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Sample records for holiday inn crowne

  1. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  2. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  3. Pemilihan Akun Media Sosial INSTAGRAM oleh HOLIDAY INN Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Jayanti Satyadewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology in the hospitality institute is very important to be adopted in order to improve the quality of service to prospective customers.  The purpose of this study was to determine the communication planning, through the process of share, optimize, manage, and engage in @holidayinnbandung Instagram. The research method is descriptive qualitative research methods and the foundation of the concept is The Circular Model of SOME. The results showed, the planning of communication via Instagram @holidayinnbandung is quite optimal, sharing process of Instagram selection motivated by the successful use of hash tags by international IHG. Optimizing the planning process starting from the promo to be made by optimizing the content is done by looking at the aspects of a photo and caption. Engagement process planning is done using the brand influencers and create content that is attractive to be able to entertain and interact with the followers.

  4. Understanding Holiday Hunger

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The All-Party Parliamentary (APP) Inquiry into Hunger in the United Kingdom concluded that hunger will be an enduring part of the fabric of society unless urgent action is taken (APP Inquiry into Hunger, 2014). \\ud As part of the Inquiry’s examination of the extent and causes of food poverty attention was drawn to hunger among school-age children and young people, particularly during the school holidays. The relationship between hunger and free school meals (FSM) is an important element of th...

  5. Official holidays in 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    (Application of Article R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2011 (in addition to the special leave during the annual closure): Saturday 1 January\t(New Year) Friday 22 April\t(Good Friday) Monday 25 April\t(Easter Monday) Sunday 1 May Thursday 2 June\t(Ascension day) Friday 3 June\t(compensation granted for 1 May) Monday 13 June\t(Whit Monday) Thursday 8 September\t(“Jeûne genevois”)  Thursday 22 December\t(compensation granted for 24 December, Christmas Eve) Friday 23 December\t(compensation granted for 25 December, Christmas) Saturday 24 December\t(Christmas Eve) Sunday 25 December\t(Christmas) Thursday 29 December\t(compensation granted for 31 December, New Year’s Eve) Friday 30 December\t(compensation granted for 1 January 2012, New Year) Saturday 31 December\t(New Year’s Eve) Tel. 73903

  6. Ombud's Corner: holiday time!

    CERN Document Server

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    In July and August, the Ombud’s Corner articles will be taking a holiday. They will resume in September. Meanwhile, the respect@CERN campaign continues so please keep on sending us your suggestions.   As announced in the last Bulletin, "We want these initiatives to belong to you. For this reason, we would like to ask you to suggest the messages you would like to see included in the posters. What does a “respectful workplace” mean for you? Send your suggestions to respect@cern.ch – and of course we will reward the authors with exclusively designed Respect@CERN-branded items. So, whether it's respect in relation to interpersonal interactions, noise, safety, the environment or anything else, we look forward to receiving your ideas. Do not hesitate – send that e-mail now!" As a reminder, all previous Ombud's Corners can be accessed in the Ombud's blog.

  7. Holidays Come - Passwords Go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    The holiday season is approaching and with it, the best chance of losing your password!!   If you are keen to access your CERN mailbox or other computing facilities at CERN from the Internet café at your hotel, hold on and think twice. Is that local PC trustworthy? Most likely it is not. It might never have been patched, and, thus, has been infected by plenty of computer viruses long time ago. Worse, nasty people might have installed tools which aim at stealing your password once you type it. Therefore, it is better to use your own laptop or mobile phone for such activities. If you decided to connect to CERN from an untrustworthy computer and had typed in your CERN password there – please seriously consider changing your CERN password at http://cern.ch/account as soon as you have access to a trustworthy computer. However, also take care when using your own laptop or mobile device: wireless communication can be intercepted. Many wireless access points, e.g. at airports, do no...

  8. JBS Haldane: the John Innes years

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. J. B. S. Haldane: the John Innes years. SARAH WILMOT. HALDANE AT 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November ... Keywords. J. B. S. Haldane; John Innes Horticultural Institution; history of genetics; William Bateson; Primula sinensis; plant genetics; biochemical genetics.

  9. Colloids in the River Inn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the light of an increasing number of technical applications using nanoparticles and reports of adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles, research on the occurrence and stability of particles in all compartments has to be intensified. Colloids in river water represent the geologic setting, environmental conditions, and the anthropogenic use in its catchment. The river not only acts as a sink for nanoparticles but also as the source term due to exchange in the hyporheic zone and in bank filtration setups. The concentration, size distribution and elemental composition of particles in the River Inn were studied from the source in the Swiss Alps to the river mouth at Passau from 2008 to 2014. Samples were collected after each tributary from a sub-catchment and filtered on site using a new filtration device for gentle filtration. The elemental composition was determined after acid digestion with ICP/MS. SEM/EDX analysis provided morphological and elemental information for single particles. A complementary chemical analysis of the river water was performed to assess the geochemical stability of individual particles. As presented at EGU 2014, particles in the upper, rural parts mainly reveal changes in the geological setting of the tributary catchments. Not unexpectedly, particles originating from crystalline rocks, were more stable than particles originating from calcareous rocks. Anthropogenic and industrial influences increase in the lower parts. This went together with a change of the size distribution, an increase of the number of organic particles, and a decrease of the microfauna. Interestingly, specific leisure activities in a sub-catchment, like extensive downhill skiing, manifest itself in the particle composition. This general setting was validated in last year's sampling campaigns. An interesting change in on site parameters and hydrochemical composition was seen during all sampling campaigns at an inflow from the valley Kaunertal, Austria. Therefore

  10. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Home Department of Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & ... of Public Health (DPH) reminds Connecticut residents that food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. ...

  11. Resonant Raman spectroscopy on InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuball, M.; Pomeroy, J.W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wintrebert-Fouquet, M.; Butcher, K.S.A. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Lu, Hai; Schaff, W.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14507 (United States); Shubina, T.V.; Ivanov, S.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J. [LASMEA-UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS, University of Clermont-Ferrand II, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    The novel use of resonant Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the band gap of InN is illustrated in a study of MBE-grown films. This technique can distinguish between electronic transitions related to the InN from transitions related to defects and impurities that are so typical for current InN material. Using excitation energies from 1.49 eV (830 nm) to 2.54 eV (488 nm), we identify a critical point in the InN band structure within {approx}200-300 meV below 1.5 eV. The origin of this critical point, whether band gap or higher critical point, is discussed. Furthermore, Raman results are presented on the temperature dependence of the InN phonons. Analysis of the data provides information on phonon lifetimes and decay mechanisms, important to assess whether hot phonon effects need to be considered in future InN devices. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Tax holidays in a BEPS-perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerkestuen, Hilde Mæhlum; Wille, Hans Georg

    2015-01-01

    A tax holiday is a time-limited exemption from taxation and one of the most commonly employed tax incentives in developing countries. The main objective behind tax holidays is to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), as this is believed to stimulate economic growth and development. An exemption from taxation under a tax holiday could encourage investors to invest in developing countries. However, this requires the benefit under the tax holiday to actually accrue to the investor and no...

  13. Good Health For the Holidays!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Good Health For the Holidays! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... to-date Web site for every medical and health question. Healthy families know that good medical information should be a part of everyone's ...

  14. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  15. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] [Pages 56552-56554] [FR Doc No: 2012-22507] POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping... Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and.../ Cyber Monday holiday shopping timeframe. In this final rule, the Postal Service provides a description...

  16. The Profile of Romanian Urban Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Coroș

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third of a series of studies dedicated to tourist inns on the Romanian market. The previous papers focused on the identification of the tourist inns that currently function on the domestic market. Further, their potential as rural facilities was highlighted and their authenticity was discussed. The relevance of this research is linked to the fact that in the early 1990s tourist inns were excluded from the lists of lodging and food-serving facilities, ceasing to be officially ranked. Consequently, the inns’ owners were forced to reclassify as other accepted types or, even worse, to function in the shadow economy , without any official ranking. Moreover, the absence of inns on the market and the incoherent development of certain types of lodgings in Romania, have also led to the fact that entrepreneurs and tourists tend to be confused and, sometimes, not able to differentiate one type of accommodation unit from another. The main purpose of this research is to determine the extent to which urban inns can contribute to the authenticity of the Romanian tourism. From a methodological perspective, the paper relies on both official data (collected and processed based on the official Lists of Hospitality Facilities and on the information available on specialized websites. Thorough analyses have been run in order to identify the tourist structures pretending to be inns, to further categorize and discuss them according to various criteria. The main findings and conclusions of this paper reveal that inns have the potential to contribute to the authenticity of Romania’s hospitality industry .

  17. Dental crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... still has its nerve, you may have some sensitivity to heat or cold. This should go away over time. Expect that it will take a few days to get used to the new crown in your mouth. Take care of your crown the same way you take care of your normal teeth. If you have a porcelain crown, you may ...

  18. Revisiting electrochromism in InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, K.; Butcher, A.; Wintrebert-Fouquet, Marie; Chen, Patrick P.T. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R. [Microstructural Analysis Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    We confirm changes to the band-gap of InN thin films treated in an electrochemical cell in which water electrolysis is evident. Electrical properties of the films were also affected. It is suggested that the change in the film resistivity results from hydrogen incorporation or removal during the electrolysis (dependent on sample polarity). The presence of grain boundaries is believed to enhance the penetration of chemical species into the InN resulting in a greater net change in the observed properties. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Tax holidays in a BEPS-perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerkestuen, Hilde Mæhlum; Wille, Hans Georg

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Available at http://www.kluwerlawonline.com/ A tax holiday is a time-limited exemption from taxation and one of the most commonly employed tax incentives in developing countries. The main objective behind tax holidays is to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), as this is believed to stimulate economic growth and development. An exemption from taxation under a tax holiday could encourage investors to invest in developing...

  20. Electron transport in wurtzite InN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using ensemble Monte Carlo simulation technique, we have calculated the transport properties of InN such as the drift velocity, the drift mobility, the average electron, energy relaxation times and momentum relaxation times at high electric field. The scattering mechanisms included are polar optical phonon, ionized ...

  1. Electron transport in wurtzite InN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This critical field is strongly dependent on InN parameters. The steady-state transport parameters are in fair agreement with other recent calculations. Author Affiliations. F M Abou El-Ela1 B M El-Assy1. Department of Physics, Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. Dates. Manuscript received: 4 July ...

  2. Active Holiday in Mt. Zlatibor County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Plavša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active holiday presents a new stream in tourism development of Serbia. The most interesting types of active holiday in Serbia are: free and mountain biking, rafting, hiking, mountaineering, free climbing, orienteering, fishing, sailing, rowing, paragliding, cave exploring, skiing, survival in nature, zorbing, horse riding, etc. Zlatibor district is almost perfect area for developing active holiday, due to the nature beauties and diversity of landscape. The most atractive parts for developing active holiday in Zlatibor district are: Tara Mountain and Drina River Gorge, Zlatibor Mountain, Uvac River Gorge and Zlatar Mountain, Lim River Valley and Pester Highlands.

  3. Creating Culturally Relevant Holiday Curriculum: A Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Karen; Jones, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Describes the holiday celebration of Dia de los Muertos at Pacific Oaks Children's School in Los Angeles. Considers the decision to celebrate the holiday, preparation for the celebration, its place in the curriculum, its relationship to Halloween, adult conflicts related to personal religious values, children's misunderstanding of the rituals, and…

  4. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work status shall receive pay at the standard hourly rate, plus longevity where applicable, for all Federal...

  5. Fire Safety During the Holiday Season | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter is here, and that means holiday decorations, a warm hearth, and (hopefully) plenty of homecooked meals. Unfortunately, winter also brings numerous fire hazards both at work and around the house. This year, as you shop, decorate, and celebrate, keep these safety tips in mind to ensure a safe and enjoyable holiday season.

  6. Holidays in peace: Sahrawi children visit Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Crivello

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of young Sahrawis spend summer holidays with Spanish families. The Vacaciones en Paz hosting programme has grown into a transnational network which allows Sahrawi youth to partially offset the hardships of their daily lives as refugees.

  7. A reminder, before leaving on holiday

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of our well-earned holidays, the Staff Association invites you to take a break in order to measure the progress made in social conditions during the last few months within the Organization.

  8. The SpaceInn SISMA archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Monica; Poretti, Ennio; Mistò, Angelo; Rosa Panzera, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA) has been built in the framework of the FP7 SpaceInn project to contain the 7013 HARPS spectra observed during the CoRoT asteroseismic groundbased program, along with their variability and asteroseismic indicators. The spectra pertain to 261 stars spread around the whole Herztsprung-Russell diagram: 72 of them were CoRoT targets while the others were observed in order to better characterize their variability classes. The Legacy Data lightcurves of the CoRoT targets are also stored in the archive.

  9. The Children's Inn at NIH Anniversary Key Messages | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Children's Inn The Children's Inn at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... Contents Anniversary Key Messages Playground and Park at The Children's Inn at NIH. Photo courtesy of Mahan ...

  10. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  11. 2nd INNS Conference on Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, Yannis; Iliadis, Lazaros; Roy, Asim; Vellasco, Marley

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a timely snapshot of neural network technologies as a significant component of big data analytics platforms. It promotes new advances and research directions in efficient and innovative algorithmic approaches to analyzing big data (e.g. deep networks, nature-inspired and brain-inspired algorithms); implementations on different computing platforms (e.g. neuromorphic, graphics processing units (GPUs), clouds, clusters); and big data analytics applications to solve real-world problems (e.g. weather prediction, transportation, energy management). The book, which reports on the second edition of the INNS Conference on Big Data, held on October 23–25, 2016, in Thessaloniki, Greece, depicts an interesting collaborative adventure of neural networks with big data and other learning technologies.

  12. Natural oxidation of InN quantum dots: the role of cubic InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, David; Lozano, Juan G.; Herrera, Miriam; Garcia, Rafael [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cadiz, Apdo. 40, E-11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Browning, Nigel D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Chemistry, Materials and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ruffenach, Sandra; Briot, Olivier

    2010-01-15

    The natural aging process occured in indium nitride quantum dots (QDs) heterostructures as a consequence of exposure to the atmosphere has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron beam related techniques. The comparison between GaN-capped and uncapped InN QDs kept at room conditions during 36 months indicates the structural changes that take place. While the capping layer seems to act in a protective way avoiding any change in the QDs, the uncapped structures suffer a series of phase transformations, where the original wurtzite structure is replaced by a layer of cubic phases. The main constituent of this layer is shown to be bcc-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by the substitution of the nitrogen atoms by oxygen from the atmosphere. This supposes a transformation from a hexagonal to a cubic structure, explained by the existence of an oxygen-rich cubic InN acting as an intermediate phase. The difference in the formation enthalpy between the original and the final product, together with the good match between the crystals would explain this transformation that shows the high instability of InN at environmental conditions. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Official CERN holidays | Restaurant opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note that the CERN Restaurants will have the following opening hours during the upcoming holidays: Restaurant #1 will be open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. on Wednesday 1 May, Thursday 9 May (Ascension Thursday) and Monday 20 May (Pentecost) - on Friday 10 May the restaurant will be open at the usual times. Restaurant #2 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, but will be open on Friday 10 May at the usual times (brasserie will be closed). Restaurant #3 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, as well as Friday 10 May.

  14. Jewish holidays and their associated medical risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urkin, Jacob; Naimer, Sody

    2015-02-01

    Religiosity is inherent in human cultures. Being different in many aspects, all have rules regarding appropriate behavior and rituals. Celebrations of social events and of holidays prevail in all major religions. These include code of dress, prayers, special food and activities which may have negative health implications. The Jewish religion is 'blessed' with an abundance of holidays each with its unique health implications. In this paper we provide an outline of the character of these festivals and possible medical repercussions on those celebrating them. Observant members of the Jewish religion and teams treating this population should be knowledgeable of potentially associated risks. Pre-holiday periods should be specifically targeted for educational and preventive activity in order diminish injury or morbidity.

  15. The 12 Ways to Health Holiday Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    This song (sung to the tune of The Twelve Days of Christmas) describes how to stay safe and healthy during the holidays and all year long.  Created: 12/14/2007 by CDC Office of Women's Health.   Date Released: 12/23/2007.

  16. Birthweight as a measure of holiday stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2017-03-21

    Young wives in South Korea often dread New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day because they assume the burden of cooking, cleaning, and other household chores. We used their offspring's birthweight as an indicator of their stress levels. We included all Korean singletons born in hospitals during 1997-2014 (N = 8,589,426) and regressed birthweight on in utero holiday experience by trimester, along with covariates. Babies who experienced New Year's Day in the first trimester were 9.4 grams lighter than those who did not; the amount is equivalent to 120% of the reduced birthweight associated with experiencing landmine explosions during the first trimester in Colombia. Higher birthweight was related to being in the first trimester during Thanksgiving Day versus not. However, experiencing this holiday during the third trimester was associated with less increase in birthweight than during the other trimesters. These results suggest that the New Year's holiday may reflect stress for Korean women in their first trimester of pregnancy, resulting in reduced birthweight, but similar stress was not associated with the Thanksgiving Day holiday. Clinicians and policymakers should be aware of this potential high stress level among Korean women during New Year's Day and seek ways to prevent and alleviate it.

  17. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  18. Emergency Department During Long Public Holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda DAGAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the expected increase in the volume of patient visits in the emergency department during holiday periods on physicians' tendencies regarding test and consultation requests as well as on the length of time patients stay in the emergency department. Methods: The study groups included all of the patients who visited the emergency department during the nine-day public holiday (Eid al-Adha, a religious festival of sacrifice celebrations and a nine-day non-holiday “normal” period. The patients' demographic information, reasons for their visits, comorbid diseases, whether or not they had undergone laboratory and screening tests, consultations, length of stay, and the way their visits ended were compared statistically. Results: Of the 6353 patients enrolled in the study, 3523 (55.5% were seen in the emergency department during the holiday period, while 2830 (45.5% were seen during the non-holiday period (p≤0.001. During the holiday period, there was a 1.9% decrease in laboratory test requests (p=0.108, a 7.7% increase in radiology examination requests (p≤0.001, and a 1.2% increase in consultation requests (p=0.063. The patients' length of stay during the holiday period was 55.9±75.3 minutes and was 56.3±71.9 minutes during the non-holiday period (p=0.819. The length of time for the patients who underwent tests or consultations was 88.6±92.8 minutes during the holiday period and 92.6±87.5 minutes during the non-holiday period (p=0.224. Conclusions: As expected, the number of patient visits to the emergency department increased during the holiday period, but this increase did not lead to a similar increase in test and consultation requests by the physicians, except for radiology examination requests. In addition, the length of time that patients stayed in the emergency department was not affected by the increase in the volume of patient visits during the holiday

  19. InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.

  20. Chemical modification of InN surface with sulfide solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementev, Peter A.; Lvova, Tatiana V.; Davydov, Valery Yu.; Smirnov, Alexander N.; Shnitov, Vladimir V.; Lebedev, Mikhail V.; Gwo, Shangjr

    2017-11-01

    Surface electronic properties of the native-oxide-covered and sulfide-passivated InN grown on the Si(111) substrate were studied by photoemission spectroscopy induced by synchrotron radiation, as well as by photoluminescence and atomic-force microscopy. It was found that the treatment of the native-oxide-covered InN surface with the solution of ammonium sulfide in 2-propanol results in the increase of the surface band bending by 0.7-0.8 eV. Sulfide passivation causes increase in the photoluminescence intensity of InN, as well as the appearance of the photovoltage induced by illumination with red light, which is the evidence of the reduction of the surface recombination velocity due to sulfide passivation. These improved electronic properties remain stable for at least 20 months of the exposure in air.

  1. The effect of holidays on a token economy regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P A

    1977-05-01

    This preliminary study investigates the effect on patients' performance of a set time off, in the form of a short holiday, from a strict reinforcement (token economy) regime. Assessment was by the patients' mean token earnings before and after the holiday and their self-care and work performance throughout. The results suggest that a holiday from a token economy has beneficial effects for patients.

  2. Exceptions to and deviations from the INN common stem system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    For various reasons, mainly related to the history of the drug and of drug nomenclature, some INNs lack a common stem. As INN nomenclature has evolved, some stems have been abandoned or their definition has been modified. Some common stems are difficult to interpret or fail to achieve their objective of designating coherent therapeutic groups. This problem tends to arise particularly when: several stems are used for the same therapeutic use; stems used to designate a particular structure or origin are shared by drugs with different properties; or several stems are used to represent drugs with the same properties but different structures.

  3. Holiday homes - electric power savings; Sommerhuse - elbesparelser her og nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed Esbensen, N.-U.; Roed Rasmussen, E. (Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokalenergi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Worm, J.; Adams Rasmussen, L. (Energitjenesten, Aarhus (Denmark)); Reuss, M. (Elsparefonden, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Ellehauge, K.; Kjaergaard, C.-J. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, Aarhus (Denmark)); Jensen, Ole Michael (Aalborg Univ.. SBi, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    A questionnaire survey among 700 holiday home owners was conducted and followed up by interviews with representatives of typical groups of holiday home owners and a number of key persons representing rental, building, electricity supply, regulatory processing and supply of renewable energy facilities to holiday homes. The results of the questionnaire survey and of former surveys on technical savings potential are included in an easy-to-read catalogue of ideas with directions and recommendations for various groups of holiday home users and players. The recommendations are grouped into eight topics of more or less relevance for the various target groups. (LN)

  4. The Children's Inn at NIH turns 25 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including therapeutic, educational, and recreational programming. Dalvin plays board games at The Inn's Woodmont House. Photo courtesy of ... Inn has a playroom, kids' computer room, bistro, game room, learning center, business center, reflection space, teen lounge, arts ...

  5. STEM Holiday Activity: Designing for Flood Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonthi Phonchaiya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available STEM Holiday is a project initiated by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST to develop LEGOTM-based STEM activities in which students could participate during weekends or holidays. Designing for Flood Crisis is one of the activities developed to teach Thai secondary school students about simple machines through an engineering design process within the context of a flood crisis. The activity was piloted with twenty Thai students in 9th grade. Direct observations were employed to evaluate students’ understanding of simple machines and their performance in designing and constructing a LEGOTM model. Questionnaires were used to evaluate students’ opinions about the activity and their improvement in creativity and teamwork skills. We found that most students could complete their LEGOTM models within the time limit. They could also give clear and accurate explanations of the concepts of simple machines applied in their designs. Moreover, most of them strongly agreed that the activity was suitable for them and could help improve their creativity and teamwork skills. These findings demonstrate the potential of using a LEGOTM-based activity to teach science during extra-curricular hours and in formal classrooms. More studies are necessary to strengthen the findings.

  6. Holiday Heart Syndrome Revisited after 34 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelo, David [Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Providência, Rui, E-mail: rui-providencia@yahoo.com; Gonçalves, Lino [Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Coimbras Hospital Centre and University, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of alcohol are well known. However, most research has focused on the beneficial effects (the 'French paradox') of moderate consumption or the harmful consequences, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, associated with heavy consumption over an extended period. An association between the ingestion of acute alcohol and onset of cardiac arrhythmias was first reported in the early 70's. In 1978, Philip Ettinger described 'Holiday heart syndrome' (HHS) for the first time, as the occurrence, in healthy people without heart disease known to cause arrhythmia, of an acute cardiac rhythm disturbance, most frequently atrial fibrillation, after binge drinking. The name is derived from the fact that episodes were initially observed more frequently after weekends or public holidays. Since the original description of HHS, 34 years have passed and new research in this field has increased the volume of knowledge related to this syndrome. Throughout this paper the authors will comprehensively review most of the available data concerning HHS and highlight the questions that remain unresolved.

  7. Vacationers happier, but most not happier after a holiday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nawijn (Jeroen); M.A. Marchand (Miquelle); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Ad)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to obtain a greater insight into the association between vacations and happiness. We examined whether vacationers differ in happiness, compared to those not going on holiday, and if a holiday trip boosts post-trip happiness. These questions were addressed in a

  8. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA DI BALI EASY HOLIDAY DENPASAR BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Kevin Perangin-Angin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This Journal aimed to know the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and opportunities as well as threats from the external environment and create strategies and marketing programs that can be applied in the Bali Easy Holiday. The technique data collection using observation, interview, questionnaire, the study of literature and documentation study. Sampling techniques using a purposive sampling. Data analysis techniques using qualitative descriptive analysis and Likert scale analysis. The results of this research are obtaining indicators of strengths and weaknesses of internal environment and the opportunities and threats of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 16 indicators of strengths and 4 indicators of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 9 indicators of opportunities 5 indicators of threats in Bali Easy Holiday. Marketing strategies can be applied to Bali Easy Holiday, namely : the creation of strategy and product development, market development strategies, promotion strategy, a strategy of improved human resources, the strategy of market penetration strategies, improvement of the quality of products and services and pricing strategies. This research has some advice for Bali Easy Holiday is to increase the intensity of promotion, provide ease reservations and payments to consumers, renew tour packages, provide affordable rates to customers and formed a marketing division.

  9. Space and Environmental Cult of National Holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Lilit

    2016-12-01

    Modern culture that unites humanity, based on world heritage. To keep national image and type needs to save the essence, which requires studying and adopting national culture, ceremony, song, dance and language. Keeping all of these is not only kept from assimilation, but also to be presentable for other nations. In this article, we have tried to keep the originality of culture where there are many forms of cult of nature and the universe. We must mention that sun, moon, planets, stars and celestial phenomena were in the center of interests in ancient times in science. Armenians like other ancient civilizations followed to celestial phenoenas and noted Sun and Moon eclipses and other facts. All those were depicted in pictograms and in this way those notions have been passed to the next generations. The knowledges of Armenians about nature and heavenly elements are reflected in national holidays, legends, epics.

  10. Dependence of InN properties on MOCVD growth parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuna, Oe.; Giesen, C. [AIXTRON AG, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); Behmenburg, H.; Kalisch, H.; Jansen, R.H. [Chair of Electromagnetic Theory, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Yablonskii, G.P. [Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Independence Ave. 68, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Heuken, M. [AIXTRON AG, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); Chair of Electromagnetic Theory, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    In order to optimize the growth conditions, the effect of the most important growth parameters such as growth temperature, pressure and V/III ratio on MOCVD-grown InN was investigated. A series of samples were grown by changing the growth temperature from 500 C to 550 C at fixed growth pressure of 800 mbar and V/III ratio of 145000. An improvement of electrical properties with temperature increment was noted. The highest mobility of 1200 cm{sup 2}/Vs was achieved at 550 C with a bulk carrier concentration of 4.32 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The effect of V/III ratio on In droplet formation and on carrier concentration was also studied. At fixed temperature of 520 C, reactor pressure of 200 mbar and at fixed NH{sub 3} flow of 3 slm, a rising TMIn flow from 1.2 {mu}mol/min to 2.0 {mu}mol/min results in a carrier concentration increment from 6.06 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to 1.33 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}and a decrement of the mobility from 430 cm{sup 2}/Vs to 348 cm{sup 2}/Vs. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the intensity associated with In droplets on the surface is rising with increasing TMIn flow. The effect of reactor pressure on InN growth was also examined. A high sensitivity to growth pressure for crystalline quality of InN was observed. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of InN (0002) reflexes decreased with increasing reactor pressure. With increasing growth pressure above 200 mbar, FWHM of around 275 arcsec of InN (0002) was achieved. This FWHM value is the lowest reported in literature for MOCVD-grown InN so far. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Social desirability bias in reporting of holiday season healthfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. Olynk Widmar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Respondents participating in survey or interview based research often tend to give answers that put themselves in a favorable light, displaying social desirability bias (SDB. Understanding the susceptibility of individuals to underreport their perceived unhealthy holiday behaviors or over report holiday behaviors they perceive as healthy has important implications for health promotion and health policy surrounding the holiday season. This study examines SDB specific to the reporting of holiday food consumption and health-related behaviors. An online survey of 620 U.S. consumers was utilized to collect data in which SDB was accounted for via indirect questioning. The online survey was conducted by Purdue University from November 17–19, 2014. Up to 64% of respondents displayed SDB for the eight holiday health statements studied. Respondents over the age of 45 and without children more frequently displayed social desirability bias. Respondents who displayed SDB with respect to acceptable health related holiday food consumption behaviors may be more susceptible to social pressures surrounding other consumption decision making. Understanding SDB in health and behavior reporting, in particular for the traditionally challenging, in terms of health outcomes, holiday season is critical for health practitioners as they seek to promote healthy behaviors.

  12. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  13. An unhealthy holiday on Lake Bolsena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Brugioni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year old man (OL was hospitalized due to fever (up to 40°C associated with malaise and abdominal pain. Tests showed hypereosinophilic syndrome, and increased liver and inflammation indexes. Abdominal echography showed a nonhomogeneous liver and the spleen was enlarged. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple abscesses on the liver. The patient reported that he had recently gone on holiday to Lake Bolsena where he had eaten raw fish. A specialist in infectious diseases confirmed that in that area there is an infestation of Opisthorchis felineus. Analysis of blood and stool samples confirmed the presence of this parasite. The patient was treated with praziquantel with resolution of fever and improvement in clinical tests and general condition. Opisthorchis felineus is a parasite that commonly infects dogs and cats. Infection is sometimes transmitted to man and is usually related to eating raw fish. The parasite enters the liver and its eggs are found in the patient’s stool samples. Acute symptoms are: fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malaise. Hypereosinophilic syndrome and increase in liver index are typical. Chronic infection could result in cholangiocarcinoma. Presence of the parasite is confirmed through specific analysis of blood and stool. Therapy consists of praziquantel or, as second choice, abendazol. In the 20th century, there were 4 epidemics in Italy, on Lakes Trasimeno and Bolsena in Central Italy. The latest epidemic was reported in that area in summer 2012.

  14. Postponement of death around Chinese holidays: a Hong Kong perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, N S; Goggins, W

    2009-10-01

    Historical anecdotes suggest human beings can postpone death around important occasions. Some formal studies have claimed that elderly Jewish men and Chinese women in America postponed death around the Passover and Harvest Moon (or Mid-Autumn) Festival (HMF), respectively. We examined deaths from cancer, cerebrovascular and heart diseases in the Chinese around four important holidays celebrated in Hong Kong. From computerised data in 1995-2000, the expected weekly deaths for 12 weeks before and after Lunar New Year, Ching Ming, HMF and Chung Yeung holidays were calculated using a polynomial regression model for the three diseases in men and women, under and over the age of 75 years. The differences in the observed deaths one week before and one week after the four holidays were tested by the binomial test. There were significantly fewer deaths overall in men before the holidays than after (p-value equals 0.0081), with most of the difference being due to cancer deaths, particularly among men over 75 years of age. For women, there were actually more deaths before than after the holidays. The data, stratified according to age, gender, disease and holiday, yielded only five out of 48 variables with a p-value of less than 0.05, which was slightly above chance, considering the large number of comparisons made. In four of the five situations, there were significantly fewer deaths before than after the holidays; but after Bonferroni correction, only the finding of fewer cancer deaths for men aged over 75 years before HMF was significant. Other than cancer deaths in males, we found little evidence in this dataset of death postponement until after important holidays in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

  15. Revisiting the "Christmas Holiday Effect" in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Schilling, Chris; Barnett, Adrian; Jackson, Rod; Clarke, Phillip

    2016-12-22

    A "Christmas holiday effect" showing elevated cardiovascular mortality over the Christmas holidays (December 25 to January 7) was demonstrated previously in study from the United States. To separate the effect of seasonality from any holiday effect, a matching analysis was conducted for New Zealand, where the Christmas holiday period falls within the summer season. New Zealand mortality data for a 25-year period (1988-2013) was analyzed based on the same methodology used in the previous study. Locally weighted smoothing was used to calculate an "expected" number of deaths for each day of the year. The expected value was compared with the actual number of deaths. In addition, mean age at death was estimated and used to assess the life-years lost due to excess mortality. There were 738 409 deaths (197 109 coded as cardiac deaths) during the period. We found evidence of a Christmas holiday effect in our of medical facility's cardiac deaths, with an excess event rate of 4.2% (95% CI 0.7-7.7%) leading to ≈4 additional deaths per annum. The average age of those with fatal cardiac deaths was 76.8 years (SD 13.5) during the Christmas holiday period, resulting in 148 to 222 years of life lost per annum. Cardiac mortality is elevated during the Christmas holiday period relative to surrounding time periods. Our findings are consistent with a previously reported study conducted in the United States, suggesting that cardiac mortality does not take a "summer break." © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Formation of InN nanoparticle and nanorod structures by nitrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. In the present study, a novel method involving nitrogen plasma annealing has been reported for preparing InN nanoparticle/nanorod structures and for improving the properties of InN nanoparticle layers. Plasma annealed structures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and pho-.

  17. Formation of InN nanoparticle and nanorod structures by nitrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, a novel method involving nitrogen plasma annealing has been reported for preparing InN nanoparticle/nanorod structures and for improving the properties of InN nanoparticle layers. Plasma annealed structures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and ...

  18. Optical properties of InN grown on Si(111) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalauskas, E.; Schley, P.; Raethel, J.; Klar, T.A.; Mueller, R.; Pezoldt, J.; Tonisch, K.; Goldhahn, R. [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM y Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria (Spain); Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, Caen (France)

    2010-05-15

    A comprehensive characterization of the optical properties of wurtzite InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates is presented. Two types of films are investigated in this work: InN on AlN/Si(111) and InN on GaN/AlN/Si(111). Their properties are compared to a layer deposited on GaN/sapphire substrate. The dielectric function (DF) is obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The infrared studies yield the plasma frequency and thus the electron density, while the interband absorption is probed between 0.56 and 9.8 eV. For InN grown on Si(111) substrate, the absorption onset is slightly shifted to higher energies with respect to the InN film grown on GaN/sapphire which can be attributed to higher electron concentrations. Despite this, strongly pronounced optical transitions due to critical points of the band structure are found in the high-energy part of the DF. It emphasizes the already promising quality of the InN films on silicon. Band-gap renormalization (BGR), band filling, and strain are taken into account in order to estimate the intrinsic band gap of wurtzite InN. For the InN layers on silicon, we get a band gap between 0.66 and 0.685 eV. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  20. During the holidays, it was business as usual.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of this long weekend for jeûne genevois, many of you are already back from your holidays. The Staff Association hopes you are in fine form for your return to work, which, no doubt, will not be easy. During the holidays, the Staff Association representatives, for their part, carried on with the work they had begun. We would like to inform you about this work by simply running through the list of subjects tackled. This information supplements the three previous editorials.

  1. Suicides around Major Public Holidays in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2017-04-01

    A dip and peak pattern of suicide around major public holidays has been found in developed countries and explained by the broken promise effect. Focusing on two major holidays in South Korea (New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day, both on the lunar calendar), replication of the dip and peak pattern was done by analyzing individual information on all suicides from 1997 to 2014. The replicated pattern revealed the most vulnerable group to be married men aged 50+ in nonmetropolitan areas in 2006-2014. Families, friends, and policy makers can use these findings to save the vulnerable. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  3. American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

    The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

  4. The impact of climate on holiday destination choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigano, A.; Hamilton, J.M.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The holiday destination choice is analysed for tourists from 45 countries, representing all continents and all climates. Tourists are deterred by distance, political instability and poverty, and attracted to coasts. Tourists prefer countries with a sunny yet mild climate, shun climates that are too

  5. Find Your Perfect Gift at the Holiday Markets | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter is on its way, and that means sweaters, snow—and the NCI at Frederick’s Holiday Markets. The markets will take place on November 22 and December 20 in the Building 549 lobby and Conference Rooms from 11:00 a.m.–1:30 p.m.

  6. Deciding on Family Holidays - Role Distribution and Strategies in Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    this complexity in role distribution. Likewise in relation to decision-making strategies, contextual factors are helpful in explaining the strategies used, in particular the convention that holidays are an extraordinary “free space” which allows for more negotiation power being bestowed on children than...

  7. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat... Waterway in Pompano Beach, Florida during the Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11... information about this year's Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade with sufficient time to publish an NPRM and to...

  8. 76 FR 78151 - Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Boca Raton, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Boca Raton Holiday Boat... Waterway in Boca Raton, Florida during the Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade on Saturday, December 17, 2011... information about this year's Boca Raton Holiday Boat Parade until November 7, 2011. As a result, the Coast...

  9. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  10. Get all the official CERN holidays automatically added to your CERN mailbox calendar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Services

    2013-01-01

    A new tool has been created that makes it easy to check the official CERN holidays. These holidays will appear automatically in your calendar. Currently, to check the official CERN holidays, you had to consult either the CERN website or EDH. Now you can see these holidays in your CERN calendar together with absences, meetings and other events. To take advantage of this feature: add yourself as member of the e-group “holidays-to-calendar” here. You can also use this link. Your calendar will be updated the very next day.

  11. Structural characteristics of semipolar InN (112l) films grown on yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tomoaki; Ohta, Jitsuo [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kobayashi, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oshima, Masaharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of Japan Science and Technology Agency, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Fujioka, Hiroshi [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of Japan Science and Technology Agency, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    We report on the growth of semipolar InN (112 l) films on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We found that the growth orientation can be precisely controlled by utilizing the tendency for the epitaxial relationships of InN [0001] vertical stroke vertical stroke YSZ [111] and InN [11 anti 20] vertical stroke vertical stroke YSZ [11 0] to be maintained. The full-width at half-maximum of the 112 6 X-ray rocking curves for an InN (11 anti 27) film varies from 0.61 to 0.46 depending on the X-ray angle of incidence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families Past Issues / Fall 2006 ... the "normal" range. Channing hugs fellow cystinosis patient, Alex: They could almost pass for twins. After seeing ...

  13. Crowns and Crypts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thesis of stable complexes of all Group-! elements. Crypts form similar but much more stable complexes, also with the alkaline earths. The stabilization ofless familiar oxidation states of a large number of elements using crowns and crypts became an easy task. The basic and the oxidising properties of KOH and KMnO 4'.

  14. Lattice dynamics of hexagonal and cubic InN: Raman-scattering experiments and calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, G.; Kaschner, A.; Reich, S.; Hoffmann, A.; Thomsen, C.; As, D. J.; Lima, A. P.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.; Averbeck, R.; Riechert, H.

    2000-04-01

    We present results of first- and second-order Raman-scattering experiments on hexagonal and cubic InN covering the acoustic and optical phonon and overtone region. Using a modified valence-force model, we calculated the phonon dispersion curves and the density of states in both InN modifications. The observed Raman shifts agree well the calculated Γ-point frequencies and the corresponding overtone density of states. A tentative assignment to particular phonon branches is given.

  15. Characterizations of InN Thin Films Grown on Si (110 Substrate by Reactive Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amirhoseiny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium nitride (InN thin films were deposited onto Si (110 by reactive sputtering and pure In target at ambient temperature. The effects of the Ar–N2 sputtering gas mixture on the structural properties of the films were investigated by using scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical properties of InN layers were examined by micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR reflectance spectroscopy at room temperature. Structural analysis specified nanocrystalline structure with crystal size of 15.87 nm, 16.65 nm, and 41.64 nm for InN films grown at N2 : Ar ratio of 100 : 0, 75 : 25, and 50 : 50, respectively. The Raman spectra indicates well defined peaks at 578, 583, and 583 cm−1, which correspond to the A1(LO phonon of the hexagonal InN films grown at gas ratios of 100 : 0, 75 : 25 and 50 : 50 N2 : Ar, respectively. Results of FTIR spectroscopy show the clearly visible TO [E1(TO] phonon mode of the InN at 479 cm−1 just for film that were deposited at 50 : 50 N2 : Ar. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the layers consist of InN nanocrystals. The highest intensity of InN (101 peak and the best nanocrystalline InN films can be seen under the deposition condition with N2 : Ar gas mixture of 50 : 50.

  16. Assessment and treatment of pica and destruction of holiday decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteer, Daniel R; Romani, Patrick W; Greer, Brian D; Fisher, Wayne W

    2015-12-01

    Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to family traditions, such as decorating for the holidays. We present data for a 6-year-old girl who engaged in automatically reinforced pica and destruction of holiday decorations. Treatment was evaluated within an ABCDCD reversal design. During baseline (Phases A and B), we observed elevated rates of problem behavior. We implemented differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in Phase C to teach a response to compete with problem behavior. Little change in toy play or problem behavior occurred. In Phase D, we added a facial screen to the differential reinforcement procedures, which resulted in increases in toy play and decreases in problem behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of how interventions for problem behavior can promote alternative behavior while they facilitate household activities and traditions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, V.; Alizadeh, M.; Shuhaimi, A.; Sundaram, S.; Hakim, K. M.; Goh, B. T.; Rahman, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    InN nanocrystals were grown on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation technique and the quality was compared with InN on Si (111) substrate. Single phase InN was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman analysis on both the substrates. Agglomerated and Hexagonal faceting nanocrystals observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows InN nanocrystals are nearly stochiometric. Photoluminescence reveals a broad emission near bandedge at 2 .04 eV and defect band at 1.07 eV. The Hall measurement on both the substrates reveals high electron carrier concentration. These encouraging results obtained suggested that high quality single crystalline InN can be obtained on glass substrate further optimizing the growth parameters. This novel growth of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate is an important step towards the development of monolithic, high efficiency low-cost InGaN-based renewable energy sources.

  19. PLAN DE MARKETING PARA EL HOTEL CARRIZAL INN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Guillermo Félix Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue la elaboración de un plan de marketing para el Hotel Carrizal Inn ubicado en la ciudad de Calceta, provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Se estructuraron tres fases metodológicas, el diagnóstico situacional, estudio de mercado y plan turístico. En la primera fase se delimitó el área de estudio; además se efectuó un análisis interno y externo, utilizando matrices de diagnóstico como la evaluación de factores internos y externos, matriz de competidores y matriz de diagnóstico de fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas. En el estudio de mercado se analizaron los componentes de oferta y demanda del hotel, se determinaron algunas fallas en la denominación utilizada, según los criterios para la categorización hotelera manejada por el Ministerio de Turismo. En función del diagnóstico FODA, se generaron estrategias para el posicionamiento y comercialización del hotel. Mediante las encuestas realizadas a los huéspedes se pudo conocer el perfil del visitante que llega al hotel y se elaboró un plan publicitario, en el cual sobresale el logotipo y slogan, tríptico promocional, la promoción en página web y redes sociales. Se establecieron estrategias del mix para minimizar falencias operativas en el hotel. Se concluye que la principal nomenclatura utilizada no concuerda con los parámetros establecidos por el Ministerio de Turismo, por lo que se plantea reestructurar ciertas áreas específicas como la cantidad de habitaciones o cambiar la denominación a hostal.

  20. The electronic structures of AlN and InN wurtzite nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen; Li, Dong-Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We derive the relations between the analogous seven Luttinger-Kohn parameters and six Rashba-Sheka-Pikus parameters for wurtzite semiconductors, which can be used to investigate the electronic structures of some wurtzite semiconductors such as AlN and InN materials, including their low-dimensional structures. As an example, the electronic structures of AlN and InN nanowires are calculated by using the derived relations and six-band effective-mass k · p theory. Interestingly, it is found that the ground hole state of AlN nanowires is always a pure S state whether the radius R is small (1 nm) or large (6 nm), and the ground hole state only contains | Z > Bloch orbital component. Therefore, AlN nanowires is the ideal low-dimensional material for the production of purely linearly polarized π light, unlike ZnO nanowires, which emits plane-polarized σ light. However, the ground hole state of InN nanowires can be tuned from a pure S state to a mixed P state when the radius R is larger than 2.6 nm, which will make the polarized properties of the lowest optical transition changes from linearly polarized π light to plane-polarized σ light. Meanwhile, the valence band structures of InN nanowires will present strong band-crossings when the radius R increases to 6 nm, and through the detail analysis of possible transitions of InN nanowires at the Γ point, we find some of the neighbor optical transitions are almost degenerate, because the spin-orbit splitting energy of InN material is only 0.001 eV. Therefore, it is concluded that the electronic structures and optical properties of InN nanowires present great differences with that of AlN nanowires.

  1. Drug Holidays From ADHD Medication: International Experience Over the Past Four Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kinda; Donyai, Parastou

    2015-07-01

    ADHD is managed by stimulants that are effective but can cause growth retardation. Prescribers should ideally monitor children and trial a "drug holiday" to enable catch-up growth. Our aim was to map the experience of drug holidays from ADHD medication in children and adolescents. A comprehensive search of the literature identified 22 studies published during the period 1972 to 2013. Drug holidays are prevalent in 25% to 70% of families and are more likely to be exercised during school holidays. They test whether medication is still needed and are also considered for managing medication side effects and drug tolerance. The impact of drug holidays was reported in terms of side effects and ADHD symptoms. There was evidence of a positive impact on child growth with longer breaks from medication, and shorter breaks could reduce insomnia and improve appetite. Drug holidays from ADHD medication could be a useful tool with multiple purposes: assessment, management, prevention, and negotiation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  2. Electronic transport mechanism and photocurrent generations of single-crystalline InN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Lee, Wonjoo; Seo, Kwanyong; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Bongsoo

    2008-10-01

    Nanodevices using individual indium nitride nanowires are fabricated by e-beam lithography. The nanowires have diameters of 40-80 nm, lengths up to several tens of micrometres and single-crystalline nature. We observed ohmic I-V behaviour of InN nanowires above nearly 100 K, which is consistent with the pinning Fermi level of the metal electrode near the conduction band edge of InN nanowire. At low temperatures, the device shows typical semiconductor behaviour along with a quantum tunnelling effect through the Schottky barrier rather than thermally activated transport. The activation energy calculated above and below 80 K is 28.2 and 5.08 meV, respectively. We have also fabricated a photocurrent generation device using InN nanowires. The photocurrent of an acceptor-sensitizer dyad with di-(3-aminopropyl)-viologen (DAPV) and a Ru complex on an InN nanowires/ITO plate was 8.3 nA cm-2, which increased by 62.7% compared to that without InN nanowire layers.

  3. Marginal adaptation of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Epstein, David W; Castaldi, Cosmo R

    2003-01-01

    The chief goal of full coronal restoration using preformed stainless steel crowns (SSC) is replication of normal crown form and function. Marginal adaptation of SSCs involves appropriate crown size selection, trimming the crown form to achieve proper length, crimping crown edges to proximate the prepared tooth, and finishing and polishing the crown form. This report about SSC restoration focuses on the procedure of adapting, finishing, and polishing crown margins.

  4. Piezoelectric coefficient of InN films prepared by radio-frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrebert-Fouquet, M. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia)], E-mail: mariew@ics.mq.edu.au; Butcher, K.S.A.; Guy, I.L.; Zheng, Z. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2008-09-01

    An interferometric method has been used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} in indium nitride films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering on borosilicate glass coated with gold. This low temperature growth technique has the advantage of being able to produce samples for piezoelectric measurements where the InN film is grown directly on an Au metal back contact, allowing the accurate measurement of the piezoelectric coefficient of the InN layer without any parasitic series resistance. The InN growth conditions are described, and both crystal and optical characterizations of the film are presented. The measured value of the coefficient was found to be 4.0 {+-} 0.1 pm V{sup -1}.

  5. Stoichiometry effects and the Moss-Burstein effect for InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, K.S.A.; Wintrebert-Fouquet, M.; Chen, P.P.T. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Hirshy, H.; Perks, R.M. [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    We examine the Moss-Burstein effect for InN and demonstrate an independent method for determining its magnitude for high carrier concentration material. Consequently it is shown that the extent of the Moss-Burstein effect is less than 0.72 eV for a high carrier concentration sample with a 1.88 eV absorption edge. Early results are also provided for high band-gap low carrier concentration InN films that can be grown reproducibly, vindicating the work of early groups in the field. The role of stoichiometry is examined in relation to point defects that appear to be common to many forms of InN. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. 4th INNS Symposia Series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth International Neural Network Symposia series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems, INNS-CIIS 2014, held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei in November 2014. INNS-CIIS aims to provide a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and present the most current research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications in various domains. The 34 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.  

  7. Electrical and optical properties of p-type InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Marie A.; Choi, Soojeong; Bierwagen, Oliver; Smith, Holland M.; Haller, Eugene E.; Speck, James S.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2011-01-01

    We have performed comprehensive studies of optical, thermoelectric and electrical properties of Mg doped InN with varying Mg doping levels and sample thicknesses. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra show a Mg acceptor related emission and the thermopower provides clear evidence for the presence of mobile holes. Although the effects of the hole transport are clearly observed in the temperature dependent electrical properties, the sign of the apparent Hall coefficient remains negative in all samples. We show that the standard model of two electrically well connected layers (n-type surface electron accumulation and p-type bulk) does not properly describe Hall effect in p-type InN.

  8. Microstructures of InN film on 4H-SiC (0001) substrate grown by RF-MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantawongrit, P.; Sanorpim, S.; Yaguchi, H.; Orihara, M.; Limsuwan, P.

    2015-08-01

    InN film was grown on 4H-SiC (0001) substrate by RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE). Prior to the growth of InN film, an InN buffer layer with a thickness of ∼5.5 nm was grown on the substrate. Surface morphology, microstructure and structural quality of InN film were investigated. Micro-structural defects, such as stacking faults and anti-phase domain in InN film were carefully investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that a high density of line contrasts, parallel to the growth direction (c-axis), was clearly observed in the grown InN film. Dark field TEM images recorded with diffraction vectors g=11\\bar{2}0 and g = 0002 revealed that such line contrasts evolved from a coalescence of the adjacent misoriented islands during the initial stage of the InN nucleation on the substrate surface. This InN nucleation also led to a generation of anti-phase domains. Project supported by the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP) and the King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi under The National Research University Project. One of the authors (S. Sanorpim) was supported by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) and the Thai Government Stimulus Package 2 (TKK2555), under the Project for Establishment of Comprehensive Center for Innovative Food, Health Products and Agriculture.

  9. Short-term mortality in hip fracture patients admitted during weekends and holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N B; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    Acute surgical admission during weekends, with reduced staffing levels, has been associated with increased risk of mortality, but the effect of longer vacation/holiday periods has not been studied. We therefore examined early postoperative mortality in hip fracture patients admitted during weekends...... and holiday periods, compared with normal weekdays....

  10. Learning never goes on holiday: an exploration of social tourism as a context for experiential learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, L.D.H.; McCabe, S.; Johnson, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies Experiential Learning Theory to examine learning experiences of UK children during a holiday to assess the potential of holidays as influencing factors in educational achievement and attainment. The paper presents findings from a study undertaken with low-income families who had

  11. 78 FR 75899 - Safety Zone; 2013 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the... establishing two temporary safety zones during the month of December when holiday boat parades are scheduled to... waiting to receive all boat parade event applications to determine if other parades would need a safety...

  12. Need a Last-Minute Gift? Holiday Market Is Coming December 23 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer If you are still looking for the “perfect” gift, mark your calendar for the Holiday Market. The December Holiday Market is set for Tuesday, Dec. 23, in Building 549, from 10:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. (or until vendors sell out).

  13. 75 FR 2152 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel HOLIDAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel... Alternative Compliance was issued for the anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY as required by 33 U.S.C.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY will be used for...

  14. Ready to crown

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McReynolds, David

    2017-04-01

    When multiple teeth or localised segments of the mouth require crowns, the restorative interventions involved can be psychologically and physically demanding for the operator, patient and dental technician alike.1,2 It is important that all parties involved in restorations of this nature hold a shared understanding of the expected outcome of treatment, with a realistic, common end goal in mind right from the very beginning. Such clarity of thought and communication is key to avoiding biological, mechanical and aesthetic failures in the planning and execution of advanced restorative treatments. Biomechanically stable and aesthetically pleasing provisional restorations are an essential aspect of treatment, which allow teeth to be prepared and provisionalised over multiple appointments within the comfort zone of the operator and patient.3

  15. The paradox of public holidays: Hospital-treated self-harm and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eve; Dillon, Christina B; O'Regan, Grace; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella

    2017-08-15

    Recent research on the patterns of self-harm around public holidays is lacking. This study used national data to examine the patterns of hospital-treated self-harm during public holidays, and to examine associated factors. Data on self-harm presentations to all emergency departments were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. The association between self-harm presentations and public holidays was examined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. A total of 104,371 presentations of self-harm were recorded between 2007 and 2015. The mean number of self-harm presentations was 32 on public holidays. St. Patrick's Day had the highest number of presentations compared to all other public holidays, with a daily mean of 44 presentations. Across all years, self-harm presentations during public holidays had a 24% increased risk of involving alcohol consumption compared to all other days and this effect was most pronounced during the Christmas period. The association with alcohol remained significant at a multivariate level. Presentations on public holidays were more likely to attend out of normal working hours. An increase in male presentations involving self-cutting was observed on public holidays and there was an over-representation of males presenting for the first time. It is likely that extent of alcohol involvement in self-harm presentations reported here is an underestimate, as it was dependent on the information being recorded by the attending clinician. Public holidays are associated with an elevated number of self-harm presentations to hospital, with presentations to hospital involving alcohol significantly increased on these days. Hospital resources should be targeted to address increases during public holidays, including during out-of-hours. Involvement of alcohol may delay delivery of care to these patients in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of nitridation on the MOVPE growth of InN on c-, r- and a-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solopow, Sergej; Dinh, Duc; Pristovsek, Markus; Kneissl, Michael [TU Berlin, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Growth of high quality InN is still challenging because of a narrow growth window and lack of suitable substrates. We report on the growth of InN on different oriented sapphire substrates, i.e. a-plane (11 anti 20), c-plane (0001), m-plane (10 anti 10) and r-plane (10 anti 12) using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). To grow InN directly on the sapphire substrate, a nitridation process is used to improve crystallinity and optical properties. We have grown InN layers after nitridation for 2min at different temperatures from 500 C to 1050 C. We found that the nitridation temperature strongly affects the morphology as well as the orientation of InN layers. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurements on the grown samples showed smoother surfaces at higher nitridation temperatures. c-oriented InN was grown on c-plane sapphire with in-plane relationship of [10 anti 10] parallel [11 anti 20]{sub Sapphire}. On the a-plane sapphire we obtained c-oriented InN with in-plane relationship of [1 anti 100]{sub InN} parallel [0001]{sub Sapphire} and [11 anti 20]{sub InN} parallel [1 anti 100]{sub Sapphire} at nitridation temperature higher than 900 C and additional in-plane relationship by temperatures below 900 C. We have grown also a-oriented InN on r-plane sapphire at nitridation temperature higher than 800 {sup circle} C. At nitridation temperatures below 800 C this orientation disappears.

  17. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  18. Non-stoichiometry and non-homogeneity in InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, K.; Butcher, A.; Wintrebert-Fouquet, Marie; Chen, Patrick P.T. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109 NSW (Australia); Prince, Kathryn E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia); Timmers, Heiko; Shrestha, Santosh K. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Shubina, Tatiana V.; Ivanov, Sergey V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R. [Microstructural Analysis Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia); Monemar, Bo [Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    It is shown that the wide variation of apparent band-gap observed for thin films nominally referred to as InN is strongly influenced by variations in the nitrogen:indium stoichiometry. InN samples grown by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition show a change in band-gap between 1.8 and 1.0 eV that is not due to the Moss-Burstein effect, oxygen inclusion or quantum size effects, but for which changes in the growth temperature result in a strong change in stoichiometry. Material non-homogeneity and non-stoichiometry appear to be general problems for InN growth. Excess nitrogen can be present at very high levels and indium rich material is also found. This work shows that the extent of the Moss-Burstein effect will have to be reassessed for InN. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Engineering of InN epilayers by repeated deposition of ultrathin layers in pulsed MOCVD growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickevičius, J.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Steponavičius, T.; Malinauskas, T.; Kolenda, M.; Kadys, A.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2018-01-01

    Capabilities of repeated deposition of ultrathin layers by pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for improvement of structural and luminescence properties of InN thin films on GaN/sapphire templates were studied by varying the growth temperature and the durations of pulse and pause in the delivery of In precursor. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were exploited to characterize the structural quality, surface morphology and luminescence properties. Better structural quality is achieved by using longer trimethylindium pulses. However, it is shown that the luminescence properties of InN epilayers correlate with the pause and pulse ratio rather than with their absolute lengths, and the deposition of 1.5-2 monolayers of InN during one growth cycle is optimal to achieve the highest PL intensity. Moreover, the use of temperature ramping enabled achieving the highest PL intensity and the smallest blue shift of the PL band. The luminescence parameters are linked with the structural properties, and domain-like patterns of InN layers are revealed.

  20. Boundary and analytic attitude: reflections on a summer holiday break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a boundary in analytic work at the summer holiday break is discussed in relation to archetypal experiences of exclusion, loss and limitation. Some attempts by patients to mitigate an analyst's act of separation are reviewed as enactments, and in particular the meanings of a gift made by one patient. Analytic attitude towards enactment from within different schools of practice is sketched, with reference to the effect on the analyst of departing from the received practice of their own allegiance. A theory is adumbrated that the discomfort of 'contravening the rules' has a useful effect in sparking the analyst into consciousness, with greater attention to salient features in an individual case. Interpretation as an enactment is briefly considered, along with the possible effects of containing the discomfort of a patient's enactment in contrast to confronting it with interpretation. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. THE GIFTS AT HOLIDAYS IN THE ROMANIAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MOISUC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Medieval Society was conformed to hierarchy, symbol, faith, rituals in which each gesture, word, object or phenomenon had to have an significance. During this epoch dominated by etiquette and rules, ceremonies played an important part. They were organized at the big holidays (Chrismas, The New Year, Twelfth Day, Easter or when a new ruler was appointed. These celebrations were meant to enhance the communication between ruler and his vassals and this bond between the sovereign and his court was made by the exchange of gifts. According to the context they were offered, the gifts signified different aspects: the generosity of the ruler, his wish to get closer to his subjects, even interest or friendship. Although the circumstances were not the same, the gifts were individualized, depending on the social status of the recipient.Our paper analyses the diversity of the forms which are covered by this practice and also the social and symbolical values it is associated with.

  2. 77 FR 66938 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades... December when holiday boat parades are scheduled to occur on the navigable waterways in vicinities of Fort... rule is to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during the holiday boat parades in...

  3. 77 FR 70681 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port... establishing five special local regulations during the month of December for holiday boat parades which are... holiday boat parades in the Captain of the Port Miami Zone. C. Discussion of the Final Rule The Coast...

  4. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  5. Growth of cubic InN on InAs(0 0 1) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. P.; Tabata, A.; Leite, J. R.; Kaiser, S.; Schikora, D.; Schöttker, B.; Frey, T.; As, D. J.; Lischka, K.

    1999-05-01

    Cubic InN layers were grown on the top of InAs buffer films on GaAs(0 0 1) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of the c-InN films was initiated by a nitridation of the InAs overlayers at 450°C. The lattice constant of c-InN, measured by X-ray, is equal to (4.98±0.01) Å, in agreement to RHEED measurements made during the growth. Transmission electron microscopy measurements detected stacking faults in the InN layers parallel to the {1 1 1} InN planes.

  6. Applications of ZnO:Al deposited by RF sputtering to InN low-cost technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM y Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    InN/ZnO:Al heterostructures deposited at low temperature on different substrates by radio-frequency sputtering were studied. Using ZnO:Al as buffer layer, an improvement in the InN structural properties was achieved. Evaluating ZnO:Al as contact on InN, an Ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer on InN was achieved. A specific contact resistance of 2 {omega} cm{sup 2} was measured without any post-deposition treatment. These properties could result very promising for optoelectronic device applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Improved performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with high-quality GaN grown on InN islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Cho, Chu-Young; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Han, Sang-Heon; Park, Seong-Ju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sukho; Park, Yongjo, E-mail: sjpark@gist.ac.kr [Samsung LED Co. Ltd, Suwon 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-26

    The effect of GaN grown on InN islands on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is investigated. The pit density of GaN grown on InN islands is decreased and the photoluminescence intensity of GaN grown on InN islands is increased compared with those of GaN without InN islands. The LEDs fabricated with GaN grown on InN islands show higher optical output power and lower reverse-bias leakage current than the LEDs without InN islands. These enhancements are attributed to the InN islands which reduce the threading dislocations and stress of GaN and MQWs.

  8. Short-term mortality in hip fracture patients admitted during weekends and holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute surgical admission during weekends, with reduced staffing levels, has been associated with increased risk of mortality, but the effect of longer vacation/holiday periods has not been studied. We therefore examined early postoperative mortality in hip fracture patients admitted...... during weekends and holiday periods, compared with normal weekdays. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive study in 600 consecutive hip fracture patients treated with a well-defined multimodal care plan, in a specialized hip fracture unit between September 2002 and July 2004. Patients were stratified...... according to admission on a weekday or during weekends/holiday periods. RESULTS: were analysed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Three hundred and thirty-two patients were admitted during weekdays, 118 during weekends and 150 during holiday periods. Both 5- and 30-day postoperative...

  9. Optical properties of InN grown on templates with controlled surface polarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirste, Ronny; Wagner, Markus R.; Schulze, Jan H.; Strittmatter, Andre; Hoffmann, Axel [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 1210 Varsity Dr, 27606 Raleigh, NC (United States); Alevli, Mustafa; Dietz, Nikolaus [Physics and Astronomy Department, Georgia State University, 29 Peachtree Center Avenue, 30303-4106 Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The structural and optical properties of InN layers grown on GaN/sapphire templates with controlled Ga-/N-polar surfaces are investigated. Raman spectroscopy and XRD reciprocal space map analysis suggest that the InN layers were grown strain free with a high crystal quality. A line shape analysis of the A{sub 1}(LO) Raman mode yields to a decreasing carrier concentration for the sample grown on Ga-polar substrate. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements exhibit a shift to lower energies of the luminescence maximum for the sample grown on Ga-polar GaN probably due to a reduced carrier concentration and thus, a decreased Burstein-Moss shift. Following this, we demonstrate that the use of polarity controlled GaN/sapphire substrates leads to unstrained layers with good structural and optical properties. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. CONSERVATION OF THE SINCLAIR INN MUSEUM, AND THE PAINTED ROOM ANNAPOLIS ROYAL, NOVA SCOTIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaftel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.

  11. Morphology Controlled Fabrication of InN Nanowires on Brass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth of semiconductor nanowires on cheap metal substrates could pave the way to the large-scale manufacture of low-cost nanowire-based devices. In this work, we demonstrated that high density InN nanowires can be directly grown on brass substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that Zn from the brass substrates is the key factor in the formation of nanowires by restricting the lateral growth of InN. The nanowire morphology is highly dependent on the growth temperature. While at a lower growth temperature, the nanowires and the In droplets have large diameters. At the elevated growth temperature, the lateral sizes of the nanowires and the In droplets are much smaller. Moreover, the nanowire diameter can be controlled in situ by varying the temperature in the growth process. This method is very instructive to the diameter-controlled growth of nanowires of other materials.

  12. Conservation of the Sinclair Inn Museum, and the Painted Room Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaftel, A.; Ward, J.

    2017-08-01

    Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.

  13. An Analysis of Open-Ended Online Reviews about Bed and Breakfast and Inns in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans Machado dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches about User-Generated Content (UGC have gained attention in the fields of Tourism and Hospitality in the last years. This study focus on online reviews about alternative accommodations – B&Bs and Inns. The development of this work was realized applying inductive methods and using an exploratory approach. We collected a sample of 450 online reviews and analyzed them segment by segment, making a total of 4621 segments. We used the Appraisal Theory to assess what attitudes online reviewers are expressing about B&Bs and Inns in Lisbon. We verified that positive appreciation is the most frequent attitude while expressions of affect and judgment are more rare. This study contributes to the academy as it brings a new parameter of analysis of UGC using the Appraisal Theory in the field of Hospitality.

  14. Farming, Foreign Holidays, and Vitamin D in Orkney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    Full Text Available Orkney, north of mainland Scotland, has the world's highest prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS; vitamin D deficiency, a marker of low UV exposure, is also common in Scotland. Strong associations have been identified between vitamin D deficiency and MS, and between UV exposure and MS independent of vitamin D, although causal relationships remain to be confirmed. We aimed to compare plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Orkney and mainland Scotland, and establish the determinants of vitamin D status in Orkney. We compared mean vitamin D and prevalence of deficiency in cross-sectional study data from participants in the Orkney Complex Disease Study (ORCADES and controls in the Scottish Colorectal Cancer Study (SOCCS. We used multivariable regression to identify factors associated with vitamin D levels in Orkney. Mean (standard deviation vitamin D was significantly higher among ORCADES than SOCCS participants (35.3 (18.0 and 31.7 (21.2, respectively. Prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency was lower in ORCADES than SOCCS participants (6.6% to 16.2% p = 1.1 x 10-15. Older age, farming occupations and foreign holidays were significantly associated with higher vitamin D in Orkney. Although mean vitamin D levels are higher in Orkney than mainland Scotland, this masks variation within the Orkney population which may influence MS risk.

  15. Fourth Annual Holiday Decorating Contest Features Sharks, Santas, Toys, and More | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2017 holiday season brought cold temperatures and heated competition to NCI at Frederick as 14 groups faced off in the R&W Club of Frederick’s Fourth Annual Holiday Decorating Contest. Keeping with tradition, many of the competitors sought to outdo not just each other’s themed entries, but also their own decorations from previous years. Accordingly, this year’s themes ranged from childhood memories to local landscapes to the downright outlandish.

  16. Is mortality after hip fracture associated with surgical delay or admission during weekends and public holidays?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Cecilie Laubjerg; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Hip fractures are associated with high mortality, but the cause of this is still not entirely clear. We investigated the effect of surgical delay, weekends, holidays, and time of day admission on mortality in hip fracture patients.......Hip fractures are associated with high mortality, but the cause of this is still not entirely clear. We investigated the effect of surgical delay, weekends, holidays, and time of day admission on mortality in hip fracture patients....

  17. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn provides support and a home away from home for seriously ill children and their families receiving treatment at the NIH Clinical Center. Through the tournament, the club raised approximately $1,500 for The Children’s Inn, according to Tanya Ransom, biologist, NCI Center for Cancer Research, and secretary of the R&W Club Frederick. She also coordinated the golf tournament. After the tournament, a silent auction of sports memorabilia and collectibles, sponsored by Great Moments, Frederick, was held, and a portion of the proceeds also went to the Inn.

  18. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  19. Investigating the interaction between the parking choice and holiday travel behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parking is one of the key links between the urban planning and transportation operation. However, most studies in this field focus on the parking behavior on workdays, and the holiday parking is seldom investigated. This study analyzes the interaction between the parking choice and travel behavior in the holidays. Data were collected at Fragrant Hills and Beijing Botanical Garden during the Qingming Festival (Tomb-sweeping Days in 2013. The structural equation modeling was applied to examine the causal effects and quantitative relationships between the parking choice and holiday travel behavior and identify the main influencing factors based on the activity analysis. The results show that the parking choice has a close relationship with holiday travel behavior, which is more than an explanatory variable for the travel behavior. Moreover, the parking space availability, parking charge, and walking distance have significant effects on holiday parking choice. In addition, the personal attributes and household characteristics are significant influencing factors for the parking choice and holiday travel behavior.

  20. Exploring Intracity Taxi Mobility during the Holidays for Location-Based Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi mobility information can be considered as an important source of mobile location-based information for making marketing decisions. So, studying the behavioral patterns of taxis in a Chinese city during the holidays using the global positioning system (GPS can yield remarkable insights into people’s holiday travel patterns, as well as the odd-even day vehicle prohibition system. This paper studies the behavioral patterns of taxis during specific holidays in terms of pick-up and drop-off locations, travel distance, mobile step length, travel direction, and radius of gyration on the basis of GPS data. Our results support the idea of a polycentric city. It is concluded from the reporting results that there are no significant changes in the distribution of pick-up and drop-off locations, travel distance, or travel direction during holidays in comparison to work days. The results suggest that human travel by taxi has a stable regularity. However, the radius of gyration of movement by most of the taxis becomes significantly larger during holidays that indicate more long-distance travels. The current study will be helpful for location-based marketing during the holidays.

  1. Motor vehicle-related deaths around two major holidays in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    South Korea has consistently exhibited high rates of motor vehicle-related deaths (MVDs) since the late 1980s. This study investigated the number of MVDs around two major public holidays in South Korea-Lunar New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day. MVDs from records of all individual deaths in 1997-2014 were extracted; then, MVDs per day from 14 days before and after each holiday (ie, 29 days in total) were summed across the years. Eventually, the 3-day mean values of MVDs before and after the holiday were compared, when holiday-related traffic peaks. The 3-day mean before Lunar New Year's Day was 385 fatalities, but dropped to 324 after the holiday; the corresponding figures for Thanksgiving Day were 494 and 413. These results are contrary to those of other countries. It appears that the severe congestion of highway traffic around the holidays resulted in a decrease in MVDs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation in InN Nanowires Grown by Reactive Vapor Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zervos Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied femtosecond carrier dynamics in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport. Transient differential absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers near and above the optical absorption edge of InN NWs where an interplay of state filling, photoinduced absorption, and band-gap renormalization have been observed. The interface between states filled by free carriers intrinsic to the InN NWs and empty states has been determined to be at 1.35 eV using CW optical transmission measurements. Transient absorption measurements determined the absorption edge at higher energy due to the additional injected photogenerated carriers following femtosecond pulse excitation. The non-degenerate white light pump-probe measurements revealed that relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occurs on a single picosecond timescale which appears to be carrier density dependent. This fast relaxation is attributed to the capture of the photogenerated carriers by defect/surface related states. Furthermore, intensity dependent measurements revealed fast energy transfer from the hot photogenerated carriers to the lattice with the onset of increased temperature occurring at approximately 2 ps after pulse excitation.

  3. Stability of Mg-incorporated InN surfaces: first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Ito, T.; Song, J.-H.; Freeman, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    InN films are attractive materials for electronic and optelectronic applications. The growth of InN eptitaxial films with n-type and p-type conductivity has traditionally been performed along the polar directionootnotetextR.E. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett, 96, 125505 (2006), which may result in large polarization fields along the growth direction, reducing the radiative efficiency of quantum-well light emitters. To overcome this drawback, the growth along nonpolar orientation such as (1010) and (1120) planes and its p-type doping have been recently carried out. We have addressed this issue by performing first-principles pseudopotential calculations for Mg-incorporated InN surfaces in various orientations, including (1010) and (1120) as well as (0001) and (0001) surfacesootnotetextJ.-H. Song et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 106803 (2008). The calculated surface energies demonstrate that qualitative trends in the stability of Mg-incorporated surfaces agree with those on GaN surfaces ootnotetextJ.E. Northrup, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 122108 (2005), although several surface reconstructions different from those on GaN surfaces are obtained. The effects of growth conditions on p-type doping are also discussed.

  4. First principles study of effects of vacancies on electronic, magnetic and optical properties of InN nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, M.; Elahi, S. M.; Abolhassani, M. R.; Salehi, H.

    2017-05-01

    Based on the first principle study within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the density functional theory (DFT) implemented in Wien2k code, the effects of vacancies on electronic, magnetic and optical properties of InN nanosheet were investigated. We found that the vacancies in InN nanosheet induce spin polarized states in the band gap, and VN-defect, VIn-defect and VIn&N-defect induce local magnetic moments of (-0.01)μB , 3.0μB and 2.0μB , respectively. Also, we calculated the dielectric function, refraction index, extinction index, reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity and energy loss function of the perfect InN nanosheet and VN-defect, VIn-defect and VIn&N-defect of InN nanosheet for both polarization directions of light, i.e. E||x (electric field parallel to nanosheet) and E||z (electric field perpendicular to nanosheet). Our results show that InN nanosheet is a semiconductor which is dependent on the type of vacancies and that the optical properties of perfect and defective InN nanosheets are anisotropic for both polarization states.

  5. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...... programme includes variations of the sea state parameters and of the geometrical configuration of the breakwater and crown wall. Basic relations between forces/overtopping and the varied parameters are examined and preliminary design guidelines for structures within the tested range of variations...

  6. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Ali, E-mail: ali.haider@bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Kizir, Seda; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: ali.haider@bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 Turkey (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI) and N{sub 2} plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N{sub 2} plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N{sub 2} plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm{sup 3}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate

  7. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haider

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD. The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI and N2 plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N2 plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N2 plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate temperatures.

  8. Bisphosphonate Treatment in Osteoporosis: Optimal Duration of Therapy and the Incorporation of a Drug Holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Jordan C; Gianakos, Arianna; Lane, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely used treatment for osteoporosis. They accumulate in the bone for years, and therefore, their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts may persist after drug discontinuation. The ideal duration of therapy remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to review the literature to determine the (1) indications for drug holiday, (2) the duration of drug holiday, (3) the evaluation during drug holiday, and (4) the proper treatment and maintenance after drug holiday. A review of two electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE) was conducted using the term "(Drug holiday)," in January 29, 2015. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) clinical trials and case control, (2) human studies, (3) published in a peer-review journal, and (4) written in English. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) case reports, (2) case series, and (3) in vitro studies. The literature supports a therapeutic pause after 3-5 years of bisphosphonate treatment in patients with minor bone deficiencies and no recent fragility fracture (low risk) and in patients with moderate bone deficiencies and/or recent fragility fracture (moderate risk). In these patients, a bone health reevaluation is recommended every 1-3 years. Patients with high fracture risk should be maintained on bisphosphonate therapy without drug holiday. The duration and length of drug holiday should be individualized for each patient. Evaluation should be based on serial bone mass measurements, bone turnover rates, and fracture history evaluation. If after drug therapy, assessments show an increased risk of fracture, the patient may benefit from initiating another treatment. Raloxifene, teriparatide, or denosumab are available options.

  9. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  10. Adsorption of gas molecules on graphene-like InN monolayer: A first-principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiang; Yang, Qun [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Meng, Ruishen [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Tan, Chunjian [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Liang, Qiuhua [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Jiang, Junke [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Ye, Huaiyu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Chen, Xianping, E-mail: xianpingchen@cqu.edu.cn [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A comprehensive adsorption mechanism of InN monolayer is theoretical studied to distinguish the physic/chemi-sorption. • Different adsorption sites for different gases are systematically discussed. • The influence (enhanced or weakened) of external electric field to InN-gas system is well investigated. • The influences of gas adsorption to the optical properties (work function and light adsorption ability) of InN monolayer are also researched. - Abstract: Using first-principles calculation within density functional theory (DFT), we study the gas (CO, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2}) adsorption properties on the surface of single-layer indium nitride (InN). Four different adsorption sites (Bridge, In, N, Hollow) are chosen to explore the most sensitive adsorption site. On the basis of the adsorption energy, band gap and charge transfer, we find that the most energetic favourable site is changeable between In site and N site for different gases. Moreover, our results reveal that InN is sensitive to NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and NO{sub 2}, by a physisorption or a chemisorption nature. We also perform a perpendicular electric field to the system and find that the applied electric field has a significant effect for the adsorption process. Besides, we also observed the desorption effects on NH{sub 3} adsorbed at the hollow site of InN when the electric field applied. In addition, the optical properties of InN monolayer affected by different gases are also discussed. Most of the gas adsorptions will cause the inhibition of light adsorption while the others can reduce the work function or enhance the adsorption ability in visible region. Our theoretical results indicate that monolayer InN is a promising candidate for gas sensing applications.

  11. Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...

  12. Digital photo monitoring for tree crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Clark; Sang-Mook Lee

    2007-01-01

    Assessing change in the amount of foliage within a tree’s crown is the goal of crown transparency estimation, a component in many forest health assessment programs. Many sources of variability limit analysis and interpretation of crown condition data. Increased precision is needed to detect more subtle changes that are important for detection of health problems....

  13. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed crown. 872.3330 Section 872.3330 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3330 Preformed crown. (a) Identification. A preformed crown is a prefabricated device made of plastic or austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or...

  14. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  15. Structural properties and Raman modes of zinc blende InN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, A.; Lima, A. P.; Teles, L. K.; Scolfaro, L. M. R.; Leite, J. R.; Lemos, V.; Schöttker, B.; Frey, T.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.

    1999-01-01

    We report on x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman scattering studies on zinc blende InN epitaxial films. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) substrates using a InAs layer as a buffer. The transverse-optical (TO) and longitudinal-optical phonon frequencies at Γ of c-InN are determined and compared to the corresponding values for c-GaN. Ab initio self-consistent calculations are carried out for the c-InN and c-GaN lattice parameters and TO phonon frequencies. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  16. Investigation of InN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Mutta, G.R.; Chauvat, M.P.; Morales, M.; Doualan, J.L.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, Caen (France); Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calle, F. [ISOM y Department de Ingenieria Electronica, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria (Spain); Valcheva, E.; Kirilov, K. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University (Bulgaria)

    2010-05-15

    An investigation of InN layers grown on GaN templates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and photoluminescence (PL). A good correlation is noticed between their crystalline quality and optical properties. The best samples exhibit a PL emission between 0.6 and 0.7 eV. The surface structure was quite different from one sample to the other, pointing out to a critical role of the growth conditions, which probably need to be tightly optimized for a good reproducibility. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S

    2016-06-08

    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  18. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sheng-Joue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111 substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the film-like InN structure; however, the strain from lattice miss-match was obvious reduced owing to CrN nanoisland inserted. The TEM images confirmed the CrN structures and In droplets dissociation from InN, by these results, we can speculate the growth mechanism of baseball-bat-like InN nanorods.

  19. In-situ SiN{sub x}/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, Ch., E-mail: hzervos@physics.uoc.gr; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Beleniotis, P. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-04-04

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiN{sub x} dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiN{sub x}/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiN{sub x}/InN interface of Q{sub if} ≈ 4.4 – 4.8 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5–3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  20. Official holidays in 2015 and end-of-year closure 2015/2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Official holidays in 2015 and end-of-year closure 2015/2016 (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations).   Official holidays in 2015 (in addition to the special leave during the annual closure): Thursday, 1 January (New Year) Friday, 3 April (Good Friday) Monday, 6 April (Easter Monday) Friday, 1 May Thursday, 14 May (Ascension day) Monday, 25 May (Whit Monday) Thursday, 10 September ("Jeûne genevois") Thursday, 24 December (Christmas Eve) Friday, 25 December (Christmas) Thursday, 31 December (New Year’s Eve) Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 19 December 2015 to Sunday, 3 January 2016 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 4 January 2016. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903/79257

  1. Official holidays in 2005 and end-of-year closure 2005/2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.33 and R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2005 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : Friday 25 March (Good Friday) Monday 28 March (Easter Monday) Thursday 5 May (Ascension Day) Friday 6 May Compensation granted for 1st May (Article R II 4.33 of the Staff Regulations) Monday 16 May (Whit Monday) Thursday 8 September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Thursday 22 December 2005 to Wednesday 4 January 2006 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Thursday 5 January 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  2. Official holidays in 2009 and end-of-year closure 2009/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2009 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays): Friday 10 April (Good Friday) Monday 13 April (Easter Monday) Friday 1 May Thursday 21 May (Ascension day) Monday 1 June (Whit Monday) Thursday 10 September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 19 December 2009 to Sunday 3 January 2010 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 4 January 2010. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  3. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...

  4. Official holidays in 2008 and end-of-year closure 2008/2009

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2008 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : Friday 21st March (Good Friday); Monday, 24th March (Easter Monday); Thursday,1st May (Ascension day); Friday 2nd May (Compensation of 1st May); Monday, 12th May (Whit Monday); Thursday, 11th September ("Jeûne genevois"). Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 20th December 2008 to Sunday, 4th January 2009 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 5th January 2009. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  5. Comparison of the arithmetic and geometric means in estimating crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph

    2010-01-01

    The use of the geometric and arithmetic means for estimating tree crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area were examined for trees with crown width measurements taken at the widest point of the crown and perpendicular to the widest point of the crown. The average difference between the geometric and arithmetic mean crown diameters was less than 0.2 ft in absolute...

  6. Month of the year and pre-holiday effects in African stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alagidede

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of two anomalies in African stock returns: the month of the year and the pre-holiday effects, and their implications for stock market efficiency.  We extend the traditional approach to modelling anomalies and examine the mean and variance of returns. We document high and significant returns in days preceding a holiday in South Africa. Our results indicate that the month of the year effect is prevalent in African stock returns. However, we argue that, owing to illiquidity and round trip transactions costs, the anomalies uncovered do not necessarily violate the no-arbitrage condition.

  7. Bisphosphonate drug holidays in postmenopausal osteoporosis: effect on clinical fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, M A; Taisne, N; Legroux, I; Cortet, B; Paccou, J

    2017-12-01

    A cohort of 183 postmenopausal women, who had either discontinued or continued bisphosphonates (BPs) after first-line therapy, was used to investigate the relationships between "drug holiday" and clinical fracture. The risk of new clinical fractures was found to be 40% higher in women who had taken a BP "drug holiday." BPs are the most widely used treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The optimal treatment duration, however, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after discontinuing BP treatment (BP "drug holiday"). A retrospective analysis was performed at Lille University Hospital (LUH) on postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who had taken a "drug holiday" or continued treatment after first-line BP therapy (3 to 5 years). The occurrence of new clinical fractures during follow-up was also explored. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the relationships between BP "drug holiday" and the occurrence of clinical fractures, while controlling for confounding factors. Survival without new clinical fractures was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. One hundred eighty-three women (mean age: 61.8 years; SD: 8.7) who had previously undergone BP treatment for 3 to 5 years were enrolled in our study. The patients had received alendronate (n = 81), risedronate (n = 73), zoledronic acid (n = 20), and ibandronate (n = 9). In 166 patients ("drug holiday" group: n = 31; continuous-treatment group: n = 135), follow-up ranged from 6 to 36 months (mean duration: 31.8 months; SD: 8.2). The incidences of new clinical fractures during follow-up were 16.1% (5/31) and 11.9% (16/135). After full adjustment, the hazard ratio of new clinical fractures among "drug holiday" patients was 1.40 (95% CI: 1.12-1.60; p = 0.0095). After first-line BP therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the risk of new clinical fractures was 40% higher in

  8. Near-infrared InN quantum dots on high-In composition InGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.; Gomez, Victor J.; Kumar, Praveen; Calleja, Enrique; Noetzel, Richard [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    We report the growth of InN quantum dots (QDs) on thick InGaN layers with high In composition (>50%) by molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized growth conditions are identified for the InGaN layers at reduced growth temperature and increased active N flux resulting in minimized phase separation and defect generation. The InN QDs grown on top of the optimized InGaN layer exhibit small size, high density, and photoluminescence up to room temperature. The InN/InGaN QDs reveal excellent potential for intermediate band solar cells with the InGaN and InN QD bandgap energies tuned to the best match of absorption to the solar spectrum.

  9. From Amateur Astronomer to Observatory Director: The Curious Case of R. T. A. Innes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Robert Innes was one of a select band of amateur astronomers who made the transition to professional ranks towards the end of the nineteenth century. Initially he had a passion for mathematical astronomy, but after settling in Sydney he developed a taste for observational astronomy, specialising in the search for new double stars. He quickly became known for his success in this field and for his publications on solar system perturbations, and with John Tebbutt's patronage managed to secure a clerical position at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope. Once there he continued to observe in his spare time and to publish, and, with strong support from Sir David Gill, was appointed founding Director of the Transvaal Observatory. By the time he died in 1933, Innes had received an honorary D.Sc. from Leiden University, and had established an international reputation as a positional astronomer. This paper provides an interesting case study of a well-known `amateur-turned-professional', and an example of the ways in which patronage played a key role in nineteenth and early twentieth century Australian and South African astronomy.

  10. School holiday food provision in the UK: A qualitative investigation of needs, benefits and potential for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Louise Graham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gauging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.

  11. Influence of MBE growth modes and conditions on spontaneous formation of metallic In nanoparticles and electrical properties of InN matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, T. A.; Wang, P.; Paturi, P.; Wang, X.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Influence of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth conditions on the electrical properties of the InN epilayers in terms of minimization of the effect of spontaneously formed In nanoparticles was studied. A three-step growth sequence was used, including direct MBE growth of an InN nucleation layer, migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) of an InN buffer layer, and In-rich MBE growth of the main InN layer, utilizing the droplet elimination by radical-beam irradiation (DERI) technique. The three-step growth regime was found to lead to decreasing the relative amount of In nanoparticles to 4.8% and 3.8% in In-rich and near-stoichiometric conditions, respectively, whereas the transport properties are better for the In-rich growth. Further reduction of the metallic indium inclusions in the InN films, while keeping simultaneously satisfactory transport parameters, is hardly possible due to fundamental processes of InN thermal decomposition and formation of the nitrogen vacancy conglomerates in the InN matrix. The In inclusions are shown to dominate the electrical conductivity of the InN films even at their minimum amount.

  12. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  13. 5 CFR 610.405 - Holiday for part-time employees on flexible work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holiday for part-time employees on... part-time employees on flexible work schedules. If a part-time employee is relieved or prevented from... falls on a nonworkday of a part-time employee, he or she is not entitled to an in-lieu-of day for that...

  14. Time to Make Your List for the NCI at Frederick Holiday Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final Holiday Market of 2017 will take place on Tuesday, December 19, in Building 549. The event, which runs from 11:00 am–1:30 pm, will feature nearly two dozen local vendors and artisans. From bags and boards to meats and sweets, the market promises to have something for everyone.

  15. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  16. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis.

  17. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  18. Predictors of hangover during a week of heavy drinking on a holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    units in the whole sample. The severity of hangover increased significantly during a week of heavy drinking and there was a time * number of drinks interaction, indicating that the impact of alcohol consumed on hangover became more pronounced later in the week. Levels of drinking before the holiday did...

  19. State Patty's Day: College Student Drinking and Local Crime Increased on a Student-Constructed Holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole R.; Bezemer, Denille H.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    College student alcohol consumption is a major concern, and is known to increase during the celebration of special events. This study examined a student-constructed holiday, State Patty's Day, at a university with a dominant drinking culture using three sources of data--coded data from Facebook groups, daily web surveys from first-year students (N…

  20. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando G. Díaz-Zavala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p0.05 during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies, as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p<0.001. Programs focused on self-monitoring during the holidays (phone calls and daily mailing appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  1. Evaluating ceramic crown margins with digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, William Maxwell; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl; Romberg, Elaine

    2017-09-29

    Radiographs aid in clinically determining crown fit, specifically interproximal margins where tactile and visual methods may be limited. However, investigations of the utility of digital radiographs as a tool for evaluating the marginal openings of ceramic crowns are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess whether marginal adaptation for ceramic crowns and for metal-ceramic crowns with a metal collar can be identified with digital radiographs. One lithium disilicate crown, 1 fluorapatite crown, and 1 metal-ceramic crown were fabricated for a maxillary premolar. The crowns were attached to a custom-designed device that allowed the marginal discrepancy to be changed. A total of 10 increments were measured starting at 0 to 20 μm and increasing every 20 μm to a maximum opening of 180 to 200 μm. At each increment, 2 radiographs were made of the crowns, using a digital sensor, 1 perpendicular to and 1 at 80 degrees to the long axis of the tooth. To test whether digital radiographs could be used to accurately identify "acceptable" and "unacceptable" margins, 21 dentists were asked to rate the radiographs as "acceptable" or "unacceptable." The chi square test was used to analyze differences between the dentists' evaluations and the actual marginal opening (α=.05). For the purposes of this study, a marginal discrepancy greater than 80 μm was considered "unacceptable." Of all marginal discrepancies exceeding 80 μm, 78.6% of the metal-ceramic crown radiographs were incorrectly scored as "acceptable" (Ptested metal-ceramic crowns tended to be evaluated incorrectly as acceptable. The marginal fit of the tested ceramic crowns tended to be evaluated incorrectly as unacceptable. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  3. Fracture resistance of various temporary crown materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Asude; Baydaş, Seyfettin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of various provisional crown materials using an in vitro model test system. In the present study polycarbonate crowns, prefabricated by the manufacturer (3M Polycarbonate Crown), and the temporary crowns, fabricated in the dental laboratory environment, were fabricated using bis-acryl composite (Protemp II), autopolymerizing PMMA resin (BISICO Temp S), and heat-polymerized PMMA resin (Major C&B-V Dentine). All temporary crowns were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature prior to testing. The crowns were seated on metal dies, fabricated from Cr-Co alloy (AZ Dental, Konstanz, Germany), and then tested using the indenter of a Hounsfield testing machine (Hounsfield Tensometer, Hounsfield Test Equipment, Raydon, England). The tip of the indenter was located at a position one-third of the way down the inciso-palatine surface at 135 masculine. The data were statistically analyzed for differences using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (P polycarbonate crowns were significantly different from the BISICO Temp S, Protemp II, and Major C&B-V Dentine (P polycarbonate crowns may be preferable to the other types of temporary crowns used in this study.

  4. Generation of ultra-small InN nanocrystals by pulsed laser ablation of suspension in organic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursungoez, Canan; Uzcengiz Simsek, Elif; Ortac, Buelend [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey); Bilkent University, Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Ankara (Turkey); Tuzakli, Refik [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    Nanostructures of InN have been extensively investigated since nano-size provides a number of advantages allowing applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is quite important to obtain pure InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) to reveal the characteristic features, which gain interest in the literature. Here, we proposed a new approach for the synthesis of ultra-small hexagonal InN-NCs by using suspension of micron-sized InN powder in ethanol with pulsed laser ablation method. The liquid environment, laser energy and ablation time were optimized and a post-synthesis treatment, centrifugation, was performed to achieve InN-NCs with the smallest size. Besides, the micron-sized InN powder suspension, as a starting material, enabled us to obtain InN-NCs having diameters smaller than 5 nm. We also presented a detailed characterization of InN-NCs and demonstrated that the formation mechanism mainly depends on the fragmentation due to laser irradiation of the suspension. (orig.)

  5. Self-assembled flower-like nanostructures of InN and GaN grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (SEM) were used to study the crystallinity and morphology of the nanostructures. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy .... Figure 1 shows the surface morphology of the GaN and as-grown InN nanostructures on the .... nanoflakes from the seeds can grow into a flower struc- ture. 4. Conclusions. Self-assembled InN ...

  6. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  7. Near field optical and spectroscopic imaging of InN nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapu, Kishore K.; Sivadasan, A. K.; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-05-01

    Conventional optical spectroscopy is limited by the diffraction limit which impose the condition of spatial resolution to be achieved ≤ λ/2. Near field optical microscopic techniques such as near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) improves the spatial resolution by utilizing the evanescent field. Here, we studied the near field light matter interaction of InN nanostructures using the NSOM technique and achieved a spatial resolution of 50 nm with 150 nm aperture tip and 532 nm light source. The optical contrast in the NSOM images is attributed to the local variation of dielectric constant of individual nanostructures. TERS imaging is performed with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip attached with a 300 nm Au particle to achieve a sub-diffraction spatial resolution of ˜200 nm using 785 nm laser excitation.

  8. Temperature dependences of the contact resistivity in ohmic contacts to n{sup +}-InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachenko, A. V.; Belyaev, A. E. [National Academy of Sciences, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Boltovets, N. S. [“Orion” Research Institute (Ukraine); Brunkov, P. N.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kapitanchuk, L. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Paton Electric Welding Institute (Ukraine); Konakova, R. V., E-mail: konakova@isp.kiev.ua; Klad’ko, V. P.; Romanets, P. N.; Saja, P. O.; Safryuk, N. V.; Sheremet, V. N. [National Academy of Sciences, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    The temperature dependences of the contact resistivity (ρ{sub c}) of ohmic contacts based on the Au-Ti-Pd-InN system are measured at an InN doping level of 2 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} in the temperature range of 4.2–300 K. At temperatures T > 150 K, linearly increasing dependences ρ{sub c}(T) are obtained. The dependences are explained within the mechanism of thermionic current flow through metal shunts associated with dislocations. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental dependences is achieved assuming that the flowing current is limited by the total resistance of the metal shunts, and the density of conductive dislocations is ∼5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. Using the X-ray diffraction method, the density of screw and edge dislocations in the structure under study is measured: their total density exceeds 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}.

  9. Strain Relief Analysis of InN Quantum Dots Grown on GaN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffenach Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe present a study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of the strain state of individual InN quantum dots (QDs grown on GaN substrates. Moiré fringe and high resolution TEM analyses showed that the QDs are almost fully relaxed due to the generation of a 60° misfit dislocation network at the InN/GaN interface. By applying the Geometric Phase Algorithm to plan-view high-resolution micrographs, we show that this network consists of three essentially non-interacting sets of misfit dislocations lying along the directions. Close to the edge of the QD, the dislocations curve to meet the surface and form a network of threading dislocations surrounding the system.

  10. Angular-dependent Raman study of a- and s-plane InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filintoglou, K.; Katsikini, M., E-mail: katsiki@auth.gr; Arvanitidis, J.; Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Vouroutzis, N.; Ves, S. [School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G. A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion, Greece and IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Zoumakis, N. [Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, 57400 Sindos (Greece)

    2015-02-21

    Angular-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study nonpolar a-plane (11{sup ¯}20) and semipolar s-plane (101{sup ¯}1) InN epilayers. The intensity dependence of the Raman peaks assigned to the vibrational modes A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 1}(TO), and E{sub 2}{sup h} on the angle ψ that corresponds to rotation around the growth axis, is very well reproduced by using expressions taking into account the corresponding Raman tensors and the experimental geometry, providing thus a reliable technique towards assessing the sample quality. The s- and a-plane InN epilayers grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) exhibit good crystalline quality as deduced from the excellent fitting of the experimental angle-dependent peak intensities to the theoretical expressions as well as from the small width of the Raman peaks. On the contrary, in the case of the s-plane epilayer grown on non-nitridated r-plane sapphire, fitting of the angular dependence is much worse and can be modeled only by considering the presence of two structural modifications, rotated so as their c-axes are almost perpendicular to each other. Although the presence of the second variant is verified by transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, angular dependent Raman spectroscopy offers a non-destructive and quick way for its quantification. Rapid thermal annealing of this sample did not affect the angular dependence of the peak intensities. The shift of the E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup h} Raman peaks was used for the estimation of the strain state of the samples.

  11. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  12. Tree crown conditions in Missouri, 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; W. Keith Moser

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes three FIA tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, and foliage transparency) and sapling crown vigor measured in Missouri between 2000...

  13. THE ROLE OF HOLIDAY IN CHILDREN EDUCATION / ÇOCUK EĞĐTĐMĐNDE BAYRAMLARIN ROLÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldeniz ABBASLI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the celebration of the national holidays inAzerbaycan. One of these holidays is "Nevruz". Generally "Nevruz" is thesymbol of coming Spring not only in Azerbaycan but most of the countries of theworld. But in Azerbaycan, people celebratethis holiday traditionally. Here the children, students as well as the little childrenprepare for this celebration with great pleasure. They learn more proverbs,riddles, stories, dances, songs in order to take an active part in the celebration of"Nevruz". Such preparatiopns improve the knowledge of the children.

  14. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  15. Role of Inn1 and its interactions with Hof1 and Cyk3 in promoting cleavage furrow and septum formation in S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihama, Ryuichi; Schreiter, Jennifer H.; Onishi, Masayuki; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Hanna, Julia; Moravcevic, Katarina; Lippincott, Margaret F.; Han, Haesun; Lemmon, Mark A.; Pringle, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires coordination of actomyosin ring (AMR) contraction with rearrangements of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon mitotic exit even when the AMR is absent. Inn1 is essential for PS formation but not for Chs2 localization. The Inn1 C-terminal region is necessary for localization, and distinct PXXP motifs in this region mediate functionally important interactions with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore PS formation in inn1Δ cells). The Inn1 N terminus resembles C2 domains but does not appear to bind phospholipids; nonetheless, when overexpressed or fused to Hof1, it can provide Inn1 function even in the absence of the AMR. Thus, Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating Chs2 for PS formation, which allows coordination of AMR contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:19528296

  16. Dimethylammonium perchlorate 18-crown-6 monohydrate clathrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Zhen Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of dimethylamine, 18-crown-6, and perchloric acid in methanol yields the title compound, C2H8N+·ClO4−·C12H24O6·H2O. The dimethylammonium cation and the water molecule interact with the 18-crown-6 unit: N—H...O hydrogen bonds are formed between the ammonium NH2+ group and four O atoms of the crown ether, while the water molecule on the other side of 18-crown-6 ring forms O—H...O hydrogen bonds with two other O atoms of the crown ether. All conventional donors and acceptors in the cations are thus engaged in hydrogen bonding. The ClO4− anion is disordered over two sites, and occupancies for the disordered O atoms were fixed at 0.5. In the crystal, the cations and anions are arranged in alternating layers.

  17. Comparison of internal fit between implant abutments and cast metal crowns vs laser-sintered crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçarslan, Mehmet Ali; Özkan, Pelin; Uludag, Bülent; Mumcu, Emre

    2014-07-01

    A common problem related to cemented single crowns is the internal misfit, which may cause inadequate retention, especially when seated on the implant abutment. The aim of this study was to compare the internal fit of Co-Cr crowns using a traditional lost-wax casting technique from laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy crowns. Twelve metallic crowns per each technique were fabricated. The effect of the thickness of cement, originated internal gap was evaluated. Crowns were cemented on the implant abutments with resin cement, and the internal fit of crowns was measured at five areas with an optical microscope. The data were analyzed, and the means were compared with a t-test (pcrowns obtained through the lost wax method (min. 65.50 ± 9.54 μm and max. 313.46 ± 48.12 μm). The fit of the metal crown likely varies with the fabrication technique. The use of techniques that enable the adjustment of crown parameters, such as the laser sintering technique, maintains the desired fit between casting and implant abutments. This study investigated which technique affects the internal fit of cemented implant-supported crowns, comparing the use of lost wax casting and laser-sintered metal dental alloys. The results of this study indicate that the use of laser-sintered crowns can improve for crown accuracy.

  18. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadon, Omar; Patrick, David; Johnson, Anthony; Pollington, Sarah; Wood, Duncan

    2017-05-31

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create 3D crown models and evaluated using FEA. The zirconia/composite crowns subjected to static occlusal load showed comparable results to the zirconia/porcelain crowns. Zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress on the zirconia substructure at 63.6 and 50.9 MPa on the zirconia substructure veneered with porcelain. In conclusion, zirconia/composite crowns withstood high occlusal loads similar to zirconia/porcelain crowns with no significant difference. However, the zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress values than the zirconia/porcelain crowns at the zirconia substructure.

  19. Racism and the older voter? Arizona's rejection of a paid holiday to honor Martin Luther King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, R

    1991-01-01

    Two propositions that would have established a paid Martin Luther King holiday were defeated in Arizona's statewide elections of November 6, 1990. Communities and counties with high proportions of senior adult voters cast proportionately more votes against these propositions. Was this an example of racism among the primarily anglo senior adult voters of Arizona? Three models were proposed to account for the general pattern of election-related behavior as well as the vote itself: 1) proactive racist, 2) pragmatic self-interest, and 3) fortress mentality. It was suggested that proactive racism and pragmatic self-interest accounted for less of the opposition to a paid holiday honoring Martin Luther King than did a fortress mentality that has developed through a combination of circumstances. Attention is also given to the larger question of senior adults as perpetrators as well as victims of bigotry.

  20. Official holidays in 2014 and end-of-year closure 2014/2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    (Pursuant to Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations)   Official holidays in 2014 (in addition to special leave during the annual closure): Wednesday, 1 January (New Year) Friday, 18 April (Good Friday) Monday, 21 April (Easter Monday) Thursday, 1 May Thursday, 29 May (Ascension day) Monday, 9 June (Whit Monday) Thursday, 11 September ("Jeûne genevois") Wednesday, 24 December (Christmas Eve) Thursday, 25 December (Christmas) Wednesday, 31 December (New Year’s Eve)   Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 20 December 2014 to Sunday, 4 January 2015 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 5 January 2015. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903/79257

  1. Official holidays in 2012 and end-of-year closure 2012/2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2012 (in addition to the special leave during the annual closure): Sunday, 1st January (New Year); Friday, 6th April (Good Friday); Monday, 9th April (Easter Monday); Tuesday, 1st May; Thursday, 17th May (Ascension day); Monday, 28th May (Whit Monday); Thursday, 6th September ("Jeûne genevois"); Monday, 24th December (Christmas Eve); Tuesday, 25th December (Christmas); Monday, 31st December (New Year’s Eve). Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2012 to Sunday, 6th January 2013 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2013. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  2. Assessment and Treatment of Pica and Property Destruction of Holiday Decorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteer, Daniel R.; Romani, Patrick W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to family traditions, such as decorating for the holidays. We present data for a 6-year-old girl who engaged in automatically reinforced pica and property destruction of holiday decorations. Treatment was evaluated within an ABCDCD reversal design. During baseline Phases A and B, we observed elevated rates of problem behavior. We implemented differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in Phase C to teach a response to compete with problem behavior. Little change in toy play or problem behavior occurred. In Phase D, we added a facial screen to the differential-reinforcement procedures, which resulted in increases in toy play and decreases in problem behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of how interventions for problem behavior can promote alternative behavior while facilitating household activities and traditions. PMID:26380947

  3. Official holidays in 2004 and end-of-year closure 2004/2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.33 and R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2004 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays): - Friday, 9th April (Good Friday) - Monday, 12th April (Easter Monday) - Thursday, 20th May (Ascension Day) - Friday, 21st May Compensation granted for 1st May (Article R II 4.33 of the Staff Regulations) - Monday, 31st May (Whit Monday) - Thursday, 9th September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization and day of special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 17th December 2004 to Sunday, 2nd January 2005 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 3rd January 2005. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS IN 2002 AND END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE 2002/2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.33 and R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2002 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : Friday, 29th March (Good Friday) Monday, 1st April (Easter Monday) Wednesday, 1st May Thursday, 9th May (Ascension Day) Monday, 20th May (Whit Monday) Thursday, 5th September ('Jeûne genevois') Annual closure of the site of the Organization and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 21st December 2002 to Sunday, 5th January 2003 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 6th January 2003.

  5. Official holidays in 2003 and end-of-year closure 2003/2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines
    ; Tel. 74128

    2003-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.33 and R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2003 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : - Friday, 18th April (Good Friday) - Monday, 21st April (Easter Monday) - Thursday, 1st May - Thursday, 29th May (Ascension Day) - Monday, 9th June (Whit Monday) - Thursday, 11th September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 20th December 2003 to Sunday, 4th January 2004 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 5th January 2004.

  6. The Influence of Human Values on Holiday Destination Choice in Australia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Raquel Pérez-Nebra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Allen and Ng (1999a proposed a conceptual framework of how consumers’ choice of services may be influenced by the human values that they endorse. The aim of this study is to observe which implications cultural differences had on holiday destination choice. The sample consisted of 793 participants (52% Brazilians, 48% Australians; 51% Male; average age = 25y; Education 52% High School, who answered a questionnaire containing: the vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism Values Scale, the Meaning and Judgment Scale, a Holiday Destination Measure, a Consumption Behavior Measure, and demographics page. The main effect of the country on cultural patterns between Brazil and Australia was observed. The individualist Australians preferred a piecemeal judgment and placed more importance on tangible attributes. Brazilians, who scored higher on collectivism, used affective judgment more. These and other results are discussed in terms of the validity of the model for individuals who endorse cultural values other than individualism.

  7. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA PADA PT. CAHAYA TEDUNG ABADI HOLIDAY DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Doddy Pramana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT. Cahaya Tedung Abadi Holiday is a business that handles tour ticket sales, travel documents, tour guide services, hotel reservation and sales of tour packages. To anticipate the traveler visits that always fluctuated and competition with other travel agency, need to be design tour package marketing strategy. So PT. Cahaya Tedung Abadi Holiday can optimize the strength, opportunities, and minimize the weaknesses and threats. The goal is to find alternative are strategies and programs that can be implemented by PT. Cahaya Tedung Abadi Holiday in selling tour package. Data collection techniques using the method of observation, in-depth interviews, library research and documentation. Researchers used a key informant Mr. I Gusti Sudarsana, two employees and sales marketing products as an informant base. This research is a descriptive qualitative with Matrix SWOT approach and the marketing mix. Alternative strategies that can be implemented by PT. Cahaya Tedung Abadi Holiday are : (a create and develop tourism products strategy by creating new innovative tourism products and a special interest tour packages, (b market segmentation strategy development with opportunities to develop a broader market, (c increased promotion strategy by advertising, brochures and collaboration with TV channel with tourism programs information, (d improve the quality of products and services strategies by redesigning the tour packages program more interesting in order the tourists interested to buy tour packages, maintaining cleanliness and tidiness of the vehicle and driver guides during tours and reemphasize tourism products according to the company market share. The suggestion for the company to expand its market share in order to survive the competition of other travel agencies, companies should increase the workforce to be more rapid and responsive in accepting tour packages purchases and fixed preserve good relations with related companies such as the hotel

  8. Outcome of holiday and nonholiday admission patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding: a real-world report from southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Chin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that patients admitted on the weekend with peptic ulcer bleeding might be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. However, other reports found that there was no "holiday effect." The purpose of this study was to determine if these findings hold true for a real-life Taiwanese medical gastroenterology practice. We reviewed the medical files of hospital admissions for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who received initial endoscopic hemostasis between January 2009 and March 2011. A total of 744 patients were enrolled (nonholiday group, n = 615; holiday group, n = 129) after applying strict exclusion criteria. Holidays were defined as weekends and national holidays in Taiwan. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. We also observed that, compared to the nonholiday group, patients in the holiday group received earlier endoscopy treatment (12.20 hours versus 16.68 hours, P = 0.005), needed less transfused blood (4.8 units versus 6.6 units, P = 0.02), shifted from intravenous to oral proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) more quickly (5.3 days versus 6.9 days, P = 0.05), and had shorter hospital stays (13.05 days versus 17.36 days, P = 0.005). In the holiday and nonholiday groups, the rebleeding rates were 17.8% and 23.41% (P = 0.167), the mortality rates were 11.63% versus 13.66% (P = 0.537), and surgery was required in 2.11% versus 4.66% (P = 0.093), respectively. Patients who presented with peptic ulcer bleeding on holidays did not experience delayed endoscopy or increased adverse outcomes. In fact, patients who received endoscopic hemostasis on the holiday had shorter waiting times, needed less transfused blood, switched to oral PPIs quicker, and experienced shorter hospital stays.

  9. Nothing like Christmas--suicides during Christmas and other holidays in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Clemens; Kunrath, Sabine; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Datz, Christian; Niederseer, David

    2015-06-01

    Contrary to the myth that suicides increase around Christmas, multiple studies reveal that suicide rates decrease towards Christmas and return back to normal or even peak in the beginning of the new year. We aimed to replicate this effect for Austria. The analyses were based on the official suicide statistics 2000-13 using Poission regression and Bayesian changepoint analysis. We also investigated changes of suicide rates during other major holidays and weekends. Seasonal effects were controlled for by using restricted control periods. Suicide rates declined before Christmas and were minimal on December 24th, remained low until the end of the year, peaked on New Year's day, but remained at average level in New Year's week. In contrast, suicide rates increased in the week after Easter and on Mondays/Tuesdays after weekends. No significant effects were found in the week after Whitsun and summer holidays. Compared with other holidays, Christmas time is clearly associated with fewer suicides in Austria, too, and may even counteract the 'broken promise' effect. This finding may help clarifying common myths in suicide prevention and may enhance the proper timing of preventive efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Valentine's day as the 8th March of transitional Serbia: Analysis of a (new? holiday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baćević Jana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text, I examine the phenomenon of sudden occurrence and spreading of the symbols, products and practices related to St. Valentine's Day, in Belgrade, Serbia. Though this custom had never been a part of Serbian festivities, neither "traditional" nor modern, this year it was aggressively marketed in the capital. In order to understand this phenomenon, I look at a similar holiday from the not-sodistant socialist past: Women's Day, or March 8th. Previous researchers of this holiday have underlined its primarily demagogical or mythical function of obscuring the gender inequalities of socialist society through the celebration of, and emphasis on, the proclaimed social equality on all levels. By juxtaposing dominant characteristics of Women's Day and their corresponding ideological functions with the dominant characteristics of St. Valentine's, I point to the possible ideological functions of the latter. On the one hand, it transmits the message of love, romance and reciprocity, therefore obscuring the persistent gender inequalities; on the other, it serves a far less demagogical function of supporting both the market of partners and the market of goods. In the final conclusion, I state that the occurrence of Valentine's Day celebrations in modern-day Serbia can be primarily tied to the development of the market of goods, and the corresponding desire to achieve the European standard, at least in terms of consumerism. Whether this holiday marks a beginning of transition in the domain of personal, intimate relationships, however, remains yet to be seen.

  11. [Annual epidemics of hepatitis A in four large cities related to holiday travel among immigrant children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, J; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A; Kool, J L; Coutinho, R A

    1998-08-22

    Analysis of the transmission pattern of hepatitis A in relation to ethnicity and travel behaviour in Amsterdam. Utrecht, Rotterdam and The Hague. Descriptive study of notified cases. Municipal Health Services of the four major cities in the Netherlands. Notification data of hepatitis A in Amsterdam, Utrecht, Rotterdam and The Hague were analysed over the period 1992-1995. Cases were analysed according to age (0-19 years or > 19 years), whether or not they travelled abroad in the period of six weeks before the onset of the first symptoms of disease, and endemicity of hepatitis A in the country of ethnic origin. The strong increase of hepatitis A after the summer holidays could be divided into several smaller epidemics starting with an epidemic among children of Moroccan and Turkish descent who had spent the summer holidays in these countries, among children of the same ethnic background who had not travelled abroad, followed by epidemics among non-travelling children and adults of mainly Dutch descent, respectively. A strong correlation was found in Amsterdam between the incidence in the former two groups and the latter two groups (Pearsons r = 0.68; p = 0.004). Children who spent the summer holidays in a hepatitis A endemic country, particularly Morocco and Turkey, appeared to be the main importers of hepatitis A in the four major cities. Active immunization of all children born in the Netherlands of Moroccan and Turkish descent is the most preferable intervention.

  12. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  13. Aesthetic preformed paediatric crowns: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiem, Elody; Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2017-07-01

    Different aesthetic preformed crowns (APC) are proposed to restore decayed and damaged primary teeth because the stainless steel crowns (SSCs) do not satisfy parents concerned about aesthetic. The objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of all types of APC for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials or other types of crowns. Relevant articles were searched in electronic databases of PubMed via MEDLINE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the included articles and extracted data. From 555 potentially eligible articles, seven relevant articles were included. The overall risk of bias was high for all the studies. SCCs cannot be replaced by APC, such as the open-faced SSCs and the pre-veneered SCCs, for restoring badly decayed primary molars. Zircon crowns were assessed only in primary incisors and compared with pre-veneered SCCs and resin composite strip crowns. After a follow-up of only 6 months, Zircon crowns gave significantly better results than the others with regard to gingival health and crown fractures. Due to the small number of RCTs on this topic and their risk of bias, future RCTs should be carried out in primary teeth. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Marginal Strength of Collarless Metal Ceramic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikka Swati

    2010-01-01

    fracture strength at margins of metal ceramic crowns cemented to metal tooth analogs. Crowns evaluated with different marginal configurations, shoulder and shoulder bevel with 0 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 1.5 mm, were selected. Methods. Maxillary right canine typhodont tooth was prepared to receive a metal ceramic crown with shoulder margin. This was duplicated to get 20 metal teeth analogs. Then the same tooth was reprepared to get shoulder bevel configuration. These crowns were then cemented onmetal teeth analogs and tested for fracture strength atmargin on an Instron testing machine. A progressive compressive load was applied using 6.3 mm diameter rod with crosshead speed of 2.5 mm per minute. Statisticaly analysis was performed with ANOVA, Student's “t” test and “f” test. Results. The fracture strength of collarless metal ceramic crowns under study exceeded the normal biting force. Therefore it can be suggested that collarless metal ceramic crowns with shoulder or shoulder bevel margins up to 1.5 mm framework reduction may be indicated for anteriormetal ceramic restorations. Significance. k Collarless metal ceramic crowns have proved to be successful for anterior fixed restorations. Hence, it may be subjected to more clinical trials.

  15. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Ananta R., E-mail: aacharya@georgiasouthern.edu, E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia 30460 (United States); Thoms, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [American Association for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20034 (United States); Eddy, Charles R. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  16. Fracture strength of monolithic all-ceramic crowns made of high translucent yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium dioxide compared to porcelain-veneered crowns and lithium disilicate crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Camilla; Kmet, Gratiela; Rivera, Johnny; Larsson, Christel; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to provide data on the fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns and porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and to compare that data with the fracture strength of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Sixty standardized crowns divided into six groups (n = 10) were fabricated: monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand A, monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand B, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand A, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand B, heat-pressed monolithic lithium disilicate crowns and veneered Y-TZP crown cores. All crowns were thermocycled, cemented onto dies, cyclically pre-loaded and finally loaded to fracture. The monolithic Y-TZP groups showed significantly higher fracture strength (2795 N and 3038 N) compared to all other groups. The fracture strength in the veneered Y-TZP group (2229 N) was significantly higher than the monolithic lithium disilicate group (1856 N) and the veneered high translucent Y-TZP groups (1480 N and 1808 N). The fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns is considerably higher than that of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores, porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns. The fracture strength of a crown made of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP is, with a large safety margin, sufficient for clinical use for the majority of patients. Porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores show higher fracture resistance than monolithic lithium disilicate crowns.

  17. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Golf Tourney for The Children’s Inn | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 8, more than 40 NCI at Frederick and Leidos Biomedical Research employees, along with family and friends, swapped work clothes for golf gear at Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown. The golfers didn’t just play for fun; they participated in the second annual R&W Club Frederick Golf Tournament to support The Children’s Inn at NIH.

  18. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  19. Elucidating the optical properties of MoTe2/InN heterostructures for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Alexandre; Villegas, Cesar E. P.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) atom-thick hexagonal crystals have drawn both experimental and theoretical interest due to their fundamental properties and potential applicability in electronics and optoelectronics. While most studies are focused on 2D crystals with gap in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, the ones with gaps in the near infrared region have not been explored yet. Motivated by this and considering the individual properties of transition metal dichalcogenides and group III-V compounds, we carry out density functional theory (DFT) calculations combine with the GW-Bethe-Salpeter (GW-BSE) methodology to study the optical properties and the power conversion efficiency of MoTe2/InN heterostructures. First, we study the geometric and electronic structure of three heterostructures based on different stacking. Secondly, we use the GW-BSE methodology to study the optical spectrum and estimate the power conversion efficiency of the device. Our results indicates that the photoexcited exciton are originated in the range of 1.12 to 1.5 eV. In addition, we estimate the exciton recombination time finding values in the nanosecond range. Finally, we estimated the short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency of the 2 nm thick device. The Authors thank FAPESP for financial support.

  20. Evaluation of testing strategies for the radiation tolerant ATLAS n **+-in-n pixel sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M

    2003-01-01

    The development of particle tracker systems for high fluence environments in new high-energy physics experiments raises new challenges for the development, manufacturing and reliable testing of radiation tolerant components. The ATLAS pixel detector for use at the LHC, CERN, is designed to cover an active sensor area of 1.8 m**2 with 1.1 multiplied by 10 **8 read-out channels usable for a particle fluence up to 10 **1**5 cm**-**2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) and an ionization dose up to 500 kGy of mainly charged hadron radiation. To cope with such a harsh environment the ATLAS Pixel Collaboration has developed a radiation hard n **+-in-n silicon pixel cell design with a standard cell size of 50 multiplied by 400 mum**2. Using this design on an oxygenated silicon substrate, sensor production has started in 2001. This contribution describes results gained during the development of testing procedures of the ATLAS pixel sensor and evaluates quality assurance procedures regarding their relevance for detector operati...

  1. Hole transport and photoluminescence in Mg-doped InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.; Ager III, J. W.; Smith III, H. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Schaff, W. J.; Gallinat, C.; Koblmuller, G.; Speck, J. S.

    2010-03-24

    Hole conductivity and photoluminescence were studied in Mg-doped InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Because surface electron accumulation interferes with carrier type determination by electrical measurements, the nature of the majority carriers in the bulk of the films was determined using thermopower measurements. Mg concentrations in a"window" from ca. 3 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3 produce hole-conducting, p-type films as evidenced by a positive Seebeck coecient. This conclusion is supported by electrolyte-based capacitance voltage measurements and by changes in the overall mobility observed by Hall effect, both of which are consistent with a change from surface accumulation on an n-type film to surface inversion on a p-type film. The observed Seebeck coefficients are understood in terms of a parallel conduction model with contributions from surface and bulk regions. In partially compensated films with Mg concentrations below the window region, two peaks are observed in photoluminescence at 672 meV and at 603 meV. They are attributed to band-to-band and band-to-acceptor transitions, respectively, and an acceptor binding energy of ~;;70 meV is deduced. In hole-conducting films with Mg concentrations in the window region, no photoluminescence is observed; this is attributed to electron trapping by deep states which are empty for Fermi levels close to the valence band edge.

  2. Internal fit evaluation of crowns prepared using a new dental crown fabrication technique: laser-sintered Co-Cr crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Yurdanur; Akova, Tolga; Akyil, Musa S; Brantley, William A

    2009-10-01

    Difficulties encountered during casting of base metal dental alloys limit their use. Application of these alloys might be enhanced if new techniques are used. The purpose of this study was to compare the internal fit of laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy crowns with base metal restorations prepared from another Co-Cr alloy and a Ni-Cr alloy using conventional casting techniques. Internal fit of laser-sintered Co-Cr crowns was compared with the fit of conventionally cast Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloy crowns. Twelve crown-shaped specimens were prepared on a stainless steel die representing a prepared maxillary right central incisor for each group. Fit of crowns was evaluated using 2 different techniques: (1) weighing the light-body addition silicone that simulated a cement material, and (2) measuring the internal gap width on a die for longitudinally sectioned specimens. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey multiple comparison test was used for statistical analysis (alpha=.05). Significantly higher mean (SD) light-body silicone weights (Pcrowns. However, no significant difference was found among the 3 alloy groups evaluated for the internal gap width of sectioned crown specimens.

  3. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-10-11

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  4. Current transport in W and WSI{sub x} ohmic contacts to InGaN and InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of MSE] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the specific contact resistance of W and WSi{sub 0.44} contacts on n{sup +} In{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 0.35}N and InN was measured in the range -50 {degrees}C to 125 {degrees}C. The results were compared to theoretical values for different conduction mechanisms, to further elucidate the conduction mechanism in these contact schemes for all but as-deposited metal to InN where thermionic emission appears to be the dominant mechanism. The contacts were found to produce low specific resistance ohmic contacts to InGaN at room temperature, e{sup c} {approximately} 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for W and e{sub c} of 4x 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for WSi{sub x}. InN metallized with W produced ohmic contacts with e{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup -7} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} and e{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup -6} {Omega} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} for WSi{sub x} at room temperature.

  5. A Sub-ppm Acetone Gas Sensor for Diabetes Detection Using 10 nm Thick Ultrathin InN FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kun-Wei; Hsu, Ming-Che; Chang, Yuh-Hwa; Gwo, Shangjr; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    An indium nitride (InN) gas sensor of 10 nm in thickness has achieved detection limit of 0.4 ppm acetone. The sensor has a size of 1 mm by 2.5 mm, while its sensing area is 0.25 mm by 2 mm. Detection of such a low acetone concentration in exhaled breath could enable early diagnosis of diabetes for portable physiological applications. The ultrathin InN epilayer extensively enhances sensing sensitivity due to its strong electron accumulation on roughly 5–10 nm deep layers from the surface. Platinum as catalyst can increase output current signals by 2.5-fold (94 vs. 37.5 μA) as well as reduce response time by 8.4-fold (150 vs. 1,260 s) in comparison with bare InN. More, the effect of 3% oxygen consumption due to breath inhalation and exhalation on 2.4 ppm acetone gas detection was investigated, indicating that such an acetone concentration can be analyzed in air. PMID:22969342

  6. High-surface-quality nanocrystalline InN layers deposited on GaN templates by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Naranjo, Fernando B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lahourcade, Lise; Monroy, Eva [Equipe mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fernandez, Susana [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We report a detailed study of the effect of deposition parameters on optical, structural, and morphological properties of InN films grown by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering on GaN-on-sapphire templates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Deposition parameters under study are substrate temperature, RF power, and sputtering pressure. Wurtzite crystallographic structure with c-axis preferred growth orientation is confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. For the optimized deposition conditions, namely at a substrate temperature of 450 C and RF power of 30 W, InN films present a root-mean-square surface roughness as low as {proportional_to}0.4 nm, comparable to the underlying substrate. The apparent optical bandgap is estimated at 720 nm (1.7 eV) in all cases. However, the InN absorption band tail is strongly influenced by the sputtering pressure due to a change in the species of the plasma. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Role of dislocations and carrier concentration in limiting the electron mobility of InN films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; De, Arpan; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of device quality InN films on GaN epilayer and nano-wall network (NWN) templates deposited on c-sapphire by varying the film thickness up to 1 μm. The careful experiments are directed towards obtaining high mobility InN layers having a low band gap with improved crystal quality. The dislocation density is quantified by using high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve broadening values of symmetric and asymmetric reflections, respectively. We observe that the dislocation density of the InN films grown on GaN NWN is less than that of the films grown on the GaN epilayer. This is attributed to the nanoepitaxial lateral overlayer growth (ELOG) process, where the presence of voids at the interface of InN/GaN NWN prevents the propagation of dislocation lines into the InN epilayers, thereby causing less defects in the overgrown InN films. Thus, this new adaptation of the nano-ELOG growth process enables us to prepare InN layers with high electron mobility. The obtained electron mobility of 2121 cm2/Vs for 1 μm thick InN/GaN NWN is comparable with the literature values of similar thickness InN films. Furthermore, in order to understand the reasons that limit electron mobility, the charge neutrality condition is employed to study the variation of electron mobility as a function of dislocation density and carrier concentration. Overall, this study provides a route to attaining improved crystal quality and electronic properties of InN films.

  8. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    OpenAIRE

    Alsadon, O.; Patrick, D.; Johnson, A.; Pollington, S.; Wood, D.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create ...

  9. Crown-rise and crown-length dynamics: applications to loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Ralph L. Amateis; Jeffrey H. Gove; Annikki. Makela

    2013-01-01

    The original crown-rise model estimates the average height of a crown-base in an even-aged mono-species stand of trees. We have elaborated this model to reduce bias and prediction error, and to also provide crown-base estimates for individual trees. Results for the latter agree with a theory of branch death based on resource availability and allocation.We use the...

  10. Success of Hall technique crowns questioned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Hall technique is a method of providing stainless steel crowns for primary molars without tooth preparation and requires no local anesthesia. Literature review showed inconclusive evidence and therefore this technique should not be used in clinical practice.

  11. Wear and repair of stainless steel crowns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yilmaz, Y; Kara, N Belduz; Yilmaz, A; Sahin, H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the wear of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in children, and compare the extent of microleakage in SSCs that had been repaired using either a cermet glass-ionomer cement...

  12. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, M J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities...

  13. 4-Bromoanilinium perchlorate 18-crown-6 clathrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-bromoaniline, 18-crown-6, and perchloric acid in methanol yields the title compound, C6H7BrN+·ClO4−·C12H24O6, in which the protonated –NH3+ group forms three bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the crown ether.

  14. Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shakar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise

    2009-01-01

    The transition of fire from dry surface fuels to wet shrub crown fuels was studied using laboratory experiments and a simple physical model to gain a better understanding of the transition process. In the experiments, we investigated the effects of varying vertical distances between surface and crown fuels (crown base height), and of the wind speed on crown fire...

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of Divalent Zinc and Cadmium Crown Ether Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, T. E.; Carl, D. R.; Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2011-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of transition-metal dication (Zn2+ and Cd2+) complexes with varying sized crown ethers, 12-crown-4 (12c4), 15-crown-5 (15c5), and 18-crown-6 (18c6), are investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations. The

  16. A numerical rating system for crown classes of southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; E.C. Burkhardt; Robert L. Johnson; John D. Hodges

    2001-01-01

    A numerical rating system to delineate crown classes of southern hardwoods is described. The system is based on four criteria: (1) amount of direct sunlight from above, (2) amount of direct sunlight from the sides, (3) crown balance, and (4) relative crown size. The total point value assigned places the tree within one of the four crown classes. The rating system can...

  17. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  18. Long-term clinical performance of esthetic primary molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Diana; Fuks, Anna B; Eidelman, Eliecer

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the long-term clinical performance of esthetic primary molar crowns and compare them to that of stainless steel crowns (SSC). Twenty crowns (10 conventional and 10 esthetic) placed in 10 children who had participated in a previously reported study, were assessed again after 4 years. The crowns were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to the following parameters: gingival health, marginal extension, crown adequacy, proper occlusion, proximal contact, chipping of the facing (for esthetic crowns only), and cement removal. At the 4 year evaluation, all the esthetic crowns showed chipping of the facing. No difference was found for marginal extension, occlusion, crown adequacy and periodontal health between SSCs and the esthetic crowns. After 4 years, all the esthetic crowns presented chipping of the facing and, consequently, a very poor esthetic appearance.

  19. An investigation of crown fuel bulk density effects on the dynamics of crown fire initiation in shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David R. Weise

    2008-01-01

    Crown fire initiation is studied by using a simple experimental and detailed physical modeling based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Experiments conducted thus far reveal that crown fuel ignition via surface fire occurs when the crown base is within the continuous flame region and does not occur when the crown base is located in the hot plume gas region of the surface...

  20. Comparison of the fracture strengths of metal-ceramic crowns and three ceromer crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chul-Whoi; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2002-08-01

    The fracture strength of a number of new ceromer systems for the fabrication of anterior fixed partial dentures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of metal-ceramic crowns and 3 types of ceromer crowns in a simulated anterior tooth preparation. A resin maxillary central incisor analog was prepared with a 5-degree convergence angle and a 90-degree, 1-mm shoulder. The incisal edge was reduced by 2 mm, and the axiogingival and axioincisal line angles were rounded. A mold of this tooth was made with vinyl polysiloxane impression material. Ten wax patterns were made from the mold and cast in a nickel-chromium alloy for the fabrication of metal dies, from which 10 metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated. Ten crowns for each of 3 ceromer systems (Artglass, Sculpture, and Targis) were fabricated from the same metal die. Each crown group was prepared, polymerized, air-particle abraded, and finished in accordance with the specific manufacturer's instructions. All 4 types of finished crowns were luted to the dies and embedded in polymethyl methacrylate resin blocks. Their fracture resistance was tested in a universal testing machine. The load was directed at the incisolingual line angle, at 130 degrees to the long axis of each specimen, until catastrophic failure occurred. A 7-mm-diameter rod was used to load the artificial crowns, with the center of the rod in contact with the crown surfaces. Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (PMetal-ceramic crowns fractured at significantly higher values than ceromer crowns (1317 vs 602 N, respectively) (Pmetal-ceramic crowns, still exceeded normal occlusal forces.

  1. COMPARSION EFFECTIVENES METHODS REPEIR CROWN TEETH IN DOGS

    OpenAIRE

    CHOOHNO V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Methods of dogs’ crown teeth restoration with using of anchor pin with light curable composite, glass fiber pin with light curable composite, stump crown with prosthetic crown were approved. Their effectiveness was compared. Greater reliability was shown by methods of stump crown with prosthetic crown, when using of which there was no that restoration damage in all cases, but there was no cosmetics effect. Restoration methods with using anchor pin with light curable composite and glass fiber ...

  2. Tourism as a form of social intervention: the Holiday Participation Centre in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Minnaert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concept of social tourism as a form of social intervention. Tourism is seen by the European Economic and Social Committee as an opportunity for relation building, personal development and social integration. Social tourism initiatives offer holiday opportunities for persons who are otherwise prohibited from taking holidays, because of emotional, financial or health reasons. These mostly take the form of domestic breaks or day trips. In several countries of mainland Europe, the public sector supports these initiatives via involvement in public-private partnerships. One of these partnerships is the Holiday Participation Centre in Flanders, Belgium. This article will frame the initiative within social tourism provision in Flanders, Belgium, present the basic principles upon which the system operates, and give an overview of quantitative research findings regarding its outcomes as a form of social intervention. In dit artikel wordt sociaal toerisme gepresenteerd als een sociale interventie. Het Europees Economisch en Sociaal Comité beschouwt toerisme als een middel tot het opbouwen van netwerken, persoonlijke ontwikkeling en sociale integratie. Mensen die normaliter door emotionele, financiële of gezondheidsredenen niet op vakantie kunnen, worden door sociaal toerisme in staat gesteld wel op vakantie te gaan. Dit sociaal toerisme heeft veelal de vorm van dagtripjes en binnenlandse vakanties. De publieke sector van diverse Europese landen ondersteunt deze initiatieven voor sociaal toerisme, en doet dat door publiek-private samenwerkingsverbanden op te richten. Een van deze samenwerkingsverbanden is het Steunpunt Vakantieparticipatie van Toerisme Vlaanderen, België. Dit artikel beschrijft een initiatief tot sociaal toerisme in Vlaanderen, presenteert de grondslagen van dergelijke initiatieven tot sociaal toerisme en geeft een overzicht van onderzoeksbevindingen naar het sociaal toerisme als sociale interventie.

  3. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  4. Influencing Mechanism Analysis of Holiday Activity–Travel Patterns on Transportation Energy Consumption and Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy shortage and atmospheric pollution problems are getting more serious in China, and transportation is the main source of energy consumption, pollutants, and carbon emissions. This study combined the activity-based analysis method with emission models, and investigated the influence mechanism of people’s activity travel scheduling on transportation energy consumption and emissions on holidays. Based on the holiday travel behavior survey data, the multinomial logistic regression model was first applied to explore the decision mechanisms of individual travel-mode choices in holidays. Next, the emission model was integrated with an activity-based travel demand model to calculate and compare transportation energy consumption and emissions under different policy scenarios. The results showed that socio-demographic characteristics had significant effects on holiday activity–travel patterns, and combined mode chains had a larger number of activity points than single mode chains. With an increase in the trip time of cars, and decrease of travel distance and the number of activity points, transportation energy consumption and emissions could be reduced greatly with an adjustment of holiday activity–travel patterns. The reduced portion is mainly attracted by slow traffic and public transport. However, the effects of a single policy strategy are very limited, thus portfolio policies need to be considered by policy makers.

  5. Urban Crowns: crown analysis software to assist in quantifying urban tree benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee Bradley; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The software assists urban forestry professionals, arborists, and community volunteers in assessing and monitoring the crown characteristics of urban trees (both deciduous and coniferous) using a single side-view digital photograph. Program output...

  6. Happy Holidays!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Bulletin Team

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Bulletin is marking the Christmas season of goodwill and good neighbourliness by knocking on the doors of some of our neighbours in the particle physics community. Join us as we go beyond CERN on a short tour of this very ‘particular’ world of research, which will take us from France to Japan, via Germany, Italy and the United States.   In their avid search for new discoveries and advances, particle physicists are promising us an exciting year 2012, rich in acceleration, collisions and other major developments.   Enjoy this issue of the Bulletin! And, above all: Season’s Greetings!

  7. Happy Holidays!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Bulletin Team

    2011-01-01

    This year, the CERN Bulletin is marking the Christmas season of goodwill and good neighbourliness by knocking on the doors of some of our neighbours in the particle physics community. Join us as we go beyond CERN on a short tour of this very ‘particular’ world of research, which will take us from France to Japan, via Germany, Italy and the United States.   In their avid search for new discoveries and advances, particle physicists are promising us an exciting year 2012, rich in acceleration, collisions and other major developments.   Enjoy this issue of the Bulletin! And, above all: Season’s Greetings!

  8. Restoring crown fractures by direct composite layering using transparent strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Ece; Taviloğlu, Engin

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are mostly seen at childhood and adolescence. The most common fracture in permanent anterior teeth is crown fracture. Esthetic and easy rehabilitation of these anterior teeth is possible using layering techniques and direct composite resin restorations. Shape, color and surface texture are the most important factors in restoring crown fractures esthetically. This article illustrates how to perform an esthetic composite resin restoration of crown fractures using strip crowns. The technique suggests using a strip crown as a mold for direct resin composite restoration. This provides a cost-effective treatment with operator friendly approach where most outstanding advantage is the minimum chair-side time with a single visit that is very important for young trauma patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Local lattice environment of indium in GaN, AlN, and InN; Lokale Gitterumgebung von Indium in GaN, AlN und InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, J.

    2007-12-20

    After an introduction to the physical properties of the nitrides, their preparation, and the state of studies on the implantation in the nitrides the experimental method (PAC) applied in this thesis and the data analysis are presented. The next chapter describes then the applied materials and the sample preparation. The following chapters contain the PAC measurements on the annealing behaviout of GaN, AlN, and InN after the implantation as well as dose- and temperature dependent PAC studies. Finally the most important results are summarized.

  10. All-ceramic crown preparations: An alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, J; Dudley, J; Richards, L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the crown preparation dimensions produced from two different techniques of preparation for posterior all-ceramic crowns. Twenty-four fourth year dental students undertook a course of advanced simulation training involving education in an alternative technique of preparation for a 36 all-ceramic crown. Crown preparations performed using the traditional technique were compared with an alternative technique for total occlusal convergence (TOC) and reduction difference (RD) using digital scanning and comparative software. Groups that spent the most time performing the alternative technique produced crown preparations with significantly lower buccolingual (BL) TOC. The training resulted in crown preparations that were closer to ideal TOC and RD measurements. The alternative technique of crown preparation for a posterior all-ceramic crown showed initial promise in creating a less buccolingually tapered and more ideally occlusally reduced crown preparation. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Ombud’s corner: Make yourself a gift: enjoy your holiday!

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    The winter break is a vital opportunity to leave behind the end-of-year workload stress, compounded by the rush to complete tasks in preparation of the year ahead, and focus on some genuine rest and recuperation. The challenges of 2015 can only be met if our batteries are correctly recharged: so full steam ahead for a holiday period devoted to a well earned rest and a crucial change of air and ideas!   The importance of restful holidays is a recognised downtime in all modern democracies. This is needed to overcome the work-related stress that is a growing problem in today’s work environment by ensuring the rest and recuperation that is necessary for the wellbeing of all personnel. In the field of information technology, experts know that machines would not work without “WMS”, which stands for “Workload Management Service”. Things can go very differently when instead of “jobs” for computers we talk of “tasks&r...

  12. Official holidays in 2010 and end-of-year closure 2010/2011

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2010 (in addition to the special leave during the annual closure): Friday 1st January\t(New year) Friday 2nd April\t(Good Friday) Monday, 5th April\t(Easter Monday) Thursday 13th May\t(Ascension day) Friday 14th May\t(compensation granted for 1st May) Monday 24th May\t(Whit Monday) Thursday 9th September\t(“Jeûne genevois”) Thursday 23rd December\t(compensation granted for 25th December, Christmas) Friday 24th December\t(Christmas Eve) Thursday 30th December\t(compensation granted for 1st January 2011, New Year) Friday 31st December\t(New Year’s Eve) Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Wednesday, 22nd December 2010 to Tuesday, 4th January 2011 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first worki...

  13. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-30

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world's largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Comparison of Climate Preferences for Domestic and International Beach Holidays: A Case Study of Canadian Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rutty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However, these studies have not taken into consideration that different forms of holidays (e.g., daytrips, short trips, main annual holiday, “once-in-a-lifetime” trip may have varying degrees of resilience to climatic conditions. This is the first study to explore whether ideal and unacceptable climatic conditions vary between domestic and international tourists. Using an in situ survey, Canadian beach users traveling domestically (n = 359 and internationally (n = 120 were examined. Key findings include statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 between the two sample groups for every climate variable, with the international sample more resilient to a broader range of weather conditions, including a greater acceptance for warm temperatures, longer rainfall durations, higher wind speeds, and greater cloud cover. This study adds further insight into the complexities of evaluating climate for tourism, with implications for the demand response of tourists to climate change.

  15. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on VOCs and ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengning; Huang, Xin; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Longfei; Sun, Peng; Ding, Aijun

    2017-11-01

    Both anthropogenic emission and synoptic conditions play important roles in ozone (O3) formation and accumulation. In order to understand the influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, concentrations of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and O3 as well as other relevant trace gases were simultaneously measured at the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES) in Nanjing around the National Day holidays of China in 2014, which featured substantial change of emissions and dominated by typical anti-cyclones. Different groups of VOC species and their chemical reactivities were comprehensively analyzed. We observed clear diurnal variations of short alkenes during the measurement period, considerable amount of short alkenes were observed during night (more than 10 ppb) while almost no alkenes were measured during daytime, which might be attributed to different chemical processes. The obvious enhancement of the VOC tracers during the National Day holidays (Oct. 1st-Oct. 7th) indicated that the holiday effect strongly influenced the distribution of VOC profile and chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. At the same time, two meso-scale anticyclone processes were also observed during the measurement period. The synoptic condition contributed to the accumulation of VOCs and other precursors, which consequently impacted the ozone production in this region. The integrated influence of synoptic and holiday effects was also analyzed with an Observation Based Model (OBM) based on simplified MCM (Master Chemical Mechanism) chemical mechanism. The calculated relative increment reactivity (RIR) of different VOC groups revealed that during the holidays, this region was in VOC-limited regime and the variation of RIR shows a close linkage to the development and elimination of anti-cyclones, indicating an in-negligible contribution of synoptic effect toward ozone production in this

  17. Current conduction mechanism and electrical break-down in InN grown on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmik, J.; Fleury, C.; Adikimenakis, A.; Gregušová, D.; Ťapajna, M.; Dobročka, E.; Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Androulidaki, M.; Pogany, D.; Georgakilas, A.

    2017-06-01

    Current conduction mechanism, including electron mobility, electron drift velocity (vd) and electrical break-down have been investigated in a 0.5 μm-thick (0001) InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaN/sapphire template. Electron mobility (μ) of 1040 cm2/Vs and a free electron concentration (n) of 2.1 × 1018 cm-3 were measured at room temperature with only a limited change down to 20 K, suggesting scattering on dislocations and ionized impurities. Photoluminescence spectra and high-resolution X-ray diffraction correlated with the Hall experiment showing an emission peak at 0.69 eV, a full-width half-maximum of 30 meV, and a dislocation density Ndis ˜ 5.6 × 1010 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization was done in a pulsed (10 ns-width) mode on InN resistors prepared by plasma processing and Ohmic contacts evaporation. Resistors with a different channel length ranging from 4 to 15.8 μm obeyed the Ohm law up to an electric field intensity Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, when vd ≥ 2.5 × 105 m/s. For higher E, I-V curves were nonlinear and evolved with time. Light emission with a photon energy > 0.7 eV has been observed already at modest Erad of ˜ 8.3 kV/cm and consequently, a trap-assisted interband tunneling was suggested to play a role. At Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, we assumed electron emission from traps, with a positive feed-back for the current enhancement. Catastrophic break-down appeared at E ˜ 25 kV/cm. Reduction of Ndis was suggested to fully exploit InN unique prospects for future high-frequency devices.

  18. Retrospective Study of Retention of Stainless Steel Crowns and Pre-veneered Crowns on Primary Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Loverich, Angela M; Garcia, Maria Minerva; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to explore the retention of anterior pre-veneered stainless steel crowns (NuSmile) and conventional stainless steel crowns (3M ESPE) placed on primary anterior teeth. Records for children were reviewed over four years using the electronic record system axiUm. Data collected included child's age at time of crown placement, date of placement, tooth number, type of crown, patient behavior, treatment environment, provider type, crown presence, absence, and cementation success or failure at subsequent recall visits. A total of 637 anterior crowns in children treated with either or both crown types met this study's inclusion criteria. Of these crowns, 483 were NuSmile Signature crowns and 154 were stainless steel crowns. There was a nine percent failure rate for the NuSmile Signature crowns and a seven percent failure rate for the stainless steel crowns. There was no statistically significant difference in crown retention rates between the two groups (Pcrown retention rates for both crown types with no statistically significant difference between them (P<0.05).

  19. EL CROWN HALL. CONTEXTO Y PROYECTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lizondo Sevilla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo enmarca el edificio del Crown Hall en el contexto docente y arquitectónico de Mies van der Rohe. Revisa sus inicios en la Bauhaus con su primera intervención en un espacio docente para la Bauhaus de Berlín en 1932, así como su marcha a Estados Unidos, los planteamientos arquitectónicos del campus del IIT y el proyecto del Crown Hall. El texto incide en el estudio del proceso proyectual del Crown Hall analizando la evolución de su concepción arquitectónica a través de las diferentes versiones del proyecto. Se constata la transición desde los primeros planteamientos arquitectónicos de los edificios del campus del IIT proyectados por Mies hacia el planteamiento del gran espacio unitario del Crown Hall. Este proyecto se puede entender desde la creciente importancia de la estructura, la claridad constructiva y el manejo del acero y vidrio como únicos materiales de la imagen del edificio y el carácter flexible y unitario del espacio. Finalmente se hace referencia al concepto del "espacio universal" en la arquitectura de Mies, como un concepto abstracto que supera los de flexibilidad de uso o unidad espacial, insinuando, a modo de reflexión, las principales variables que definirían el espacio universal miesiano.SUMMARY The article showcases the Crown Hall building in the educational and architectural context of Mies van der Rohe. It reviews his beginnings in the Bauhaus with his first intervention in an educational space for the Bauhaus of Berlin in 1932, as well as his sojourn to the United States, and the architectural approaches to the IIT campus and the Crown Hall project. The text touches on the study of the planning process for the Crown Hall, analysing the evolution of its architectural conception, through the different versions of the project. The article covers the transition from the first architectural approaches for the IIT campus buildings, planned by Mies, to the approach of the large unitary space of

  20. [The method of esthetic crown restoration with composite resin jacket crown in primary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K; Shibui, N; Suda, M; Uehara, M; Karibe, H; Kondou, K

    1990-10-01

    The term "esthetics" has recently been also used in the dental field, and a field called esthetic dentistry is increasingly being noted. The number of not only adult but also pediatric patients who visit for treatment aiming at esthetic recovery is being increased. Inpedodontics, composite resin of the coronal color is generally used in the restoration of deciduous incisors. However, the method using metal crowns for the deciduous teeth is used for the deciduous molars at present. We applied a composite resin jacket crown to the deciduous molar in a way similar to that of esthetic crown restoration for the anterior teeth. The surgical procedure before crown preparation varied slightly according to the presence or absence of pulpal treatment of vital teeth and with non-vital teeth, but the application was performed as follows: 1) Desensitization of pulp, pulpal treatment and core construction. 2) Preparation of crown. 3) Selection, trial set and occlusal equilibration of a metal crown for the deciduous tooth. 4) Precision impression with a silicone impression material. 5) Removal of the metal crown for the deciduous tooth from the impression material. 6) Making of an under-cut to the abutment tooth on the buccal lingual side. 7) Filling of the impression with chemical polymerization resin. 8) Application of pressure in the oral cavity. 9) Adjustment of edge and crown forms. Thus, the preparation method for the composite resin jacket crown was relatively simple. Since this surgery, the patient has been followed up for 1 year and 6 months, and no specifically troublesome points have been observed clinically. The patient and her parents are satisfied with the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Clinical Evaluation and Parental Satisfaction with Pediatric Zirconia Anterior Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Daniel M; Wells, Martha H; Scarbecz, Mark; Donaldson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of and parental satisfaction with anterior pediatric zirconia crowns. A retrospective analysis of maxillary anterior pediatric zirconia crowns was performed. Crowns were evaluated for retention, gingival health, color match, contour, marginal integrity, and opposing tooth wear. Parental satisfaction regarding the esthetics of the crowns and parental perception of the impact of treatment on the child's appearance and oral health were evaluated by questionnaire. Fifty-seven crowns were evaluated in 18 children. Eight teeth were lost to exfoliation, three were extracted due to pathology, and two crowns debonded, leaving 44 available for examination. The average crown age at time of examination was 20.8 months. Sixteen crowns (36 percent) displayed gingival inflammation and color mismatch. No recurrent caries or opposing tooth wear was noted. Parents reported high satisfaction with the color, size, and shape of the crowns. The majority of parents reported that crowns improved the appearance and oral health of their child (78 percent and 83 percent, respectively). Eight-nine percent of parents reported that they would highly recommend these crowns. Zirconia crowns are clinically acceptable restorations in the primary maxillary anterior dentition. Parental satisfaction with zirconia crowns is high.

  2. PREFORMED METAL CROWNS FOR THE PERMANENT DENTITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Lynsey M; Cairns, Alison M; Fowler, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Preformed metal crowns have a range of uses in paediatric dentistry in both the primary and permanent dentition. This article provides an overview of their use in permanent teeth, including teeth that have been affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation, caries, developmental defects and tooth surface loss. The indications for use are described, along with the clinical technique for placement

  3. Aesthetic preformed crowns for primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Greig D

    2017-06-23

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionEnglish language randomised clinical trials comparing APCs with conventional restorative techniques for primary teeth.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection and data abstraction were conducted independently by two reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Study characteristics and results were described qualitatively. Meta-analysis was not conducted.ResultsSeven studies were included, six reported on primary molars and one on primary incisors. There was great variety in the design of the RCTs, however, all compared pre-veneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs) with other crowns or two different pre-veneered SSCs. The risk of bias in all studies was high with significantly different outcome measures used.ConclusionsSSCs cannot be replaced by APCs for restoring decayed primary molar teeth due to the insufficient quality of evidence available. After a follow-up of only six months, zircon crowns gave significantly better results than the others regarding gingival health and crown fractures. Due to the small number of RCTs on this topic and their risk of bias, future RCTs should be carried out in primary teeth.

  4. Paraphoma crown rot of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslemi, Azin; Ades, Peter Kevin; Groom, Tim; Crous, Pedro; Nicolas, Marc Edward; Taylor, Paul William James

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) is commercially cultivated for the extraction of natural pyrethrin insecticides from the oil glands inside seeds. Yield-decline has caused significant yield losses in Tasmania during the last decade. A new pathogen of pyrethrum causing crown rot and reduced

  5. Confronting Stereotypes: "Maus" in Crown Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Andrea Freud

    1998-01-01

    Concentrates specifically on the experience of using "Maus" (a narrative in comic strip form) with one class which met in spring 1996, after the accidental killing of a Black child by a Hasidic Jew in Crown Heights, New York. Uses the text at Medgar Evers College in a freshman composition course which also functions as an introduction to…

  6. Month of the Year and Pre- Holiday Effects In Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the existence of two anomalies in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance; the month of the year and pre-holiday effect, and their implication for stock market efficiency. Investing in Shari’ah compliant is different from investing in conventional stock. Conventional stock market followed the capital market set of rules and law, while Shari’ah follows not only followed the capital market set of laws but also the Islamic principles. Most of the previous studies investigated issues related to the conventional stock market, this study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari’ah compliant instrument and make comparison between both Shari’ah compliance stock market in Indonesia and Malaysia. We document high and significant returns in month and pre-holiday in Indonesia and Malaysia stock market that represent by the Shari’ah compliance. Our result indicate that the month of the year effect is prevalent in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance.   Keywords: Calendar effects, Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance, Month of the year and pre-holiday effects

  7. Internal adaptation of cast titanium crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As the adaptation of titanium crowns obtained by Rematitan Plus investment, specific for titanium, is not recognized to be suitable, this study evaluated the effect of the concentration of the specific liquid and the temperature of the mold of investments on the internal misfit of crowns cast on commercially pure titanium. Individual dies of epoxy resin were obtained, representing teeth prepared for full-crown restoration with a 6-degree axial surface convergence angle and shoulder (1.0 mm. For the waxing of each crown, a ring-shaped stainless steel matrix (8.0mm internal diameter; 7.5 mm height was adapted above the individual dies of epoxy resin. The Rematian Plus investment was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions using two different concentrations of the specific liquid: 100%, 75%. Casting was performed in a Discovery Plasma Ar-arc vacuum-pressure casting machine with molds at temperatures of 430ºC, 515ºC and 600ºC. The crowns were cleaned individually in a solution (1% HF + 13% HNO3 for 10 min using a ultrasonic cleaner, with no internal adaptations, and luted with zinc phosphate cement under a 5 kg static load. The crown and die assemblies were embedded in resin and sectioned longitudinally. The area occupied by cement was observed using stereoscopic lens (10X and measured by the Leica Qwin image analysis system (mm². The data for each experimental condition (n=8 were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (á=0.05. The results showed that liquid dilution and the increase in mold temperature did not significantly influence the levels of internal fit of the cast titanium crowns. The lowest means (±SD of internal misfit were obtained for the 430ºC/100%: (7.25 mm² ±1.59 and 600ºC/100% (8.8 mm² ±2.25 groups, which presented statistically similar levels of internal misfit.

  8. Promoting access to and use of seismic data in a large scientific community. SpaceInn data handling and archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric; Belkacem, Kevin; Samadi, Reza; Assis Peralta, Raphael de; Renié, Christian; Abed, Mahfoudh; Lin, Guangyuan; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Houdek, Günter; Handberg, Rasmus; Gizon, Laurent; Burston, Raymond; Nagashima, Kaori; Pallé, Pere; Poretti, Ennio; Rainer, Monica; Mistò, Angelo; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Roth, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The growing amount of seismic data available from space missions (SOHO, CoRoT, Kepler, SDO,…) but also from ground-based facilities (GONG, BiSON, ground-based large programmes…), stellar modelling and numerical simulations, creates new scientific perspectives such as characterizing stellar populations in our Galaxy or planetary systems by providing model-independent global properties of stars such as mass, radius, and surface gravity within several percent accuracy, as well as constraints on the age. These applications address a broad scientific community beyond the solar and stellar one and require combining indices elaborated with data from different databases (e.g. seismic archives and ground-based spectroscopic surveys). It is thus a basic requirement to develop a simple and effcient access to these various data resources and dedicated tools. In the framework of the European project SpaceInn (FP7), several data sources have been developed or upgraded. The Seismic Plus Portal has been developed, where synthetic descriptions of the most relevant existing data sources can be found, as well as tools allowing to localize existing data for given objects or period and helping the data query. This project has been developed within the Virtual Observatory (VO) framework. In this paper, we give a review of the various facilities and tools developed within this programme. The SpaceInn project (Exploitation of Space Data for Innovative Helio- and Asteroseismology) has been initiated by the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network (HELAS).

  9. Thermal expansions in wurtzite AlN, GaN, and InN: First-principle phonon calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yang, Xiaodong; Yan, Hui

    2011-08-01

    Using the first-principle phonon calculations under the quasiharmonic approximation, thermal expansions in III-nitrides with wurtzite AlN, GaN, and InN are reported. The results showed that it is different for each thermal expansion of three III-nitrides at low temperatures, which is consistent with their Grüneisen parameters as the function of temperature. Below 50 K, negative thermal expansions occur in InN, while GaN and AlN follow the rule of positive thermal expansion. To seek the origin of positive/negative thermal expansion distinction, the mode Grüneisen parameters and the phonon spectra are investigated. They indicate that different low-frequency phonon vibration modes correspond to the change of thermal expansions. Below 5 THz, the significant weighted negative values of mode Grüneisen parameters, caused by the weakening of mixing-mode constituted with two transverse acoustic (TA) modes and a small overlapped part of optical modes, directly lead to the negative thermal expansion at low temperatures.

  10. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  11. Electronic band structure of wurtzite InN around the fundamental gap in the presence of biaxial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Jayeeta; Ghosh, Sandip [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2007-02-15

    We present results of a theoretical study of the electronic band structure of wurtzite InN films under biaxial strain in the C-plane (0001) and in planes that correspond to non-polar orientations such as the A-plane (11 anti 20) and the M-plane (1 anti 100). The calculations are performed under the k.p perturbation theory approach using the Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian. The results show that the fundamental bandgap of InN shifts by 30 meV (14 meV) for isotropic tensile (compressive) strain in the C -plane with out-of-plane contraction (dilation) of 0.2%. For films of non-polar orientations, the c-axis lies in the film plane and the strain is expected to be different between directions parallel and perpendicular to c. Such anisotropic strain give rise to valence band mixing which results in dramatic changes in the optical polarization properties as evidenced by the calculated oscillator strengths of the interband transitions. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. New atraumatic easy removal technique for permanently cemented crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravinkumar G Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of a permanently cemented crown or fixed partial denture is a cumbersome procedure for a prosthodontist, especially when there is no purchase point available to remove it. The technique described in this article consists of sectioning of a crown on facial surface followed by removal of the crown with orthodontic plier. This technique does not damage the gingival/periodontal tissues or underlying tooth structure as the crown need not to be removed with jerky back-action force.

  13. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Manca, Francesco; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the behavioral factors underlying tourist intentions to use urban bike-sharing for cycling while on holiday. The analytical framework relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior relating tourist intentions to favorable attitudes toward cycling, interest in bicycle technology...

  15. Adolescents binge drinking when on holiday: an evaluation of a community intervention based on self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Luitgaarden, J.; Knibbe, R.A.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a community intervention aimed at reducing excessive drinking in young men on holiday in seaside camping resorts in the Netherlands. The self-regulated voluntary covenant of parties concerned was evaluated on the basis of several types of data (all collected in

  16. Comparative photophysical behaviour of naphthalene-linked crown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. A comparative time-resolved emission studies of several naphtho-crown ethers I–V, where metal ions can be complexed in a predetermined orientation with respect to the naphthalene (Naph) π- plane and naphthalene-linked aza crown ethers (L1 and L2) have been presented. In both the systems, crown ethers ...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  18. Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis (Linn f Verbenaceae). FS Popo-ola, BA Oyebade,. Abstract. Tree crown is one complement of net primary production and its dimensions reflect general tree health. Crown diameter is often used as an important predictor variable for tree growth equation.

  19. Crown dilacerations - Two case reports | Rao | Nigerian Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crown dilaceration is a relatively abnormal clinical finding when compared to root dilacerations. The incidence of crown dilacerations is stated to be as low as 3%. This report presents two cases of crown dilacerations in two different locations. A brief review of the literature pertinent to the condition, and the clinical and ...

  20. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  1. Distribution And Types Of Artificial Crowns And Bridges Prescribed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no statically crowned tooth was the maxillary central incisor constituting 59.7 per cent. All – resin crowns were the most prescribed (59.2 per cent) followed was porcelain – fused to – metal crowns (38. 1 per cent). A total of 68 fixed partial dentures, consisting of 178 retainers and 117 poetics made for 68 patients

  2. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna P Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen; Andrew N Gray

    2015-01-01

    Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire...

  3. Thinning guidelines from crown area relationships for young hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; Luke Cecil

    2010-01-01

    Crown closure in hardwood plantations signals the first opportunity to apply density control treatments such as thinning or release. The proper timing of these treatments is a function of stocking levels and is generally scheduled within several years after initial crown closure. Predicting crown closure for a plantation provides practitioners with the ability to plan...

  4. Official holidays in 2016 and end-of-year closure 2016/2017

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations.   Official holidays in 2016 (in addition to the special leave during the annual closure): Friday, 1 January                 (New Year) Friday, 25 March                 (Good Friday) Monday, 28 March              (Easter Monday) Thursday, 5 May                   (Ascension Day) Friday, 6 May          ...

  5. From charity and philanthropy to State social protection: school holiday camps in Spain (1887-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. MORENO MARTÍNEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available School holiday camps, which started in Switzerland in 1886, would start to function in Spain under the institutionalist and director of the then called Museo de Instrucción Primaria de Madrid (Museum of Primary Instruction, Manuel B. Cossío, in 1887. The paper analyses briefly the social, hygienic and educational context in which international movement of summer camps made their appearance and with special reference to Spain. The paper focuses on the beginnings and the scope of these camps in Spain and on the influence of public policies on these processes. These policies shifted from initial government inhibition and the call to the forces of the country to charity and patriotism, to a progressive promotion and to State protection for the summer camps.

  6. Comparing Observed with Predicted Weekly Influenza-Like Illness Rates during the Winter Holiday Break, United States, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjiang; Wong, Karen K; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Shi, Jianrong; Uzicanin, Amra; Rainey, Jeanette J

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, influenza season typically begins in October or November, peaks in February, and tapers off in April. During the winter holiday break, from the end of December to the beginning of January, changes in social mixing patterns, healthcare-seeking behaviors, and surveillance reporting could affect influenza-like illness (ILI) rates. We compared predicted with observed weekly ILI to examine trends around the winter break period. We examined weekly rates of ILI by region in the United States from influenza season 2003-2004 to 2012-2013. We compared observed and predicted ILI rates from week 44 to week 8 of each influenza season using the auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method. Of 1,530 region, week, and year combinations, 64 observed ILI rates were significantly higher than predicted by the model. Of these, 21 occurred during the typical winter holiday break period (weeks 51-52); 12 occurred during influenza season 2012-2013. There were 46 observed ILI rates that were significantly lower than predicted. Of these, 16 occurred after the typical holiday break during week 1, eight of which occurred during season 2012-2013. Of 90 (10 HHS regions x 9 seasons) predictions during the peak week, 78 predicted ILI rates were lower than observed. Out of 73 predictions for the post-peak week, 62 ILI rates were higher than observed. There were 53 out of 73 models that had lower peak and higher post-peak predicted ILI rates than were actually observed. While most regions had ILI rates higher than predicted during winter holiday break and lower than predicted after the break during the 2012-2013 season, overall there was not a consistent relationship between observed and predicted ILI around the winter holiday break during the other influenza seasons.

  7. Fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns with reduced thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fracture load of monolithic zirconia crowns and axial/occlusal thickness and to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with reduced thickness in comparison with that of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with regular thickness. Monolithic zirconia crowns (Lava Plus Zirconia, 3M/ESPE) with specified axial/occlusal thicknesses and lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max press, Ivoclar/Vivadent) with regular thickness were fabricated using a dental CAD/CAM system and a press technique, respectively. The crowns cemented onto dies were loaded until fracture. Based on measurements of the crown thickness made by micro-CT and the fracture load, multiple regression analysis was performed. It was revealed that the occlusal thickness significantly affected the fracture load (p zirconia crowns, the fracture load of the zirconia crowns with the occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm (5558 ± 522 N) was significantly higher than that of lithium disilicate crowns with an occlusal thickness of 1.5 mm (3147 ± 409 N). Within the limitations of the present study, it is suggested that monolithic zirconia crown with chamfer width of 0.5 mm and occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm can be used in the molar region in terms of fracture resistance.

  8. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant.

  9. Pediatric Preformed Metal Crowns - An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sangameshwar Sajjanshetty; P S Patil; Deepa Hugar; K Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Stainless Steel crowns (SSC) were introduced in 1947 by the Rocky Mountain Company and popularized by Humphrey in 1950. Prefabricated SSC can be adapted to individual primary teeth and cemented in place to provide a definitive restoration. The SSC is extremely durable, relatively inexpensive, subject to minimal technique sensitivity during placement, and offers the advantage of full coronal coverage. SSC are often used to restore primary and permanent teeth in children and adolescents where i...

  10. The use of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N Sue

    2002-01-01

    The stainless steel crown (SSC) is an extremely durable restoration with several clear-cut indications for use in primary teeth including: following a pulpotomy/pulpectomy; for teeth with developmental defects or large carious lesions involving multiple surfaces where an amalgam is likely to fail; and for fractured teeth. In other situations, its use is less clear cut, and caries risk factors, restoration longevity and cost effectiveness are considerations in decisions to use the SSC. The literature on caries risk factors in young children indicates that children at high risk exhibiting anterior tooth decay and/or molar caries may benefit by treatment with stainless steel crowns to protect the remaining at-risk tooth surfaces. Studies evaluating restoration longevity, including the durability and lifespan of SSCs and Class II amalgams demonstrate the superiority of SSCs for both parameters. Children with extensive decay, large lesions or multiple surface lesions in primary molars should be treated with stainless steel crowns. Because of the protection from future decay provided by their feature of full coverage and their increased durability and longevity, strong consideration should be given to the use of SSCs in children who require general anesthesia. Finally, a strong argument for the use of the SSC restoration is its cost effectiveness based on its durability and longevity.

  11. Influence of In-N Clusters on Band Gap Energy of Dilute Nitride In x Ga1-x N y As1-y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Guo, Heng-Fei; Chen, Li-Ying; Tang, Chun-Xiao; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2016-05-01

    The In-N clusters form in the dilute nitride InxGa1-xNyAs1-y alloys after annealing. It is found that the formation of the In-N clusters not only raises the N levels lying above the conduction band minimum (CBM) of InGaAs, but also raises the N levels below the CBM of InGaAs, leading to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. The blueshift of the band gap energy is relative to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. In order to describe the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the formation of the In-N clusters, a model is developed. It is found that the model can describe the blueshift of the band gap energy well. In addition, it is found the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the atom interdiffusion at the interface can be larger than that due to the formation of the In-N clusters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61504094, Tinjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology under No. 15JCYBJC16300, and Tianjin City High School Science and Technology Fund Planning Project No. 20120609

  12. Growth of cubic InN on GaP(1 0 0) with GaN buffer by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S.-Y.; Sun, Q.; Kwak, J.; Seo, H.-C.; Han, J.

    2011-07-01

    Growth of cubic InN (c-InN) under N-rich condition was achieved by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on GaP(1 0 0) substrates with a cubic GaN (c-GaN) buffer layer. Insertion of the c-GaN buffer layer suppressed In droplet formation in c-InN. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that the InN layers have zincblende structure with only a small fraction of oxide phase inclusions and no significant hexagonal InN is present. By systemically varying growth conditions, it was found that the c-InN growth is dominated mainly by In adatoms' surface diffusion and InN surface decomposition and three distinct regimes of c-InN growth are observed. The growth of c-InN on c-GaN/GaP(1 0 0) templates eventually followed a three-dimensional growth mode in the thermally activated growth regime and density and size distribution of c-InN dots significantly changed with substrate temperature and growth rate. These results provide a stronger understanding of the growth mechanism to design and engineer InN-based nanostructures with desired shapes for potential technological applications.

  13. Magnetic and electrical properties of antiperovskite Mn3InN synthesized by a high-pressure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. S.; Guo, Y. F.; Wang, X. X.; Yi, W.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, S. B.; Sathish, C. I.; Belik, A. A.; Yamaura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mn3InN antiperovskite is synthesized under high-pressure conditions, followed by measurements of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat. Multiple magnetic interactions are observed between 2 K and 400 K: the paramagnetic state turns to an antiferromagnetic state at 300 K on cooling, and a weak ferromagnetic contribution appears at 175 K by further cooling. Below 50 K, an enhanced ferromagnetic contribution is obvious. Although a long-range antiferromagnetic order is clearly established at room temperature, the material retains a good metallic conduction over a wide temperature range (the Sommerfeld coefficient is 43.3 mJ mol-1 K-2), suggesting a possible use of the material in spintronics applications.

  14. An Investigation Into the Integrity of Fit of Provisional Crowns Using Current Proprietary Temporary Crown Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip D; Georgakis, Georgios; Niggli, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Three methods of direct provisional crown construction were investigated for accuracy of marginal fit. A modified proprietary crown coping was compared to Bis GMA and isobutyl methacrylate resin provisional crowns with margins modified by using a flowable composite and 'bead on' isobutyl methacrylate respectively. Measurement was at 50x magnification at seven sites over the fit surface. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0.1 and measurement compared using the Mann Whitney test set at a significance level of 0.05. Reliability was checked using the Bland Altman test. Statistical significant differences were found between the three groups. The order of best fit was Bis-GMA and flowable composite > isobutyl methacrylate with 'bead on' margins > Bis-GMA modified implant temporary coping. The clinical significance is that the Bis GMA and flowable composite combination can be used with equal confidence to traditional methods of temporarisation.

  15. Fracture strength of ceramic monolithic crown systems of different thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Niklas; Vult von Steyern, Per; Larsson, Christel

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture strength of high-translucent (HTZ) and low-translucent (LTZ) zirconia and glass-ceramic (LDS) crowns. HTZ and LTZ crowns were made with thicknesses of; 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm; and LDS crowns of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses. Each group consisted of 10 crowns. All crowns underwent artificial aging before loading until fracture. Mean fracture strengths varied from 450 N to 3,248 N in the LTZ group, 438 N to 3,487 N in the HTZ group, and 1,030 N to 1,431 N in the LDS group. The load at fracture of HTZ and LTZ crowns was equal. The load at fracture of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals crowns was significantly greater than LDS crowns (P = 0.000). Two types of fractures were recorded; complete and partial crack-like fracture. The crack type fracture occurred most frequently in all groups except in the thicker LTZ groups (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm). According to this study, there is no difference in strength between crowns made of high-translucent or low-translucent zirconia. At equal thickness, the strength of zirconia crowns was significantly greater than that of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic.

  16. Posterior preveneered stainless steel crowns: clinical performance after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Anne C; Kratunova, Evelina; Leith, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior preveneered stainless steel crowns after three years. NuSmile crowns and Kinder Krowns were randomly allocated on paired molars using a split-mouth design. Variables such as fracture, wear, gingival health, and esthetics were recorded. (PStatistical analysis was completed on 34 paired crowns in 14 children. After three years, 53 percent of crowns were fracture free compared to 81 percent at one year. There was minimal esthetic impact for most fractures due to the location of the veneer fracture, but five crowns had extensive fracture. No difference was reported in the clinical performance between the two crown types. Fracture was more likely to occur where the adjacent tooth was missing. Parents reported a satisfaction rating of 8.3 out of 10. Clinical performance of both crown types was similar and successful for three years. Facing fracture occurred in 47 percent of crowns but had minimal impact on the esthetic value or parental satisfaction in the majority of cases. These crowns offer an esthetic alternative to the traditional stainless steel crown, but parents should be alerted to the possibility of veneer loss over time.

  17. Veneer retention of preveneered primary stainless steel crowns after crimping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monica; Chen, Jung-Wei; Ontiveros, Joe C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if crimping the lingual aspect of commercially available, preveneered, anterior stainless steel primary crowns affects the fracture resistance of the veneer facings. Twenty-six anterior NuSmile crowns (size A1) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 served as the control, and group 2 was manually crimped evenly on the lingual cervical portion. All crowns were cemented onto a screw-mounted resin core duplicated from a manually prepared Kilgore tooth and tested under compression. Recorded were fracture resistance, percent of veneer facing loss, and fracture to the gingival margin. Differences between the control and experimental groups were analyzed by independent t test and chi-square (alpha=0.05). The mean shear force required to fracture the veneers of the noncrimped crowns was 510.11 N (+/-79.66 SD), and 511.02 N (+/-62.37) for the crimped crowns. The mean percentage of veneer facing removed in the noncrimped crowns was 33% (+/-12.18), and 43% (+/-14.30) in the crimped crowns. No significant difference in shear strengths (P=.970) and in percentage of veneer loss (P=.063) was shown between crimped and noncrimped crowns. A mean of 8% of the noncrimped crowns and 23% of the crimped crowns had veneers fracturing to the gingival margin. The chi-square test showed no significant difference (P=.297). The veneer resistance to fracture for the crimped crowns was comparable to noncrimped crowns. The crimped crowns, however, were associated with greater veneer surface area loss.

  18. Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (OPEN study)123

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Chad M; Subar, Amy F; Troiano, Richard P.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A significant proportion of the average annual body weight (BW) gain in US adults (∼0.5–1 kg/y) may result from modest episodes of positive energy balance during the winter holiday season.

  19. Understanding and optimization of InN and high indium containing InGaN alloys by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuna, Oecal

    2013-07-18

    Among the III-nitride semiconductors (Ga,Al,In)N, InN is the most attractive one due to having the narrowest bandgap of 0.64 eV. The revision in the bandgap of InN makes the InGaN more important since one can cover the whole solar spectrum by only changing In composition in an InGaN layer. The comparison of quality of InN and InGaN layers grown using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods indicate that growth with MOCVD is the more challenging, again due to the high dissociation temperature of NH{sub 3} relative to the low decomposition temperature of InN (560-570 C). However, there is significant interest in developing an MOCVD process for InN and InGaN growth since MOCVD technology is the technology currently in use for commercial fabrication of group III nitride thin films. This thesis is therefore focused on a study of MOCVD growth of n- and p-type InN and In-rich InGaN films with the goal of providing new information on the influence of growth conditions on the film properties. Initially, a detailed investigation of MOCVD of InN is given. It is shown that MOCVD growth parameters (growth temperature and V/III ratio) have impacts on the layer properties such as In droplet formation on the surface as well as on its electrical and optical properties. PAS is employed for point defect analyzation. It is shown that In vacancies isolated by nitrogen vacancies are the dominant vacancy-type positron traps in InN. A decrease in the N vacancy concentration in InN is observed as a result of the growth temperature increase from 500 to 550 C. This is an indication of a reduction of N vacancy concentration by enhancing NH{sub 3} dissociation at high growth temperature. Results obtained from optical techniques (Raman and PL) are used to estimate the free carrier concentrations in InN. Electrical characterizations are also carried out using Hall measurements. Carrier concentration values obtained by these three techniques

  20. Visceral Leishmaniasis in a UK Toddler following a Short Trip to a Popular Holiday Destination in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Minakaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein present the case of a 15-month-old with visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in the UK following a short trip to a popular holiday destination in Spain. Four months after the initial symptoms, the diagnosis was made incidentally on microscopy of a bone marrow biopsy taken for suspected haematological malignancy after the child developed hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopaenia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia.

  1. An inter-comparison of the Holiday Climate Index (HCI) and the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Scott; Michelle Rutty; Bas Amelung; Mantao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to quantifying optimal or unacceptable climate conditions both generally and for specific tourism segments or activities over the last 10 years. This knowledge is not incorporated in the Tourism Climate Index (TCI), which has also been subject to other substantial critiques. To more accurately assess the climatic suitability of destinations for leisure tourism, the Holiday Climate Index (HCI) was developed. A major advancement of the HCI is that its variable rat...

  2. The Role of Feasts and Holidays in the Cultural Space of Russian-Speaking Emigrants (Evidence from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Bazanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a qualitative sociological case study, the article compares the ritual organization and perception of religious, family and state holidays. At this stage, the traditional ritual regulation cultivates, rather, a division of Russian-speaking emigrant groups. One can also observe certain differences in the awareness of the general symbolic experience and in the perception of their socio-cultural identity among the representatives of different migration ‘waves’.

  3. [Comparison of the clinical effects of selective laser melting deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy base crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-min; Wang, Wei-qian; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of selective laser melting (SLM) deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns. One hundred and sixty eight patients treated with either SLM deposition basal crowns (110 teeth) or cobalt chromium alloy casting basal crowns (110 teeth) were followed-up for 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. The revised standard of American Public Health Association was used to evaluate the clinical effect of restoration, including the color of porcelain crowns, gingival inflammation, gingival margin discoloration, and crack or fracture. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 20 software package for Student's t test and Chi-square test. Six cases were lost to follow-up. The patients who were treated with SLM deposition basal crowns (104 teeth) and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns (101 teeth) completed the study. Patients were more satisfied with SLM deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crowns. There was 1 prosthesis with poor marginal fit after 24 months of restoration in SLM crowns. There were 6 prostheses with edge coloring and 8 with poor marginal fit in cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns, which was significantly different between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The SLM deposition copings results in smaller edge coloring and better marginal fit than those of cobalt-chrome copings. Patients are pleased with short-term clinical results.

  4. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinholdt Tine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur.

  5. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna; Reinholdt, Tine

    2008-10-07

    People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur.

  6. Epidemiology and molecular investigation of hepatitis C infection following holiday haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K M; Galmés-Truyols, A; Giménez-Duran, J; Anderson, E; Prempeh, H; González-Candelas, F; Bracho, M A; Aitken, C; Mactier, R; Tejera, E

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is not infrequent among haemodialysis patients. Most published reports suggest that patient-to-patient spread, either directly or indirectly, is the most common mode of transmission in renal units. To investigate the source of an outbreak, and the route of transmission, of acute HCV infection in two Scottish patients occurring within eight weeks of receiving haemodialysis in the same unit while on holiday in Majorca. This was an international epidemiological and molecular investigation of HCV infection among a cohort of haemodialysis patients from nine countries. No further HCV-positive infections were observed among residents and holidaymakers receiving haemodialysis at the unit in Majorca. Molecular investigations confirmed that a Spanish healthcare worker (HCW) was the source of infection for the two Scottish patients. The investigators were unable to determine the route of transmission. This outbreak is the first reported case of HCW-to-patient transmission of HCV in a renal unit, and the third reported case of transmission involving a HCW who had not performed invasive procedures. The issue of whether renal units are an exceptional case with regards to the risk of transmission associated with non-invasive procedures should be considered, in conjunction with the need to improve surveillance of blood-borne virus transmissions in renal units in the UK and abroad. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The changing face of the amateur holiday film in Britain as constructed by post-war amateur cine world (1945–1951)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, M

    2014-01-01

    Amateur filmmaking, motoring and holidaymaking were three complementary leisure activities which re-emerged with a greater intensity for middle-class consumers in the immediate postwar period. The end of restrictions on travel, an increasing availability of film stock, and the first real chance to take advantage of the Holidays With Pay Act, (the latter of which had been disrupted by World War II) created new opportunities for cine enthusiasts to produce a holiday film after 1945.\\ud \\ud In t...

  8. Aerosol optical properties observation and its relationship to meteorological conditions and emission during the Chinese National Day and Spring Festival holiday in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhao, Hujia; Gui, Ke; Sun, Tianze; An, Linchang; Yu, Jie; Liu, Chong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-11-01

    The reduction of traffic flow in downtown areas during the Chinese National Day holiday and the fireworks during the Spring Festival provide a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of urban anthropogenic activities on aerosol optical properties during these important Chinese festivals in Beijing. The National Day in 2014 and 2015 and Spring Festival in 2015 and 2016 were selected as study periods. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased over the all holiday periods and the average AODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival were about 81%, 21% and 36% higher than the background levels, respectively. The average AOD in 2014 National Day holiday was lower than background level partly influenced by precipitation event. The absorption AOD (AAOD) at 440 nm showed consistent variations with the AOD and the average AAODs during the 2015 National Day, 2015 Spring Festival and 2016 Spring Festival holidays were about 75%, 19% and 23% higher than the background level, respectively. The mean values of single scattering albedo were greater than the background level during the Spring Festival holidays, whereas the values during the National Day holiday in 2015 were lower partly due to the reduction of vehicular emissions in downtown areas. Fine- and coarse-mode particle volumes during pollution periods in holidays were 0.04-0.25 μm3 and 0.03-0.15 μm3 larger than background level, respectively. The results of potential source contribution function and concentration-weighted trajectory analyses identified the areas south of Beijing as the main source regions of PM2.5 and were responsible for the extremely high PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing during the holiday periods. The findings of this study may aid understanding the effects of human activities on aerosol optical properties over Beijing area and contribute to improving regional air quality.

  9. Assessing population movement impacts on urban heat island of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday: effects of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Chinese New Year (CNY), or Spring Festival, is the most important of all festivals in China. We use daily observations to show that Beijing's urban heat island (UHI) effects largely depend on precipitation, cloud cover, and water vapor but are insensitive to wind speed, during the CNY holiday season. Non-precipitating, clear, and low humidity conditions favor strong UHI effects. The CNY holiday, with some 3 billion journeys made, provides a living laboratory to explore the role of population movements in the UHI phenomenon. Averaged over the period 2004-2013, with the Olympic year of 2008 excluded, Beijing's UHI effects during the CNY week decline by 0.48 °C relative to the background period (4 weeks including 2 to 3 weeks before, and 2 to 3 weeks after, the CNY week). With combined effects of precipitation, large cloud cover, and high water vapor excluded, the UHI effects during the CNY week averaged over the study period decline by 0.76 °C relative to the background period, significant at the 99% confidence level by Student's t test. These results indicate that the impacts of population movements can be more easily detected when excluding unfavorable meteorological conditions to the UHI. Population movements occur not only during the CNY holiday, but also during all the time across the globe. We suggest that better understanding the role of population movements will offer new insight into anthropogenic climate modifications.

  10. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  11. Pediatric Preformed Metal Crowns - An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangameshwar Sajjanshetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless Steel crowns (SSC were introduced in 1947 by the Rocky Mountain Company and popularized by Humphrey in 1950. Prefabricated SSC can be adapted to individual primary teeth and cemented in place to provide a definitive restoration. The SSC is extremely durable, relatively inexpensive, subject to minimal technique sensitivity during placement, and offers the advantage of full coronal coverage. SSC are often used to restore primary and permanent teeth in children and adolescents where intracoronal restorations would otherwise fail. This article brings the update of this definitive restoration.

  12. An Overview of Preformed Metal Crowns. Part 1: Conventional Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Helen J; Batley, Haris A; Deery, Chris

    2015-12-01

    This article details the clinical techniques for conventional preformed metal crown placement. It aims to increase the readers' awareness of the clinical advantages of preformed metal crowns and the indications for their use. The second part will discuss the Hall Technique. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This two-part article aims to guide the reader through the conventional and alternative techniques available for placement of a preformed metal crown whilst providing an update of the evidence for each.

  13. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  14. Assessment of nickel release from stainless steel crowns.

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Ramazani; Rahil Ahmadi; Mansure Darijani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adverse effects of dental materials, especially metals, have been an important issue in recent decades. Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nickel released from stainless steel crowns in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 270 stainless steel crowns were divided into five groups, each with nine subgroups. Each group (I to V) was comprised of four, five, six, seven and eight crowns, respectively. Each subgroup was ...

  15. Metafora Pada Lirik Lagu Soundtrack Anime Guilty Crown

    OpenAIRE

    Marsella, Elin; Isnaini, Zuli Laili; Nimashita, Hana

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses the types of categories and analysis of metaphorical meanings contained in the lyrics of anime anime soundtrack Guilty Crown. The purpose of this study is to determine the type of category and the meaning of the metaphor in the lyrics of anime soundtrack Guilty Crown. The object of this study is four songs of anime soundtrack Guilty Crown. This is a quantitative study with with descriptive method. The result of study found eleven metaphorical expressions and type of categ...

  16. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembish, Fatma A; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N; Thompson, Van P; Opdam, Niek J; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n=24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n=24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electron microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450N. Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3-4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Zirconia crowns - the new standard for single-visit dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedhahn, Klaus; Fritzsche, Günter; Wiedhahn, Claudine; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia crowns combine the advantages of metal restorations, such as minimally invasive tooth preparation and ease of cementation, with those of full ceramic crowns, such as low thermal conductivity and tooth color. With the introduction of a high-speed sintering procedure, it is possible to produce and cement zirconia crowns and small monolithic bridges in a Cerec Single Visit procedure. This new procedure is compared to established chairside methods.

  18. [Comparison of adaptation of crowns of different lithium disilicate glass-ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kemeng; Ai, Hongjun; Yi, Zhe

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the adaptation of different lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown and whether different fabrication processes affect the adaptation of crowns. Thirty epoxy dies crowns were divided into 3 groups. They were cemented to domestic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns in Group A, to IPS e.max CAD crowns in Group B and to IPS e.max Press crowns in Group C respectively. All crowns were cut by cutting machine. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to measure the gap between crown tissue surface and die. There were significant differences in the three groups of measurement points(Pglass-ceramic crowns appeared to have clinically acceptable fit.

  19. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin...

  20. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the United States Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Mike T. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming between 1996 and...

  1. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in California, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Sally J. Campbell; Glenn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in California, Oregon, and Washington between 1996 and 1999....

  2. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New...

  3. Investigation of Summer Learning Loss in the UK—Implications for Holiday Club Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Shinwell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine whether summer learning loss occurs in spelling and word reading in a population of 77 primary school aged children aged between 5 and 10 years (37 boys, mean age 100 months, SD 18 months, and 40 girls mean age 103 months, SD 16 months attending three schools in areas of low socioeconomic status in Scotland and the North East of England. Word reading and spelling was measured using the word reading and spelling subtests of the Wide Ranging Achievement Test. Participants were tested on three occassions: immediately before and immediately after a 7-week summer break, and again after 7-weeks of teaching. The results showed a significant main effect of time for spelling scores, F(2,136 = 21.60, p < 0.001, ηp2=0.241. Post-hoc analysis [t(73 = 4.84, p ≤ 0.001] showed that spelling scores were significantly higher at the end of the summer term (M = 26.57 than at the start of the new academic year (M = 25.38. Likewise, spelling scores after 7 weeks post return to school (M = 27.61 were significantly higher than at the start of the Autumn term, t(73 = 7.79, p ≤ 0.001. Performance in spelling declined when children returned to school immediately after the summer holiday (M = 25.38 but 7 weeks later, performance had improved beyond the baseline reported immediately before the summer break (M = 26.57 [t(73 = 4.40, p ≤ 0.001]. There was also a main effect of school in relation to spelling scores, [F(2,68 = 6.49, p < 0.05, ηp2=0.160], with children from school 2 and school 3 outperforming children from school 1. There was no signficant main effect of gender [F(1,68 = 1.47, p > 0.05, ηp2=0.021]. None of the interactions were significant. There was no main effect of time on word reading scores [F(2,136 = 1.12, p ≥ 0.05, ηp2=0.016]. However, there was a main effect of school [F(2,68 = 4.85, p ≤ 0.01, ηp2=0.125] in relation

  4. [Improving the continuous care process in primary care during weekends and holidays: redesigning and FMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañada Dorado, A; Cárdenas Valladolid, J; Espejo Matorrales, F; García Ferradal, I; Sastre Páez, S; Vicente Martín, I

    2010-01-01

    To describe a project carried out in order to improve the process of Continuous Health Care (CHC) on Saturdays and bank holidays in Primary Care, area number 4, Madrid. The aim of this project was to guarantee a safe and error-free service to patients receiving home health care on weekends. The urgent need for improving CHC process was identified by the Risk Management Functional Unit (RMFU) of the area. In addition, some complaints had been received from the nurses involved in the process as well as from their patients. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis performed in 2009 highlighted a number of problems with the process. As a result, a project for improvement was drawn up, to be implemented in the following stages: 1. Redesigning and improving the existing process. 2. Application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to the new process. 3. Follow up, managing and leading the project. 4. Nurse training. 5. Implementing the process in the whole area. 6. CHC nurse satisfaction surveys. After carrying out this project, the efficiency and level of automation improved considerably. Since implementation of the process enhancement measures, no complaints have been received from patients and surveys show that CHC nurse satisfaction has improved. By using FMEA, errors were given priority and enhancement steps were taken in order to: Inform professionals, back-up personnel and patients about the process. Improve the specialist follow-up report. Provide training in ulcer patient care. The process enhancement, and especially its automation, has resulted in a significant step forward toward achieving greater patient safety. FMEA was a useful tool, which helped in taking some important actions. Finally, CHC nurse satisfaction has clearly improved. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The Hydrogen Cycle in a Megacity: Diurnal Variation, Holiday Effect and Source Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Rahn, T. A.; Olsen, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Mexico City with a population of 25 million, the largest mega-city in North America, provides a testing ground for regional and global impacts on air quality and climate of increasing urbanization. To help understand the biogeochemistry of Mexico City a comprehensive international multi-agency Megacity Initiative: Impact on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field campaign was conducted in March 2006. We report diurnal and weekly observations of molecular hydrogen, CO, and CO2 in Mexico City. A regular diurnal profile with peak concentrations of hydrogen in early morning caused by the high traffic and shallow boundary layer was revealed. A record level of hydrogen of 5 ppm, a factor of 10 above background, was measured. We hypothesize that most of the hydrogen is coming from automobiles; however, we did observe emissions from other industrial or power plant sources. Analysis of the H2/CO, CO/CO2, and H2/CO2 ratios are developed as a chemical fingerprinting method to delineate these sources and relate them to combustion efficiency. We also utilize H2/CO ratios to diagnose traffic patterns. For example, the early morning H2/CO peak is attributed to sluggish rush our traffic. Furthermore we observe significantly lower hydrogen during the weekend holidays than workdays. Finally, regional scale modeling of the Mexico City hydrogen cycle is performed using the Weather Research Forecast: Chemistry (WRF-CHM) model at 3 km resolution. The model results are compared to our measurements to gain a quantitative understanding of hydrogen sources and sinks in Mexico City. Our findings are significant to the understanding of the global hydrogen cycle and developing an urban baseline for hydrogen to assess potential perturbations to it from transitioning to a hydrogen economy.

  6. Hydrogen Cycle in a Megacity: Diurnal Variation, Holiday Effect and Source Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Rahn, T. A.; Olsen, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City with a population of 25 million, the largest mega-city in North America, provides a testing ground for regional and global impacts on air quality and climate of increasing urbanization. To help understand the biogeochemistry of Mexico City a comprehensive international multi-agency Megacity Initiative: Impact on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field campaign was conducted in March 2006. We report diurnal and weekly observations of molecular hydrogen, CO, and CO2 in Mexico City. A regular diurnal profile with peak concentrations of hydrogen in early morning caused by the high traffic and shallow boundary layer was revealed. A record level of hydrogen of 5 ppm, a factor of 10 above background levels, was measured. We hypothesize that most of the hydrogen is coming from automobiles. However, we did observe emissions from other industrial or power plant sources. Analysis of the H2/CO, CO/CO2, and H2/CO2 ratios are developed as a chemical fingerprinting method to delineate these sources and relate them to combustion efficiency. We utilize H2/CO ratios to diagnose traffic patterns, for example the early morning H2/CO peak is attributed to sluggish rush our traffic. We also observe significantly (25%) lower hydrogen during the weekend holidays than workdays. Finally, regional scale modeling of the Mexico City hydrogen cycle is performed using the Weather Research Forecast: Chemistry (WRF-CHM) model at 1 km resolution. The model results are compared to our measurements to gain a quantitative understanding of hydrogen sources and sinks in Mexico City. Our findings are significant to the understanding of the global hydrogen cycle and developing an urban baseline for hydrogen to assess potential perturbations to it from transitioning to a hydrogen economy.

  7. Waterborne outbreak among Spanish tourists in a holiday resort in the Dominican Republic, August 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez Jiménez, A; Pimentel, R; Martínez de Aragón, M V; Hernández Pezzi, G; Mateo Ontañon, S; Martínez Navarro, J F

    2004-03-01

    On 3 September 2002, the Spanish national centre of epidemiology (Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia--CNE) was alerted to a high number of gastroenteritis cases in Spanish tourists who had travelled to a hotel in Punta Cana on different days during august 2002. Entamoeba hystolitica cysts have been visualised by microscopy in the stools of several patients that sought medical attention in the Dominican Republic. The CNE informed the health authorities in the Dominican Republic and conducted in conjunction an epidemiological investigation. A descriptive study of the 76 initial cases estimated a mean illness duration of 5.1+2.9 days and a exposure period of 3.6+2.2 days. Following a retrospective cohort study, the attack rate was found to be 32.4%. Consequently, 216 (95% CI=114.75-317.25) spanish tourists had probably developed the illness. Stool samples were collected in Spain from untreated patients who still felt unwell. None of the samples were positive for E.hystolitica. On 10 September, a hygiene inspection was undertaken at the hotel. Samples of the ice and meals served at the buffet that day, yielded coliform bacteria. Consumption of water from the resort water system was the only risk factor associated with the symptoms (RR= 3.55; 95% CI =1.13-10.99). To avoid similar outbreaks occurring again at the hotel, it is essential to regularly monitor the water quality and to improve food handling hygiene standards. Basic food hygiene training for food handlers should be mandatory. An international guideline for the management foodborne and waterborne outbreaks among tourists in holiday resorts should be drawn up, involving all competent authorities of both destination and tourist origin countries.

  8. Extraordinary N atom tunneling in formation of InN shell layer on GaN nanorod m-plane sidewall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanjun; Lin, Na; Xu, Hongmei; Liao, Che-Hao; Yang, C C

    2014-12-12

    We report the extraordinary tunneling process that finds the lower cohesive energy route for stablizing InN shell layer on m-plane sidewall of GaN nanorod. The [0001] orientated GaN nanorod array is grown on sapphire substrate patterned with Ga nanoparticle by metal-organic vapor deposition method, based on which the simulation structures of c-plane top surface and m-plane sidewall surface is constructed for the first-principles calculations. The results show that the introduction of In wetting monolayer could effectively lower the cohesive energy of adalayers on non-polar GaN surfaces. Most importantly, it is revealed that there exists an extraordinary tunneling process in which the N atoms will drag out the In wetting atoms and tunnel through to form stable InN shell layer on the nanorod sidewall.

  9. Contribution des réactifs oxygénés à la réponse immunitaire innée contre le virus Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Soulié, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    aLes réactifs oxygénés (ROS) font partie intégrante de l’immunité innée en permettant l’élimination d’agents pathogènes grâce à leur pouvoir oxydatif et en modulant cette réponse immunitaire via différentes voies de signalisation. L’objectif ici, dans un premier temps, est de rappeler les différents rôles des ROS dans l’immunité innée antivirale et dans un second temps, d’étudier leurs rôles lors d’infection par le virus Influenza à travers deux études expérimentales. La première étude avait ...

  10. A comparative study on magnetic properties of Mo doped AlN, GaN and InN monolayers from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling; Rong, Qing-Yan; Xu, Hai-Qing; Xiao, Wen-Zhi

    2017-11-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to comparatively study the structural, electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mo doped AlN, GaN and InN monolayers (MLs). After Mo atom doping, the semiconducting GaN and InN MLs transform to metal, while the AlN ML keeps semiconducting with a reduced gap. Total magnetic moments of 1.0 and 0.54 μB, which mainly arising from the localized Mo 4d states, are induced by doping in AlN and InN MLs, respectively, while the doped GaN ML is still nonmagnetic. Nevertheless, the excessive localization and strongly ionic character of the Mo-4d states in AlN ML directly impedes the magnetic coupling, leading to a paramagnetic ground states. A similar case is observed in Mo atoms doped InN ML. The firm N-Mo interaction prevent the impurity states permeating out the range of N-Mo pair, resulting in a quick vanishing of ferromagnetic coupling as the distance between two Mo atoms increasing. All configurations of Mo atoms doped GaN ML in this paper are room temperature ferromagnetic. Spin polarized itinerant electrons mediate the magnetic interaction between two Mo atoms. Increasing the Mo concentration may stabilize the FM state and produce a higher Curie temperature. Our calculations show that GaN nanosheets with Mo atoms doped may be a nice candidate for future spintronic devices. And we conclude that a appropriate magnitude of localization (or delocalization) is what the key point to produce room temperature ferromagnetism from this comparative study.

  11. Hydrological modelling of glacierized catchments focussing on the validation of simulated snow patterns - applications within the flood forecasting system of the Tyrolean river Inn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöber, J.; Achleitner, S.; Kirnbauer, R.; Schöberl, F.; Schönlaub, H.

    2010-09-01

    The catchment of the river Inn is located in the Swiss and Austrian Alps. In the frame of the flood forecasting system "HoPI" (Hochwasserprognose für den Tiroler Inn), the Austrian part of the river Inn and its tributaries are covered within a hybrid numerical model. The runoff from the glacierized headwaters of the south-western Inn tributaries is calculated using the Snow- and Icemelt Model "SES" which utilizes a spatially-distributed energy balance approach; within SES, the accumulation and melting processes for snow, firn, and ice are considered. It is of great importance that such a type of model is used in the simulation of alpine areas since in these regions stream flow is influenced by the accumulation and melt of snow and ice and snow-free glaciers have also the potential to increase or even induce flood flow. For a prototype of the forecast system, SES was calibrated using the snow depletion of a glacier, but later, following the first results during the operational mode, the model was recalibrated and validated using remotely-sensed data covering all 13 glacierized catchments. Using the final snow-parameter setting, a simulation run of 15 hydrological years without any state corrections achieved overall agreements between observed and simulated snow cover ranging from 68% to 88% for all individual catchments. Runoff was calibrated and validated using the data from three different gauges. A parameter set, including both validated snow and runoff parameters, was applied for the modelling of a fourth gauged catchment and also achieved accurate results. This final unique parameterization was transferred to the remaining, ungauged watersheds.

  12. Relationships among alfalfa resistance to Sclerotinia crown and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR) of alfalfa caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum is one of the main constraints for efficient alfalfa cultivation in temperate climate all over the world. The resistance of 200 alfalfa accessions to Sclerotinia crown and stem rot was evaluated during 2010 to 2011 in the field nursery established in ...

  13. Crown ratio models for tropical rainforests species in Oban division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crown ratio (CR) is a characteristic used to describe the crown size, which is an important element of forest growth and yield. It is often used as an important predictor variable for tree-level growth equations. It indicates tree vigour and is an important habitat variable. It is often estimated using allometry. Modified versions of ...

  14. Automatic crown cover mapping to improve forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude Vidal; Jean-Guy Boureau; Nicolas Robert; Nicolas Py; Josiane Zerubia; Xavier Descombes; Guillaume Perrin

    2009-01-01

    To automatically analyze near infrared aerial photographs, the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control developed together with the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) a method for automatic crown cover mapping. This method uses a Reverse Jump Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to locate the crowns and describe those using ellipses or...

  15. Spectrophotometric evaluation of crown fragment a year after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Crown fracture is the most common type of fracture and frequently affects the anterior teeth. Crown fractures have been treated in several ways depending on the location and kind of fracture. This case emphasizes reattachment of fractured fragments using fiber-reinforced post. Also this case report underlines ...

  16. Grey Crowned Cranes Balearica regulorum in urban areas of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    landscapes: the case of Crowned Crane breeding and distribution outside Protected Areas in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 48: 119–125. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980a. Aspects of the ecology of Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum in Uganda. Scopus 4: 29–35. Pomeroy, d.e. 1980b. Growth and plumage changes of the Grey ...

  17. Laser all-ceramic crown removal-a laboratory proof-of-principle study-phase 2 crown debonding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Buu, Natalie C H; Rechmann, Beate M T; Finzen, Frederick C

    2014-10-01

    The removal of all-ceramic crowns is a time consuming procedure in the dental office. Little research has been done in alternative removal techniques for all-ceramic crowns. The objective of the second phase of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate whether Ivoclar Vivadent all-ceramic crowns can be efficiently removed from natural teeth without damage to the underlying tooth structure using an Erbium laser. The ceramic materials used were IPS E.max CAD Lithium-disilicate (LS2 ) (E.max CAD) and IPS E.max ZirCAD Zirconium-oxide (ZrO2 ) (ZirCAD) (Ivoclar, Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Molars, either as stand-alone teeth or placed in an artificial row of teeth, were prepared to receive all-ceramic crowns. Copings and full contour crowns with either featheredge or regular margins were produced. The all-ceramic crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. The time for Er:YAG laser debonding of each crown was then measured. The Er:YAG (LiteTouch, Syneron, Yokneam, Israel) was used with an 1,100 µm diameter fiber tip with energies up to 600 mJ per pulse (wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 µs at 126 mJ/pulse, and 400 µs at 590 mJ/pulse). The irradiation was applied at a distance of 10 mm from the crown surface following a defined pattern. Air-water spray was applied to the crowns at a rate of 67 ml/minute. All of the all-ceramic crowns were successfully debonded with the laser. On average, an all-ceramic E.max CAD crown was debonded in 190 ± 92 seconds (average ± SD). The debonding time for ZirCAD featheredge crowns was 226 ± 105 seconds and for ZirCAD crowns with regular margins it was 312 ± 102 seconds. No crowns fractured and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated due to the Er:YAG irradiation. Additionally, no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface was observed. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used

  18. Ultrahigh polarimetric image contrast enhancement for skin cancer diagnosis using InN plasmonic nanoparticles in the terahertz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Michael; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Mueller matrix imaging sensitivity, to delicate water content changes in tissue associated with early stages of skin cancer, is demonstrated by numerical modeling to be enhanced by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects at the terahertz (THz) range when InN nanoparticles (NPs) coated with Parylene-C are introduced into the skin. A skin tissue model tailored for THz wavelengths is established for a Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light propagation and scattering, and a comparative study based on simulated Mueller matrices is presented considering different NPs’ parameters and insertion into the skin methods. The insertion of NPs presenting LSPR in the THz is demonstrated to enable the application of polarization-based sample characterization techniques adopted from the scattering dominated visible wavelengths domain for the, otherwise, relatively low scattering THz domain, where such approach is irrelevant without the NPs. Through these Mueller polarimetry techniques, the detection of water content variations in the tissue is made possible and with high sensitivity. This study yields a limit of detection down to 0.0018% for relative changes in the water content based on linear degree of polarization--an improvement of an order of magnitude relative to the limit of detection without NPs calculated in a previous ellipsometric study.

  19. Retention of veneered stainless steel crowns on replicated typodont primary incisors: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelmann, Marcio; Gehring, Daren F; Turner, Clara

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of crimping and cementation on retention of veneered stainless steel crowns. One hundred twenty crowns, 90 from 3 commercially available brands of veneered stainless steel crowns (Dura Crown, Kinder Krown, and NuSmile Primary Crown) and 30 (plain) Unitek stainless steel crowns were assessed for retention. An orthodontic wire was soldered perpendicular to the incisal edge of the crowns; the crowns were fitted to acrylic replicas of ideal crown preparations and were divided equally into 3 test groups: group 1--crowns were crimped only (no cement used); group 2--crowns were cemented only; and group 3--crowns were crimped and cemented to the acrylic replicas. An Instron machine recorded the amount of force necessary to dislodge the crowns and the results were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Group 3 was statistically more retentive than groups 1 and 2. Group 2 was statistically more retentive than group 1 (P crowns were statistically more retentive than the veneered crowns (P crowns showed statistically less retention values than all other crowns (P crowns showed statistically better retention rates than all other brands (P crowns with veneer facings were significantly more retentive than the nonveneered ones when cement and crimping were combined.

  20. Precision of fit: the Procera AllCeram crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K B; Russell, M M; Razzoog, M E; Lang, B R

    1998-10-01

    Strength, color stability, and precision of fit are requirements for all-ceramic restorations. The Procera AllCeram crown system, composed of a densely sintered high-purity alumina core combined with a low fusing surface porcelain, appears to satisfy most of these requirements. However, evaluation of marginal fit has not been reported. This study measured the precision of fit of the Procera AllCeram crown fabricated with Procera CAD/CAM technology for the premolar and molar teeth fit to a die. Five ivorine maxillary first premolars and first molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. Preparations were standardized with a convergence angle of 10 degrees, chamfer margins of 1.3 to 1.5 mm circumferentially, and occlusal reduction of 2.0 mm. AllCeram crowns were fabricated for the dies, and the fit of the crown to the die was determined by using a standardized procedure with a silicone impression material that served a dual role: (1) as a retrievable luting agent, and (2) to replicate the internal aspects of the crown. Laser videography was used to measure the gap dimension between the crowns and the dies at the marginal opening, the axial wall, the cusp tip, and the occlusal adaptation measurement locations. Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated for marginal opening, internal adaptation, and precision of fit. Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations at the marginal opening for the premolar and molar crowns were 56.0 microns SD +/- 21 and 63.0 microns SD +/- 13 microns, respectively. The mean gap dimensions and SDs of the internal adaptation were 69.0 microns SD +/- 17 microns for axial wall, 48.0 microns SD +/- 12 microns for cusp tip, and 36.0 microns SD +/- 7 microns for occlusal adaptation for the premolar crowns; and 49.0 microns SD +/- 3 microns axial wall, 67.0 microns SD +/- 21 microns cusp tip, and 74.0 microns SD +/- 29 microns occlusal adaptation for molar crowns. Precision of fit and SDs for premolar and molar crowns were

  1. High-quality InN films on MgO (100) substrates: The key role of 30° in-plane rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compeán García, V. D.; López Luna, E.; Rodríguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A. [Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y Tecnología (CIACyT), Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Orozco Hinostroza, I. E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Escobosa Echavarría, A. [Electric Engineering Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-12

    High crystalline layers of InN were grown on MgO(100) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good quality films were obtained by means of an in-plane rotation process induced by the annealing of an InN buffer layer to minimize the misfit between InN and MgO. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction showed linear streaky patterns along the [011{sup ¯}0] azimuth and a superimposed diffraction along the [112{sup ¯}0] azimuth, which correspond to a 30° α-InN film rotation. This rotation reduces the mismatch at the MgO/InN interface from 19.5% to less than 3.5%, increasing the structural quality, which was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Only the (0002) c plane diffraction of α-InN was observed and was centered at 2θ = 31.4°. Raman spectroscopy showed two modes corresponding to the hexagonal phase: E1(LO) at 591 cm{sup −1} and E2(high) at 488 cm{sup −1}. Hall effect measurements showed a carrier density of 9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and an electron Hall mobility of 340 cm{sup 2}/(V s) for a film thickness of 140 nm.

  2. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  3. The impact of mass gatherings and holiday traveling on the course of an influenza pandemic: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengyi; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie L; Lee, Bruce Y

    2010-12-21

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, concerns arose about the potential negative effects of mass public gatherings and travel on the course of the pandemic. Better understanding the potential effects of temporal changes in social mixing patterns could help public officials determine if and when to cancel large public gatherings or enforce regional travel restrictions, advisories, or surveillance during an epidemic. We develop a computer simulation model using detailed data from the state of Georgia to explore how various changes in social mixing and contact patterns, representing mass gatherings and holiday traveling, may affect the course of an influenza pandemic. Various scenarios with different combinations of the length of the mass gatherings or traveling period (range: 0.5 to 5 days), the proportion of the population attending the mass gathering events or on travel (range: 1% to 50%), and the initial reproduction numbers R0 (1.3, 1.5, 1.8) are explored. Mass gatherings that occur within 10 days before the epidemic peak can result in as high as a 10% relative increase in the peak prevalence and the total attack rate, and may have even worse impacts on local communities and travelers' families. Holiday traveling can lead to a second epidemic peak under certain scenarios. Conversely, mass traveling or gatherings may have little effect when occurring much earlier or later than the epidemic peak, e.g., more than 40 days earlier or 20 days later than the peak when the initial R0 = 1.5. Our results suggest that monitoring, postponing, or cancelling large public gatherings may be warranted close to the epidemic peak but not earlier or later during the epidemic. Influenza activity should also be closely monitored for a potential second peak if holiday traveling occurs when prevalence is high.

  4. The impact of mass gatherings and holiday traveling on the course of an influenza pandemic: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bruce Y

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, concerns arose about the potential negative effects of mass public gatherings and travel on the course of the pandemic. Better understanding the potential effects of temporal changes in social mixing patterns could help public officials determine if and when to cancel large public gatherings or enforce regional travel restrictions, advisories, or surveillance during an epidemic. Methods We develop a computer simulation model using detailed data from the state of Georgia to explore how various changes in social mixing and contact patterns, representing mass gatherings and holiday traveling, may affect the course of an influenza pandemic. Various scenarios with different combinations of the length of the mass gatherings or traveling period (range: 0.5 to 5 days, the proportion of the population attending the mass gathering events or on travel (range: 1% to 50%, and the initial reproduction numbers R0 (1.3, 1.5, 1.8 are explored. Results Mass gatherings that occur within 10 days before the epidemic peak can result in as high as a 10% relative increase in the peak prevalence and the total attack rate, and may have even worse impacts on local communities and travelers' families. Holiday traveling can lead to a second epidemic peak under certain scenarios. Conversely, mass traveling or gatherings may have little effect when occurring much earlier or later than the epidemic peak, e.g., more than 40 days earlier or 20 days later than the peak when the initial R0 = 1.5. Conclusions Our results suggest that monitoring, postponing, or cancelling large public gatherings may be warranted close to the epidemic peak but not earlier or later during the epidemic. Influenza activity should also be closely monitored for a potential second peak if holiday traveling occurs when prevalence is high.

  5. Real-time growth study of plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy of InN films by synchrotron x-ray methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Anderson, Virginia R. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; Johnson, Scooter D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Downey, Brian P. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; DeMasi, Alexander [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Robinson, Zachary R. [Department of Physics, SUNY College at Brockport, 350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, New York 14420; Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Eddy, Charles R. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375

    2017-03-13

    The temporal evolution of high quality indium nitride (InN) growth by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) on a-plane sapphire at 200 and 248 °C was probed by synchrotron x-ray methods. The growth was carried out in a thin film growth facility installed at beamline X21 of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at beamline G3 of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University. Measurements of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the initial cycles of growth revealed a broadening and scattering near the diffuse specular rod and the development of scattering intensities due to half unit cell thick nucleation islands in the Yoneda wing with correlation length scale of 7.1 and 8.2 nm, at growth temperatures (Tg) of 200 and 248 °C, respectively. At about 1.1 nm (two unit cells) of growth thickness nucleation islands coarsen, grow, and the intensity of correlated scattering peak increased at the correlation length scale of 8.0 and 8.7 nm for Tg = 200 and 248 °C, respectively. The correlated peaks at both growth temperatures can be fitted with a single peak Lorentzian function, which support single mode growth. Post-growth in situ x-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a growth rate of ~0.36 Å/cycle consistent with the growth rate previously reported for self-limited InN growth in a commercial ALEp reactor. Consistent with the in situ GISAXS study, ex situ atomic force microscopy power spectral density measurements also indicate single mode growth. Electrical characterization of the resulting film revealed an electron mobility of 50 cm2/V s for a 5.6 nm thick InN film on a-plane sapphire, which is higher than the previously reported mobility of much thicker InN films grown at higher temperature by molecular beam epitaxy directly on sapphire. These early results indicated that in situ synchrotron x-ray study of the epitaxial growth kinetics of InN films is a very powerful method to

  6. In Vitro Shock Absorption Tests on Implant-Supported Crowns: Influence of Crown Materials and Luting Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael; Preis, Verena

    2017-05-18

    To investigate the force absorption capacity of implant-supported crowns made of different restorative materials and connected to abutments with different luting agents. Molar crowns were milled of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture materials (n = 8 crowns per material): polymethyl methacrylate, polyether ether ketone, composite, lithium disilicate, titanium, and zirconia. Crowns were mounted on titanium implant replicas using different luting agents: uncemented, temporarily cemented (zinc oxide-eugenol cement), conventionally cemented (zinc oxide phosphate cement), and adhesively bonded. As a reference, one implant replica was tested without a crown. Force absorptions of the different combinations of crown materials and luting agents were determined by applying an increasing force (0 to 250 N) on the occlusal crown surface and measuring the resulting force below the implant. Mean curves of applied and resulting forces up to 200 N were determined (six measurements per group), and slopes were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed (one-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc test, α = .05). Significant (P crown materials that were uncemented, temporarily cemented, cemented, and adhesively bonded. Materials with higher moduli of elasticity (ceramics, titanium) showed steeper slopes of the force curves and lower shock-absorbing capacity than resin-based materials, but were influenced more by the luting agents. The damping effects of resin-based materials were higher in combination with all cementation and luting modes. Shock absorption tests exhibited a strong material-dependent damping behavior of implant-supported crowns. The shock-absorbing capacity of crown materials with high moduli of elasticity may benefit from conventional cementation.

  7. Bridging, switching or drug holidays – how to treat a patient who stops natalizumab?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havla J

    2013-10-01

    should be further investigated. Prospective studies are warranted, to optimize treatment strategies for RRMS patients who discontinue NAT, especially because new therapies will be available in the very near future.Keywords: natalizumab discontinuation, switching, bridging, drug holidays, multiple sclerosis

  8. Marginal Assessment of Crowns by the Aid of Parallel Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Fattahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marginal adaptation is the most critical item in long-term prognosis of single crowns. This study aimed to assess the marginal quality as well asthe discrepancies in marginal integrity of some PFM single crowns of posterior teeth by employing parallel radiography in Shiraz Dental School, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, parallel radiographies were taken from 200 fabricated PFM single crowns of posterior teeth after cementation and before discharging the patient. To calculate the magnification of the images, a metallic sphere with the thickness of 4 mm was placed in the direction of the crown margin on the occlusal surface. Thereafter, the horizontal and vertical space between the crown margins, the margin of preparations and also the vertical space between the crown margin and the bone crest were measured by using digital radiological software. Results: Analysis of data by descriptive statistics revealed that 75.5% and 60% of the cases had more than the acceptable space (50µm in the vertical (130±20µm and horizontal (90±15µm dimensions, respectively. Moreover, 85% of patients were found to have either horizontal or vertical gap. In 77% of cases, the margins of crowns invaded the biologic width in the mesial and 70% in distal surfaces. Conclusion: Parallel radiography can be expedient in the stage of framework try-in to yield some important information that cannot be obtained by routine clinical evaluations and may improve the treatment prognosis

  9. Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Nethravathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A, apically repositioned flap (Group B and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C. Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3 rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3 rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern.

  10. Silica crown refractory corrosion in glass melting furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balandis A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical parameters of silica refractories, such as compressive strength, bulk, density, quantity of silica, microstructure and porosity were evaluated of unused and used bricks to line the crowns of glass furnaces, when the rate of corrosion of crowns were about 2 times greater. The change of these parameters, the chemical composition and formation of the microcracks in the used silica refractories material were studied. It was established that the short time at service of container glass furnace crown can be related to low quality of silica brick: high quantity of CaO and impurities, low quantity of silica, low quantity of silica, transferred to tridymite and cristobalite and formation of 5-10 μm and more than 100 μm cracks in the crown material. The main reason of corrosion high quality silica bricks used to line the crown of electrovacuum glass furnace is the multiple cyclic change of crown temperature at 1405 - 1430°C range in the initial zone of crown and at 1575 - 1605°C range in the zone of highest temperatures.

  11. The repair of preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel; Gurbuz, Taskin; Eyuboglu, Ozge; Belduz, Nihal

    2008-01-01

    This study's purposes were to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) for and to perform dye penetration (microleakage) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluations of preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns (SSCs) that were repaired using 2 different materials. Twenty-two crowns were used. They were stored in artificial saliva for 30 days and then thermocycled. A force was applied on the crowns' occlusal surfaces until the original veneer material appeared to be fractured. The fracture types and S8S values were recorded. The crowns were then repaired using Panavia opaque cement and Tetric Flow or Monoopaque and Tetric Flow. Twenty of the repaired crowns were subjected to dye penetration and SBS tests, and the remaining 2 were evaluated using SEM. Statistical analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the results of either the S8S or the dye penetration test (P = .58 and P = 38, respectively). A statistically significant difference was found between original and repaired crowns regarding fracture extent (P = .02), but not failure type (P = .08). SEM evaluation showed that there was no observable gap at the interface of the original or repaired materials and the stainless steel base. Preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns may be repaired using either repair material types tested here.

  12. Optimizing preparation design for metal-free composite resin crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Gruber, Rudolf; Eickemeyer, Grit; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Although composite resin materials are used for posterior crown restorations, the influence of preparation design, material thickness, convergence angle, and method of cementation on fracture resistance remains unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the hypothesis that minimal preparation designs provide an acceptable level of fracture resistance for posterior composite resin crowns. Nonreinforced Artglass composite resin crowns (n=128) were fabricated on human molars in 16 test groups (n=8). Axial tooth preparation included a 1-mm-deep shoulder or a 0.5-mm chamfer preparation, whereas occlusal reduction was either 0.5 mm or 1.3 mm. The total angle of convergence was 4 or 11 degrees and the crowns were cemented either with glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem) or resin cement (2bond2). After 10,000 thermal cycles, crowns were vertically loaded until failure occurred; load was measured in newtons. Statistical analysis was performed by a 4-way ANOVA (alpha=.05). Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of occlusal thickness (Pcrowns. For composite resin crowns with an occlusal thickness of 0.5 mm, the resistance to fracture was lower than for crowns with a 1.3-mm thickness. Fracture resistance was greater when resin cement was used, and greater for the chamfer finish line than for the shoulder finish line. Use of a greater total convergence angle reduced fracture resistance. Fracture resistance of composite resin crowns was significantly improved by increasing the occlusal thickness of the crowns, by using resin cement, and by reducing the total convergence angle.

  13. Survival Predictions of Ceramic Crowns Using Statistical Fracture Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, S; Katsube, N; Seghi, R R; Rokhlin, S I

    2017-05-01

    This work establishes a survival probability methodology for interface-initiated fatigue failures of monolithic ceramic crowns under simulated masticatory loading. A complete 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis model of a minimally reduced molar crown was developed using commercially available hardware and software. Estimates of material surface flaw distributions and fatigue parameters for 3 reinforced glass-ceramics (fluormica [FM], leucite [LR], and lithium disilicate [LD]) and a dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YZ) were obtained from the literature and incorporated into the model. Utilizing the proposed fracture mechanics-based model, crown survival probability as a function of loading cycles was obtained from simulations performed on the 4 ceramic materials utilizing identical crown geometries and loading conditions. The weaker ceramic materials (FM and LR) resulted in lower survival rates than the more recently developed higher-strength ceramic materials (LD and YZ). The simulated 10-y survival rate of crowns fabricated from YZ was only slightly better than those fabricated from LD. In addition, 2 of the model crown systems (FM and LD) were expanded to determine regional-dependent failure probabilities. This analysis predicted that the LD-based crowns were more likely to fail from fractures initiating from margin areas, whereas the FM-based crowns showed a slightly higher probability of failure from fractures initiating from the occlusal table below the contact areas. These 2 predicted fracture initiation locations have some agreement with reported fractographic analyses of failed crowns. In this model, we considered the maximum tensile stress tangential to the interfacial surface, as opposed to the more universally reported maximum principal stress, because it more directly impacts crack propagation. While the accuracy of these predictions needs to be experimentally verified, the model can provide a fundamental understanding of the

  14. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  16. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Crown Galls Host Distinct Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faist, Hanna; Keller, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute; Deeken, Rosalia

    2016-09-15

    Crown gall disease of grapevine is caused by virulent Agrobacterium strains and establishes a suitable habitat for agrobacteria and, potentially, other bacteria. The microbial community associated with grapevine plants has not been investigated with respect to this disease, which frequently results in monetary losses. This study compares the endophytic microbiota of organs from grapevine plants with or without crown gall disease and the surrounding vineyard soil over the growing seasons of 1 year. Amplicon-based community profiling revealed that the dominating factor causing differences between the grapevine microbiota is the sample site, not the crown gall disease. The soil showed the highest microbial diversity, which decreased with the distance from the soil over the root and the graft union of the trunk to the cane. Only the graft union microbiota was significantly affected by crown gall disease. The bacterial community of graft unions without a crown gall hosted transient microbiota, with the three most abundant bacterial species changing from season to season. In contrast, graft unions with a crown gall had a higher species richness, which in every season was dominated by the same three bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae sp., and Agrobacterium vitis). For in vitro-cultivated grapevine plantlets, A. vitis infection alone was sufficient to cause crown gall disease. Our data show that microbiota in crown galls is more stable over time than microbiota in healthy graft unions and that the microbial community is not essential for crown gall disease outbreak. The characterization of bacterial populations in animal and human diseases using high-throughput deep-sequencing technologies, such as 16S amplicon sequencing, will ideally result in the identification of disease-specific microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of the crown gall disease of grapevine, which is caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium vitis. All other Agrobacterium

  17. Re/crowning the Jowo Śākyamuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    of ritual observance and visions received.  In 1409, Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa  (1357-1419) crowned the Jowo, changing his doctrinal and iconographic representations.  I connect the controversy surrounding Tsongkhapa's decision to re/crown the Jowo in 1409 to the significance placed on authenticity......, firstness, and ritual efficacy in Tibetan cosmology.  I follow the history of the Jowo's crown into the present, including the voices of those Tibetans who blame the 1951 Chinese invasion of Tibet on repercussions of Tsongkhapa's controversial decision.  A multidisciplinary perspective, combining texts...

  18. Retention force of secondary crowns to copings after temporary cementation: the effect of crown material and luting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Torsten; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Golecki, Gudrun; Schwahn, Christian; Biffar, Reiner

    2010-12-01

    Tooth-implant supported restorations can be temporarily cemented if the natural abutments are protected by permanently cemented copings. This in vitro study investigated the retention forces of pure titanium crowns to milled titanium alloy copings and of cobalt-chromium crowns to copings made of electroplated gold after cementation with different luting agents. Five specimens per group were cemented with acrylic-urethane cement (inner crown surface preisolated with petroleum jelly) and provisional zinc oxide cement. The retention was measured using a universal testing machine and a dental device for crown removal. The differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance. The pull-off forces for the cobalt-chromium secondary crowns cemented on gold copings using zinc oxide cement were significantly higher (mean=144.5 N) than the other crown-cement combinations (32.2-54.4 N), which showed no significant differences in the retention force. The impulse number and magnitude of the dental device was usually low and showed no substantial differences between the crown-cement combinations. It can be concluded that the results of the clinical removal method for prostheses differ from the results of the pull-off test. The question which luting agent is the better choice for retrievable restorations remains unanswered without further clinical and laboratory studies.

  19. [Associations of the work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with an exaggerated blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu; Jiang, Ying; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) response during exercise, even if resting blood pressure is normal, is associated with an increased risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationships of work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among normotensive workers. The subjects were 362 normotensive workers (79 males and 283 females; age, 49.1 years). A multi-stage graded submaximal exercise stress test was performed on each subject using an electric bicycle ergometer. The workload was increased every 3 minutes, and blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last 1 minute of each stage. In this study, an ESBP response during exercise was defined according to the criteria of the Framingham Study (peak systolic blood pressure ≥210 mmHg in males, or ≥190 mmHg in females). Working environments, work duration, sleep duration, number of holidays, and physical activity during commuting and work, and leisure time exercise duration were evaluated using a questionnaire. An ESBP response during exercise was observed in 94 (26.0%) workers. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise was found to be significantly higher with an increase in work duration, decreases in sleep duration and number of holidays (pwork duration with lowest sleep duration and number of holidays groups had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise than the lowest work duration with highest sleep duration and number of holidays groups (pwork duration, short sleep duration and small number of holidays.

  20. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  1. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  2. Probing supramolecular complexation of cetylpyridinium chloride with crown ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Supramolecular complexations of cetylpyridinium chloride with three comparable cavity dimension based crown ethers, namely, dibenzo-18-crown-6, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 have been explored and adequately compared in acetonitrile with the help of conductivity in a series of temperatures to reveal the stoichiometry of the three host-guest complexes. Programme based mathematical treatment of the conductivity data affords association constants for complexations from which the thermodynamic parameters were derived for better comprehension about the process. The interactions at molecular level have been explained and decisively discussed by means of FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies that demonstrate H-bond type interactions as the primarily force of attraction for the investigated supramolecular complexations.

  3. Finite Element Stress Analysis of Stainless Steel Crowns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attiguppe Prabhakar; Chandrashekar Yavagal; Amrita Chakraborty; S Sugandhan

    2015-01-01

      Background: Though stainless steel crowns (SSCs) have often been stated as the best restorative modality, there are limited studies demonstrating its efficacy in restoring the functional integrity of the primary dentition...

  4. Estimation of crown closure from AVIRIS data using regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staenz, K.; Williams, D. J.; Truchon, M.; Fritz, R.

    1993-01-01

    Crown closure is one of the input parameters used for forest growth and yield modelling. Preliminary work by Staenz et al. indicates that imaging spectrometer data acquired with sensors such as the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) have some potential for estimating crown closure on a stand level. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to establish a relationship between AVIRIS data and the crown closure derived from aerial photography of a forested test site within the Interior Douglas Fir biogeoclimatic zone in British Columbia, Canada; (2) to investigate the impact of atmospheric effects and the forest background on the correlation between AVIRIS data and crown closure estimates; and (3) to improve this relationship using multiple regression analysis.

  5. Supramolecular metal complex systems based on crown-substituted tetrapyrroles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivadze, Aslan Yu [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-01-31

    The characteristic features of the structures and properties of crown-substituted porphyrinates and phthalocyaninates are considered. Interactions of these compounds with alkali metal salts yield supramolecular ensembles. The factors determining the architecture of such ensembles are described.

  6. Silica crown refractory corrosion in glass melting furnaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balandis A; Nizeviciene D

    2011-01-01

    ... of glass furnaces, when the rate of corrosion of crowns were about 2 times greater. The change of these parameters, the chemical composition and formation of the microcracks in the used silica refractories material were studied...

  7. Nucleosynthesis and Energy Production in Stars: Bethe's Crowning ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 10. Nucleosyntheis and Energy Production in Stars: Bethe's Crowning Achievement. Indranil Mazumdar. General Article Volume 10 Issue 10 October 2005 pp 67-77 ...

  8. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  9. Slow cooling protocol improves fatigue life of zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Vitor G; Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Bonfante, Estevam A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Thompson, Van P; Bonfante, Gerson

    2015-02-01

    To compare the fatigue life and damage modes of zirconia crowns fabricated with and without framework design modification when porcelain veneered using a fast or slow cooling protocol. Composite resin replicas of a first molar full crown preparation were fabricated. Zirconia copings were milled as conventional (0.5mm even thickness, Zr-C, n=20,) or modified (lingual margin of 1.0mm thickness, 2.0mm height connected to two proximal struts of 3.5mm height, Zr-M, n=20). These groups were subdivided (n=10 each) according to the veneer cooling protocol employed: fast cooling (Zr-CFast and Zr-MFast) and slow cooling (Zr-CSlow and Zr-MSlow). Crowns were cemented and fatigued for 10(6) cycles in water. The number of cycles to failure was recorded and used to determine the interval databased 2-parameter probability Weibull distribution parameter Beta (β) and characteristic life value Eta (η). 2-parameter Weibull calculation presented β=5.53 and β=4.38 for Zr-MFast and Zr-CFast, respectively. Slow cooled crowns did not fail by completion of 10(6) cycles, thereby Weibayes calculation was applied. Increased fatigue life was observed for slow cooled crowns compared to fast cooled ones. Groups Zr-MFast and Zr-MSlow presented no statistical difference. Porcelain cohesive fractures were mainly observed in fast cooled groups. Slow cooled crowns presented in some instances inner cone cracks not reaching the zirconia/veneer interface. Improved fatigue life in tandem with the absence of porcelain fractures were observed in slow cooled crowns, regardless of framework design. Crowns fast cooled chiefly failed by porcelain cohesive fractures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retention of Resin Composite CAM Crowns Following Different Bonding Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Amir Hossein

    Objectives: Resin composite CAM materials offer more efficient milling, however, there is a high incidence of clinical debonding when this material is used for full-coverage crowns. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of different surface treat-ments and primers on the crown retention of a new resin composite CAM material. Methods: 120 molars were prepared with a 24 degree taper, 1.5mm height, and axial walls in dentin. Surface area was measured by digital microscopy and preparations were scanned with an intraoral scanner. Crowns were milled from an experimental com-posite material with 4mm occlusal height. Teeth were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n= 10) based on the possible combinations of three surface treatments (Control, Alumina air abrasion [50mum Al2O3 at 0.28MPa], Hydrofluoric acid etch [5% HF acid for 20 sec]), silane application (with or without Kerr Silane), and adhesive application (with or without Optibond XTR adhesive). Optibond XTR adhesive was applied to the tooth preparations and crowns were bonded with MaxCem Elite. Crowns were fatigued for 100,000 cycles at 100N in water. Crowns were debonded in tension in a universal testing machine at 1mm/min. Crown retention strength (maximum load/area of preparation) was analyzed using a three-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc tests. Results: Surface treatment, silane and adhesive applications independently affect the retention force (pResin composite crowns should be alumina particle abraded and coated with silane and adhesive.

  11. Silica crown refractory corrosion in glass melting furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Balandis A.; Nizeviciene D.

    2011-01-01

    The critical parameters of silica refractories, such as compressive strength, bulk, density, quantity of silica, microstructure and porosity were evaluated of unused and used bricks to line the crowns of glass furnaces, when the rate of corrosion of crowns were about 2 times greater. The change of these parameters, the chemical composition and formation of the microcracks in the used silica refractories material were studied. It was established that the short time at service of containe...

  12. Mechanical performance of implant-supported posterior crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Paul; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; de Jager, Niek; Kuijs, Ruud; Feilzer, Albert J

    2015-07-01

    The fracture of implant-supported restorations, especially of the veneering layer, is a common problem in dentistry. Monolithic ceramic or resin restorations might help solve this problem. The purpose of this in vitro study was to obtain additional insight into the risk of fracture of implant-supported restorations. Identical crowns (n=10) of 10 different ceramic and composite resin materials were cemented on conventional abutments on implant replicas embedded in polymethyl methacrylate blocks. The specimens were subjected to compressive load in a universal testing machine to record initial load to failure (ILF). Additionally, the flexural strength (FS), compressive strength (CS), and elastic modulus (E) of the investigated materials were determined. These results were used in a finite element analysis model of a composite resin and a lithium disilicate crown. Anatomic contour zirconia (Lava Plus) crowns had the highest ILF (6065 N), followed by lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) (2788 N) and the composite resin materials (Protemp 4, Majesty Flow, Telio CAD, Estenia C&B, Lava Ultimate, VITA Enamic) (2386 to 1935 N). Veneered zirconia (Lava) crowns showed the lowest ILF (1477 N). The highest FS, CS, and E were found for Lava Plus and IPS e.max. No direct relationship was found between ILF and the FS, CS, or E. The finite element analysis showed stresses that did not exceed the FS or CS of IPS e.max. The surface roughness of these crowns might have caused initial failure at relatively low stresses. In this laboratory study, monolithic implant-supported crowns showed a higher ILF than conventional veneered ceramic crowns. Monolithic ceramic restorations might perform better than composite resin crowns. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  14. Development of post-fire crown damage mortality thresholds in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Joel McMillin; Kurt K. Allen; Jose F. Negron; Linda L. Wadleigh; John A. Anhold; Ken E. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crown scorch volume and crown consumption volume are the major predictors of post-fire mortality in ponderosa pine. In this study, we use piecewise logistic regression models of crown scorch data from 6633 trees in five wildfires from the Intermountain West to locate a mortality threshold at 88% scorch by volume for trees with no crown...

  15. Crown Recession Patterns in Three Conifer Species of the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean M. Garber; Robert A. Monserud; Douglas A. Maguire

    2008-01-01

    Crown length is a fundamental tree dimension for characterizing growth potential, wildlife habitat, and wood quality. The relative rates of height growth and crown recession detennine the progression of crown length over time. We investigated patterns in crown recession of three co-occurring species in the northern Rocky Mountains: western white pine (Pinus...

  16. 78 FR 63559 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In The Matter of Crown Alliance Capital Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; In The Matter of Crown Alliance Capital Limited October 22, 2013... information concerning the securities of Crown Alliance Capital Limited (``Crown Alliance''), quoted under the ticker symbol CACL, because of questions regarding the accuracy of assertions in Crown Alliance's public...

  17. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  18. Repairing a preveneered stainless steel crown with two different materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel; Yilmaz, Asude

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro shear bond strength of 2 different repair materials for anterior preveneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs) after bond failure in the prefabricated veneers. Sixteen preveneered anterior SSCs were used. Each of the preveneered crowns was cemented with a luting glass ionomer cement onto cast die. Each die was placed into a mechanical testing machine. A force was applied on the veneer at the incisal edge, with a crosshead speed of 0.05 inches/minute until the initial original facial facing material fractured or dislodged. Fracture or dislodgment failure of the initial original facial facings was evaluated and photographed. Specimens were divided into 2 equal repairing procedure groups. Group 1 was repaired using Tetric Flow, a flowable resin composite. Group 2 was repaired using Major Resin, a crown and bridge veneering resin. After the repairing procedure, crowns were stored in water at room temperature for 24 hours and then thermocycled. The crowns repaired were debonded in the test machine in the same manner as the initial facial facing fracture test. The debonding failure of the repaired crowns also was evaluated and photographed. There was a statistically significant difference between the initial original veneer material and groups 1 and 2 (P stainless steel metal base.

  19. Fracture load of different crown systems on zirconia implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, T; Kirsten, A; Kappert, H F; Fischer, H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of single zirconia abutment restorations using different veneering techniques and materials. The abutment restorations were divided into 6 groups with 20 samples each: test abutments (control group A), lithium disilicate ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group B), leucite ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group C), premolar abutments directly veneered with a fluor apatite ceramic (group D (layered) and group E (pressed)) and premolar abutments bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F). The fracture load of the restorations was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Half of each group was artificially aged (chewing simulation and thermocycling) before evaluating the fracture load with the exception of the test abutments. The fracture load of the test abutments was 705 ± 43N. Incisor abutments bonded with lithium disilicate or leucite ceramic crowns (groups B and C) showed fracture loads of about 580N. Premolar restorations directly veneered with fluor apatite ceramic (groups D and E) showed fracture loads of about 850N. Premolar restorations bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F) showed fracture loads of about 1850N. The artificial ageing showed no significant influence on the strength of the examined restorations. All ceramic crowns made of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, adhesively bonded to premolar abutments showed the highest fracture loads in this study. However, all tested groups can withstand physiological bite forces. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of fracture resistance of indirect composite resin crowns by cyclic impact test: influence of crown and abutment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Kenji; Minami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of abutment materials on the fracture resistance of composite crowns for premolars. Composite crowns were fabricated using two different indirect composite resin materials (Meta Color Prime Art or Estenia C&B) and cemented onto either a metal (Castwell M.C. 12) or composite resin (Build-It FR and FibreKor) abutment with resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Twenty-four specimens were fabricated for four groups (n=6 each) and subjected to 280-N cyclic impact loading at 1.0 Hz. The number of cycles which caused the composite crown to fracture was defined as its fracture resistance. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Composite crowns cemented onto resin abutments showed higher fracture resistance than those cemented onto metal abutments.

  1. Fracture resistance and failure modes of CEREC endo-crowns and conventional post and core-supported CEREC crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chang

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: The bonded ceramic endo-crowns showed a significantly higher fracture resistance than the classic reinforced and designed group and, therefore, offer a feasible alternative for severely damaged teeth.

  2. Wear and repair of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Kara, N Belduz; Yilmaz, A; Sahin, H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the wear of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in children, and compare the extent of microleakage in SSCs that had been repaired using either a cermet glass-ionomer cement (GIC) or a packable composite resin (CR). For the first aim, the occlusal surface thickness of 31 harvested SSCs (21 primary first and 10 second molars) and 18 unused SSCs was measured, and then examined under scanning electron microscopy. For the second aim, standardised holes were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of 20 SSCs, and then repaired using either a cermet GIC or packable CR. After their repair, the extent of microleakage was determined using 0.5% basic fuchsin and stereomicroscopy. The thickness of all the harvested SCCs was 5.3 μm less than that of the unused SCCs (p<0.02), and there were no significant differences between the thickness and occlusal wear rates of harvested SSCs from the first and second primary molars. Although neither of the two repair materials completely prevented microleakage, the number of specimens in which microleakage occurred after repair with a cermet GIC was significantly lower than the number of specimens in which a packable CR was used (p<0.05). We concluded that the occlusal surfaces of SSCs for first and second primary molars display wear. Although perforated SSCs can be repaired using either a cermet GIC or a packable CR, less microleakage occurs in SSCs that were repaired with a cermet GIC than those with a packable CR.

  3. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Merk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the retention load (RL between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/group. Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM; (ii pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP (BioHPP Pellet; or (iii pressed from granular PEEK (PG (BioHPP Granulat. One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé’s post-hoc test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  4. Composite crown-form crowns for severely decayed primary molars: a technique for restoring function and esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, D; Peretz, B

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in esthetic dentistry center around new techniques and materials that improve the ability of the clinician to provide esthetic services. This article describes a step-by-step method of placing composite crown-form crowns on severely decayed primary mandibular molars. The described technique allows for restoring, as close as possible, form and function lost to caries in an esthetic mode in cases of severely decayed primary molars that would have required stainless steel crowns had they been treated traditionally. Disadvantages of this treatment mode are that dryness may not be prevented in the proximal margins, especially where subgingival carious involvement is encountered and the margin areas may be contaminated with gingival fluid or blood. Although no long-term follow-up has been reported for the technique, when strong opposition by the parent or child to the stainless steel crown is encountered, and a desire for esthetic restoration is strongly expressed, the composite crown-form crowns may be considered as an alternative.

  5. Fracture load of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns and veneered zirconia crowns as a posterior implant restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hwan; Lee, Su-Jeong; Park, Jun Sub; Ryu, Jae Jun

    2013-02-01

    To compare the fracture load and failure mode of the monolithic lithium disilicate crown (e.max group) and 2 types of veneered zirconia crowns, hand layer (ZV group) and heat pressed (ZP group), as a posterior implant-supported restoration. A total of 24 all-ceramic crowns for molar tooth were fabricated using the computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) system. The e.max group crowns and zirconia copings for ZV and ZP groups were fabricated using a Cerec milling unit. The ZV group was fabricated using a hand-layer veneering method, and the ZP group using a heat-pressing method. All crowns were luted to the abutments, which were connected to implant fixtures, using resin cement. Fracture load was measured using the universal testing machine, and the fracture surface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The ZP group showed significantly higher fracture load (5229.3 N) compared with the e.max group (3852.1 N) and ZV group (3100.3 N). All fractures in the ZV group occurred in the veneered layer. Monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns are applicable to posterior implant-supported restorations because the fracture load was higher than the average occlusal force.

  6. Crown depth as a result of evolutionary games: decreasing solar angle should lead to shallower, not deeper crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Peter Johannes

    2014-06-01

    There is a general notion in the literature that, with increasing latitude, trees have deeper crowns as a result of a lower solar elevation angle. However, these predictions are based on models that did not include the effects of competition for light between individuals. Here, I argue that there should be selection for trees to increase the height of the crown base, as this decreases shading by neighbouring trees, leading to an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Because the level of between-tree shading increases with decreasing solar angle, the predicted ESS will shift to higher crown base height. This argument is supported by a simulation model to check for the effects of crown shape and the change of light intensity that occurs with changing solar angle on model outcomes. So, the lower solar angle at higher latitudes would tend to select for shallower, and not deeper, crowns. This casts doubt on the common belief that a decreasing solar angle increases crown depth. More importantly, it shows that different assumptions about what should be optimized can lead to different predictions, not just for absolute trait values, but for the direction of selection itself. © 2014 The Author. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Comparison of incidence of complications and aesthetic performance for posterior metal-free polymer crowns and metal-ceramic crowns: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitter, Marc; Zenthöfer, Andreas; Stober, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior, metal-free polymer crowns after follow-up for up to six years, and to compare it with the performance of metal-ceramic crowns. Eighty single crowns, manufactured from a polymer composite resin, were set on posterior teeth. Half of these received a glass-fibre framework (group 1) whereas half were prepared without framework stabilization (group 2). As the control group, 40 conventional metal-ceramic crowns were inserted. Primary endpoints were incidence of complications, investigated on a time-to-event basis, plaque status, and aesthetic performance. Thirty clinically relevant complications occurred after a median time of 2.3 years. Median follow-up time was four years. The most frequent complications were delamination (n=24) and root-canal treatment (n=4) of the crowns; the incidence of complications was not significantly different among crown materials (p=0.60). Twenty crowns had to be replaced (six polymer crowns in group 1, nine polymer crowns in group 2, four crowns in the control group, and one tooth (in group 1) had to be extracted). Mean plaque and gingival indexes for the test groups did not differ from those for the control group. Within a median follow-up period of four years, the clinical performance of posterior polymer crowns with and without a glass-fibre framework was not significantly different from that of metal-ceramic crowns, although the number of catastrophic failures of composite crowns was higher than that of the metal-ceramic crowns. On the basis of the study results, posterior polymer crowns may be an alternative to metal-ceramic crowns, although additional research is needed before they can be recommended, without reservation, as permanent restorations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Campsites as utopias? A socio-spatial reading of the post-war holiday camp in Belgium, 1950s to 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.; Heynen, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts the objectives that underlie the development of government-funded holiday camps for family vacations in Belgium with the socio-spatial practices of their initial users. Drawing on oral history, archival material, photographs and site plans, we argue that holidaymakers did not

  9. On the Confession of a Canary Bird, Children on a Holiday Camp, and the Apology for Fleas Planned by Janusz Korczak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnieszka Zgrzywa

    2013-01-01

    ... Korczak’s journal from Warsaw ghetto. The author confronts the fragments with Korczak’s earlier texts, such as the short storied about holiday camps for Polish and Jewish children, and the novel Król Maciuś...

  10. 77 FR 62346 - Holiday CVS, L.L.C., d/b/a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195; Denial of Request for Redactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    .../a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195; Denial of Request for Redactions On August 31, 2012, I issued a... Holiday CVS, L.L.C., d/b/a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195 (hereinafter, Respondents). Prior to publication... manner in which information was obtained for Respondents' pharmacy information management system...

  11. Relation between holiday weight gain and total energy expenditure among 40- to 69-y-old men and women (OPEN study)123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Subar, Amy F; Troiano, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    Background: A significant proportion of the average annual body weight (BW) gain in US adults (∼0.5–1 kg/y) may result from modest episodes of positive energy balance during the winter holiday season. Objective: We tested whether holiday BW gain was reduced in participants with high baseline total energy expenditure (TEE) or whether it varied by BMI (in kg/m2). Design: In a secondary analysis of previously published data, ΔBW normalized over 90 d from mid-September/mid-October 1999 to mid-January/early March 2000 was analyzed by sex, age, and BMI in 443 men and women (40–69 y of age). TEE was measured by doubly labeled water. High or low energy expenditure was assessed as residual TEE after linear adjustment for age, height, and BW. Results: No correlations between ΔBW and TEE or TEE residuals were found. Sixty-five percent of men and 58% of women gained ≥0.5 kg BW, with ∼50% of both groups gaining ≥1% of preholiday BW. Obese men (BMI ≥30) gained more BW than did obese women. Conclusions: A high preholiday absolute TEE or residual TEE did not protect against BW gain during the winter holiday quarter. It is not known whether higher than these typical TEE levels would protect against weight gain or if the observed gain may be attributed to increased food consumption and/or reduced physical activity during the holiday quarter. PMID:22301936

  12. Persistence of Nasal Colonization with Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pig Farmers after Holidays from Pig Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeck, Robin; Loth, Bea; Koeksal, Mahir; Schulte-Wuelwer, Josef; Harlizius, Juergen; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is frequently transmitted from pigs to farmers. This study analyzed whether an absence from direct contact with pigs during holidays had an impact on nasal MRSA colonization rates of pig farmers. Overall, 59% of the farmers

  13. Retention of esthetic veneers on primary stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L H; Moon, P; Mourino, A P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the amount of shearing force necessary to fracture, dislodge or deform the esthetic veneer facings of four commercially available veneered primary incisor stainless steel crowns. The four types tested were: Cheng Crowns, [Peter Cheng Orthodontic Laboratory]; Whiter Biter Crown II, [White Bite Inc.]; Kinder Krowns, [Mayclin Dental Studio, Inc]; and NuSmile Primary Crowns, [Orthodontic Technologies, Inc]. The crowns (#4 right central incisor) from each manufacturer were obtained with the facings attached. The crowns were soaked for ninety days and thermocycled at 4 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 45-second cycles. The crowns were cemented to standardized chromium cobalt metal dies. Each die was placed in to a custom holder on the Instron Universal testing machine. A force was applied at the incisal edge of the veneer at 148 degrees, (the primary interincisal angle), with a crosshead speed of 0.05 inches/minute until the veneer either fractured, dislodged or deformed. The mean force (Ibs) required +/- SD to produce failure, in descending order, was as follows: Cheng (107.8 +/- 17.3); NuSmile (100.2 +/- 18.2); KinderKrown (91.3 +/- 27.4)d Whiter Biter (81.5 +/- 21.7). To test the hypothesis of no difference among the four manufacturers, an analysis of variance was performed using PROC GLM. The resultant F statistic was 2.79 (p < 0.0543), indicating a marginally statistically significant difference in the response variable "pressure" among the four groups. A posthoc test was then performed to ascertain where these differences occurred. These results, using Turkey's studentized range test for pairwise comparisons, suggested that the only difference was between the Cheng and Whiter Biter manufacturers.

  14. Party package travels impact on alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort - a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusions There may be a small impact...... travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After...... of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur....

  15. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (PCAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins.

  16. Dislocation and Elastic Strain in an InN Film Characterized by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng-Feng; Fa, Tao; Wang, Xin-Qiang; Yao, Shu-De

    2012-02-01

    Dislocation information and strain-related tetragonal distortion as well as crystalline qualities of a 2-μm-thick InN film grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are characterized by Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) and synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). The minimum yield χmin = 2.5% deduced from the RBS/C results indicates a fairly good crystalline quality. From the SR-XRD results, we obtain the values of the screw and edge densities to be ρscrew = 7.0027 × 109 and ρedge = 8.6115 × 109 cm-2, respectively. The tetragonal distortion of the sample is found to be -0.27% by angular scans, which is close to the -0.28% derived by SR-XRD. The value of |e⊥/e∥| = 0.6742 implies that the InN layer is much stiffer along the a axis than that along the c axis, where e∥ is the parallel elastic strain, and e⊥ is the perpendicular elastic strain. Photoluminescence results reveal a main peak of 0.653 eV with the linewidth of 60 meV, additional shoulder band could be due to impurities and related defects.

  17. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, E. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a

  18. Effect of the crown preparation margin and die type on the marginal accuracy of fiber-reinforced composite crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamed F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this laboratory investigation was to determine the effect of different preparation designs (light chamfer, deep chamfer, and shoulder) and die-making materials (stone and epoxy) on the resulting margin misfit for fiber-reinforced composite crowns using a measuring microscope. Sixty standardized FibreKor crowns were made on stone and epoxy resin dies (n=30 each) duplicated from three metal master dies representing complete crown tooth preparation with a total convergence of 5 degrees . For each die group, three of the tooth preparation designs were established in relation to the type of finish line (n=0 each) as follows: Group A (0.5-mm light chamfer finish line); Group B (1.0-mm deep chamfer finish line); and Group C (1.0-mm shoulder finish line). Marginal accuracy was evaluated by measuring the distances between each of four pairs of indentations on the crowns and on the dies with a Nikon measuring microscope. Analysis of seating measurements with parametric analysis of variance and Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) disclosed a statistically significant difference for both tooth preparation design and die material (pcrowns made on epoxy resin dies with a light chamfer finish line (57 microm), but the difference was not statistically significantly different from crowns made on epoxy resin dies with a deep chamfer light chamfer finish line (61 microm). However, crowns made on epoxy resin dies with a shoulder finish line (81 microm) had significantly higher values (pcrowns made on stone dies with the shoulder finish line (95 microm) had statistically higher marginal opening values (pcrowns made on stone dies with a light chamfer finish line (66 microm), but the difference was not statistically significantly different from crowns made on stone dies with a deep chamfer light chamfer finish line (70 microm). Significant differences were found among the die material used for the shoulder margin design. However, there was no significant difference between

  19. The use of stainless steel crowns: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N Sue; Randall, Ros

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to review the published literature on stainless steel crowns (SSCs) from 2002 to the present as an update to an earlier review published in 2002. Included were published papers on clinical studies, case series, and laboratory testing on SSCs (including esthetic SSCs and the Hall technique) in peer-reviewed journals. Study quality and strength of evidence presented were assessed for papers reporting clinical results for SSCs as a primary study outcome using a list of weighting criteria. Sixty-one papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria (24 papers on 22 clinical studies, three case reports, 21 reviews and surveys, and 13 laboratory testing reports on SSCs and esthetic preformed metal crowns for primary and permanent molar teeth). Ten clinical studies achieved weighting scores ranging from 68 percent to 26 percent, with the two highest scoring studies (68 percent and 63 percent) considered good quality. Within the confines of the studies reviewed, primary molar esthetic crowns and SSCs had superior clinical performance as restoratives for posterior primary teeth, and the Hall technique was shown to have validity. No clinical studies were available on zirconia crowns. Further well-designed prospective studies on primary molar esthetic crowns and the Hall technique are needed.

  20. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2016-04-05

    We present new observations from an experimental investigation of the classical problem of the crown splash and sealing phenomena observed during the impact of spheres onto quiescent liquid pools. In the experiments, a 6 m tall vacuum chamber was used to provide the required ambient conditions from atmospheric pressure down to of an atmosphere, whilst high-speed videography was exploited to focus primarily on the above-surface crown formation and ensuing dynamics, paying particular attention to the moments just prior to the surface seal. In doing so, we have observed a buckling-type azimuthal instability of the crown. This instability is characterised by vertical striations along the crown, between which thin films form that are more susceptible to the air flow and thus are drawn into the closing cavity, where they atomize to form a fine spray within the cavity. To elucidate to the primary mechanisms and forces at play, we varied the sphere diameter, liquid properties and ambient pressure. Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates that the buckling instability appears in all crown sealing events, but is intensified by the presence of a pinned contact line. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Wind Tunnel Experiments to Study Chaparral Crown Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian-Iñiguez, Jeanette; Aminfar, AmirHessam; Chong, Joey; Burke, Gloria; Zuniga, Albertina; Weise, David R; Princevac, Marko

    2017-11-14

    The present protocol presents a laboratory technique designed to study chaparral crown fire ignition and spread. Experiments were conducted in a low velocity fire wind tunnel where two distinct layers of fuel were constructed to represent surface and crown fuels in chaparral. Chamise, a common chaparral shrub, comprised the live crown layer. The dead fuel surface layer was constructed with excelsior (shredded wood). We developed a methodology to measure mass loss, temperature, and flame height for both fuel layers. Thermocouples placed in each layer estimated temperature. A video camera captured the visible flame. Post-processing of digital imagery yielded flame characteristics including height and flame tilt. A custom crown mass loss instrument developed in-house measured the evolution of the mass of the crown layer during the burn. Mass loss and temperature trends obtained using the technique matched theory and other empirical studies. In this study, we present detailed experimental procedures and information about the instrumentation used. The representative results for the fuel mass loss rate and temperature filed within the fuel bed are also included and discussed.

  2. 18-crown-6-sodium cholate complex: thermochemistry, structure, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelj, Tea; Tomašić, Vlasta; Biliškov, Nikola

    2014-06-03

    18-Crown-6, one of the most relevant crown ethers, and sodium cholate, a steroidal surfactant classified as a natural bile salt, are components of a novel, synthesized coordination complex: 18-crown-6-sodium cholate (18C6·NaCh). Like crown ethers, bile salts act as building blocks in supramolecular chemistry to design new functionalized materials with a desired structure and properties. In order to obtain thermal behavior of this 1:1 coordination complex, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used, as well as microscopic observations and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature dependent infrared (IR) spectroscopy gave a detailed view into phase transitions. The structures during thermal treatment were observed with powder X-ray diffraction, and molecular models of the phases were made. Hard, glassy, colorless compound 18C6·NaCh goes through crystalline-crystalline polymorphic phase transitions at higher temperatures. The room temperature phase is indexed to a triclinic lattice, while in the high temperature phases molecules take randomly one of the two different configurations in the unit cell, resulting in the 2-fold symmetry. The formation of cholesteric liquid crystalline phase occurs simultaneously with partial decomposition, followed by the isotropization with simultaneous and complete decomposition at much higher temperature, as obtained by IR. The results provide valuable information about the relationship between molecular structure, thermal properties, and stability of the complex, indicating the importance of an appropriate choice of cation, amphiphilic, and crown ether unit in order to synthesize compounds with desired behavior.

  3. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  4. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of distortions around the cervical area of teeth restored with two kinds of crown materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chikako; Miura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Daizo; Komada, Wataru; Miyasaka, Munenaga; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Masuoka, David

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify crown materials to decrease the stress concentrated at the cervical area of endodontically treated teeth. To this end, 14 extracted human mandibular premolars were divided into two groups for this study: complete cast crowns versus polymer-based crown and bridge material crowns. Both complete cast crowns (MC) and polymer-based crown and bridge material crowns (HC) were cemented with a glycidyl methacrylate-based resin cement (RC) to composite resin cores with glass fiber posts. Static loading was applied and distortion was measured with four pieces of strain gages attached to the marginal area. Findings showed that there was a large difference in distortion between crown and root in MC. On the other hand, distortions at the cervical area of crown and root were similar in HC.

  6. Fracture Strength After Fatigue Loading of Lithium Disilicate Pressed Zirconia Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeun; Choi, Jae-Won; Ju, Sung-Won; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yoon, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of fatigued lithium disilicate pressed zirconia crowns versus other ceramic crowns. Lithium disilicate pressed zirconia, fluorapatite pressed zirconia, monolithic lithium disilicate, and monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. Cyclic and static loadings were applied to the mesiobuccal cusp tip after thermocycling and fracture strengths were recorded. Fatigued lithium disilicate pressed zirconia crowns were found to have a fracture resistance of 9,117.81 ± 727.04 N, compared with 9,240.61 ± 887.21 N for monolithic zirconia crowns, 3,030.18 ± 1,505.83 N for fluorapatite pressed zirconia crowns, and 4,173.94 ± 877.46 N for monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (P = .001). This in vitro study shows that fatigued lithium disilicate pressed zirconia and monolithic zirconia crowns have better fracture resistance than fluorapatite pressed zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns.

  7. SpaceInn hare-and-hounds exercise: Estimation of stellar properties using space-based asteroseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Miglio, A.; Antia, H. M.; Ball, W. H.; Basu, S.; Buldgen, G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Coelho, H. R.; Hekker, S.; Houdek, G.; Lebreton, Y.; Mazumdar, A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; Verma, K.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Detailed oscillation spectra comprising individual frequencies for numerous solar-type stars and red giants are either currently available, e.g. courtesy of the CoRoT, Kepler, and K2 missions, or will become available with the upcoming NASA TESS and ESA PLATO 2.0 missions. The data can lead to a precise characterisation of these stars thereby improving our understanding of stellar evolution, exoplanetary systems, and the history of our galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to test and compare different methods for obtaining stellar properties from oscillation frequencies and spectroscopic constraints. Specifically, we would like to evaluate the accuracy of the results and reliability of the associated error bars, and to see where there is room for improvement. Methods: In the context of the SpaceInn network, we carried out a hare-and-hounds exercise in which one group, the hares, simulated observations of oscillation spectra for a set of ten artificial solar-type stars, and a number of hounds applied various methods for characterising these stars based on the data produced by the hares. Most of the hounds fell into two main groups. The first group used forward modelling (i.e. applied various search/optimisation algorithms in a stellar parameter space) whereas the second group relied on acoustic glitch signatures. Results: Results based on the forward modelling approach were accurate to 1.5% (radius), 3.9% (mass), 23% (age), 1.5% (surface gravity), and 1.8% (mean density), as based on the root mean square difference. Individual hounds reached different degrees of accuracy, some of which were substantially better than the above average values. For the two 1M⊙ stellar targets, the accuracy on the age is better than 10% thereby satisfying the requirements for the PLATO 2.0 mission. High stellar masses and atomic diffusion (which in our models does not include the effects of radiative accelerations) proved to be sources of difficulty. The average accuracies for the

  8. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Seven shapes of piston crowns have been evaluated for their ability to reduce HCCI knock and transmission of combustion noise to the engine. The performance of each piston crown was evaluated with measurements of cylinder pressure, engine vibration and acoustic sound pressure measured one meter......, increased heat transfer can not be avoided. Thus, the use of alternative piston crown geometries designed to split the combustion may not be viable means of avoiding HCCI engine knock. The traditional diesel bowl type piston is therefore possibly the best alternative to the flat piston in terms of noise...... away from the engine. The experiments were conducted in a diesel engine that was run in HCCI combustion mode with a fixed quantity of DME as fuel. The results show that combustion knock is effectively suppressed by limiting the size of the volume in which the combustion occurs. Splitting...

  9. Chipping resistance of graded zirconia ceramics for dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chai, H; Lee, J J-W; Lawn, B R

    2012-03-01

    A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia.

  10. Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lee, J.J.-W.; Lawn, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia. PMID:22232142

  11. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems.

  12. Modeling the spatial distribution of forest crown biomass and effects on fire behavior with FUEL3D and WFDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William Mell; Peter McCauley

    2010-01-01

    Crown fire poses challenges to fire managers and can endanger fire fighters. Understanding of how fire interacts with tree crowns is essential to informed decisions about crown fire. Current operational crown fire predictions in the United States assume homogeneous crown fuels. While a new class of research fire models, which model fire behavior with computational...

  13. Influenza-like illness-related emergency department visits: Christmas and New Year holiday peaks and relationships with laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus detections, Edmonton, Alberta, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leah J; Im, Cindy; Dong, Huiru; Lee, Bonita E; Talbot, James; Meurer, David P; Mukhi, Shamir N; Drews, Steven J; Yasui, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visit volumes can be especially high during the Christmas-New Year holidays, a period occurring during the influenza season in Canada. Using daily data, we examined the relationship between ED visits for the chief complaint "cough" (for Edmonton, Alberta residents) and laboratory detections for influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (for Edmonton and surrounding areas), lagged 0-5 days ahead, for non-pandemic years (2004-2008 and 2010-2014) using multivariable linear regression adjusting for temporal variables. We defined these cough-related visits as influenza-like illness (ILI)-related ED visits and, for 2004-2014, compared Christmas-New Year holiday (December 24-January 3) and non-holiday volumes during the influenza season (October-April). Adjusting for temporal variables, ILI-related ED visits were significantly associated with laboratory detections for influenza A and RSV. During non-pandemic years, the highest peak in ILI-related visit volumes always occurred during the holidays. The median number of holiday ILI-related visits/day (42.5) was almost twice the non-holiday median (24) and was even higher in 2012-2013 (80) and 2013-2014 (86). Holiday ILI-related ED visit volumes/100 000 population ranged from 56.0 (2010-2011) to 117.4 (2012-2013). In contrast, lower visit volumes occurred during the holidays of pandemic-affected years (2008-2010). During non-pandemic years, ILI-related ED visit volumes were associated with variations in detections for influenza A and RSV and always peaked during the Christmas-New Year holidays. This predictability should be used to prepare for, and possibly prevent, this increase in healthcare use; however, interventions beyond disease prevention strategies are likely needed. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. AB INITIO INVESTIGATION OF 12-CROWN-4 AND BENZO-12-CROWN-4 COMPLEXES WITH Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cd2+, AND Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahmin Yahmin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure and binding energies of 12-crown-4 and benzo-12-crown-4 complexes with Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+were investigated with ab initio calculations using Hartree-Fock approximation and second-order perturbation theory. The basis set used in this study is lanl2mb. The structure optimization of cation-crown ether complexes was evaluated at HF/lanl2mb level of theory and interaction energy of the corresponding complexes was calculated at MP2/lanl2mb level of theory (MP2/lanl2mb//HF/lanl2mb. Interactions of the crown ethers and the cations were discussed in term of the structure parameter of crown ether. The binding energies of the complexes show that all complex formed from transition metal cations is more stable than the complexes formed from alkali metal cations.   Keywords: 12-crown-4, benzo-12-crown-4, alkali metals, transition metals

  15. A crown ether appended super gelator with multiple stimulus responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengyi; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Donghua; Yan, Xuzhou; Zhang, Mingming; Huang, Feihe

    2012-06-26

    A crown ether appended super gelator is designed and synthesized. It can gel a variety of organic solvents and shows excellent gelation properties with both low critical gelation concentration and short gelation time. Due to the introduction of the crown ether moiety and a secondary ammonium unit, the supramolecular gels show reversible gel-sol transitions. The supramolecular gels can also be molded into shape-persistent and free-standing objects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Immediate esthetic crown with a facet of the extracted element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giovanni de Almeida Prado; Magalhães, Amanda; Ajzen, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    The present report describes a case of implant loading with an immediate temporary crown. The buccal crown surface was removed from the extracted tooth to obtain an aesthetically satisfactory result. After periodontal treatment, tooth 21 appeared proclined and showed Grade 3 mobility, indicating the need for its extraction. The remaining bone was imaged using computed tomography, and virtual surgical planning was performed using these results. The implant was immediately loaded postextraction into the fresh alveolus without a graft and flap procedure. The temporary tooth, which was manufactured using the extracted buccal surface, was a simple, fast, and low cost procedure that produced an excellent esthetic outcome.

  17. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site...

  18. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Jeffery, Elizabeth; Morbey, Roger; House, Thomas; Elliot, Alex J; Harcourt, Sally; Smith, Gillian E

    2017-05-19

    As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all these effects, which led to misleading smoothing

  19. Marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of adhesively luted glass fibre-composite reinforced molar crowns with different inner crown surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, M; Rosentritt, M; Sikora, M I; Karl, P; Handel, G

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the influence of different inner crown surfaces on the fracture resistance and marginal adaptation of adhesively fixed glass fibre-reinforced molar crowns. Vectris/Targis crowns were constructed with an inner framework of glass fibres (directly on the tooth) or an inner veneering composite layer between the fibre-framework and the tooth-substance. Both groups were sandblasted inside using Al(2)O(3); 50 microm grain size (200 kPa, 20 s) and silane coated. A control group had the inner fibre framework, but was neither sandblasted nor silane coated. The crowns were adhesively cemented on extracted human teeth, and thermally cycled and mechanically loaded (TCML: 6000 x 5 degrees C/55 degrees C; 1.2 x 10(6) x 50 N, 1.66 Hz). The marginal adaptation before and after TCML was evaluated and the fracture resistance was investigated using a Zwick universal testing machine. After TCML the proportion of 'perfect margin' of the control group decreased significantly at the interface crown/cement. For the variations with an inner fibre framework or inner composite layer the marginal adaptation or fracture resistance did not decrease significantly after ageing. The fracture resistance values were control: 1509N+/-486; inner fibre framework: 1896N+/-342; inner composite layer: 1754N+/-340. In the case of the investigated fibre framework and veneering composite, the inner surface of glass fibre-reinforced molar crowns can be covered with a composite layer or with a glass fibre framework. Both methods achieve comparable high fracture strengths and reliable marginal adaptation.

  20. Evaluation of retention of cemented laser-sintered crowns on unmodified straight narrow implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    A common problem with cemented crowns is inadequate retention at the crown-abutment interface. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of new laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloy crowns to the retention of cobalt-chromium alloy crowns fabricated with a traditional casting technique with and without an alloy primer. Twenty-four metallic crowns per casting technique were fabricated, and surface roughness values were recorded with a profilometer. Alloy primer was applied to half the specimens, and all crowns were luted with resin cement. After 24 hours, specimens were subjected to tensile force application with a universal testing machine. The effect of the cement amount was evaluated with an analytic balance. The results were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis multiple-comparison test. The Spearman correlation was used to determine correlations between crown retention and cement weight. The laser-sintered crowns (2.72 μm) were rougher than conventionally cast crowns. The mean load to failure values were as follows: 455.10 ± 192.69 Ncm for conventional crowns, 565.52 ± 112.87 Ncm for conventional crowns with alloy primer, 534.78 ± 130.15 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns, and 678.60 ± 212.83 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns with alloy primer. Laser-sintered crowns (10.10 ± 2.15 mg) showed a significant difference in terms of cement weight compared with cast crowns. In addition, negative correlations were found for retention and cement weight between all groups, except for the laser-sintered group without alloy primer. Retentive forces were significantly higher for laser-sintered crowns than for conventionally cast crowns. An increase in the surface roughness and the application of alloy primers led to an increase in the adhesive bonding of resin cements to metal alloys. It was concluded that a reduction in cement weight improved retention.

  1. In vitro fracture resistance of three commercially available zirconia crowns for primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Knoell, Patrick; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yapin; Zhu, Han; Beattie, Sean; Xu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fracture resistance of primary mandibular first molar zirconia crowns from three different manufacturers-EZ Pedo (EZP), NuSmile (NSZ), and Kinder Krowns (KK)-and compare it with the thickness of the zirconia crowns and the measured fracture resistance of preveneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs). The thickness of 20 zirconia crowns from three manufacturers were measured. The mean force required to fracture the crowns was determined. Preveneered NuSmile (NSW) SSCs were tested as a control. EZP crowns were significantly thicker in three of the six measured locations. The force required to fracture the EZP crown was significantly higher than that required for NSZ and KK. There was a positive correlation between fracture resistance and crown thickness in the mesial, distal, mesioocclusal, and distoocclusal dimensions. None of the zirconia crowns proved to be as resistant to fracture as the preveneered SSCs. Statistically significant differences were found among the forces required to fracture zirconia crowns by three different manufacturers. The increase in force correlated with crown thickness. The forces required to fracture the preveneered stainless steel crowns were greater than the forces required to fracture all manufacturers' zirconia crowns.

  2. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  3. Laser pediatric crowns performed without anesthesia: a contemporary technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacboson, B; Berger, J; Kravitz, R; Patel, P

    2003-01-01

    Extensive caries resulting in the need for a stainless steel crown in primary teeth may now be prepared with the use of the WaterlaseTM YSGG Laser, (Biolase) hard and soft-tissue laser. The use of the laser eliminates the need for local anesthesia, thereby providing optimal patient comfort and compliance.

  4. Notes on African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus diet in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study reports on contrasts in prey items from African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus nesting in forest (n = 1) and savanna (n = 2) biomes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At least 12 taxa were identified at a forest nest, of which 92.1% were neonate/juvenile. Bovids and procaviids represented 73.7% and 19.6% ...

  5. Effect of detachment time of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) crown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limiting factor to large scale production of pineapple is the scarcity of planting materials. The use of pineapple crown as a propagation material is common, but with no regard to length of time after detachment. A study was conducted in the late seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Teaching and Research Farm Ekiti State ...

  6. tree crown ratio models for tropical rainforests in oban division

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    CROWN RATIO MODELS FOR TROPICAL RAINFORESTS SPECIES IN. OBAN DIVISION OF THE CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA. *ADEYEMI, A.A., JIMOH, S.O. AND ADESOYE, P.O.. Department of Forest Resources Management,. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author's Email: ...

  7. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique.

  8. Evaluating host resistance to Macrophomina crown rot in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrophomina crown rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, is an emerging pathogen in California strawberry production. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding ...

  9. Pre-restorative crown lengthening surgery outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilalas, Ioannis; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2016-12-01

    Pre-restorative crown lengthening surgery (CLS) is a common periodontal procedure, for which systematic reviews are lacking. This systematic review aimed to assess outcomes of CLS performed for restorative reasons. Databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, OpenGrey) were searched up to January 2016 for clinical/animal trials on CLS for restorative reasons with ≥6-month follow-up. Primary outcomes investigated were: free gingival margin position, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque/inflammation indices. Four non-randomized and one randomized controlled clinical trial and one controlled animal trial were included. Heterogeneity and high risk of bias were identified. CLS resulted in increased crown length (6-month average: 1.4-3.3 mm). Between immediate postsurgery and follow-up, gingival margin may rebound, largely during the first three postoperative months. Technical (flap positioning, osseous resection, root preparation) and anatomical (periodontal biotype) factors influence outcomes. The literature lacks studies on tooth mobility, crown-root ratio, patient- and referring dentist-reported outcomes, surgical technique comparisons, and restorative treatment timing. Within the available data limitations, it is concluded that CLS results in increased crown length and possible gingival margin rebound. Technical aspects (primarily) and anatomical factors (secondarily) influence outcomes. Future research is needed to fill significant voids in our knowledge on several procedural aspects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative photophysical behaviour of naphthalene-linked crown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, in the systems L1 and L2, the quenching is due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from nitrogen lone pair of the aza crown ring to naphthalene moiety and consequent exciplex formation. The results have been interpreted using the time-resolved emission studies of all the compounds in various solvents, their ...

  11. Crown formation during tooth development and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Lechguer, Adnane; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Lesot, Herve

    2009-07-15

    Considering tooth crown engineering, three main parameters have to be taken into account: (1) the relationship between crown morphology and tooth functionality, (2) the growth of the organ, which is hardly compatible with the use of preformed scaffolds, and (3) the need for easily available nondental competent cell sources. In vitro reassociation experiments using either dental tissues or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) have been designed to get information about the mechanisms to be preserved in order to allow crown engineering. As the primary enamel knot (PEK) is involved in signaling crown morphogenesis, the formation and fate of this structure was investigated (1) in heterotopic reassociations between embryonic day 14 (ED14) incisor and molar enamel organs and mesenchymes, and (2) in reassociations between ED14 molar enamel organs and BMDC. A PEK formed in cultured heterotopic dental tissue reassociations. The mesenchyme controls the fate of the EK cells, incisor or molar-specific using apoptosis as criterion, and functionality to drive single/multiple cusps tooth development. Although previous investigations showed that they might differentiate as odontoblast- or ameloblast-like cells, BMDC reassociated to an enamel organ could not support the development of multicusp teeth. These cells apparently could neither maintain nor stimulate the formation of a PEK. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Relationships among alfalfa resistance to Sclerotinia crown and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zilvinas

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR) of alfalfa caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum is one of the main constraints for efficient alfalfa ..... AF, Afganistan; EE, Estonia; CH, China; CZ, Czeck Republic; DK, Denmark; FR, France; HU, Hungary; IT, Italy; LT, Lithuania; NL, Netherlands;. PK, Pakistan; PL, Poland; RO, ...

  13. Evaluation of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Provisional Crowns by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry,. King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E‑mail: malrifaiy@hotmail.com. How to cite this article: Al Rifaiy MQ. Evaluation of vertical marginal adaptation of provisional crowns by digital microscope. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017 ...

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... This study was conducted to investigate heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown. Olea europaea L forest in Rey town (Tehran, Iran), irrigated with wastewater and well water. Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni were determined at two sites. Heavy metal total concentrations (mg kg-1) in clay soils of pH ...

  15. Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda-Fuentes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA, Ellipsoid Volume method (VE and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS. Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended.

  16. Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Gil, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

  17. Antibacterial activity of plant defensins against alfalfa crown rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the fourth most widely grown crop in the United States. Alfalfa crown rot is a disease complex that severely decreases alfalfa stand density and productivity in all alfalfa-producing areas. Currently, there are no viable methods of disease control. Plant defensins are sm...

  18. Bio-inspired ion selective crown-ether polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Development of unctional membranes that are capable of selectively recognizing and transporting ions have key importance for the recovery and separation of specific icons (e.d. K+, Li+, Na+) from multicomponent mixtures. In this thesis, new membrane materials based on crown ether-metal ion

  19. The impact of capture, domestication and trade on Black Crowned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inland delta of the Niger, a vast floodplain, is the only refuge of Black Crowned Cranes in Mali. This study, centred on the regions of Mopti, Tenenkou and Youwarou, aimed to: (1) census the number of cranes in the delta and in captivity in the towns of Mopti and Bamako; (2) examine exploitation at different levels (local ...

  20. Why do crown ethers activate enzymes in organic solvents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of enzymes in nonaqueous solvents is that their activity is often dramatically low compared to that in water. This limitation can be largely overcome by crown ether treatment of enzymes. In this paper, we describe a number of carefully designed new experiments that have

  1. Effect of natural aerial crown connections between leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of natural aerial crown interconnections between coconut palms and interplanted citrus on survival and movements, of Oecophylla longinoda colonies between the trees was studied in a coconut-citrus plantaiion at Kiimbwanindi in Tanzania. The overlapping leaves and branches of coconut and citrus trees ...

  2. Management intensity and genetics affect loblolly pine crown characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Landis Herrin; Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau

    2012-01-01

    The development of elite loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L) genotypes may lead to reduced planting densities as a means of reducing establishment costs. However, this can lead to undesirable crown and branch characteristics in some genotypes. Selecting appropriate genetic material, combined with appropriate silvicultural management, is essential to...

  3. Multidisciplinary approach in the management of a complicated crown root fracture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shin, J H; Kim, J E; Kim, R J

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the management of a complicated crown root fracture. A young patient presented with a crown root fracture of the maxillary left central incisor with an oblique subgingival fracture line...

  4. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Reasons for Initial Placement and Replacement of Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzgur, Recep; Uzgur, Zeynep; Colak, Hakan; Ercan, Ertugrul; Dalli, Mehmet; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional survey investigated the reasons for placement and replacement of single crowns, the type of materials selected for initial placement and evaluated their longevity. Information was collected over 19 months period using a questionnaire focusing on the principal reasons for the placement and replacement of crowns, selected material type and the age of the crowns at the time of replacement. A total of 842 single crowns were evaluated in 476 patients. Of the 842 crowns, 472 (56%) were initial placements and 370 (44%) replacements. The main reason for placement of first single crowns was related to endodontic problems (26.5%). Metal-ceramic was indicated significantly more frequent (88.9%; p⟨0.01) than other materials for the placement and replacement of single crowns. The median age of the replaced crowns was 6 years. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Keighren, Innes M., Charles W.J. Withers, Bill Bell. Travels into Print: Exploration, Writing, and publishing with John Murray, 1773-1859 (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Schelstraete

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of Innes M. Keighren, Charles W.J. Withers, Bill Bell's Travels into Print: Exploration, Writing, and publishing with John Murray, 1773-1859. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2015. 392 pp. $45.

  6. Widely power-tunable polarization-independent ultrafast mode-locked fiber laser using bulk InN as saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, M; Monteagudo-Lerma, L; Monroy, E; González-Herráez, M; Naranjo, F B

    2017-03-06

    The growing demand of ultrafast mode-locked fiber lasers in the near infrared has boosted the research activity in this area. One of the most convenient ways to achieve passive mode locking consists of inserting a semiconductor saturable absorber in the laser cavity to modulate the losses. However, in such a configuration, the limited power range of operation is still an unsolved issue. Here we report the fabrication of an ultrafast, high-power, widely power-tunable and non-polarization-dependent mode-locked fiber laser operating at 1.55 µm, using an InN layer as saturable absorber. With post-amplification, this laser delivers 55-fs pulses with a repetition rate of 4.84 MHz and peak power in the range of 1 MW in an all-fiber arrangement.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of InN epitaxial layer grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, Barun Kumar, E-mail: bkbarick@gmail.com; Prasad, Nivedita; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Dhar, Subhabrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Growth of InN epilayers on c-plane sapphire substrate by chemical vapor deposition technique using pure indium metal and ammonia as precursors has been systematically explored. It has been found that [0001] oriented indium nitride epitaxial layers with smooth surface morphology can be grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by optimizing the growth conditions. Bandgap of the film is observed to be Burstein–Moss shifted likely to be due to high background electron concentration. It has been found that the concentration of this unintentional doping decreases with the increase in the growth temperature and the ammonia flux. Epitaxial quality on the other hand deteriorates as the growth temperature increases. Moreover, the morphology of the deposited layer has been found to change from flat top islands to faceted mounds as the flow rate of ammonia increases. This phenomenon is expected to be related to the difference in surface termination character at low and high ammonia flow rates.

  8. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P Poudel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire modeling. However, crown biomass is difficult to predict because of the variability within and among species and sites. Thus the allometric equations used for predicting crown biomass should be based on data collected with precise and unbiased sampling strategies. In this study, we evaluate the performance different sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass and to evaluate the effect of sample size in estimating crown biomass. Methods Using data collected from 20 destructively sampled trees, we evaluated 11 different sampling strategies using six evaluation statistics: bias, relative bias, root mean square error (RMSE, relative RMSE, amount of biomass sampled, and relative biomass sampled. We also evaluated the performance of the selected sampling strategies when different numbers of branches (3, 6, 9, and 12 are selected from each tree. Tree specific log linear model with branch diameter and branch length as covariates was used to obtain individual branch biomass. Results Compared to all other methods stratified sampling with probability proportional to size estimation technique produced better results when three or six branches per tree were sampled. However, the systematic sampling with ratio estimation technique was the best when at least nine branches per tree were sampled. Under the stratified sampling strategy, selecting unequal number of branches per stratum produced approximately similar results to simple random sampling, but it further decreased RMSE when information on branch diameter is used in the design and estimation phases. Conclusions Use of

  9. Susceptibility artifacts of pediatric dental stainless steel crowns in magnetic resonance tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleth, Peer

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether stainless steel crowns show significant susceptibility artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whether these artifacts make it necessary to remove these crowns before an MRI examination. Furthermore, this study analyzes whether different commercially available crowns, which vary in their composition, cause different artifact intensity levels in MRI and whether a shortening and bending of the crown margin leads to more extensive artif...

  10. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz Y; Guler C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam aut...

  11. Effects of crown release on growth and quality of even-aged red maple stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry F. Strong; Audra E. Hubbell; Adam H. Weise; Gayne G. Erdmann

    2006-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality of 54 dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were examined in an even-aged stand in upper Michigan. Treatments included an unreleased control, a single-tree and a two-tree crown release, and a full crown-to-crown release of 5, 10, and 15ft. Twenty-two...

  12. Influence of crown shape on root coverage therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Santos Peres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crown shape on the outcomes of root coverage procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty patients with Miller class I gingival recessions in maxillary canines or premolars were selected. The recession areas were treated using the subepithelial connective tissue grafting. The following clinical parameters were analyzed: crown length (CL and width (CW, recession height and width, probing depth, clinical attachment level, width and thickness of the keratinized tissue and percentage of root coverage achieved. These measurements were recorded at baseline and 6 months after the surgical procedure. The CW/CL ratio was calculated for each tooth and the median obtained (0.83. Patients were then ranked into two groups, according to the shape of the tooth with gingival recession: Group A - square crown shape (CW/CL values above 0.83 and Group B - long and narrow crown shape (CW/CL values below 0.83. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences (p>0.05 were found between groups in any of the clinical parameters at baseline. After 6 months, both groups presented improved clinical outcomes for all parameters analyzed compared to baseline (p>0.05. The mean percentages and standard deviations of root coverage achieved in Group A and Group B was 91.37 (16.75 and 85.49 (23.55, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Crown shape did not influence the root coverage obtained with the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique.

  13. Calix[4]-bis-crowns and calix[4]-bis-aza-oxa-crowns: from receptors design to molecular machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfari, Z.; Nierlich, M.; Thuery, P.; Lamare, V.; Dozol, J.F.; Leroy, M.; Vicens, J. [CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    1996-11-01

    This review article mainly collects our results on the complexation properties of a series of 1,3-calix[4]-bis-crowns in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Due to their high symmetry, these receptors were shown to form mono-and bi-nuclear complexes with alkali metal cations as evidenced by X-ray crystallography and NMR investigations. Among the family those receptors containing 6 oxygen atoms in the poly glycolic chains were proved to be highly selective towards cesium cation. The observed Na+/Cs+ selectivity was exploited in separation process using them as carriers in transport through supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The selectivity was also rationalized through the determination of thermodynamical parameters of the complexation. X-ray structures and molecular modelling showed that the ligands are preorganised to complex cesium cations and were accounted for explaining the high selectivity observed during the transport experiments. ``1 H- and ``133Cs-NMR grave a schematic representation of the formation of binuclear species and of tunneling of the metal through the calixarene unit. Calix[4]-bis-aza-oxa-crowns and related hybrid receptors combining poly oxa aza-and poly oxa crown ether elements which have been synthesized are good candidates for acting as hard-soft receptors. Due to the globular shapes of calix[4]-bis-crowns, molecular world globes as new molecular machines have been prepared. (Author)29 refs.

  14. 18-Crown[6]ether functionalized reduced graphene oxide for membrane-free ion selective sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gunnar; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    The focus of this work is on the synthesis of a 1-Aza-18-crown[6]ether functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO-crown[6]) with specific K+ binding sites on the RGO surface. Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) functionalized with RGO-crown[6] weretested for selective potentiometric sensing of K...

  15. Comparison of repair methods for ceramic-fused-to-metal crowns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M.; Van Der Sleen, J.M.; Kurunmaki, H.; Vallittu, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of four repair methods on the fracture load of repaired ceramic-fused-to-metal crowns. Materials and Methods: Metal-ceramic crowns were fractured, and the failure load was measured. The fractured metal-ceramic crowns (n = 9) were

  16. Clinical performance of esthetic posterior crowns in primary molars: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, A B; Ram, D; Eidelman, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the clinical performance of esthetic crowns and to compare these to conventional stainless steel crowns (SSC). Twenty two crowns (11 conventional and 11 esthetic) were placed in mandibular primary molars obeying the following criteria: the tooth was not mobile; no fistulae were present; the tooth had at least one caries free or properly restored antagonist and had to be in contact with one adjacent tooth mesially, in the case of the primary second molars or distally in the case of the primary first molars. Crown preparation was done in a conventional manner, but reduction was more extensive for the thicker esthetic crowns, to allow for proper occlusion. The crowns were evaluated clinically and radiographically after 6 months and the following parameters were assessed: gingival health, marginal extension, crown adequacy, proper position or occlusion, proximal contact, chipping of the facing (for esthetic crowns) and cement removal. At the 6 month evaluation all esthetic crowns were intact, without chipping of the facing, and no excess of cement was observed in both groups. No difference was found for marginal extension, occlusion, proximal contact, crown adequacy, and bone resorption, but a significant difference was found for periodontal health between esthetic crowns and conventional SSC (P crowns assessed had several inconveniences, as they resulted in poor gingival health, are very expensive, and, although not measured, are bulky and without a natural appearance.

  17. Crown radius and diameter at breast height relationships for six bottomland hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Robert C. Weih; Keith M. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between a tree's crown radius and diameter at breast height (DBH) has a variety of uses including forest competition studies, tree crown densities, spacing and stocking relationships, wildlife habitat suitability models, and tree volume estimations. Estimating DBH from mean crown radius (MCR) is of interest to natural resource managers because MCR...

  18. Effect of thermo-mechanical loading on marginal quality and wear of primary molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, N; Rudolph, H; Garcia-Godoy, F; Frankenberger, R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical loading (TML) on marginal quality and wear of different crown types for primary molars. Eighty extracted human primary molars were used. After preparation, five groups received different crowns (n=16): preformed metal crowns (3M ESPE) and NuSmile crowns (Orthodontic Technologies Inc.) were inserted as preformed metal crowns; as semi-preformed crowns Protemp crowns (3M ESPE) were luted; and as individually manufactured resin composite crowns Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent) were used. Specimens were subjected to 2,500 thermal cycles between 5-55(o)C and chewing simulation for 100,000 cycles at 50N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Before and after thermo-mechanical loading, impressions of the teeth were taken and replicas were made. The replicas received marginal quality evaluation under a SEM at x200 magnification. Occlusal wear was measured as vertical height loss using a 3-D laser scanning microscope. After TML, all crowns were intact. The adhesively bonded crowns showed significantly better marginal quality to dentine/cementum compared with GIC luted crowns (pcrowns showed a good fit and nearly transition-free margins also after TML. Preformed metal crowns showed the significantly lowest wear rates compared to the resin composites (pcrown types under investigation showed a good performance concerning the evaluated parameters marginal quality and wear.

  19. The use of Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialist paediatric dentists in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, A; McKay, A; Albadri, S

    2018-01-01

    Examines treatment planning involving Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialists in paediatric dentistry. Explores clinical situations in which specialists in paediatric dentistry feel it is appropriate or not to fit Hall technique preformed metal crowns. Investigates which types of carious lesions are being treated with Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialists in paediatric dentistry.

  20. Wheat crown and root rotting fungi in Moghan area, Northwest of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat root and crown rot (Triticum aestivum L.) is a disease problem in many wheat producing area as well as Moghan wheat growing area, Northwest of Iran. In this study, injured plants of wheat with blighting, stunting, and death of mature plants, also necrotic lesions on seminal crown roots, sub crown internodes and ...

  1. Dioxygen affinities and catalytic oxidation activities of cobalt complexes with Schiff bases containing crown ether

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.; Chen, J.R.; Hu, J.Y.; Li, X.J.

    2006-01-01

    The stoichiometry of dioxygen uptake of Co complexes with 4',5'-bis-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylmethylideneimino)benzo-12-crown-4 (la), 4',5'-bis(2-hydroxyphenylmethylideneimino)benzo-12-crown-4(1b), 4',5'-bis-(5-methoxy-2-hydroxyphenylmethylideneimino)benzo-12-crown-4 (1c),

  2. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameira, Deborah Pacheco; Buarque e Silva, Wilkens Aurélio; Andrade e Silva, Frederico; De Souza, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM); Bi-layer crowns (BL). Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37 °C), and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = .05) indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM = 3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM = 3561.5 N ± 991.6), which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6). There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength.

  3. Tree crown structure indicators in a natural uneven-aged mixed coniferous forest in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Jimenez-Perez; Oscar Aguirre-Calderon; Horst Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of tree crown structure provides critical information to assess a variety of ecological conditions for multiple purposes and applications. For biomass growth, for example, tree crowns have basic physiological functions: assimilation, respiration, and transpiration. How tree crowns spatially interact and grow can bring about a seamless landscape of...

  4. Estimating tree crown widths for the primary Acadian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    In this analysis, data for seven conifer and eight hardwood species were gathered from across the state of Maine for estimating tree crown widths. Maximum and largest crown width equations were developed using tree diameter at breast height as the primary predicting variable. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the maximum crown width and a constrained...

  5. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  6. Experimental modeling of crown fire initiation in open and closed shrubland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tachajapong; S. Lozano; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2014-01-01

    The transition of surface fire to live shrub crown fuels was studied through a simplified laboratory experiment using an open-topped wind tunnel. Respective surface and crown fuels used were excelsior (shredded Populus tremuloides wood) and live chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum, including branches and foliage). A high crown fuel...

  7. Going on holiday? Travelling on duty? Do you know what to do if your mobile phone is lost or stolen?

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    It’s summertime and many of us will be going on holiday, perhaps far away from Geneva. Duty travel also takes many of us far away from CERN from time to time. You probably know how to cancel your credit cards if they are lost or stolen, but do you know how to block your CERN mobile phone from use?   Recently, one user waited until returning to CERN to block theirs which was enough time for the thief to run up a substantial phone bill. Please make sure the same doesn’t happen to you! If your phone is lost or stolen: during working hours: call the Telecom Lab on +41 22 767 2480 or the CERN Switchboard on +41 22 767 6111 as soon as possible and provide: - your telephone number, - your name / first name / department. outside working hours: call the Swisscom hotline as soon as possible on: - +41 800 55 64 64 (in Switzerland) or, - +41 62 286 12 12 (outside Switzerland). You will also need to report the loss or theft in accordance with CERN’s offic...

  8. An Inter-Comparison of the Holiday Climate Index (HCI and the Tourism Climate Index (TCI in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been devoted to quantifying optimal or unacceptable climate conditions both generally and for specific tourism segments or activities over the last 10 years. This knowledge is not incorporated in the Tourism Climate Index (TCI, which has also been subject to other substantial critiques. To more accurately assess the climatic suitability of destinations for leisure tourism, the Holiday Climate Index (HCI was developed. A major advancement of the HCI is that its variable rating scales and the component weighting system are based on this aforementioned literature of tourists’ stated climatic preferences. This paper will discuss the design of the HCI and how the limitations of the TCI were overcome. It then presents an inter-comparison of the results from HCI:Urban and TCI for geographically diverse urban destinations across Europe. The results illustrate how the HCI:Urban rates the climate of many cities higher than the TCI, particularly in shoulder seasons and the winter months, which is more consistent with observed visitation patterns. The results empirically demonstrate that use of the TCI should be discontinued.

  9. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  10. The role of nocturnal delivery and delivery during the holiday period in Finland on obstetric anal sphincter rupture rates- a population based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehviläinen-Julkunen Katri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR is a serious complication of delivery, which frequently results in faecal incontinence despite primary repair and has serious implications for women's health. The objective of this study was to assess whether human factors, workload and staffing at night, at weekends and during holidays has an effect on the increasing OASR rates among all singleton vaginal deliveries (n = 514,741 having occurred between 1997 and 2007 in Finland. Women (n = 2,849 with OASR were compared in terms of possible risk factors to women without OASR using stepwise logistic regression analysis. Findings In Finland, the increase in OASR rate is striking, from 0.2% in 1997 to 0.9% in 2007. OASR rates varied from 0.49% to 0.58% (≤ 0.001 according to the time of day, and were lowest at night. After adjustment for patient-mix and the use of interventions, the risk of OASR was 11% lower (95% CI 3-18% at night and 15% lower (95% CI 3-26% in July - the main holiday month. Only 14% of the increased OASR risk during the day time (8-23.59 was attributable to vacuum assistance and birth weight, whereas the holiday period had no effect. Conclusions Decreased OASR rates at night and in July suggest that human factors such as decreased alertness due to fatigue or hospitals' administrative factors such as workload and staffing did not increase the rates of OASR.

  11. Relative contributions of holiday location and nationality to changes in recreational drug taking behaviour: a natural experiment in the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Schnitzer, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To examine the contributions of international holiday resorts and visitors' nationality to recruitment, relapse into, and escalation in frequency of recreational drug use. Retrospective design surveying British, German and Spanish (n = 3,003) holidaymakers aged 16-35 visiting Ibiza or Majorca (Spain). Individuals' drug use in international resorts was related to use at home, holiday destination and nationality. While visiting Ibiza, 7.2% of British tourists tried ecstasy for the first time with similar recruitment amongst Spanish (8.6%) but not Germans (1.8%) or those visiting Majorca (0.8, 1.5 and 1.2%, respectively). Recruitment into cocaine use was associated with being Spanish, male, visiting Ibiza and drunkenness. One in 5 British holidaymakers visiting Ibiza tried at least one new drug. British and Spanish were most likely to relapse into using a drug after at least 12 months' abstinence; 6.8% of British (1.3% German, 2.9% Spanish) relapsed into using at least one drug. Across nationalities, substance use frequency increased on holiday. International nightlife resorts are major sources of recruitment, relapse and escalation in drug use. Such resorts contribute to the international spread of drug cultures but have been largely ignored as settings for interventions to tackle drugs. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of bilayer ceramic and metal-ceramic crown performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher's exact test. There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns, possibly caused by dissolution and

  13. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bilayer Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Crown Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher’s exact test. Results There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns

  14. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Hossein; Kamali Sabeti, Arghavan; Shahrabi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars). MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand). Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0) and BL (P = 0.0) dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars. PMID:26236433

  15. Comparison of Primary Molar Crown Dimensions with Stainless Steel Crowns in a Sample of Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Afshar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Due to anatomic variation in tooth anatomy between populations, this study compared the buccolingual (BL and mesiodistal (MD dimensions of primary molars with those of stainless steel crowns (SSCs in anIranian population. Materials and methods. Impressions were taken from both dental arches of children, and casts were poured. Teeth with caries, restoration, hypoplasia or other dental anomalies were excluded. 216 primary molars were selected and divided into 4 groups of 54 each (maxillary and mandibular first and second primary molars. MD/BL dimensions were measured using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision on casts and SCCs (3M brand. Data were assessed using paired t-test, post hoc test and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The MD dimension of the lower first molar SSC and the BL dimension of the lower second molar SSC had the least difference with the corresponding values of the respective teeth. The MD dimension of the upper second molar SSC and the BL dimension of the upper first molar SSC had the greatest difference with the corresponding values in the respective teeth. Comparison of the two different brands of SSCs for the upper first molar revealed that both types had significant differences with the teeth in terms of both MD (P = 0.0 and BL (P = 0.0 dimensions. Conclusion. In the studied population, best adaptation was seen in second lower molars and the least adaptationswere seen in first and second upper molars.

  16. PEEK Primary Crowns with Cobalt-Chromium, Zirconia and Galvanic Secondary Crowns with Different Tapers—A Comparison of Retention Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Stock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In prosthetic dentistry, double crown systems have proved their suitability as retainers for removable partial dentures. However, investigations in this context, regarding polyetheretherketone, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the retention force (RF between polyetheretherketone (PEEK primary and cobalt-chromium (CoCr, zirconia (ZrO2 and galvanic (GAL secondary crowns with three different tapers. Primary PEEK-crowns were milled with the tapers 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/taper, respectively. Afterwards, 90 secondary crowns were fabricated: (i 30 CoCr-crowns milled from Ceramill Sintron (AmannGirrbach, Koblach, Austria (n = 10/taper, (ii 30 ZrO2-crowns milled from Ceramill ZI (AmannGirrbach, Koblach, Austria (n = 10/taper, and (iii 30 GAL-crowns made using electroforming (n = 10/taper. RF was measured in a pull-off test (20 pull-offs/specimen and data were analyzed using 2-/1-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Honestly Significant Difference (HSD post hoc test and linear regression analyses (p < 0.05. The measured mean RF values ranged between 9.6 and 38.2 N. With regard to the 0°, 1°, and 2° tapered crowns, no statistically significant differences between CoCr and ZrO2 were observed (p > 0.141. At 0° taper, no differences in retention forces between GAL, CrCr, and ZrO2 crowns were found (p = 0.075. However, at 1° and 2° taper, lower RF for GAL-crowns were observed (p < 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively. According to this laboratory study, PEEK might be a suitable material for primary crowns, regardless of the taper and the material of secondary crown. Long-term results, however, are still necessary.

  17. Tensile bond strength of ceramic crowns to dentin using resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, James F; de Rijk, Waldemar G; Hill, Jennifer; Hill, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the bond strength of the self-adhesive resin cements and a bonded resin cement for crowns bonded to extracted teeth with preparations having a total taper greater than 30 degrees. A crown pull-off test was used with direction of pull along the path of insertion. The CAD/CAM system Cerec was used to create crowns with the pull-off loop as an integral part of the crown structure. One hundred extracted human molars were prepared for all-ceramic crowns with a 1.5-mm shoulder, greater than 30-degree axial wall convergence, a flat occlusal surface and 3 to 5 mm occlusal/ gingival height. All-ceramic crowns were cemented with five different self-adhesive cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem Elite, BisCem, SmartCem 2, and G-Cem) and one bonded resin cement (Multilink). Forfour cements (excluding GCem and Multilink) there were 2 groups, one with HF etching and one without ceramic surface treatment. The crowns were then subject to tensile stress until either the crown fractured or the crown was lifted off from the tooth. For several cements, the bond strength exceeded the tensile strength of the all-ceramic crown; thus, the crown fractured, leaving the cemented part of the crown on the tooth. The effect of ceramic surface etching was not statistically significant at p = 0.05; however, for each cement, the treated crowns showed a lower coefficient of variance (COV). For this study, the COV ranged from 24.9 % to 97.9 %. Loads ranged from 41.3 to 190.3 N. Some of the new self-etching resin cements can create bonds to non-retentive crown preparations that are stronger than the strength of a ceramic crown; however, these high bond strengths may not be able to be achieved consistently.

  18. Wear of double crown systems: electroplated vs. casted female part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bayer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The wear of telescopic crowns is a common problem often reducing the patient's satisfaction with the denture and resulting in a renewal of the denture. The study aims to compare the wear behavior of conical crowns using electroplated copings (group E with standard telescopic crowns with cast female parts (group C. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 10 conical crowns were milled for each group of a cast gold alloy. The specimen of group E had a conicity of 2º. The cast secondary crowns of group C had a 0º design. The electroplated coping was established by direct electroforming. An apparatus accomplishing 10,000 wear cycles performed the wear test. The retentive forces and the correlating distance during insertion and separation were measured. The wear test was separated in a start phase, an initial wear phase and the long term wear period. The retention force value and the force-distance integral of the first 0.33 mm of each cycle were calculated. RESULTS: The retentive forces were significantly higher for group E and the integrals were significantly lower for this group except the integral at cycle 10,000. The changes of retention force and integral did not differ significantly between both groups in all phases. The change of the integrals as well as the integral at the particular cycles showed higher interquartile distances for group C. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study the tested conical crowns showed clinically acceptable retentive properties. The values reached a range comparable to retentive elements tested in recent literature. The values of group C showed higher ranges. The force measured for group E was significantly higher than for group C but the integrals showed an opposite tendency. The results indicate that an exclusive analysis of the force is not sufficient as the integral is not equivalent to the force although it describes the retentive property of the system in a better way than the force over a distance is

  19. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau?Zirconia and ZENOSTAR?ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max?press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rel...

  20. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  1. Wear of metal-free resin composite crowns after three years in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitt, Clemens; Ohlmann, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    To compare differences between the wear behavior of two types of metal-free resin composite crown with a control after three years in clinical service. Sixty-six participants needing one to three posterior single crowns were fitted with 120 crowns. Abutment teeth were randomly assigned to three groups: 40 resin composite crowns with fiber-reinforced framework, 40 resin composite crowns without fiber-reinforced framework, and 40 metal-ceramic crowns. To assess wear, gypsum replicas of the crowns were fabricated and scanned with a 3D laser scanner at baseline and after three years. Differences between the groups were analyzed by use of mixed-effects regression models. Wear of resin composite crowns with fiber-reinforced framework (p=0.0043) and resin composite crowns without framework (p=0.0246) was significantly greater than in the metal-ceramic group. Wear of metal-free resin composite crowns after three years was significantly greater than that of metal-ceramic crowns, but the wear was still clinically acceptable.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Crown Therapy in Young Individuals with Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousette Lundgren, G; Morling Vestlund, G I; Trulsson, M; Dahllöf, G

    2015-08-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare, genetically determined defect in enamel mineralization. Existing treatment recommendations suggest resin-composite restorations until adulthood, although such restorations have a limited longevity. New crown materials allow for minimal preparation techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the quality and longevity of 2 crown types-Procera and IPS e.max Press-in adolescents and young adults with AI. A secondary aim was to document adverse events. We included 27 patients (11 to 22 y of age) with AI in need of crown therapy in a randomized controlled trial using a split-mouth technique. After placing 119 Procera crowns and 108 IPS e.max Press crowns following randomization, we recorded longevity, quality, adverse events, and tooth sensitivity. After 2 y, 97% of the crowns in both crown groups had excellent or acceptable quality. We found no significant differences in quality between Procera and IPS e.max Press crowns. Tooth sensitivity was significantly reduced after crown therapy (P crowns. The results show that it is possible to perform crown therapy with excellent results and without severe complications in young patients with AI. The study is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN70438627). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  3. The marginal fit of selective laser melting-fabricated metal crowns: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Xiang, Nan; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    The selective laser melting technique is attracting interest in prosthetic dentistry. The marginal fit is a key criterion for fixed restorations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the marginal fit of cast cobalt-chromium alloy crowns versus the fit of selective laser melting-fabricated crowns. The marginal gap widths of 36 single crowns (18 selective laser melting-fabricated cobalt-chromium metal crowns and 18 cobalt-chromium cast crowns) were determined with a silicone replica technique. Each crown specimen was cut into 4 sections, and the marginal gap width of each cross section was evaluated by stereomicroscopy (× 100). The Student t test was used to evaluate whether significant differences occurred in the marginal gap widths between the selective laser melting-fabricated and cast cobalt-chromium metal crowns (α=.05). The mean marginal gap width of the cast crowns (170.19 μm) was significantly wider than that of the selective laser melting-fabricated crowns (102.86 μm). Selective laser melting-fabricate cobalt-chromium dental crowns found improved marginal gap widths compared with traditional cast crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Canopy Fuel Load Mapping of Mediterranean Pine Sites Based on Individual Tree-Crown Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Mallinis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an individual tree-crown-based approach for canopy fuel load estimation and mapping in two Mediterranean pine stands. Based on destructive sampling, an allometric equation was developed for the estimation of crown fuel weight considering only pine crown width, a tree characteristic that can be estimated from passive imagery. Two high resolution images were used originally for discriminating Aleppo and Calabrian pines crown regions through a geographic object based image analysis approach. Subsequently, the crown region images were segmented using a watershed segmentation algorithm and crown width was extracted. The overall accuracy of the tree crown isolation expressed through a perfect match between the reference and the delineated crowns was 34.00% for the Kassandra site and 48.11% for the Thessaloniki site, while the coefficient of determination between the ground measured and the satellite extracted crown width was 0.5. Canopy fuel load values estimated in the current study presented mean values from 1.29 ± 0.6 to 1.65 ± 0.7 kg/m2 similar to other conifers worldwide. Despite the modest accuracies attained in this first study of individual tree crown fuel load mapping, the combination of the allometric equations with satellite-based extracted crown width information, can contribute to the spatially explicit mapping of canopy fuel load in Mediterranean areas. These maps can be used among others in fire behavior prediction, in fuel reduction treatments prioritization and during active fire suppression.

  5. Clinical outcomes for primary anterior teeth treated with preveneered stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jeanette K; Champagne, Cariann E; Waggoner, William F; Ditmyer, Marcia M; Casamassimo, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to explore clinical outcomes for NuSmile anterior preveneered stainless steel crowns. A convenience sample of healthy children treated with anterior crowns was selected from a teaching clinic and private office. Crowns were placed by either a private practice dentist or pediatric dental resident. Clearly defined clinical outcomes were assessed by 3 calibrated examiners at recall, including: (1) presence; (2) chipping; (3) wear; (4) crazing; and (5) marginal location by clinical and radiographic examination. Factors affecting placement--such as operator experience and behavior--were also assessed. In 46 subjects (21 females, 25 males; mean age at placement=4 years, 2 months), 226 crowns with a mean post-placement time of 12.9 months were evaluated. Only 2 crowns matched natural teeth, with NuSmile crowns lighter in 83% of subjects. Most crowns (86%) were normal in size. Eighty-eight percent resisted fracture for 6 months. All but 3 crowns resisted color change for 6 months. Canine crowns were the least successful, but overall 91% of crowns retained good to excellent clinical appearance. NuSmile anterior preveneered crowns are a clinically successful restoration for primary incisors with early childhood caries.

  6. Clinical evaluation of and parental satisfaction with resin-faced stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C; Lee, J Y; Wright, J T

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical success and parental acceptance of anterior primary dentition caries treatment with prefabricated resin-faced stainless steel crowns. A retrospective analysis of maxillary anterior primary dentition caries treatment using Whiter Biter II Crowns was performed. Each crown was evaluated for retention, fracture, interface failure, color match, marginal integrity, and surface texture. Parental satisfaction regarding the esthetics of the crowns was evaluated by survey. Thirty-eight crowns were evaluated in 12 children. The average crown age at time of examination was 20.7 months. Three teeth were lost to trauma with all other crowns remaining intact. Twelve crowns (32%) showed loss of at least some facial resin. Nine crowns (24%) had complete loss of the resin facing. Overall parental satisfaction with the treatment was excellent, however, satisfaction with crown esthetics received the lowest rating. While parental satisfaction with treatment of anterior primary dentition caries with prefabricated resin-faced stainless steel crowns is excellent, the high failure rate of the resin facings is problematic.

  7. Monolithic zirconia dental crowns. Internal fit, margin quality, fracture mode and load at fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriwer, Christian; Skjold, Anneli; Gjerdet, Nils Roar; Øilo, Marit

    2017-09-01

    Dental all-ceramic restorations of zirconia, with and without an aesthetic veneering layer, have become a viable alternative to conventional metal-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether factors of the production methods or the material compositions affect load at fracture, fracture modes, internal fit or crown margins of monolithic zirconia crowns. Sixty crowns made from six different commercially available dental zirconias were produced to a model tooth with a shallow circumferential chamfer preparation. Internal fit was assessed by the replica method. The crown margin quality was assessed by light microscopy on an ordinal scale. The cemented crowns were loaded centrally in the occlusal fossa with a horizontal steel cylinder with a diameter of 13mm at 0.5mm/min until fracture. Fractographic analysis was performed on the fractured crowns. There were statistically significant differences among the groups regarding crown margins, internal fit and load at fracture (pmonolithic zirconia crowns affect internal fit, crown margin quality and the load at fracture. The hard-machined Y-TZP zirconia crowns had the best margin quality and the highest load at fracture. Reduction of margin flaws will improve fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns and thereby increase clinical success. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (Pveneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  9. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  10. Crown Gall Disease and Hairy Root Disease 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    1990-01-01

    The neoplastic diseases crown gall and hairy root are incited by the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, respectively. Although the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer to the plant most likely is the same for both species, the physiological basis of tumorigenesis is fundamentally different. Crown gall tumors result from the over-production of the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin specified by A. tumefaciens T-DNA genes. Although the T-DNA of some Riplasmids of A. rhizogenes contains auxin biosynthetic genes, these loci are not always necessary for hairy root formation. Recent experiments suggest that hairy root tumors result from the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to endogenous auxin levels. An understanding of hairy root tumorigenesis will likely result in an increased knowledge of plant developmental processes. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667272

  11. [Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to removable denture crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-wei; Wu, Ke-lun; Liu, Nan-xin; Deng, Jing; Liu, Ke; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2015-01-01

    To determine adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to different kinds of removable denture crowns for the purpose of minimizing influence of removable denture on oral environment. Three kinds of removable denture crowns (single color synthetic resin teeth, alloy pin porcelain tooth and minute color synthetic resin teeth) were adsorbed S. mutans for 24 h in sterile saliva, The adhered bacteria were counted by means of sonic oscillation and bacteria coating. Highest level of adhesion was found on ,the single color synthetic resin teeth was adsorbed mostly, followed by alloy pin porcelain teeth. Minute color synthetic resin teeth had far less adhesion than the others (Psynthetic resin teeth have less adhesion of S. mutans, which may be associated with their lower level of surface free energy.

  12. Use of anterior veneered stainless steel crowns by pediatric dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueis, Hassan; Atwan, Salwa; Pajtas, Brynn; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of anterior veneered stainless steel crowns (AVSSCs) by pediatric dentists. A questionnaire was sent to 2,600 active members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry with a follow-up request after 8 weeks. Respondents were asked about the utilization of AVSSCs in their practice and during their graduate training program. In addition, the participants were asked to rank, in order of preference, the type of restorations for treating primary anterior teeth, as well as factors that influenced their choice of treatment. Among 849 respondents, 456 (51%) utilized AVSSCs in their practice; 187 (41%) selected AVSSCs as their first choice for the complete coverage for primary anterior teeth; and 278 (61%) selected extent of caries as the main factor that influenced their restoration choice. The respondents' major concern (73%) was durability of AVSSCs. The anterior veneered stainless steel crown is a common restoration to treat primary anterior teeth among pediatric dentists.

  13. Design algorithm for generatrix profile of cylindrical crowned rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creţu Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross-section of roller profile controls the pressure distribution in the contact area and radically affects the roller bearings basic dynamic load rating and rating lives. Today the most used roller profiles are the logarithmic profile and cylindrical-crowned (ZB profile. The logarithmic profile has a continuous evolution with no discontinuities till the intersection with the end fillet while ZB profile has two more discontinuities at the intersections points between the crowning circle and straight line generatrix. Using a semianalytical method, a numerical study has been carried out to find the optimum ZB profile for rollers incorporated in cylindrical rollers bearings. The basic reference rating life (L10_r has been used as optimization criterion.

  14. Modeling Tree Crown Dynamics with 3D Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBeyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth towards light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  15. The Effects of Margin Curvature on Load at Fracture of Ceramic Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Reisegg, Kjetil; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high fracture strength of modern dental core ceramics, fractures are a common cause of clinical failures. The aim of this study was to use a clinically relevant test method to evaluate the effect of the curvature of the cervical crown margins on load at fracture. Thirty zirconia crowns and 30 glass-ceramic crowns were produced for three premolar preparations with variation in the approximal crown margin curvature: low curvature (r=12 mm), moderate curvature (r=2.5 mm), and high curvature (r=1.5). The crowns were loaded until fracture with a method that mimics clinical fracture modes. Statistically significant differences were found among both crown margin curvature and material groups (Pcrown margins increases crown strength compared with a high curvature.

  16. Analysis of contact characteristics of tapered roller bearing with crowned rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenzhi; Xu, Xiaodong; Shao, Minghui; Wu, Jinhe

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic force equilibrium equations of the cup of crowned tapered roller bearing under the combined loads condition are established in this paper, considering the centrifugal forces of each roller, the forces of the rib/roller end contact and the contact forces between crowned tapered roller and raceway. The equations are solved based on the Newton iteration method to analysis the dynamic load distribution of crowned tapered roller bearings. The load distribution and contact deformation of tapered roller bearing with three kinds of crowned rollers, such as rollers with straight profile, circular crowned profile and logarithmic crowned profile, are analyzed according to the Palmgren's formula and the numerical method based on influence coefficient method respectively. The results show that the Almgren's formula can be applied to calculation of the dynamic load distribution approximatively, while the numerical method must be used in contact deformation calculation for the crowned tapered roller bearing.

  17. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Meenal Nitin Gulve; Nitin Dilip Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a pa...

  18. PREFORMED METAL CROWNS AS A PROSTHETIC RESTORATIONS IN PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeni Dimitrov; Milena Georgieva; Мariana Dimova-Gabrovska; Radosveta Andreeva; Ani Belcheva-Krivorova

    2017-01-01

    The preformed metal crowns (PMCs) are prefabricated constructions, used for restoring a severely broken teeth, affected by multisurfice carious lesions. The aim of the current study is to analyze and criticize the contemporary scientific conclusions related to indications, the usage methods, the advantages and disadvantages of the PMCs, used in the treatment protocol in pediatric dentistry. The subject of the analysis is 64 english language papers, published in the period from 1966 to 2...

  19. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  20. Evaluation of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Provisional Crowns by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Abduo J, Lyons K, Swain M. Fit of zirconia fixed partial denture: A systematic review. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37:866‑76. 16. Colpani JT, Borba M, Della Bona A. Evaluation of marginal and internal fit of ceramic crown Copings. Dent Mater. 2013;29:174‑80.doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2012.10.012. 17. Habib SR, Asiri ...

  1. Management of Crown Root Fracture by Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, K. Radhakrishnan; Das, Anoop N.; Kuriakose, Manoj C.; Krishnankutty, Nandakumar

    2013-01-01

    Fracture of tooth after trauma is distressing to a person because of the discomfort and pain due to pulpal injury. Crown root fractures of anterior teeth cause concomitant periodontal injury and there will be concern about appearance, and aesthetics. Management of pulpal and periodontal tissue relieves pain and restoration of tooth form regains patients confidence. Restoration of fractured tooth will be accepted readily if it is minimally invasive, less expensive, and aesthetically acceptable...

  2. Stainless Steel Crown Placement Utilizing the Hall Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Utilizing the Hall Technique 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Stainless Steel Crown Placement Utilizing the Hall Technique 7. FUNDING...40-401 IP. AND 59 MDWI 41-108. I HAVE READ THE FINAL VERSION OF THE ATTACHED MATERIAL AND CERTIFY THAT IT IS AN ACCURATE MANUS-CRIPT FOR PUBLICATION...DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANDUM FOR SGDTG ATIN: LCDR DANIEL J. FUHRMANN

  3. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  4. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  5. Assessment of nickel release from stainless steel crowns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of dental materials, especially metals, have been an important issue in recent decades.The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nickel released from stainless steel crowns in artificial saliva.In this in-vitro study, 270 stainless steel crowns were divided into five groups, each with nine subgroups. Each group (I to V was comprised of four, five, six, seven and eight crowns, respectively. Each subgroup was placed in a polyethylene jar containing artificial saliva and held in an incubator at 37°C for four weeks. The amount of released nickel was determined on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post hoc tests (SPSS software, v. 18 were used for statistical analysis at a significance level of 0.05.The mean level of nickel on day 1 was more than that of day 7; this difference was statistically significant for all groups (P < 0.05, except for group II (P = 0.086. Also, the mean difference of released nickel between the groups was significant on day 1 (P = 0.006 and was insignificant on day 7 (P = 0.620. The nickel levels were zero on days 14, 21, and 28.The amount of nickel was below the toxic level and did not exceed the dietary intake.

  6. Assessment of nickel release from stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Ahmadi, Rahil; Darijani, Mansure

    2014-05-01

    Adverse effects of dental materials, especially metals, have been an important issue in recent decades. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nickel released from stainless steel crowns in artificial saliva. In this in-vitro study, 270 stainless steel crowns were divided into five groups, each with nine subgroups. Each group (I to V) was comprised of four, five, six, seven and eight crowns, respectively. Each subgroup was placed in a polyethylene jar containing artificial saliva and held in an incubator at 37°C for four weeks. The amount of released nickel was determined on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank and Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post hoc tests (SPSS software, v. 18) were used for statistical analysis at a significance level of 0.05. The mean level of nickel on day 1 was more than that of day 7; this difference was statistically significant for all groups (P < 0.05), except for group II (P = 0.086). Also, the mean difference of released nickel between the groups was significant on day 1 (P = 0.006) and was insignificant on day 7 (P = 0.620). The nickel levels were zero on days 14, 21, and 28. The amount of nickel was below the toxic level and did not exceed the dietary intake.

  7. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eGohlke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumours. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (‘omic’ approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumour formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant.

  8. Reliability of Metalloceramic and Zirconia-based Ceramic Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.R.F.A.; Bonfante, E.A.; Zavanelli, R.A.; Thompson, V.P.; Ferencz, J.L.; Coelho, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing utilization of all-ceramic crown systems, their mechanical performance relative to that of metal ceramic restorations (MCR) has yet to be determined. This investigation tested the hypothesis that MCR present higher reliability over two Y-TZP all-ceramic crown systems under mouth-motion fatigue conditions. A CAD-based tooth preparation with the average dimensions of a mandibular first molar was used as a master die to fabricate all restorations. One 0.5-mm Pd-Ag and two Y-TZP system cores were veneered with 1.5 mm porcelain. Crowns were cemented onto aged (60 days in water) composite (Z100, 3M/ESPE) reproductions of the die. Mouth-motion fatigue was performed, and use level probability Weibull curves were determined. Failure modes of all systems included chipping or fracture of the porcelain veneer initiating at the indentation site. Fatigue was an acceleration factor for all-ceramic systems, but not for the MCR system. The latter presented significantly higher reliability under mouth-motion cyclic mechanical testing. PMID:20660796

  9. [Fracture toughness of zirconia ceramic crowns made by feather-edge tooth preparation design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirković, Nemanja; Gostović, Aleksandra Spadijer; Lazić, Zoran; Trifković, Branka

    2012-07-01

    Fracture toughness determines functional crown strenght and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. There is a lack of relevant literature data about fracture toughness of crowns made by feather-edge preparation. Mechanical testing of ceramic samples is supposed to show if feather-edge tooth preparation is a successful method for making ceramic crowns without any risk of reduction of their mechanical properties. This research was done to establish effects of feather-edge tooth preparation on fracture toughness of single zirconia ceramic crowns. The research was performed as an experimental study. Sixty (60) ceramic crowns were made on non-carious extracted human premolars. Thirty (30) crowns were made on the basis of feather-edge preparation (experimental group I). The group II included 30 crowns made on 1 mm rounded shoulder. Crowns fabrication was executed on a copy mill production system "Zirkonzahn" (Zirkonzahn GMBH, Gais, Germany). The spherical compression test was used to determine fracture toughness, using 6 mmn diameter ceramic ball. Fracture load for damaging ceramic crown was recorded on a universal testing machine--Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0.05 mm/min. The results of this research introduced significant differences between fracture toughness of ceramic samples in every examined group. However, fracture toughness of crowns from both group was above 2000 N, what was double beyond a recommended value. The mean value of fracture toughness in the feather-edge group was 2090 N, and in shoulder group it was 2214 N. This research showed a high fracture toughness of zirconia crowns made on feather-edge preparation. The examined crowns showed a fracture resistance at a sufficient distance in relation to the minimum values of functional loads. Further research of functional loads of these crown is necessary, as well as research of marginal adaptation of cemented crowns and gingival inflammatory response.

  10. Three-year clinical evaluation of two ceramic crown systems: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, Maged K; Woolford, M J

    2010-02-01

    The clinical performance and failure mechanisms of recently introduced ceramic crown systems used to restore posterior teeth have not been adequately examined. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of 2 new ceramic crown systems with that of metal ceramic crowns using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. Ninety posterior teeth requiring crown restorations in 48 patients were randomized into 3 equal groups (n=30) for which different crown systems were used: an experimental hot-pressed glass ceramic based on a modified lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max Press), an alumina-coping-based ceramic (Procera AllCeram), and a metal ceramic (Simidur S 2 veneered with IPS Classic Porcelain). The crowns were assessed over 3 years using the modified USPHS criteria. Crowns that developed visible cracks were sectioned and removed, and the surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric statistical test, followed by the Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction (alpha=.05). USPHS evaluation showed that the IPS e.max Press and metal ceramic crowns experienced fewer clinical changes than Procera AllCeram. Visible roughness, wear, and deformity were noticed in occlusal contact areas of Procera AllCeram crowns. SEM images showed well defined wear facets in both ceramic crown systems. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed a significant difference (Pcrown systems. Mann-Whitney tests showed significant differences among groups. IPS e.max Press crowns demonstrated clinical behavior comparable to Procera AllCeram and metal ceramic crowns, but the wear resistance of this crown type was superior to the Procera AllCeram crowns, according to modified USPHS criteria.

  11. Fracture toughness of zirconia ceramic crowns made by feather-edge tooth preparation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fracture toughness determines functional crown strenght and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. There is a lack of relevant literature data about fracture toughness of crowns made by feather-edge preparation. Mechanical testing of ceramic samples is supposed to show if feather-edge tooth preparation is a successful method for making ceramic crowns without any risk of reduction of their mechanical properties. This research was done to establish effects of feather-edge tooth preparation on fracture toughness of single zirconia ceramic crowns. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Sixty (60 ceramic crowns were made on non-carious extracted human premolars. Thirty (30 crowns were made on the basis of feather-edge preparation (experimental group I. The group II included 30 crowns made on 1 mm rounded shoulder. Crowns fabrication was executed on a copy mill production system “Zirkonzahn” (Zirkonzahn GMBH, Gais, Germany. The spherical compression test was used to determine fracture toughness, using 6 mm diameter ceramic ball. Fracture load for damaging ceramic crown was recorded on a universal testing machine - Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0.05 mm/min. Results. The results of this research introduced significant differences between fracture toughness of ceramic samples in every examined group. However, fracture toughness of crowns from both group was above 2 000 N, what was double beyond a recommended value. The mean value of fracture toughness in the feather-edge group was 2 090 N, and in shoulder group it was 2 214 N. Conclusion. This research showed a high fracture toughness of zirconia crowns made on feather-edge preparation. The examined crowns showed a fracture resistance at a sufficient distance in relation to the minimum values of functional loads. Further research of functional loads of these crown is necessary, as well as research of marginal adaptation of cemented crowns and

  12. In vitro evaluation of the marginal integrity of CAD/CAM interim crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin Khng, Kwang Yong; Ettinger, Ronald L; Armstrong, Steven R; Lindquist, Terry; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy of interim crowns made with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems has not been well investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. A dentoform mandibular left second premolar was prepared for a ceramic crown and scanned for the fabrication of 60 stereolithical resin dies, half of which were scanned to fabricate 15 Telio CAD-CEREC and 15 Paradigm MZ100-E4D-E4D crowns. Fifteen Caulk and 15 Jet interim crowns were made on the remaining resin dies. All crowns were cemented with Tempgrip under a 17.8-N load, thermocycled for 1000 cycles, placed in 0.5% acid fuschin for 24 hours, and embedded in epoxy resin before sectioning from the mid-buccal to mid-lingual surface. The marginal discrepancy was measured using a traveling microscope, and dye penetration was measured as a percentage of the overall length under the crown. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy of the conventionally made interim crowns was greater than for the CAD/CAM crowns (P=.006), while no difference was found for the horizontal component (P=.276). The mean vertical marginal discrepancy at the facial surface of the Caulk crowns was significantly greater than that of the other 3 types of interim crowns (Pcrowns was significantly larger than that of the other 3 types, with no difference at the lingual margins (P=.150). The mean percentage dye penetration for the Paradigm MZ100-E4D crowns was significantly greater and for Jet crowns significantly smaller than for the other 3 crowns (Pcrowns at the facial surface and with the horizontal marginal discrepancies of the Caulk interim crowns at the lingual surface (Pcrowns fabricated by CAD/CAM as compared with PMMA crowns; however, this difference was not observed for the horizontal component. The percentage dye penetration was correlated with vertical and horizontal

  13. Electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires; Elektrischer Transport in GaN- und InN-Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Thomas Fabian

    2008-12-19

    This thesis discusses the analysis of the electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires at room temperature and deep temperatures. From those measurements two different transport models for those two in matter of the band banding completely different materials have been found. In the investigation of the GaN nanowires the main focus was the electrical transport in dependence of the diameter and the n-doping. With the use of IV-measurements on those MBE grown nanowires with different diameters at dark and under UV illumination as well as the decay of the persistent photocurrent, it was possible to find an for GaN untypical behaviour. The electrical transport in those wires is extremely diameter dependent. The dark current shows space charged limited current. With the help of those cognitions a diameter dependent transport model could be found. The transport phenomena in those wires is based on the diameter depending band bending at the edge of the wires caused by the Fermi level pinning inside the forbidden band. This model can be fit to the data with the three parameter doping, fermi level pinning and wire diameter. On the base of those effects a method to determine the doping concentration inside those wires without field effect measurements and contact resistance has been developed. The defect structure inside those wires has been analysed with the help of spectral photoluminescence measurements. Here several defect bands have been found and it was possible with help of several contacts on one single wire to determine different defect regions along the wire and to explain them by the lattice mismatch between nanowire and substrate. Further temperature depending measurements and investigations on Schottky contacted wires as well as on GaN wires with AlN tunnel structures complete the work on GaN. The electrical characterisation on a large scale of undoped and doped InN nanowires shows linear growth of the dark current with the diameter up to wires of around 100 nm

  14. Comparative evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Juneja Arora

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The temporary cements with eugenol showed more microleakage than those without eugenol. SC-10 crowns showed more microleakage compared to Protemp 4 crowns. SC-10 crowns cemented with Kalzinol showed maximum microleakage and Protemp 4 crowns cemented with HY bond showed least microleakage.

  15. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Southern United States and impacts on data analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) utilizes visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes and discusses distributions of three FIA crown condition indicators (crown density, crown dieback, and foliage transparency) for trees in the Southern...

  16. In vitro microleakage of luting cements and crown foundation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, T J; Connolly, J

    2001-03-01

    Microleakage is a concern for the long-term prognosis of a cemented crown and foundation. The aims of this investigation were, first, to evaluate microleakage of zinc phosphate cement and resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement under ideal (dry) versus contaminated (wet) conditions, and second, to compare 3 foundations under both ideal and contaminated conditions. One hundred forty extracted molar teeth were cleaned and mounted. Tooth preparations for complete veneer cast crowns were completed with a chamfer finish line. A mesial surface class II cavity preparation 4 mm wide buccolingually and 2 mm deep was made in each tooth. Seven restorative groups were formed: amalgam/cavity varnish, amalgam/dentinal bonding agent, and composite/dentinal bonding agent, each with dry and contaminated groups, and a seventh group of class II cavity preparations without foundations. Finish lines for crown margins were refined 1.5 mm gingival to the restoration. Artificial crowns were cast in type III gold. Treatment groups were divided into 4 cement groups: dry and contaminated zinc phosphate cement and dry and contaminated resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement. The specimens were thermocycled and immersed in erythrosine B solution for 24 hours. Subsequently, they were rinsed, and their coronal portions were embedded in clear resin. Teeth were sectioned mesiodistally, and standard photomicrographs were made. The microleakage of each restoration and crown was measured. The least foundation microleakage was recorded for amalgam/dentinal bonding agents (ideal group) and composite/dentinal bonding agents (ideal group). The most microleakage was observed within the group without a foundation. In cement groups, the control and experiment sides were evaluated separately but displayed the same order of finding. The least leakage was recorded with resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (ideal group); the most microleakage was noted with zinc phosphate cement (ideal group). An interaction was

  17. W, WSi{sub x} and Ti/Al low resistance OHMIC contacts to InGaN, InN and InAlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Baca, A.G.; Hagerott-Crawford, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    W, WSi{sub 0.44} and Ti/Al contacts were examined on n{sup +} In{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 0.35}N, InN and In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}N. W was found to produce low specific contact resistance ({rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2}) ohmic contacts to InGaN, with significant reaction between metal and semiconductor at 900 {degrees}C mainly due to out diffusion of In and N. WSi{sub x} showed an as-deposited {rho}{sub c} of 4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} but this degraded significantly with subsequent annealing. Ti/Al contacts were stable to {approximately} 600 {degrees}C ({rho}{sub c} {approximately} 4{times}10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} at {le}600 {degrees}C). The surfaces of these contacts remain smooth to 800 {degrees}C for W and WSi{sub x} and 650 {degrees}C for Ti/Al. InN contacted with W and Ti/Al produced ohmic contacts with {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}7} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} and for WSi{sub x} {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}6} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2}. All remained smooth to {approximately} 600 {degrees}C, but exhibited significant interdiffusion of In, N, W and Ti respectively at higher temperatures. The contact resistances for all three metalization schemes were {ge} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} on InAlN, and degrades with subsequent annealing. The Ti/Al was found to react with the InAlN above 400 {degrees}C, causing the contact resistance to increase rapidly. W and WSi{sub x} proved to be more stable with {rho}{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega} {center_dot}cm{sup 2} up to 650 {degrees}C and 700 {degrees}C respectively.

  18. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...

  19. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients were included. Standardized and clinical photographs and periapical radiographs from baseline were used to assess three-dimensional positional parameters. The contralateral central incisors were used as controls. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze implant position, dimension of crown, and papilla fill. Cohen κ and Spearman correlation were used to validate the PIS. The implant-supported crown was statistically significantly longer than the contralateral tooth, and there was significant correlation between the orofacial position of the implant and the crown length difference. The distal papilla was significantly shorter than the mesial papilla at implant-supported crowns, but this difference was not significant at the contralateral tooth. A significant relationship between the PIS and papilla fill was found. An implant protruding the mucosa in a buccal position will result in an increased implant crown length compared to the contralateral tooth. Minor buccal angulations of the implant could be corrected with customized angulated abutments and did not necessarily result in an increased crown length. The distal implant papilla height was obviously shorter, although the mesial papilla height was similar to that of the healthy dentition. The PIS was found to be a valid index for papilla fill.

  20. Protonation of calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6): Experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvíčalová, Magdalena; Makrlík, Emanuel; Böhm, Stanislav; Vaňura, Petr; Asfari, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium H3O+ (aq) + 1·Na+ (nb) ⇄1·H3O+ (nb) + Na+ (aq) occurring in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (1 = calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex(H3O+,1·Na+) = -0.2 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·H3O+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log βnb(1·H3O+) = 5.9 ± 0.2. Finally, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the cationic complex species 1·H3O+ was derived. In the resulting complex, the "central" cation H3O+ is bound by three strong hydrogen bonds to two phenoxy oxygen atoms and to one ethereal oxygen from the crown-6 moiety of the parent ligand 1. The interaction energy, E(int), of the considered 1·H3O+ complex was found to be -416.0 kJ/mol, confirming the formation of this cationic species as well.