatial and temporal distributions, showing a spatial fit of 50% within a radius of 11 km and a maximum yearly frequency deviation of 15%. We applied this model to simulate fire regimes in the Amazon until 2050 using IPCC's A2 scenario climate data from the Hadley Centre model and a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of deforestation and road expansion from SimAmazonia. Results show that the combination of these scenarios may double forest fire occurrence outside protected areas (PAs) in years of extreme drought, expanding the risk of fire even to the northwestern Amazon by midcentury. In particular, forest fires may increase substantially across southern and southwestern Amazon, especially along the highways slated for paving and in agricultural zones. Committed emissions from Amazon forest fires and deforestation under a scenario of global warming and uncurbed deforestation may amount to 21 +/- 4 Pg of carbon by 2050. BAU deforestation may increase fires occurrence outside PAs by 19% over the next four decades, while climate change alone may account for a 12% increase. In turn, the combination of climate change

  19. IN11B-1621: Quantifying How Climate Affects Vegetation in the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Kodali, Anuradha; Szubert, Marcin; Ganguly, Sangram; Bongard, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this

  20. Asynchronous Amazon forest canopy phenology indicates adaptation to both water and light availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew O; Kimball, John S; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2014-01-01

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO 2 ) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically available radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003–2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. (letter)

  1. Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to

  2. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  4. The use of Amazon fungus ( Trametes sp.) in the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Amazon fungus (Trametes sp.) in the production of cellulase and xylanase. Salony Aquino Pereira, Rafael Lopes e Oliveira, Sergio Duvoisin Jr, Leonor Alves de Oliveira da Silva, Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque ...

  5. Neisseria meningitidis: a neglected cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Barroso

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis has not been seen as a significant cause of infectious haemorrhagic fever in the Amazon inlands; most reported cases are from the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas. This picture is sustained by the lack of reliable microbiology laboratories, the perception of the health care workers, and the difficult to reach medical assistance; thus the number of confirmed cases is even lower with no reference of the strains phenotype. We report here the investigation of a case of suspected meningococcemia and his close contacts in a rural community in the Coari Lake, up the Amazon River.

  6. Implantation of ISO 14001 in investment administration - a Brazilian Amazon area case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso, Fernando L.; Cantarino, Anderson A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the strategies applied in the implementation of an Environmental Management System - EMS, according with the ISO 14001 standards, on December 1998, for industrial construction and assembly services of oil and/or gas pipelines and storage and transferring terminals in the Amazon Region. Considering that a construction service is a temporary and transient activity, being significantly different from other repetitive productive processes, the EMS model had to be modified both to adapt to the particular characteristics of a construction service and to face the difficulties involved in the development of construction activities in isolated and inhospitable environments such as the Brazilian Amazon Region.(author)

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  8. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  9. Comparison of the physicochemical profiles of buriti from the Brazilian Cerrado and the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lin Netto CÂNDIDO

    Full Text Available Abstract Demand for native fruits has been expanding, due to the increasing interest in foods with possible health benefits. The buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f. is a native Brazilian fruit, appreciated by local populations, and its products are already on the market. This study investigated the physical characteristics and nutritional composition of buriti pulp, obtained from typical Cerrado and Amazon regions in Brazil. These regions influenced physical parameters and chemical composition. The fruits originating in the Cerrado were bigger and heavier than the ones from the Amazon. Nevertheless, protein, fatty acid and carbohydrate contents were higher in fruits from the Amazon region. The analyzed buriti fruits presented high monounsaturated fatty acid concentration (73.03 to 79.43 g/100 g, with the predominance of oleic acid (72.21 to 78.57 g/100 g. Buriti fruits may be a promising source of good nutritional quality vegetable oil and dietary fiber.

  10. Isotopic variation of oxygen in the water of river Solimoes/Amazon and its main tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortatti, J.; Martinelli, L.A.; Matsui, E.; Victoria, R.L.; Richey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Eight cruises in the Amazon Basin were realized during the period between April (1982) and August (1984). Waters of main channel of the River Solimoes/Amazon and its tributaries were sampled and analysed for sup(18)0 content by mass spectrometry. A depth integrated sampler coupled to a variable speed hydraulic winch was used. The sampling was accomplished at different river stages, at upper Solimoes, middle and lower Amazon region. The δ sup(18) 0 values obtained in these reaches showed the same seasonal variation pattern. In the dry season, δ sup(18) 0 values become higher than in the rainy season. The isotopic variability in the region may be explained by the origin and dynamics of the water vapour. The spatial variation in δ sup(18) 0 values at the main channel was compared for high and low water stages; it showed an isotopic gradient of 0.052 and 0.048 sup(0)/∞ δ sup(18) 0/100 km, respectively. (author)

  11. Consistency of Vegetation Index Seasonality Across the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jerome; Mottus, Matti; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  12. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  13. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Doherty

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm. River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May and low (December discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in

  14. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  15. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  16. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  17. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  18. Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Le Page

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests have been a permanent feature of the Amazon basin for at least 55 million years, yet climate change and land use threaten the forest's future over the next century. Understory forest fires, which are common under the current climate in frontier forests, may accelerate Amazon forest losses from climate-driven dieback and deforestation. Far from land use frontiers, scarce fire ignitions and high moisture levels preclude significant burning, yet projected climate and land use changes may increase fire activity in these remote regions. Here, we used a fire model specifically parameterized for Amazon understory fires to examine the interactions between anthropogenic activities and climate under current and projected conditions. In a scenario of low mitigation efforts with substantial land use expansion and climate change – Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5 – projected understory fires increase in frequency and duration, burning 4–28 times more forest in 2080–2100 than during 1990–2010. In contrast, active climate mitigation and land use contraction in RCP4.5 constrain the projected increase in fire activity to 0.9–5.4 times contemporary burned area. Importantly, if climate mitigation is not successful, land use contraction alone is very effective under low to moderate climate change, but does little to reduce fire activity under the most severe climate projections. These results underscore the potential for a fire-driven transformation of Amazon forests if recent regional policies for forest conservation are not paired with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds and Oxidation Capacity of the Atmosphere in the Brazilian Amazon during the GoAmazon2014/5 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Jeong, D.; Kim, S.; Park, J. H.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Liu, Y.; Gu, D.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have key environmental and biological roles, and can influence atmospheric chemistry, secondary aerosol formation, and also regional climate. The GoAmazon2014/5 campaign included measurements of VOCs in pristine to polluted air of the Amazon basin, depending upon the influences from the pollution plumes originating in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Observations at the T3 site in Manacapuru during the second Intensive Operating Period (dry season, August-October 2014) using a Switchable Reagent Ion (SRI)-ToF-MS will be presented to investigate isoprene oxidation processes in a wide spectrum of anthropogenic influences. The SRI capability was utilized to quantify ratios of Methyl Vinyl Ketone (MVK) to Methacrolein (MACR) in order to assess photochemical age of air masses at T3 and examine isoprene peroxy radical reaction pathways as a function of NO levels. Given recently identified ISOPOOH interference to MVK and MACR measurements, the current analysis focus on high NOx conditions when the contribution of ISOPOOH was small. In addition, the results will be critically compared with previously reported relationships between MVK, MACR and isoprene to explore potential systematic analytical interferences that may affect regional OH level estimations. These OH estimates will be evaluated using in-situ OH observations.

  20. 14C AMS dating of fires in the central Amazon rain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Turcq, B.J.; Sifeddine, A.; Di Tada, M.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    Soil samples were collected in tierra firme upland and lowland areas of the Km 41 reserve near Manaus (20 deg. 30'S and 60 deg. W), in Central Brazilian Amazon, within a 1700 m transect, at eight different depth ranges, from surface to 100 cm. The highest charcoal concentrations were found at the depth range of 20-50 cm. AMS radiocarbon dating of 31 samples were performed at the ANU. The ages of the charcoals were found to vary within the 130 to 2400 years BP range, mostly between 1200 and 1400 years BP, one of the known Holocene dry periods of the Amazon region. The results show that the fires have regional dimensions and are associated with climate regional changes

  1. El Niño drought increased canopy turnover in Amazon forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Morton, Douglas C; Longo, Marcos; Dos-Santos, Maiza Nara; Keller, Michael; Scaranello, Marcos

    2018-03-25

    Amazon droughts, including the 2015-2016 El Niño, may reduce forest net primary productivity and increase canopy tree mortality, thereby altering both the short- and the long-term net forest carbon balance. Given the broad extent of drought impacts, inventory plots or eddy flux towers may not capture regional variability in forest response to drought. We used multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and field measurements of coarse woody debris to estimate patterns of canopy turnover and associated carbon losses in intact and fragmented forests in the central Brazilian Amazon between 2013-2014 and 2014-2016. Average annualized canopy turnover rates increased by 65% during the drought period in both intact and fragmented forests. The average size and height of turnover events was similar for both time intervals, in contrast to expectations that the 2015-2016 El Niño drought would disproportionally affect large trees. Lidar-biomass relationships between canopy turnover and field measurements of coarse woody debris were modest (R 2  ≈ 0.3), given similar coarse woody debris production and Lidar-derived changes in canopy volume from single tree and multiple branch fall events. Our findings suggest that El Niño conditions accelerated canopy turnover in central Amazon forests, increasing coarse woody debris production by 62% to 1.22 Mg C ha -1  yr -1 in drought years . No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Environmental Controls on Space-Time Biodiversity Patterns in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, A. M.; Bonetti, S.; Feng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon/Andes territory is characterized by the highest biodiversity on Earth and understanding how all these ecological niches and different species originated and developed is an open challenge. The niche perspective assumes that species have evolved and occupy deterministically different roles within its environment. This view differs from that of the neutral theories, which assume ecological equivalence between all species but incorporates stochastic demographic processes along with long-term migration and speciation rates. Both approaches have demonstrated tremendous power in predicting aspects species biodiversity. By combining tools from both approaches, we use modified birth and death processes to simulate plant species diversification in the Amazon/Andes and their space-time ecohydrological controls. By defining parameters related to births and deaths as functions of available resources, we incorporate the role of space-time resource variability on niche formation and community composition. We also explicitly include the role of a heterogeneous landscape and topography. The results are discussed in relation to transect datasets from neotropical forests.

  3. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  4. Deforestation in the Amazon: What is illegal and what is not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Hummel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil has succeeded in reducing deforestation rates in the Amazon, but has not succeeded in explaining to the general public how much of this deforestation was illegal and how much was legally authorized. Transparency of deforestation data is limited, and pertinent legislation is little understood and poorly applied in practice. Lack of dissemination of information on authorized clearing of vegetation and lack of implementation of regulatory frameworks are contentious issues when defining strategies to reach zero deforestation in the Amazon region and for building policies related to climate change mitigation. The need to establish the new Forest Code provides an opportunity to establish goals and regulations for zero deforestation. This paper provides recommendations on how to communicate this information to the general public, how to make regulatory instruments effective and how to implement a zero deforestation agenda.

  5. Concepts of illness and treatment practice in a caboclo community of the Lower Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M E

    2000-03-01

    Comparatively little has been written recently about the health consequences of social change and economic development in Amazonia. This study focuses on patterns of morbidity, treatment practices, and illness beliefs among caboclos of the Lower Amazon. It suggests that for these people traditional medicine is a salient marker of ethnic identity. An understanding of beliefs concerning disease etiology is critical to an appreciation of individual treatment choices in a plural medical system such as that found within the Lower Amazon region, where traditional healers can play a pivotal role in developing effective linkages to clinical services.

  6. The Amazon at sea: Onset and stages of the Amazon River from a marine record, with special reference to Neogene plant turnover in the drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Bogotá-A, Giovanni R.; Romero-Baez, Millerlandy; Lammertsma, Emmy I.; Flantua, Suzette G. A.; Dantas, Elton L.; Dino, Rodolfo; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; Chemale, Farid

    2017-06-01

    The Amazon submarine fan is a large sediment apron situated offshore Pará (Brazil) and represents the most distal extent of the Amazon River. The age of onset of this transcontinental river remains debated, yet is of great importance for understanding biotic evolutionary processes on land and at sea. Here we present new geochemical and palynological data from a borehole drilled at the continental slope and dated based on nannofossil biostratigraphy. We found that sediments of mixed source (craton and adjacent) occur at least from the late Oligocene (NP25) to late Miocene (NN9), and that the earliest Andes-derived sediments occur in NN10 (late Miocene). Our geochemical record indicates an onset of the transcontinental Amazon River between 9.4 and 9 Ma, which postdates the regional unconformity by 1 to 1.5 My. The shift in sediment geochemistry is more gradually replicated in the palynological record by a change from coastal plain and tropical lowland taxa to a mixture of tropical lowland, and montane forest to open Andean taxa. In particular, the appearance of taxa such as Jamesonia and Huperzia, followed by Valeriana, Polylepis-Acaena, Lysipomia and Plantago (with a current altitudinal range from 3200 to 4000 m) suggests the development of open, treeless, vegetation between 9.5 and 5.4 Ma, and highlight the presence of a high Andes in the late Miocene hinterland. Poaceae progressively increased from 9 Ma, with a notable rise from 4 Ma onwards, and percentages well above post-glacial and modern values, particularly between 2.6 and 0.8 Ma. We hypothesize that the rise of the grasses is a basin-wide phenomenon, but that the Plio-Pleistocene expansion of open, treeless vegetation on the Andean slopes and foothills are the main contributor. This rise in grasses was likely caused by climatic fluctuations, and subsequent changes in relief and erosion rates. We conclude that the onset of the Amazon River is coupled with Neogene Andean tectonism and that subsequent

  7. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  8. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  9. Hydrological Predictability for the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jamie; Stephens, Elizabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Bazo, Juan; Coughlan, Erin; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Population growth in the Peruvian Amazon has prompted the expansion of livelihoods further into the floodplain and thus increasing vulnerability to the annual rise and fall of the river. This growth has coincided with a period of increasing hydrological extremes with more frequent severe flood events. The anticipation and forecasting of these events is crucial for mitigating vulnerability. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) an initiative of the German Red Cross implements risk reducing actions based on threshold exceedance within hydrometeorological forecasts using the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). However, the lead times required to complete certain actions can be long (e.g. several weeks to months ahead to purchase materials and reinforce houses) and are beyond the current capabilities of GloFAS. Therefore, further calibration of the model is required in addition to understanding the climatic drivers and associated hydrological response for specific flood events, such as those observed in 2009, 2012 and 2015. This review sets out to determine the current capabilities of the GloFAS model while exploring the limits of predictability for the Amazon basin. More specifically, how the temporal patterns of flow within the main coinciding tributaries correspond to the overall Amazonian flood wave under various climatic and meteorological influences. Linking the source areas of flow to predictability within the seasonal forecasting system will develop the ability to expand the limit of predictability of the flood wave. This presentation will focus on the Iquitos region of Peru, while providing an overview of the new techniques and current challenges faced within seasonal flood prediction.

  10. Analisis E-Bisnis terhadap Amazon dan Aquarelle

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuar, Evawaty; Yosanny, Agustinna

    2010-01-01

    The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing...

  11. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    1998-01-01

    When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation

  12. Chemical and carbon isotope composition of Varzeas sediments and its interactions with some Amazon basin rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Varzea sediment samples were collected on the banks of Amazon rivers and in the most important tributaires. The samples were taken in three different river stages. The major cations, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, carbon and δ 13 C values were determined. The concentration of major basic cations - Ca,Mg,K e Na were greater in the main channel sediments than in the tributaires. Probably the differences in the substrats geology and erosion regimes of the basins account for this patterns, generally. The major basic cation, total phosphorus and carbon concentration were lower in the low Amazon Varzeas. Between the three differents sampling periods, pratically the elements concentration in Varzea sediment was constant. Finally, the datas showed that the most parts of Varzea carbon sediment had it's origin in the fine particulated organic matter transported by the Amazon river. (C.D.G.) [pt

  13. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp.

    The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  14. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  15. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  16. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos J.S.; Mergler, Donna; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  17. The Influence of Large-Scale Circulation on Fire Outbreaks in the Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, L. B. M.; Romao, M.; Freitas, A. C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The combination of alterations in land use cover and severe droughts may dramatically increase fire outbreaks. Tropical convection in the Amazon Basin is regulated mainly by large-scale atmospheric systems such as the Walker circulation. Many of the documented drought episodes in the Amazon occurred during intense El Niño events such as those recorded in 1926, 1983, 1997-1998, and 2010. However, not all El Niño events are related to drought in the Amazon. Recent studies have also pointed out the importance of the tropical Atlantic Ocean in the modulation of the Amazonian climate, as observed during the drought episodes in 2005 and 2010. This work investigates the fire outbreak tendency in the Amazon region, and the influence of large-scale circulation on these events. Data from the Fire Program of the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE) show a substantial increase in the number of fire outbreaks in the last few years, especially during 2016. However, in the 2017 year a sharp drop in fire outbreaks reaching levels similar to the years prior to 2016 is being noted, already showing a reduction of 54% in relation to the preceding 2016 year. The 2015-2016 period was marked by one of the strongest El Niño in history. This was reflected in the increase of the number of fire outbreaks due to the increase of the drought and temperature elevation period. On the other hand, the 2017 year is being characterized by a condition of neutrality in relation to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, and have overall presented positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Atlantic. Variations of these systems and their relation to fire outbreaks is demonstrated.

  18. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  19. A new species of Besleria (Gesneriaceae) from the western Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Emiliano Ferreira; Andréa Onofre De Araújo; Michael John Gilbert Hopkins; Alain Chautems

    2017-01-01

    Gabriel Emiliano Ferreira, Andréa Onofre De Araújo, Michael John Gilbert Hopkins, Alain Chautems (2017): A new species of Besleria (Gesneriaceae) from the western Amazon rainforest. Brittonia 69 (2): 241-245, DOI: 10.1007/s12228-017-9464-6

  20. Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Cruz, Francisco W.; Dorale, Jeffrey A.; Chiang, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin—one of Earth’s major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Our results are based on a decadally resolved, uranium/thorium-dated, oxygen isotopic record for much of the past 45,000 years, obtained using speleothems from Paraíso Cave in eastern Amazonia; we interpret the record as being broadly related to precipitation. Relative to modern levels, precipitation in the region was about 58% during the Last Glacial Maximum (around 21,000 years ago) and 142% during the mid-Holocene epoch (about 6,000 years ago). We find that, as compared with cave records from the western edge of the lowlands, the Amazon was widely drier during the last glacial period, with much less recycling of water and probably reduced plant transpiration, although the rainforest persisted throughout this time.

  1. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  2. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  3. Regional Atmospheric CO2 Inversion Reveals Seasonal and Geographic Differences in Amazon Net Biome Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel M.; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (Approx.1-8 x 10(exp -6) km2) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  4. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  5. Questioning the Influence of Sunspots on Amazon Hydrology: Even a Broken Clock Tells the Right Time Twice a Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Boom, A.; Neill, D. A.; Cintra, B. B. L.; Clerici, S. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2018-02-01

    It was suggested in a recent article that sunspots drive decadal variation in Amazon River flow. This conclusion was based on a novel time series decomposition method used to extract a decadal signal from the Amazon River record. We have extended this analysis back in time, using a new hydrological proxy record of tree ring oxygen isotopes (δ18OTR). Consistent with the findings of Antico and Torres, we find a positive correlation between sunspots and the decadal δ18OTR cycle from 1903 to 2012 (r = 0.60, p r = -0.30, p = 0.11, 1799-1902). This result casts considerable doubt over the mechanism by which sunspots are purported to influence Amazon hydrology.

  6. The effects on Amazon floodplains of the dynamics between the water and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waters and lands in the Amazon, especially near the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers, are very dynamic, recreating the landscapes along the rivers’ paths. The waters transport and deposit eroded materials, causing changes in the lifestyles of the meadow’s residents. In addition to this, there are the recent climatic changes caused by the El Niño phenomenon, intensifying the meadows’ transformations. This research explored the quantitative and qualitative values of knowledge of local people in order to understand the environment in which they live. With an understanding of the islands’ environmental system and the perceptions of seventeen female farmers of the amazon meadow, coupled with appropriate theory and methods, it was possible to explore and execute this research. Valha-me-Deus and Chaves, both in the county of Jurupis, PA, were the islands chosen for the study. The goal of the study was to characterize the dynamics of the waters and lands of the Amazon River together with the re-creation of the river islands and the effects of climate change over the floodplains. The data show meaningful changes in the studied environmental systems, resulting in irreversible losses in the cultivation of food crops such as papaya, cocoa, manioc and bananas, especially after the intense river flooding of 2009.

  7. Asynchronous Amazon Forest Canopy Phenology Indicates Adaptation to Both Water and Light Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. O.; Kimball, J. S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Amazon forests represent nearly half of all tropical vegetation biomass and, through photosynthesis and respiration, annually process more than twice the amount of estimated carbon (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. Yet the seasonality of Amazon canopy cover, and the extent to which seasonal fluctuations in water availability and photosynthetically active radiation influence these processes, is still poorly understood. Implementing six remotely sensed data sets spanning nine years (2003-2011), with reported field and flux tower data, we show that southern equatorial Amazon forests exhibit a distinctive seasonal signal. Seasonal timing of water availability, canopy biomass growth and net leaf flush are asynchronous in regions with short dry seasons and become more synchronous across a west-to-east longitudinal moisture gradient of increasing dry season length. Forest cover is responsive to seasonal disparities in both water and solar radiation availability, temporally adjusting net leaf flush to maximize use of these generally abundant resources, while reducing drought susceptibility. An accurate characterization of this asynchronous behavior allows for improved understanding of canopy phenology across contiguous tropical forests and their sensitivity to climate variability and drought. These insights can also inform land surface models to provide a more accurate representation of seasonal forest carbon allocation strategies responsive to environmental drivers.

  8. Conversion of Amazon rainforest to agriculture alters community traits of methane-cycling organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kyle M; Klein, Ann M; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tringe, Susannah G; Mirza, Babur S; Tiedje, James M; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2017-03-01

    Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here, we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils. We found that methane-cycling microorganisms responded to land use change, with the strongest responses exhibited by methane-consuming, rather than methane-producing, microorganisms. These responses included a reduction in the relative abundance of methanotrophs and a significant decrease in the abundance of genes encoding particulate methane monooxygenase. We also observed compositional changes to methanotroph and methanogen communities as well as changes to methanotroph life history strategies. Our observations suggest that methane-cycling microorganisms are vulnerable to land use change, and this vulnerability may underlie the response of methane flux to land use change in Amazon soils. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. LBA-ECO LC-07 Wetland Extent, Vegetation, and Inundation: Lowland Amazon Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a map of wetland extent, vegetation type, and dual-season flooding state of the entire lowland Amazon basin. The map was derived from mosaics...

  10. Computational Platform About Amazon Web Services (Aws Distributed Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rojas-Albarracín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today has created a dynamic in which people require higher image quality in different media formats (games, movies, animations. Further definition usually requires image processing larger; this brings the need for increased computing power. This paper presents a case study in which the implementation of a low-cost platform on the Amazon cloud for parallel processing of images and animation.

  11. Rainforest aerosols as biogenic nuclei of clouds and precipitation in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U; Martin, S T; Sinha, B; Chen, Q; Gunthe, S S; Huffman, J A; Borrmann, S; Farmer, D K; Garland, R M; Helas, G; Jimenez, J L; King, S M; Manzi, A; Mikhailov, E; Pauliquevis, T; Petters, M D; Prenni, A J; Roldin, P; Rose, D; Schneider, J; Su, H; Zorn, S R; Artaxo, P; Andreae, M O

    2010-09-17

    The Amazon is one of the few continental regions where atmospheric aerosol particles and their effects on climate are not dominated by anthropogenic sources. During the wet season, the ambient conditions approach those of the pristine pre-industrial era. We show that the fine submicrometer particles accounting for most cloud condensation nuclei are predominantly composed of secondary organic material formed by oxidation of gaseous biogenic precursors. Supermicrometer particles, which are relevant as ice nuclei, consist mostly of primary biological material directly released from rainforest biota. The Amazon Basin appears to be a biogeochemical reactor, in which the biosphere and atmospheric photochemistry produce nuclei for clouds and precipitation sustaining the hydrological cycle. The prevailing regime of aerosol-cloud interactions in this natural environment is distinctly different from polluted regions.

  12. Performance Management of High Performance Computing for Medical Image Processing in Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-02-27

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical-Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for-use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  13. Performance management of high performance computing for medical image processing in Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M.; Landman, Bennett A.; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-03-01

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical- Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for- use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  14. Formative experience mediated by virtual learning environment: science and mathematics teachers’ education in the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Fraiha Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of a qualitative research, in the narrative modality. We investigated the formative experiences of teachers of Mathematics and Science through distance learning in the Amazon region, experienced in a course through the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE. We investigated under what conditions this education experience was a catalyst for teachers’ reflections on the Amazonian context of teaching science and mathematics. By using Discursive Textual Analysis some categories e merged: graduating in the Amazon region: obstacles and confrontations; AVA and Technologies: meaning (s of the education experience and the impact of the experience in the perceptions of teachers’ practices and training. The analysis of the results reveals the obstacles to the training in this context. The dynamics experienced by the use of VLE technologies and of the teachers reverberated methodological insights regarding the use of technology in teaching practices, indicating also the VLE as an alternative of (self education on the Amazon reality

  15. Amazon Web Services: alternativa para el almacenamiento de información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Leonardo Tolosa Cuadrado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reseñó la computación en la nube y de algunos de sus servicios de almacenamiento en sistemas gestores de bases de datos relacionales y no relacionales ofrecidos por Amazon bajo el modelo de la infraestructura como servicio (IaaS ‘infrastructure as a service’. Se realiza una comparación entre los sistemas tradicionales de almacenamiento en las organizaciones y la infraestructura como servicio, para dar a conocer las ventajas y las desventajas de la adopción de nuevas tecnologías en el ámbito personal, organizacional y académico en cuanto al almacenamiento y procesamiento de la información. Además, se describen los diferentes servicios de bases de datos ofrecidos por Amazon Web Services, los cuales ofrecen el servicio de almacenamiento según las necesidades y las tecnologías que el usuario necesite.

  16. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  18. Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation: A spatio-temporal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral-Souza, Thadeu; Vancine, Maurício Humberto; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2018-02-01

    The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

  19. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier , L.; Becker , M.; Cazenave , A.; Longuevergne , L.; Llovel , W.; Rotunno Filho , Otto Correa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the interannual variability over 2003-2008 of different hydrological parameters in the Amazon river basin: (1) vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry mission, (2) surface water level of the Amazon River and its tributaries from in situ gauge stations, and (3) precipitation. We analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of total water storage from GRACE and in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries and not...

  20. Amazon River dissolved load: temporal dynamics and annual budget from the Andes to the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Crave, Alain; Viers, Jérôme; Filizola, Naziano; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina; Sánchez, Liz Stefanny Hidalgo; Lagane, Christelle; Casimiro, Waldo Sven Lavado; Noriega, Luis; Pombosa, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to estimate the export fluxes of major dissolved species at the scale of the Amazon basin, to identify the main parameters controlling their spatial distribution and to identify the role of discharge variability in the variability of the total dissolved solid (TDS) flux through the hydrological cycle. Data are compiled from the monthly hydrochemistry and daily discharge database of the "Programa Climatologico y Hidrologico de la Cuenca Amazonica de Bolivia" (PHICAB) and the HYBAM observatories from 34 stations distributed over the Amazon basin (for the 1983-1992 and 2000-2012 periods, respectively). This paper consists of a first global observation of the fluxes and temporal dynamics of each geomorphological domain of the Amazon basin. Based on mean interannual monthly flux calculations, we estimated that the Amazon basin delivered approximately 272 × 10(6) t year(-1) (263-278) of TDS during the 2003-2012 period, which represents approximately 7 % of the continental inputs to the oceans. This flux is mainly made up by HCO3, Ca and SiO2, reflecting the preferential contributions of carbonate and silicate chemical weathering to the Amazon River Basin. The main tributaries contributing to the TDS flux are the Marañon and Ucayali Rivers (approximately 50 % of the TDS production over 14 % of the Amazon basin area) due to the weathering of carbonates and evaporites drained by their Andean tributaries. An Andes-sedimentary area-shield TDS flux (and specific flux) gradient is observed throughout the basin and is first explained by the TDS concentration contrast between these domains, rather than variability in runoff. This observation highlights that, under tropical context, the weathering flux repartition is primarily controlled by the geomorphological/geological setting and confirms that sedimentary areas are currently active in terms of the production of dissolved load. The log relationships of concentration vs discharge have

  1. Sources, Properties, Aging, and Anthropogenic Influences on OA and SOA over the Southeast US and the Amazon duing SOAS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and GoAmazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SE US and the Amazon have large sources of biogenic VOCs, varying anthropogenic pollution impacts, and often poor organic aerosol (OA) model performance. Recent results on the sources, properties, aging, and impact of anthropogenic pollution on OA and secondary OA (SOA) over ...

  2. Projected increases in the annual flood pulse of the western Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Manz, Bastian; Veliz Rosas, Claudia; Willems, Patrick; Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Santini, William

    2016-04-01

    The impact of a changing climate on the Amazon basin is a subject of intensive research due to its rich biodiversity and the significant role of rain forest in carbon cycling. Climate change has also direct hydrological impact, and there have been increasing efforts to understand such dynamics at continental and subregional scales such as the scale of the western Amazon. New projections from the Coupled Model Inter- comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble indicate consistent climatic warming and increasing seasonality of precipitation in the Peruvian Amazon basin. Here we use a distributed land surface model to quantify the potential impact of this change in the climate on the hydrological regime of the river. Using extremes value analysis, historical and future projections of the annual minimum, mean, and maximum river flows are produced for a range of return periods between 1 and 100 years. We show that the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of climate change project an increased severity of the wet season flood pulse (7.5% and 12% increases respectively for the 100- year return floods). These findings are in agreement with previously projected increases in high extremes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) climate projections, and are important to highlight due to the potential consequences on reproductive processes of in-stream species, swamp forest ecology, and socio-economy in the floodplain, amid a growing literature that more strongly emphasises future droughts and their impact on the viability of the rain forest system over the greater Amazonia.

  3. Patents on periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F

    2009-06-01

    In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility.

  4. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots.

  5. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

    2005-12-01

    Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences.

  6. Malaria diagnosis under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, W G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Rodriguez, I; Gonçalves, J; Bongard, E; Fanello, C I; Vivas, L; Magris, M

    2008-01-01

    To improve practical, accurate diagnosis of malaria in the Amazon rainforest of Venezuela, two rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax) and a laboratory light microscope, used in the field with a battery-operated head lamp as an external light source, were evaluated against the standard laboratory microscope procedure for malaria detection. One hundred and thirty-six Yanomami patients were studied for the presence of malaria parasites. Thirty-three patients (24%) were positive for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae). Twenty-one (64%) of the positive patients had <100 parasites/microl. Both RDTs showed poor sensitivity (24.2% for OptiMAL-IT) and 36.4% for FalciVax) but good specificity (99% both for OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax). Field and laboratory microscopy showed sensitivities of 94% and 91%, respectively. The kappa coefficient was 0.90, indicating a high agreement between field and laboratory microscopy. We conclude that (i) adequate slide reading cannot be substituted by either of the two RDTs in the Venezuelan Amazon and (ii) the use of a light source such as that described above makes slide reading more feasible than hitherto in remote areas without electricity.

  7. Emissions from vegetation fires and their influence on atmospheric composition over the Amazon Basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Bela, M. M.; de Freitas, S. R.; Gerbig, C.; Longo, K. M.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decades, several campaigns have been conducted in the Amazon Basin, during which the emissions from biomass burning were characterized. Other campaigns, as well as remote sensing studies, have produced clear evidence that the budget of traces gases (including CO2) and aerosols over the Basin are strongly perturbed by vegetation fires. We will briefly review these studies and present some recent measurements made during the the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) aircraft measurement program, which consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November-December 2008 (BARCA-A) and May-June 2009 (BARCA-B). The measurements covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned across the Amazon Basin. While our results confirm the importance of biomass burning for the atmospheric composition over the Amazon Basin in general, they also highlight some complexities. One is the influence of transatlantic transport: Amazonia is downwind of massive fire regions in Africa, and depending on season and locality, these can make an important contribution to the trace gas and aerosol burden over the Amazon Basin. Another difficulty arises from the fact that representative emission ratios for CO relative to CO2 are difficult to obtain in the field, owing to the influence of biospheric exchange on the distribution of CO2 concentrations. The consequences of these and other uncertainties for a quantitative assessment of the sources of trace gases over Amazonia and for the estimation of carbon exchange with the biosphere will be discussed.

  8. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  9. Early warning signals of simulated Amazon dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Chris; Good, Peter; Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Dieback of the Amazon rainforest has been considered a potential tipping point in the Earth system due to the belief that there is more than one stable attractor in its dynamics and for future projections within global climate models (GCMs), in some cases a huge amount of forest is lost abruptly. The rainforest is a huge carbon sink, playing a critical role in the global carbon cycle and so if dieback is going to happen over a short period of time, it is important to have some early warning t...

  10. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...

  11. Chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Olga; Kik, Marja J L; Passon-Vastenburg, Maartje H A C; Westerhof, Ineke; Lumeij, Johannes T; Schoemaker, Nico J

    2007-03-01

    A 30-yr-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazon aestiva aestiva) was presented to the clinic with a history of sneezing more often during the last 2 mo. Physical examination revealed only a mild nasal discharge. Complete hematologic and plasma biochemical examination showed no abnormalities. Computerized tomography (CT) of the complete bird showed generalized lung alterations consistent with lung fibrosis. Two lung biopsies were taken. The results of the histologic examination of the biopsies confirmed the tentative CT diagnosis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of chronic pulmonary interstitial fibrosis diagnosed by means of a lung biopsy in an avian species. The histologic characteristics are discussed and compared with those of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. GoAmazon2014/15. Oxidation Flow Reactor Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, D. A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hu, W. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palm, B. B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Campuzano-Jost, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary goal of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign was to measure and mechanistically understand the formation of particle number and mass in a region affected by large tropical rainforest biogenic emissions and sometimes anthropogenic influence from a large urban center. As part of the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) and in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Harvard, the Jimenez Group proposed to deploy a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), Thermal Denuder (TD), Scanning Mobility Particle Size (SMPS), two oxidation flow reactors (OFR; including supporting O3, CO/CO2/CH4, RH analyzers), and a high volume filter sampler (MCV) for the measurement of gas and aerosol chemical, physicochemical, and volatility properties. The two IOPs were conducted during the wet season (February to March, 2014) and dry season (August to October, 2014). This proposal was part of a collaborative proposal involving other university and government laboratories.

  13. Ovarian hemangiosarcoma in an orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Kimberly; Buote, Melanie; Kiupel, Matti; Graham, Jennifer; Orcutt, Connie

    2009-03-01

    A 25-year-old intact female orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a 2-week history of straining to defecate, lethargy, open-beak breathing, decreased vocalization, and ruffled feathers. On physical examination, the parrot had a heart murmur, increased air sac and lung sounds, open-beak breathing, increased respiratory rate and effort, and coelomic distension. An ultrasound revealed intracoelomic fluid, and hemorrhagic fluid was aspirated from the coelom. Cytologic analysis indicated hemocoelom. Pericardial effusion was observed during the sonogram, and pericardiocentesis was performed. The bird was euthanatized upon the owner's request because of a poor prognosis. At necropsy, several masses that involved the ovary and oviduct were observed, as well as a thickened pericardium and a thickened, fibrinous epicardium. Results of a histopathologic examination of the masses that involved the reproductive tract revealed ovarian hemangiosarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, ovarian hemangiosarcoma has not been reported in a psittacine species, nor has immunohistochemistry confirmed ovarian hemangiosarcoma in avian species, specifically in an orange-winged Amazon parrot.

  14. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...

  15. Inundation and Gas Fluxes from Amazon Lakes and Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.; MacIntyre, S.; Forsberg, B. R.; Amaral, J. H.; Barbosa, P.

    2015-12-01

    Inundation areas and wetland habitats for the lowland Amazon basin derived remote sensing with synthetic aperture radar are combined with measurements of greenhouse gas evasion derived from field measurements and new formulations of atmosphere-water. On-going field studies in representative aquatic habitats on the central Amazon floodplain are combining monthly measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere with deployment of meteorological sensors and high-resolution thermistors and optical dissolved oxygen sensors. A real-time cavity ringdown spectrometer is being used to determine the gas concentrations; vertical profiles were obtained by using an equilibrator to extract gases from water, and floating chambers are used to assess fluxes. Gas fluxes varied as a function of season, habitat and water depth. Greatest carbon dioxide fluxes occurred during high and falling water levels. During low water, periods with high chlorophyll, indicative of phytoplankton, the flux of carbon dioxide switched from being emitted from the lake to being taken-up by the lake some of the time. The highest pCO2 concentration (5500 μatm) was about three times higher than the median (1700 μatm). Higher CO2 fluxes were observed in open water than in areas with flooded or floating vegetation. In contrast, methane fluxes were higher in vegetated regions. We measured turbulence as rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy based on microstructure profiling. Comparison of these measurements with those calculated from meteorological and time series measurements validated new equations for turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) rates during moderate winds and cooling and illustrated that the highest dissipation rates occurred under heating. Measured gas exchange coefficients (k600) were similar to those based on the TKE dissipation rates and are well described using the surface renewal model. These k values are several times higher than

  16. AMADA: Web Data Repositories in the Amazon Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda-Andújar , Andrés; Bugiotti , Francesca; Camacho-Rodríguez , Jesús; Colazzo , Dario; Goasdoué , François; Kaoudi , Zoi; Manolescu , Ioana

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present AMADA, a platform for storing Web data (in particular, XML documents and RDF graphs) based on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud infrastructure. AMADA operates in a Software as a Service (SaaS) approach, allowing users to upload, index, store, and query large volumes of Web data. The demonstration shows (i) the step-by-step procedure for building and exploiting the warehouse (storing, indexing, querying) and (ii) the monitoring tools enabling one to control...

  17. A large scale field experiment in the Amazon basin (LAMBADA/BATERISTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Gash, J.H.C.; Noilhan, J.; Jochum, A.M.; Nobre, C.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of a large-scale field experiment planned in the Amazon basin, aimed at assessing the large-scale balances of energy, water and carbon dioxide. The embedding of this experiment in global change programmes is described, viz. the Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle

  18. Seeing REDD in the Amazon: a win for people, trees and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.

    2009-03-15

    Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.

  19. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain sigma(0) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, I. J.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT Scatterometer System (SASS) showed the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which was insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence was adequately modeled as scattering coefficient (dB) = a theta b with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum-likelihood estimation algorithms presented here permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  20. Mapping the environmental and biogeographic complexity of the Amazon basin using remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; Cordeiro, C. L. O.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mapping environmental envelopes onto geographical space has been classically important for understanding biogeographical patterns. Knowing the biotic and abiotic limits defining these envelopes, we can better understand the requirements limiting species distributions. Most present efforts in this regard have focused on single-species distribution models, but the current breadth and accessibility of quantitative, spatially explicit environmental information can also be explored from an environment-first perspective. We thus used remote sensing to determine the occurrence of environmental discontinuities in the Amazon region and evaluated if such discontinuities may act as barriers to determine species distribution and range limits, forming clear environmental envelopes. We combined data on topography (SRTM), precipitation (CHIRPS), vegetation descriptors (PALSAR-1 backscattering, biomass, NDVI) and temperature (MODIS), using object-based image analysis and unsupervised learning to map environmental envelopes. We identified 14 environmental envelopes for the Amazon sensu latissimo region, mainly delimited by changes in vegetation, topography and precipitation. The resulting envelopes were compared to the distribution of 120 species of Trogonidae, Galbulidae, Bucconidae, Cebidae, Hylidae and Lecythidaceae, amounting to 22,649 occurrence records within the Amazonregion. We determined species prevalence in each envelope by calculating the ratio between species relative frequency per envelope and envelope relative frequency (area) in the complete map. Values closer to 1 indicate a high degree of prevalence. We found strong envelope associations (prevalence > 0.5) for 20 species (17% of analyzed taxa). Although several biogeographical and ecological factors will influence the distribution of a species, our results show that not only geographical barriers, but also modern environmental discontinuities may limit the distribution of some species., and may have also done so

  1. Large expansion of oil industry in the Ecuadorian Amazon: biodiversity vulnerability and conservation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Fajardo, Javier; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    Ecuador will experience a significant expansion of the oil industry in its Amazonian region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. In view of the changes that are about to come, we explore the conflicts between oil extraction interests and biodiversity protection and apply systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas that should be protected in different oil exploitation scenarios. First, we quantified the current extent of oil blocks and protected zones and their overlap with two biodiversity indicators: 25 ecosystems and 745 species (whose distributions were estimated via species distribution models). With the new scheme of oil exploitation, oil blocks cover 68% (68,196 km(2)) of the Ecuadorian Amazon; half of it occupied by new blocks open for bids in the southern Amazon. This region is especially vulnerable to biodiversity losses, because peaks of species diversity, 19 ecosystems, and a third of its protected zones coincide spatially with oil blocks. Under these circumstances, we used Marxan software to identify priority areas for conservation outside oil blocks, but their coverage was insufficient to completely represent biodiversity. Instead, priority areas that include southern oil blocks provide a higher representation of biodiversity indicators. Therefore, preserving the southern Amazon becomes essential to improve the protection of Amazonian biodiversity in Ecuador, and avoiding oil exploitation in these areas (33% of the extent of southern oil blocks) should be considered a conservation alternative. Also, it is highly recommended to improve current oil exploitation technology to reduce environmental impacts in the region, especially within five oil blocks that we identified as most valuable for the conservation of biodiversity. The application of these and other recommendations depends heavily on the Ecuadorian government, which needs to find a better balance between the use of the Amazon resources and biodiversity conservation.

  2. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  3. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  4. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  5. Higher absorbed solar radiation partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests during the 2015 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Xiao, Jingfeng; He, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Amazon forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and Earth’s climate. The vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought remains highly controversial. Here we examine the impacts of the 2015 drought on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests to understand how solar radiation and precipitation jointly control forest photosynthesis during the severe drought. We use a variety of gridded vegetation and climate datasets, including solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), the fraction of absorbed PAR (APAR), leaf area index (LAI), precipitation, soil moisture, cloud cover, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in our analysis. Satellite-derived SIF observations provide a direct diagnosis of plant photosynthesis from space. The decomposition of SIF to SIF yield (SIFyield) and APAR (the product of PAR and fPAR) reveals the relative effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis. We found that the drought significantly reduced SIFyield, the emitted SIF per photon absorbed. The higher APAR resulting from lower cloud cover and higher LAI partly offset the negative effects of water stress on the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, leading to a smaller reduction in SIF than in SIFyield and precipitation. We further found that SIFyield anomalies were more sensitive to precipitation and VPD anomalies in the southern regions of the Amazon than in the central and northern regions. Our findings shed light on the relative and combined effects of precipitation and solar radiation on photosynthesis, and can improve our understanding of the responses of Amazon forests to drought.

  6. Simulated Changes in Northwest U.S. Climate in Response to Amazon Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerical models have long predicted that the deforestation of the Amazon would lead to large regional changes in precipitation and temperature, but the extratropical effects of deforestation have been a matter of controversy. This paper investigates the simulated impacts of defo...

  7. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  8. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  9. LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-01 SRTM 90-Meter Digital Elevation Model, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, provides 90-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data used in the...

  10. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  11. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  12. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Boubli, Jean P; Paim, Fernanda P; Ribas, Camila C; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Messias, Mariluce R; Röhe, Fabio; Mercês, Michelle P; Silva Júnior, José S; Silva, Claudia R; Pinho, Gabriela M; Koshkarian, Gohar; Nguyen, Mai T T; Harada, Maria L; Rabelo, Rafael M; Queiroz, Helder L; Alfaro, Michael E; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondônia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S

  13. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  14. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Achcar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using Bayesian spatiotemporal methods. METHODS: We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a Bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. RESULTS: The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI are important in the prediction of malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the Bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  15. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Souza, Aparecida Doniseti Pires de; Tachibana, Vilma Mayumi; Flores, Edilson Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using bayesian spatiotemporal methods. We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI) are important in the prediction of malaria cases. It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  16. Fishing Effort and Catch Composition of Urban Market and Rural Villages in Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  17. Changes in cloudiness over the Amazon rainforests during the last two decades: diagnostic and potential causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola A. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Ingenieria y Gestion Ambiental (GIGA), Medellin (Colombia); Jackson School of Geosciences, Geology Foundation, PO Box B, Austin, TX (United States); Fu, Rong [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Austin, TX (United States); Hoyos, Carlos D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Li, Wenhong [Duke University, Division of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Durham, NC (United States); Zhou, Liming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Science Foundation, Climate and Large Scale Dynamics Program, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This study shows a decrease of seasonal mean convection, cloudiness and an increase of surface shortwave down-welling radiation during 1984-2007 over the Amazon rainforests based on the analysis of satellite-retrieved clouds and surface radiative flux data. These changes are consistent with an increase in surface temperature, increased atmospheric stability, and reduction of moisture transport to the Amazon based on in situ surface and upper air meteorological data and reanalysis data. These changes appear to link to the expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during the December-February season, to the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and increase of SST over the eastern Pacific SST during the March-May season, and to an increase of the tropical Atlantic meridional SST gradient and an expansion of the western Pacific warm pool during September-November season. The resultant increase of surface solar radiation during all but the dry season in the Amazon could contribute to the observed increases in rainforest growth during recent decades. (orig.)

  18. Outbreaks of cholera-like diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ana C P; Teixeira, Luiz F M; Iniguez-Rojas, L; Luna, M G; Silva, L; Andrade, J R C; Guth, B E C

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between enteropathogens and severe diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon is poorly understood. In 1998, outbreaks of acute diarrhoea clinically diagnosed as cholera occurred in two small villages localized far from the main cholera route in the Brazilian rainforest. PCR was performed on some enteropathogens and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (STh) toxin genes, the virulence determinants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), were detected. Further characterization of ETEC isolates revealed the presence of two clones, one from each outbreak. One presenting serotype O167:H5 harboured LT-I and STh toxin genes and expressed the CS5CS6 colonization factor. The other, a non-typeable serotype, was positive for the LT-I gene and expressed the CS7 colonization factor. The current study demonstrates the importance of molecular diagnosis in regions such as the Amazon basin, where the enormous distances and local support conditions make standard laboratory diagnosis difficult. Here we also show that the mis-identified cholera cases were in fact associated with ETEC strains. This is the first report of ETEC, molecularly characterized as the aetiological agent of severe diarrhoea in children and adults in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

  19. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  20. Assessment of the Relationship between Andean Ice Core Precipitation Indicators and Amazon River Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Alsdorf, D.; Thompson, L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Melack, J.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to the last 100 years, there is a significant lack of hydrologic knowledge for the Amazon Basin. A 100- year record of discharge from the city of Manaus, located at the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers, is the most complete record for the basin. Inundated wetlands play a key role in carbon out-gassing to the atmosphere whereas discharge from the Amazon River contributes about 20% of the total freshwater flux delivered to the world's oceans. As discharge (Q) and inundation are directly related to precipitation, we are developing a method to extend our understanding of Q and inundation into the 19^{th} century. Using proxy data preserved in Andean glaciers and ice caps and recovered from ice cores, annually resolved histories of δ^{18)O and mass accumulation are available. The latter is a proxy for local precipitation amount whereas δ18O is influenced by continental scale processes (i.e., evaporation, convection) as well as by temperature and hence, by varying climate regimes. We have correlated the accumulation and δ18O records from Core 1 drilled on the Quelccaya ice-cap in the southern Andes of Peru with the Manaus discharge data. As ice core annual layers correspond to the thermal year (in Peru, July to June of the following year) and the discharge records are kept daily (January to December), we averaged 365 days of Q data seeking the optimal correlation for each start and end date. The best statistical relationship between δ18O and Q (r = -0.41, p = < 0.001) is attained when Q is averaged from March 16 to March 15 of the following year. We also correlated 23 years of ENSO events, which are linked to both Amazon River discharge and ice core δ18O (r = -0.60, p = < 0.001). These linear relationships are used to create Amazon discharge for the 20^{th} century and to extrapolate Q into the 19^{th} century. Previously developed relationships between Q and mainstem inundated area are then used to estimate inundated area along the main Amazon

  1. Archaeometric study of Amazon ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, Claudia de Vilhena Schayer; Amaral, Angela Maria; Poirior, Andre Pierre Prous

    2002-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)

  2. 14C-AMS as a tool for the investigation of mercury deposition at a remote Amazon location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, J.A.; Cordeiro, R.C.; Silva, E.V.; Turcq, B.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Santos, G.M.; Sifedinne, A.; Albuquerque, A.L.S.; Lacerda, L.D.; Hausladen, P.A.; Tims, S.G.; Levchenko, V.A.; Fifield, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    We present results of the atmospheric mercury deposition rate in the Amazon region during the last 43 000 years. Lake sediment samples were collected from the Lagoa da Pata, a small and remote lake in northern Brazilian Amazon. The samples were divided in sub-samples, for C, Hg, N and 14 C-AMS analyses. Three main paleoclimatic events could be identified. The mercury accumulation rates were found to be larger during the periods of the Holocene and Pleistocene associated with high temperatures and frequency of forest fires

  3. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  4. Fibrinolytic protease production by new Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576 from Amazon lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana M.M. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results show that the optimization of the culture medium can enhance protease production, thus becoming a good process for further research. In addition, Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576, isolated from Amazon lichens, might be a potential strain for fibrinolytic protease production.

  5. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  6. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  7. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  8. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  9. Unveiling non-stationary coupling between Amazon and ocean during recent extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Zou, Yong; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio; Kurths, Jürgen; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The interplay between extreme events in the Amazon's precipitation and the anomaly in the temperature of the surrounding oceans is not fully understood, especially its causal relations. In this paper, we investigate the climatic interaction between these regions from 1999 until 2012 using modern tools of complex system science. We identify the time scale of the coupling quantitatively and unveil the non-stationary influence of the ocean's temperature. The findings show consistently the distinctions between the coupling in the recent major extreme events in Amazonia, such as the two droughts that happened in 2005 and 2010 and the three floods during 1999, 2009 and 2012. Interestingly, the results also reveal the influence over the anomalous precipitation of Southwest Amazon has become increasingly lagged. The analysis can shed light on the underlying dynamics of the climate network system and consequently can improve predictions of extreme rainfall events.

  10. Agro forestry systems and food security among smallholder farmers of the Brazilian Amazon: A strategy for environmental global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Dr. Santiago de Lucimar; Watanabe, Dr. Maria Aico

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon is known for its environmental importance for the climatic equilibrium, for its abundance and richness in biodiversity and its preservation is important to reduce global heating. Nevertheless, little research has analysed the possible positive role of the local farm population for environmental conservation. The paper investigates the possibility to conciliate the environmental conservation with the small farming expansion in the Amazon, to build agrobiodiversity, and at the same t...

  11. Preliminary data on atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.M.Q.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary distributions of the trace-elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V and Fe in the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin have been determined through samples collected from August 23 to September 2 of 1980, at a remote place located in the Amazon Forest, about 30 km NE of the city of Manaus. In all, 10 complete cascade impactors of 6-stage, Battelle model, have been exposed but only with 8 success, thus generating 48 samples. From these, 33 samples have been succesfully analyzed by the PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission), using particle beam of the Pelletron Accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo, and the results revealed that the trace-elements S and K have a noticeable predominance, mainly as fine particle size, relative to the others. The high correlation factor found between the fine particle concentrations of S and K (0,96) support the assumption of their common airbone transport on the same particulates, originated from the gas-to-particle conversion of gases exuded by the trees of the forest, their only existing sources. Coarse airborne particles, of a probable soil origin, are also present but in unusually small amounts, as it was revelead by the Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe size distribution curves. (Author) [pt

  12. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  13. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  14. Bayesian inferences suggest that Amazon Yunga Natives diverged from Andeans less than 5000 ybp: implications for South American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Gouveia, Mateus H; Benazzo, Andrea; Ghirotto, Silvia; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Leal, Thiago P; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Pereira, Latife; Rodrigues, Maira R; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Cabrera, Lilia; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2014-09-30

    Archaeology reports millenary cultural contacts between Peruvian Coast-Andes and the Amazon Yunga, a rainforest transitional region between Andes and Lower Amazonia. To clarify the relationships between cultural and biological evolution of these populations, in particular between Amazon Yungas and Andeans, we used DNA-sequence data, a model-based Bayesian approach and several statistical validations to infer a set of demographic parameters. We found that the genetic diversity of the Shimaa (an Amazon Yunga population) is a subset of that of Quechuas from Central-Andes. Using the Isolation-with-Migration population genetics model, we inferred that the Shimaa ancestors were a small subgroup that split less than 5300 years ago (after the development of complex societies) from an ancestral Andean population. After the split, the most plausible scenario compatible with our results is that the ancestors of Shimaas moved toward the Peruvian Amazon Yunga and incorporated the culture and language of some of their neighbors, but not a substantial amount of their genes. We validated our results using Approximate Bayesian Computations, posterior predictive tests and the analysis of pseudo-observed datasets. We presented a case study in which model-based Bayesian approaches, combined with necessary statistical validations, shed light into the prehistoric demographic relationship between Andeans and a population from the Amazon Yunga. Our results offer a testable model for the peopling of this large transitional environmental region between the Andes and the Lower Amazonia. However, studies on larger samples and involving more populations of these regions are necessary to confirm if the predominant Andean biological origin of the Shimaas is the rule, and not the exception.

  15. Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein and fatty acids that are beneficial to human health and can be industrially processed. The fatty acid profile of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger (native to the Brazilian Amazon flooded forest) was determined in samples of a commercial cut (tail fillet) and fat (fat body and somatic fat) of these two species.

  16. Distribution and flux of 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, R.M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Stallard, R.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River estuary show that desorption from riverborne suspended particulate matter in the estuary increases the riverine flux of both isotopes to the ocean by a factor of approximately 5 over the flux attributable to radium dissolved in the river water alone. The total Amazon flux supplies approximately 0.20% of the 226 Ra and approximately 2.6% of the 228 Ra standing crops in the near-surface Atlantic (0-200 m). Diffusive flux from estuarine and shelf sediments and desorption from resuspended sediments in the region of the estuary approximately double the estuarine 226 Ra concentration and quadruple the estuarine 228 Ra concentration above that caused by the dissolved and desorbed river components alone

  17. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawakuchi, A.O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T.D.

    2018-01-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended...... silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example...... shield areas (denudation rate ξ=0.04 mmyr−1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ=0.24 mmyr−1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist settlement...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-01 City, Community, and Road Maps, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: 1990-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the boundaries of the four major cities in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, the locations of primary communities in the colonist...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Justino; Frode Stordal; Edward K. Vizy; Kerry H. Cook; Marcos P. S. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly ...

  1. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  2. New records of tick-associated spotted fever group Rickettsia in an Amazon-Savannah ecotone, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A R; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Costa, Ivaneide Nunes da; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Rodrigues, Vinícius da Silva; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Andreotti, Renato

    2018-05-01

    Human rickettsiosis has been recorded in the Amazon Biome. However, the epidemiological cycle of causative rickettsiae has not been fully accounted for in the Amazon region. This study investigates the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in free-living unfed ticks of the Amblyomma genus. The study was conducted in seven municipalities in Rondonia State, Brazil, where the main biomes are Amazon forest, Brazilian Savannah and their ecotones (areas of ecological tension between open ombrophilous forest and savannah). The following tick species were collected: Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) s.l., A. cajennense (sensu stricto) s.s., A. coelebs, A. naponense, A. oblongoguttatum, A. romitii, A. scalpturatum and A. sculptum. A total of 167 adults, 248 nymphs and 1004 larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of SFG Rickettsia spp. PCR-positive samples included: one A. cajennense s.s. female and one A. cajennense s.l. male from a rural area in Vilhena Municipality; 10 nymphs and a sample of larvae of A. cajennense s.l. from a peri-urban area in Cacoal Municipality; and an A. oblongoguttatum adult male from a rural area of Pimenta Bueno Municipality. All sequences obtained exhibited 100% identity with Rickettsia amblyommatis sequences. This is the first confirmation of SFG Rickettsia in an A. oblongoguttatum tick. Furthermore, this is the first record of SFG Rickettsia in the municipalities targeted by this study. These results warn that SFG Rickettsia circulation poses a threat in Rondonia State (among Amazon-Savannah ecotones), and that this threat is increased by the fact that SFG Rickettsia infect a human-biting tick species hitherto unconfirmed as a vector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Chemical phase partitioning and cycling across a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; McKee, B.A.; Booth, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The size distribution of U was examined in surface waters of the Amazon shelf. Water samples were collected during a low discharge river stage across a broad salinity gradient (0.3-35.4%) and fractionated by planar filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration into (1) solution (U s , c , 10,000 MW-0.4 μm), (3) dissolved (U d p >0.4 μm) phases. Concentrations of colloidal U comprise up to 92% of the dissolved U fraction at the river mouth and attain highest values (∼0.45 μg/L) in the productive, biogenic region of the Amazon shelf (salinities above ∼20%). U d and U c distributions are highly nonconservative relative to ideal dilution of river water and seawater, indicating extensive removal at salinities below ∼10%. The distribution of U s also shows some nonconservative behavior, yet removal, if any, is minimal. Saltwater-induced precipitation and aggregation of riverine colloidal material is most likely the dominant mechanism of U removal in the low salinity, terrigenous region of the Amazon shelf. There is evident of a substantial colloidal U input (∼245% of the riverine U c flux) into surface waters above 5%. Such U c enrichment most likely is the result of colloidal U-rich porewater diffusion/advection from the seabed and fluid muds or shelf-wide particle-colloid disaggregation. Removal of solution and dissolved phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation in terms of coagulation phase U via a colloidal intermediate and U c aggregation was examined in terms of coagulation theory. The high reactive nature of all U phases on the Amazon shelf suggests that remobilization and fractionation of U may also occur in other river-influenced coastal environments

  4. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  5. Origin of Amazon mudbanks along the northeastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.A.; Lee, M.T.; Ogston, A.S.; Aller, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic profiles, sediment cores, and water column measurements were collected along the northeastern coast of Brazil to examine the origin of mudbanks in the Amazon coastal mud belt. These 10-60-km-long, shore-attached features previously had been observed to migrate along the 1200 km coast of the Guianas in response to wave forcing. CHIRP (3.5 kHz) seismic profiles of the shoreface and inner shelf located two mudbanks updrift of the previous eastern limit in French Guiana. 210Pb geochronology shows that these two banks are migrating to the northwest over a relict mud surface in 5-20 m water depth. The mudbanks are 3-4 m thick and are translating over a modern shoreface mud wedge deposited by previous mudbank passage in Amazon freshwater discharge on the shelf and by proximity to the Cassipore River estuary. Seasonal and decadal periods of sediment supply and starvation in this area likely are controlled by variations in northwest trade wind intensity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

  7. Use and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon: cultural particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Landínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main cultural particularities: worldviews and ways of knowing that are associated with the use and management practices of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cutting proposal contrasts, cultural level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts in light of the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. Thus, offers an integrated perspective that will address environmental situations considering conflicting factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios, to give substance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulatory mechanisms in strategic special biological areas as the Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, to sketch involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  8. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  9. Feedbacks between land cover and climate changes in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Silverio, D. V.; Bustamante, M.; Macedo, M.; Shimbo, J.; Brando, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 20% of Amazon forests and 45% of Cerrado savannas have been cleared to make way for the expansion of croplands and pasturelands in Brazil. Although deforestation rates have decreased or remained steady over the last decade, the cumulative area deforested continues to grow in both biomes. These land-use transitions are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperatures (LST), and ultimately reducing regional precipitation. Here we present results from spatial analyses to quantify the impact of land-use transitions on the regional climate of the Amazon-Cerrado agricultural frontier. The analyses combine satellite observations and model outputs from the MODIS dataset. Results from the southeastern Amazon indicate that transitions from forest to pasture or cropland decreased mean annual ET (by 24% and 32%, respectively) and increased LST (by 4.2°C and 6.4°C). Preliminary results from the Cerrado indicate that transitions from woody savannas to pasture or cropland also result in substantial reductions in mean annual ET (23% and 20%, respectively) and increases in LST (by 1.6°C in both cases). These results reinforce the need to better understand how land-use change at regional scales may alter climate by changing ecosystem properties (beyond carbon stocks and fluxes). It is important to evaluate these responses across different biomes, particularly in tropical regions under increasing deforestation pressure.

  10. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  11. Simultaneous abrupt shifts in hydrology and fish assemblage structure in a floodplain lake in the central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Cristhiana P; Amadio, Sidinéia; Zuanon, Jansen; Ferreira, Efrem J G; Deus, Cláudia Pereira de; Pires, Tiago H S; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-10

    Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers. After an intense drought in 2005, the assemblage assumed a different and fairly persistent taxonomic composition and functional structure. Declines in abundance after 2005 were more pronounced for species of all sizes having equilibrium life history strategy, large species with periodic life history strategy, and for all trophic levels except primary consumers. Our results suggest that the extreme drought triggered changes in the fish assemblage and subsequent anomalous hydrological conditions have hampered assemblage recovery. These findings stress the need to account for climatic-driven hydrological changes in conservation efforts addressing aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources in the central Amazon.

  12. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  13. Spectral mixture analysis for water quality assessment over the Amazon floodplain using Hyperion/EO-1 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Soares Galvão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Water composition undergoes complex spatial and temporal variations throughout the central Amazon floodplain. This study analyzed the spectral mixtures of the optically active substances (OASs in water with spaceborne hyperspectral images. The test site was located upstream the confluence of Amazon (white water and Tapajós (clear-water rivers, where two Hyperion images were acquired from the Earth Observing One (EO-1 satellite. The first image was acquired on September 16, 2001, during the falling water period of the Amazon River. The second image was acquired on June 23, 2005, at the end of the high water period. The images were pre-processed to remove stripes of anomalous pixels, convert radiance-calibrated data to surface reflectance, mask land, clouds and macrophytes targets, and spectral subset the data within the range of 457-885nm. A sequential procedure with the techniques Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, Pixel Purity Index (PPI and n-dimensional visualization of the MNF feature space was employed to select end-members from both images. A single set of end-members was gathered to represent the following spectrally unique OASs: clear-water; dissolved organic matter; suspended sediments; and phytoplankton. The Linear Spectral Unmixing algorithm was applied to each Hyperion image in order to map the spatial distribution of these constituents, in terms of sub-pixel fractional abundances. Results showed three patterns of changes in the water quality from high to falling flood periods: decrease of suspended inorganic matter concentration in the Amazon River; increase of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton concentrations in varzea lakes; and increase of phytoplankton concentration in the Tapajós River.

  14. Remote Sensing Images to Detect Soy Plantations in the Amazon Biome—The Soy Moratorium Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabiani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soy Moratorium is an initiative to reduce deforestation rates in the Amazon biome based on the hypothesis that soy is a deforestation driver. Soy planted in opened areas after July 24th, 2006 cannot be commercialized by the associated companies to the Brazilian Association of Vegetable Oil Industries (ABIOVE and the National Association of Cereal Exporters (ANEC, which represent about 90% of the Brazilian soy market. The objective of this work is to present the evaluation of the fourth year of monitoring new soy plantations within the Soy Moratorium context. With the use of satellite images from the MODIS sensor, together with aerial survey, it was possible to identify 147 polygons with new soy plantations on 11,698 ha. This soy area represents 0.39% of the of the total deforested area during the moratorium, in the three soy producing states of the Amazon biome, and 0.6% of the cultivated soy area in the Amazon biome, indicating that soy is currently a minor deforestation driver. The quantitative geospatial information provided by an effective monitoring approach is paramount to the implementation of a governance process required to establish an equitable balance between environmental protection and agricultural production.

  15. Calha Norte: Explaining Brazilian Army Presence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the Yanomami Indians.""’ The potential wealth present in the Calha Norte region has been estimated at over US$134 billion, enough to repay almost all...garimpeiros to remain on Yanomami land was essentially a military decision. The Army’s pro-miner position was highlighted by official statements made by the...Environmental Policy and Military Geopolitics in the Development of the Brazilian Amazon: The Case of the Yanomami ," Development and Change (1992

  16. Integrating the avoidance of forest degradation into systematic conservation planning in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Barlow, J.; Thompson, J.; Berenguer, E.; Aragão, L. E.; Lees, A.; Lennox, G.; Brancalion, P.; Ferraz, S.; Moura, N.; Oliveira, V. H.; Louzada, J.; Solar, R.; Nunes, S.; Parry, L.; Fonseca, T.; Garrett, R.; Vieira, I.; MacNally, R.; Gardner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undisturbed forests are becoming increasingly rare in the tropics. The area of forest degraded by some form of disturbance, such as logging or fire, in the Brazilian Amazon now greatly exceeds that which had been deforested. Yet forest policy in the Amazon, as elsewhere in the tropics, remains overwhelmingly focused curbing the rate of forest loss without considering impacts on forest quality. We use a unique data set from the Sustainable Amazon Network (RAS), in the eastern Brazilian Amazon to assess the impacts of forest disturbance on biodiversity and assess the benefits of including avoided degradation measures in conservation planning. Biodiversity data on trees and fauna from two large regions, Santarém and Paragominas, were combined with remote sensing data to model biodiversity patterns as well as estimates of above-ground carbon stocks across a range of land-use types and forest conditions. We found that impact of forest disturbance on biodiversity loss in the state of Pará equates to double that lost from deforestation alone, -the equivalent of losing 92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. We found a strong positive relationship between increasing carbon stocks and higher biodiversity in varyingly disturbed forests. Simulations demonstrated that a carbon-focused conservation strategy is least effective at conserving biodiversity in the least disturbed forests, highlighting the importance of on-the-ground biodiversity surveys to prioritise conservation investments in the most species rich forests. We explored trade-offs among management actions to guide priorities for habitat protection, avoided degradation and restoration and found that where restoration imposes significant opportunity and implementation costs, efforts to avoid and reverse the degradation of existing forests can deliver greater returns on investment for biodiversity conservation. Systemic planning of forest management options at regional scales can substantially improve biodiversity

  17. Differences in manioc diversity among five ethnic groups of the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.M.; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, L.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Manioc is an important root crop in the tropics and the most important staple food in the Amazon. Manioc is diverse but its diversity has not yet been clearly associated with environmental or social factors. Our study evaluates how variation in edaphic environments and in social factors influences

  18. Canopy-scale biophysical controls on transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Trebs, Ivonne; Bøgh, Eva

    2016-01-01

    to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical controls on λET and λEE ov