WorldWideScience

Sample records for holes pregalactic stars

  1. Black holes, pregalactic stars, and the dark matter problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    We review the different ways in which black holes might form and discuss their various astrophysical and cosmological consequences. We then consider the various constraints on the form of the dark matter and conclude that black holes could have a significant cosmological density only if they are of primordial origin or remnants of a population of pregalactic stars. This leads us to discuss the other cosmological effects of primordial black holes and pregalactic stars. 239 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Pregalactic black holes - A new constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, J. D.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    Pregalactic black holes accrete matter in the early universe and produce copious amounts of X radiation. By using observations of the background radiation in the X and gamma wavebands, a strong constraint is imposed upon their possible abundance. If pregalactic black holes are actually present, several outstanding problems of cosmogony can be resolved with typical pregalactic black hole masses of 100 solar masses. Significantly more massive holes cannot constitute an appreciable mass fraction of the universe and are limited by a specific mass-density bound.

  3. Stochastic background of gravitational waves generated by pre-galactic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Eduardo S

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves (SBGWs) produced by pre-galactic stars, which form black holes in scenarios of structure formation. The calculation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation using a Press-Schechter-like formalism. Our model reproduces the observed star formation rate at redshifts z 3 same with efficiency ~ 2 x 10^{-5}. We also discuss what astrophysical information could be derived from a positive (or even negative) detection of the SBGWs investigated here.

  4. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  5. Constraining the high redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Devecchi, Bernadetta; Galanti, Giorgio; Volonteri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeal to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological context. The working hypotheses are that (i) nuclear star clusters form at high redshifts in pre-galactic discs hosted in dark matter halos, providing a suitable environment for the formation of stellar black holes in their cores, (ii) major central inflows of gas occur onto these clusters due to instabilities seeded in the growing discs and/or to mergers with other gas-rich halos, and that (iii) following the inflow, stellar black holes in the core avoid ejection due to the steepening to the potential well, leading to core collapse and the formation of a massive seed of $<~ 1000\\, \\rm M_\\odot$. We simulate a cosmological box tracing the build up of the dark matter halos and there embedded baryons, and explore...

  6. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  7. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements (H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate He-4 (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce H-2 and He-3. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that He-4 is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars.

  8. The Merging History of Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M; Madau, P; Sesana, A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a hierarchical structure formation scenario describing the evolution of a Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) population. The seeds of the local SMBHs are assumed to be 'pregalactic' black holes, remnants of the first POPIII stars. As these pregalactic holes become incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, they sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become supermassive, form a binary system, and eventually coalesce. A simple model in which the damage done to a stellar cusps by decaying BH pairs is cumulative is able to reproduce the observed scaling relation between galaxy luminosity and core size. An accretion model connecting quasar activity with major mergers and the observed BH mass-velocity dispersion correlation reproduces remarkably well the observed luminosity function of optically-selected quasars in the redshift range 1

  9. Star formation around supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M

    2008-08-22

    The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.

  10. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  11. Spherical Boson Stars as Black Hole mimickers

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, F S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084023

    2010-01-01

    We present spherically symmetric boson stars as black hole mimickers based on the power spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. The free parameters of the boson star are the mass of the boson and the fourth order self-interaction coefficient in the scalar field potential. We show that even if the mass of the boson is the only free parameter it is possible to find a configuration that mimics the power spectrum of the disk due to a black hole of the same mass. We also show that for each value of the self-interaction a single boson star configuration can mimic a black hole at very different astrophysical scales in terms of the mass of the object and the accretion rate. In order to show that it is possible to distinguish one of our mimickers from a black hole we also study the deflection of light.

  12. Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza-Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.

  13. Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Lehébel, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza-Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.

  14. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  15. ULXs: Neutron Stars vs Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We consider ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) where the accretor is a neutron star rather than a black hole. We show that the recently-discovered example (M82 X-2) fits naturally into the simple picture of ULXs as beamed X-ray sources fed at super-Eddington rates, provided that its magnetic field is weaker ($\\simeq 10^{11}{\\rm G}$) than a new-born X-ray pulsar, as expected if there has been mass gain. Continuing accretion is likely to weaken the field to the point that pulsing stops, and make the system indistinguishable from a ULX containing a black hole. Accordingly we suggest that a significant fraction of all ULXs may actually contain neutron star accretors rather than black holes, reflecting the neutron-star fraction among their X-ray binary progenitors. We emphasize that neutron-star ULXs are likely to have {\\it higher} apparent luminosities than black hole ULXs for a given mass transfer rate, as their tighter beaming outweighs their lower Eddington luminosities. This further increases the likely propo...

  16. Giant black hole rips star apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small

  17. Superradiant amplification by stars and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, João Luís de Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we study the phenomenon of superradiance and its implications to the stability of black-holes (BH) and perfect-fluid stars. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves rotating dissipative systems. In BH spacetimes, superradiance is due to dissipation at the event horizon, with interesting associated phenomena, namely floating orbits and BH-bombs. BH superradiance is a very interdisciplinary topic, and its study allows us to obtain important results in the area of particle physics. The scattering of a scalar field by a rotating BH leads to the formation of quasi-boundstates. In rotational systems, these states can give rise to superradiant instabilities. These results were recently used to impose constraints to the mass of fundamental particles and darkmatter candidates. In this work, it is shown that, when dissipation is properly included, similar results are achievable in self-gravitating systems other than black-holes, such as perfect fluid stars. It is also demonstrated t...

  18. Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Corongiu, A; D'Antona, F; Fabbiano, G; Fregeau, J M; Gebhardt, K; Heinke, C O; Hut, P; Ivanova, N; Maccarone, T J; Ransom, S M; Webb, N A

    2006-01-01

    This article was co-authored by all invited speakers at the Joint Discussion on `Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters,' which took place during the IAU General Assembly in Prague, Czech Republic, on August 17 and 18, 2006. Each section presents a short summary of recent developments in a key area of research, incorporating the main ideas expressed during the corresponding panel discussion at the meeting. Our meeting, which had close to 300 registered participants, was broadly aimed at the large community of astronomers around the world working on the formation and evolution of compact objects and interacting binary systems in dense star clusters, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. Great advances have occurred in this field during the past few years, including the introduction of fundamentally new theoretical paradigms for the formation and evolution of compact objects in binaries as well as countless new discoveries by astronomers that have challenged many accepted models. Some of the hi...

  19. Toward restrictions on boson stars as black hole mimickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, F S, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-09-22

    The status of boson stars as black hole mimickers is presented among other mimickers. We focus on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. We describe the free parameters that allow a boson star to become a black hole mimicker and present an example of a particular astrophysical case.

  20. On stars, galaxies and black holes in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Enander, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenology of stars and galaxies in massive bigravity. We give parameter conditions for the existence of viable star solutions when the radius of the star is much smaller than the Compton wavelength of the graviton. If these parameter conditions are not met, we constrain the ratio between the coupling constants of the two metrics, in order to give viable conditions for e.g. neutron stars. For galaxies, we put constraints on both the Compton wavelength of the graviton and the conformal factor and coupling constants of the two metrics. The relationship between black holes and stars, and whether the former can be formed from the latter, is discussed. We argue that the different asymptotic structure of stars and black holes makes it unlikely that black holes form from the gravitational collapse of stars in massive bigravity.

  1. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, R

    2012-01-01

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge are consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the black hole ADM mass (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  2. Tidal disruption rate of stars by spinning supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kesden, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A supermassive black hole can disrupt a star when its tidal field exceeds the star's self-gravity, and can directly capture stars that cross its event horizon. For black holes with mass M > 10^7 solar masses, tidal disruption of main-sequence stars occurs close enough to the event horizon that a Newtonian treatment of the tidal field is no longer valid. The fraction of stars that are directly captured is also no longer negligible. We calculate generically oriented stellar orbits in the Kerr metric, and evaluate the relativistic tidal tensor at pericenter for those stars not directly captured by the black hole. We combine this relativistic analysis with previous calculations of how these orbits are populated to determine tidal-disruption rates for spinning black holes. We find, consistent with previous results, that black-hole spin increases the upper limit on the mass of a black hole capable of tidally disrupting solar-like stars to ~7 x 10^8 solar masses. More quantitatively, we find that direct stellar capt...

  3. Relating Follicly-Challenged Compact Stars to Bald Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  4. Black holes and neutron stars in vector Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya, Javier; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2017-08-01

    The direct detection of gravitational waves opens new perspectives for measuring properties of gravitationally bound compact objects. It is then important to investigate black holes and neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, since they can have features that make them observationally distinguishable from their general relativity (GR) counterparts. In this work, we examine a special case of vector Galileons, a vector-tensor theory of gravity with interesting cosmological properties, which consists of a one parameter modification of the Einstein-Maxwell action. Within this theory, we study configurations describing asymptotically flat, spherically symmetric black holes and neutron stars. The set of black hole solutions in this theory is surprisingly rich, generalising results found in GR or in related scalar-tensor theories. We investigate the properties and conserved charges of black holes, using both analytical and numerical techniques, highlighting configurations that are more compact than in GR. We then study properties of neutron stars, showing how the vector profile can influence the star internal structure. Depending on properties of matter and fields inside the star, neutron stars can be more massive than in GR, and they can be even more compact than Schwarzschild black holes, making these objects observationally interesting. We also comment on possible extensions of our configurations to magnetically charged or rotating configurations.

  5. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  6. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.

    2012-08-01

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge can be consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the ADM mass of the black hole (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  7. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, R., E-mail: casadio@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Ovalle, J., E-mail: jovalle@usb.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-08-29

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge can be consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the ADM mass of the black hole (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  8. Radiation-Hydrodynamical Collapse of Pregalactic Clouds in the Ultraviolet Background

    CERN Document Server

    Kitayama, T; Umemura, M; Susa, H; Ikeuchi, S

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of the UV background radiation on the collapse of pregalactic clouds, we implement a radiation-hydrodynamical calculation, combining one-dimensional spherical hydrodynamics with an accurate treatment of the radiative transfer of ionizing photons. Both absorption and scattering of UV photons are explicitly taken into account. It turns out that a gas cloud contracting within the dark matter potential does not settle into hydrostatic equilibrium, but undergoes run-away collapse even under the presence of the external UV field. The cloud center is shown to become self-shielded against ionizing photons by radiative transfer effects before shrinking to the rotation barrier. Based on our simulation results, we further discuss the possibility of H2 cooling and subsequent star formation in a run-away collapsing core. The present results are closely relevant to the survival of subgalactic Population III objects as well as to metal injection into intergalactic space.

  9. A Be-type star with a black hole companion

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Ribo, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simon-Diaz, S

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the ~80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (also known as HD 215227), although that was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of the Be star. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of ...

  10. Initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries, with rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tacik, Nick; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole--neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as $S_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm BH}^2=0.99$.

  11. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  12. Gravitational Waves from Perturbed Black Holes and Relativistic Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzolla, Luciano

    2003-01-01

    These lectures aim at providing an introduction to the properties of gravitational waves and in particular to those gravitational waves that are expected as a consequence of perturbations of black holes and neutron stars. Imprinted in the gravitational radiation emitted by these objects is, in fact, a wealth of physical information. In the case of black holes, a detailed knowledge of the gravitational radiation emitted as a response to perturbations will reveal us important details about thei...

  13. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  14. Visual distortions near a neutron star and black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, R J

    1993-01-01

    The visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending to the surface of an extremely compact star are described. Specifically, trips to a "normal" neutron star, a black hole, and an ultracompact neutron star with extremely high surface gravity, are described. Concepts such as multiple imaging, red- and blue-shifting, conservation of surface brightness, the photon sphere, and the existence of multiple Einstein rings are discussed in terms of what the viewer would see. Computer generated, general relativistically accurate illustrations highlighting the distortion effects are presented and discussed. A short movie (VHS) depicting many of these effects is available to those interested free of charge.

  15. Black hole formation from axion stars

    CERN Document Server

    Helfer, Thomas; Clough, Katy; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Lim, Eugene A; Becerril, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The classical equations of motion for an axion with potential $V(\\phi)=m_a^2f_a^2 [1-\\cos (\\phi/f_a)]$ possess quasi-stable, localized, oscillating solutions, which we refer to as "axion stars". We study, for the first time, collapse of axion stars numerically using the full non-linear Einstein equations of general relativity and the full non-perturbative cosine potential. We map regions on an "axion star stability diagram", parameterized by the initial ADM mass, $M_{\\rm ADM}$, and axion decay constant, $f_a$. We identify three regions of the parameter space: i) long-lived oscillating axion star solutions, with a base frequency, $m_a$, modulated by self-interactions, ii) collapse to a BH and iii) complete dispersal due to gravitational cooling and interactions. We locate the boundaries of these three regions and an approximate "triple point" $(M_{\\rm TP},f_{\\rm TP})\\sim (2.4 M_{pl}^2/m_a,0.3 M_{pl})$. For $f_a$ below the triple point BH formation proceeds during winding (in the complex $U(1)$ picture) of the ...

  16. Formation and evolution of black holes in dense star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sanghamitra

    Using supercomputer simulations combining stellar dynamics and stellar evolution, we have studied various problems related to the existence of black holes in dense star clusters. We consider both stellar and intermediate-mass black holes, and we focus on massive, dense star clusters, such as old globular clusters and young, so called "super star clusters." The first problem concerns the formation of intermediate-mass black holes in young clusters through the runaway collision instability. A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is runaway mergers in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide re- peatedly and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole (BH). Here we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code to model systems with N as high as 10^6 stars. Our Monte Carlo code includes an explicittreatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation we generally see a decrease in core collapse time (tcc). Although for smaller degrees of primordial mass segregation this decrease in tcc is mostly due to the change in the density profile of the cluster, for highly mass-segregated (primordial) clusters, it is the increase in the average mass in the core which reduces the central relaxation time, decreasing tcc. Finally, flatter IMFs generally increase the average mass in the whole cluster, which increases tcc. For the range of IMFs investigated in this thesis, this increase in tcc is to some degree balanced by stellar collisions, which accelerate core collapse. Thus there is no

  17. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bambi, Cosimo; Spolyar, Douglas; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. If these primordial black holes are heavier than $\\sim 10^{22} {\\rm g}$, the...

  18. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10deg--20deg and often sweeps only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ~0.1M_sun, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ~0.2--0.3c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) becomes high and the ejecta velocity is large when the binary mass ratio is large, i.e., the black hole is massive. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O(100)km/s due to the ejecta linear...

  19. Roche Accretion of stars close to massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lixin,; Blandford, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider Roche accretion in an Extreme Mass-Ratio Inspiral (EMRI) binary system formed by a star orbiting a massive black hole. The ultimate goal is to detect the mass and spin of the black hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. Before accretion starts, the stellar orbit is presumed to be circular and equatorial, and shrinks due to gravitational radiation. New fitting formulae are presented for the inspiral time and the radiation-reaction torque in the relativistic regime. If the inspiralling star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) of the hole, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1) to the hole. We give new relativistic interpolation formulae for the volume enclosed by the Roche lobe. If this mass-transfer happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will re...

  20. Black Holes and Neutron Stars in Nearby Galaxies: Insights with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulic, Neven; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Wik, Daniel R.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Lehmer, Bret

    2017-08-01

    There are a handful of diagnostics that permit determination of compact object identity in X-ray binaries (XRBs), and most of these are confined to bright Galactic sources for which a large number of photons can be gathered. We report on recent work using sensitive hard X-ray constraints to separate black holes from neutron stars in external galaxies with NuSTAR. Determining the ratio of XRBs that are black holes or neutron stars in different galactic environments reveals critical clues about the formation and evolution of binary systems. We analyze a NuSTAR-selected sample of ≈10 nearby galaxies within 5 Mpc that represent a range of star formation rates (0.1 - 10 M⊙ yr-1) and stellar masses (109-11 M⊙). Using color-color and color-intensity diagnostics we classify sources by their accretion states and compact object types. We analyze the 12-25 keV X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of our sample scaled by specific star formation rate and compare with the 0.5-8 keV analogues. Our diagnostic methods allow us to produce black hole-only and neutron star-only extragalactic XLFs for the first time.

  1. Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...

  2. Boson Stars Alternatives to primordial black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Schunck, Franz E.

    2000-01-01

    The present surge for the astrophysical relevance of boson stars stems from the speculative possibility that these compact objects could provide a considerable fraction of the non-baryonic part of dark matter within the halo of galaxies. For a very light `universal' axion of effective string models, their total gravitational mass will be in the most likely range of \\sim 0.5 M_ødot of MACHOs. According to this framework, gravitational microlensing is indirectly ``weighing" the axion mass, resulting in \\sim 10^{-10} eV/c^2. This conclusion is not changing much, if we use a dilaton type self-interaction for the bosons. Moreover, we review their formation, rotation and stability as likely candidates of astrophysical importance.

  3. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Roland

    2009-05-01

    Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

  4. Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokkotas Kostas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating. The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.

  5. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  6. Jets from Tidal Disruptions of Stars by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Krolik, Julian H

    2011-01-01

    Tidal disruption of main sequence stars by black holes has generally been thought to lead to a signal dominated by UV emission. If, however, the black hole spins rapidly and the poloidal magnetic field intensity on the black hole horizon is comparable to the inner accretion disk pressure, a powerful jet may form whose luminosity can easily exceed the thermal UV luminosity. When the jet beam points at Earth, its non-thermal luminosity can dominate the emitted spectrum. The thermal and non-thermal components decay differently with time. In particular, the thermal emission should remain roughly constant for a significant time after the period of maximum accretion, beginning to diminish only after a delay, whereas after the peak accretion rate, the non-thermal jet emission decays, but then reaches a plateau. When the newly-found flare source Swift J2058 is analyzed in terms of this model, it is found to be consistent with an event in which a main sequence solar-type star is disrupted by a black hole of mass at le...

  7. From the sun to the Galactic Center: dust, stars and black hole(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-07-01

    The centers of galaxies are their own ultimate gravitational sinks. Massive black holes and star clusters as well as gas are especially likely to fall into the centers of galaxies by dynamical friction or dissipation. Many galactic centers harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH) and dense nuclear (star) clusters which possibly arrived there by these processes. Nuclear clusters can be formed in situ from gas, or from smaller star clusters which fall to the center. Since the Milky Way harbors both an SMBH and a nuclear cluster, both can be studied best in the Galactic Center (GC), which is the closest galactic nucleus to us. In Chapter 1, I introduce the different components of the Milky Way, and put these into the context of the GC. I then give an overview of relevant properties (e.g. star content and distribution) of the GC. Afterwards, I report the results of four different studies about the GC. In Chapter 2, I analyze the limitations of astrometry, one of the most useful methods for the study of the GC. Thanks to the high density of stars and its relatively small distance from us it is possible to measure the motions of thousands of stars in the GC with images, separated by few years only. I find two main limitations to this method: (1) for bright stars the not perfectly correctable distortion of the camera limits the accuracy, and (2) for the majority of the fainter stars, the main limitation is crowding from the other stars in the GC. The position uncertainty of faint stars is mainly caused by the seeing halos of bright stars. In the very center faint unresolvable stars are also important for the position uncertainty. In Chapter 3, I evaluate the evidence for an intermediate mass black hole in the small candidate cluster IRS13E within the GC. Intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) have a mass between the two types of confirmed black hole: the stellar remnants and the supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies. One possibility for! their formation is the

  8. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. The first stars would thus live only for a very short time and would not contribute much to reionization of the universe. They would instead become $10 - 10^3 M_\\odot$ black holes which (depending on subsequent accretion) could serve as seeds for the super--massive black holes seen at high redshifts as well as those inside galaxies today.

  9. Hypervelocity intracluster stars ejected by supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K; Mihos, J C; Feldmeier, J J; Ciardullo, R; McBride, C; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Feldmeier, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Bride, Cameron Mc

    2005-01-01

    Hypervelocity stars have been recently discovered in the outskirts of galaxies, such as the unbound star in the Milky Way halo, or the three anomalously fast intracluster planetary nebulae (ICPNe) in the Virgo Cluster. These may have been ejected by close 3-body interactions with a binary supermassive black hole (SMBBH), where a star which passes within the semimajor axis of the SMBBH can receive enough energy to eject it from the system. Stars ejected by SMBBHs may form a significant sub-population with very different kinematics and mean metallicity than the bulk of the intracluster stars. The number, kinematics, and orientation of the ejected stars may constrain the mass ratio, semimajor axis, and even the orbital plane of the SMBBH. We investigate the evolution of the ejected debris from a SMBBH within a clumpy and time-dependent cluster potential using a high resolution, self-consistent cosmological N-body simulation of a galaxy cluster. We show that the predicted number and kinematic signature of the fas...

  10. Shock waves in tidally compressed stars by massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brassart, M

    2007-01-01

    We study the case of a solar-type star penetrating deeply within the tidal radius of a massive black hole. We focus on the compression phase leading to a so-called pancake configuration of the star at the instant of maximal compression. The aim is to provide reliable estimates of the thermodynamical quantities involved in the pancake star, and to solve a controversy about whether or not thermonuclear reactions can be triggered in the core of a tidally compressed star. We have set up a one-dimensional hydrodynamical code based on the high-resolution shock-capturing Godunov-type approach in order to study the compression phase undergone by the star in the direction orthogonal to its orbital plane, taking into account the development of shock waves during that phase. We show the existence of two regimes of compression depending on whether shock waves develop after or before the instant of maximal compression. In both cases we confirm high compression and heating factors in the stellar core, able to trigger a the...

  11. Protomagnetar and black hole formation in high-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergaulinger, M.; Aloy, M. Á.

    2017-07-01

    Using axisymmetric simulations coupling special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), an approximate post-Newtonian gravitational potential and two-moment neutrino transport, we show different paths for the formation of either protomagnetars or stellar mass black holes. The fraction of prototypical stellar cores which should result in collapsars depends on a combination of several factors, among which the structure of the progenitor star and the profile of specific angular momentum are probably the foremost. Along with the implosion of the stellar core, we also obtain supernova-like explosions driven by neutrino heating and hydrodynamic instabilities or by magneto-rotational effects in cores of high-mass stars. In the latter case, highly collimated, mildly relativistic outflows are generated. We find that after a rather long post-collapse phase (lasting ≳1 s) black holes may form in cases both of successful and failed supernova-like explosions. A basic trend is that cores with a specific angular momentum smaller than that obtained by standard, one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations form black holes (and eventually collapsars). Complementary, protomagnetars result from stellar cores with the standard distribution of specific angular momentum obtained from prototypical stellar evolution calculations including magnetic torques and moderate to large mass-loss rates.

  12. Probing Pre-galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y; Greif, Thomas H; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z G; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K S

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Pop III GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly-resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature >10^4 K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1+z) with values of about a few cm^{-3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n>100 cm^{-3}. The resu...

  13. Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...... evacuation, we find that even moderate rotation rates can in fact destroy spherical accretion at the early stages of the black hole growth. However, we demonstrate that the viscosity of nuclear matter can alleviate the effect of rotation, making it possible for the black hole to maintain spherical accretion...

  14. Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...

  15. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  16. Irreversible gravitational collapse: black stars or black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the concept of black hole has been considered very fascinating by scientists even before the introduction of Einstein's general relativity. They should be the final result of an irreversible gravitational collapse of very massive bodies. However, an unsolved problem concerning such objects is the presence of a space-time singularity in their core. Such a problem was present starting by the first historical papers concerning black holes. It is a common opinion that this problem could be solved when a correct quantum gravity theory will be, finally, constructed. In this work we review a way to remove black hole singularities at a classical level i.e. without arguments of quantum gravity. By using a particular non-linear electrodynamics Lagrangian, an exact solution of Einstein field equations is shown. The solution prevents the collapsing object to reach the gravitational radius, thus the final result becomes a black star, i.e. an astrophysical object where both of singularities and event ...

  17. Star on the Run - Speeding Star Observed with VLT hints at Massive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers [1] have recorded a massive star moving at more than 2.6 million kilometres per hour. Stars are not born with such large velocities. Its position in the sky leads to the suggestion that the star was kicked out from the Large Magellanic Cloud, providing indirect evidence for a massive black hole in the Milky Way's closest neighbour. These results will soon be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters [2]. "At such a speed, the star would go around the Earth in less than a minute!", says Uli Heber, one of the scientists at the Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte (University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) and the Centre for Astrophysics Research (University of Hertfordshire, UK) who conducted the study. The hot massive star was discovered in the framework of the Hamburg/ESO sky survey far out in the halo of the Milky Way, towards the Doradus Constellation ("the Swordfish"). "This is a rather unusual place for such a star: massive stars are ordinarily found in the disc of the Milky Way", explains Ralf Napiwotzki, another member of the team. "Our data obtained with the UVES instrument on the Very Large Telescope, at Paranal (Chile), confirm the star to be rather young and to have a chemical composition similar to our Sun." The data also revealed the high speed of the star, solving the riddle of its present location: the star did not form in the Milky Way halo, but happens to be there while on its interstellar - or intergalactic - travel. "But when we calculated how long it would take for the star to travel from the centre of our Galaxy to its present location, we found this to be more than three times its age", says Heber. "Either the star is older than it appears or it was born and accelerated elsewhere", he adds. As a matter of fact, HE0457-5439 - as the star is called - lies closer to one of the Milky Way satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located 160,000 light-years away from us. The astronomers find it likely

  18. Extracting equation of state parameters from black hole-neutron star mergers. I. Nonspinning black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru; Brady, Patrick R; Friedman, John L

    2011-01-01

    The late inspiral, merger, and ringdown of a black hole-neutron star (BHNS) system can provide information about the neutron-star equation of state (EOS). Candidate EOSs can be approximated by a parametrized piecewise-polytropic EOS above nuclear density, matched to a fixed low-density EOS; and we report results from a large set of BHNS inspiral simulations that systematically vary two parameters. To within the accuracy of the simulations, we find that, apart from the neutron-star mass, a single physical parameter Lambda, describing its deformability, can be extracted from the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown waveform. This parameter is related to the radius, mass, and l=2 Love number, k_2, of the neutron star by Lambda = 2k_2 R^5/3M_{NS}^5, and it is the same parameter that determines the departure from point-particle dynamics during the early inspiral. Observations of gravitational waves from BHNS inspiral thus restrict the EOS to a surface of constant Lambda in the parameter space, thickened by the meas...

  19. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shibata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  20. Stars and black holes in varying speed of light theories

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric solutions to a recently proposed covariant and locally Lorentz-invariant varying speed of light theory. We find the metrics and variations in $c$ associated with the counterpart of black holes, the outside of a star, and stellar collapse. The remarkable novelty is that $c$ goes to zero or infinity (depending on parameter signs) at the horizon. We show how this implies that, with appropriate parameters, observers are prevented from entering the horizon. Concomitantly stellar collapse must end in a ``Schwarzchild radius'' remnant. We then find formulae for gravitational light deflection, gravitational redshift, radar echo delay, and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, highlighting how these may differ distinctly from their Einstein counterparts but still evade experimental constraints. The main tell-tale signature of this theory is the prediction of the observation of a different value for the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, in spectral lines formed in the surfac...

  1. Gravitational waves from spinning black hole-neutron star binaries: dependence on black hole spins and on neutron star equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2011-09-01

    We study the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries with a variety of black hole spins aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum, and with the mass ratio in the range MBH/MNS=2-5, where MBH and MNS are the mass of the black hole and neutron star, respectively. We model neutron-star matter by systematically parametrized piecewise polytropic equations of state. The initial condition is computed in the puncture framework adopting an isolated horizon framework to estimate the black hole spin and assuming an irrotational velocity field for the fluid inside the neutron star. Dynamical simulations are performed in full general relativity by an adaptive-mesh refinement code, SACRA. The treatment of hydrodynamic equations and estimation of the disk mass are improved. We find that the neutron star is tidally disrupted irrespective of the mass ratio when the black hole has a moderately large prograde spin, whereas only binaries with low mass ratios, MBH/MNS≲3, or small compactnesses of the neutron stars bring the tidal disruption when the black hole spin is zero or retrograde. The mass of the remnant disk is accordingly large as ≳0.1M⊙, which is required by central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, if the black hole spin is prograde. Information of the tidal disruption is reflected in a clear relation between the compactness of the neutron star and an appropriately defined “cutoff frequency” in the gravitational-wave spectrum, above which the spectrum damps exponentially. We find that the tidal disruption of the neutron star and excitation of the quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole occur in a compatible manner in high mass-ratio binaries with the prograde black hole spin. The correlation between the compactness and the cutoff frequency still holds for such cases. It is also suggested by extrapolation that the merger of an extremely spinning black hole and an irrotational neutron star binary does not lead to the formation of an overspinning

  2. From the first stars to the first black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Rosa; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ~ 100 Msun) it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas onto a ~ 10^5 Msun BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSOdust to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the su...

  3. From the first stars to the first black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The growth of the first supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ˜100 M⊙), it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas on to an ˜105 M⊙ BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSODUST to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the suppression of gas cooling in the low-metallicity gas (Z Jcr). We find that heavy seeds cannot form if dust cooling triggers gas fragmentation above a critical dust-to-gas mass ratio (D ≥ D_cr). In addition, the relative importance of light and heavy seeds depends on the adopted mass range for light seeds, as this dramatically affects the history of cold gas along the merger tree, by both SN- and AGN-driven winds.

  4. Circularization of tidally disrupted stars around spinning supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disc. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The circularization time-scale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. Since the stellar debris is optically thick and its photon diffusion time is likely longer than the time-scale of shock heating, our inefficient cooling scenario is more generally applicable in eccentric tidal disruption events (TDEs). However, in parabolic TDEs for MBH ≳ 2 × 106 M⊙, the spin-sensitive behaviour associated with efficient cooling may be realized.

  5. Squeezars: Tidally powered stars orbiting a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Alexander, Tal; Morris, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We propose that there exists a class of transient sources, "squeezars", which are stars caught in highly eccentric orbits around a massive (m<10^8 Mo) black hole (MBH), whose atypically high luminosity (up to a significant fraction of their Eddington luminosity) is powered by tidal interactions with the MBH. Their existence follows from the presence of a mass sink, the MBH, in the galactic center, which drives a flow of stars into nearly radial orbits to replace those it has destroyed. We consider two limits for the stellar response to tidal heating: surface heating with radiative cooling ("hot squeezars") and bulk heating with adiabatic expansion ("cold squeezars"), and calculate the evolution of the squeezar orbit, size, luminosity and effective temperature. The squeezar formation rate is only ~0.05 that of tidal disruption flares, but squeezar lifetimes are many orders of magnitude longer, and so future observations of squeezars in nearby galaxies can probe the tidal process that feeds MBHs and the effe...

  6. Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We use a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers to compare star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) for galaxies before the interaction ('stochastic' phase), during the 'merger' proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr, and in the 'remnant' phase. We calculate the bi-variate distribution of SFR and BHAR and define the regions in the SFR-BHAR plane that the three phases occupy. No strong correlation between BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR is found. A possible exception are galaxies with the highest SFR and the highest BHAR. We also bin the data in the same way used in several observational studies, by either measuring the mean SFR for AGN in different luminosity bins, or the mean BHAR for galaxies in bins of SFR. We find that the apparent contradiction or SFR versus BHAR for observed samples of AGN and star forming galaxies is actually caused by binning effects. The two types of samples use different projections of the full bi-variate distribution, and the full information would lead to unamb...

  7. Numerical simulation of binary black hole and neutron star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastaun, W.; Rezzolla, L. [Albert Einstein Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    One of the last predictions of general relativity that still awaits direct observational confirmation is the existence of gravitational waves. Those fluctuations of the geometry of space and time are expected to travel with the speed of light and are emitted by any accelerating mass. Only the most violent events in the universe, such as mergers of two black holes or neutron stars, produce gravitational waves strong enough to be measured. Even those waves are extremely weak when arriving at Earth, and their detection is a formidable technological challenge. In recent years sufficiently sensitive detectors became operational, such as GEO600, Virgo, and LIGO. They are expected to observe around 40 events per year. To interpret the observational data, theoretical modeling of the sources is a necessity, and requires numerical simulations of the equations of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics. Such computations can only be carried out on large scale supercomputers, given that many scenarios need to be simulated, each of which typically occupies hundreds of CPU cores for a week. Our main goal is to predict the gravitational wave signal from the merger of two compact objects. Comparison with future observations will provide important insights into the fundamental forces of nature in regimes that are impossible to recreate in laboratory experiments. The waveforms from binary black hole mergers would allow one to test the correctness of general relativity in previously inaccessible regimes. The signal from binary neutron star mergers will provide input for nuclear physics, because the signal depends strongly on the unknown properties of matter at the ultra high densities inside neutron stars, which cannot be observed in any other astrophysical scenario. Besides mergers, we also want to improve the theoretical models of close encounters between black holes. A gravitational wave detector with even higher sensitivity, the Einstein Telescope, is already in the

  8. First direct comparison of non-disrupting neutron star-black hole and binary black hole merger simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; Grudich, Michael; Kidder, Lawrence E; MacDonald, Ilana; Mroue, Abdul; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2013-01-01

    We present the first direct comparison of numerical simulations of neutron star-black hole and black hole-black hole mergers in full general relativity. We focus on a configuration with non spinning objects and within the most likely range of mass ratio for neutron star-black hole systems (q=6). In this region of the parameter space, the neutron star is not tidally disrupted prior to merger, and we show that the two types of mergers appear remarkably similar. The effect of the presence of a neutron star on the gravitational wave signal is not only undetectable by the next generation of gravitational wave detectors, but also too small to be measured in the numerical simulations: even the plunge, merger and ringdown signals appear in perfect agreement for both types of binaries. The characteristics of the post-merger remnants are equally similar, with the masses of the final black holes agreeing within dM< 5 10^{-4}M_BH and their spins within da< 10^{-3}M_BH. The rate of periastron advance in the mixed bi...

  9. Stellar winds near massive black holes: The case of the S-stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic center provides a unique laboratory to study the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with its gaseous and stellar environment. Simulations to determine the accretion of stellar winds from the surrounding O-stars onto the black hole have been performed earlier, but in those the presence of the S-star system was ignored. The S-stars are a group of young massive B-stars in relatively close orbits around the black hole. Here we simulate those stars in order to study their contribution to the accretion rate, without taking the more distant and massive O-stars into account. We use the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics in a single simulation of the S-stars orbiting the supermassive black hole, and use this framework to determine the amount of gas that is accreted onto the black hole. We find that the accretion rate is sensitive to the wind properties of the S-stars (rate of mass-loss and terminal vel...

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis of Subluminous B Stars in Binaries - Four Candidate Systems with Neutron Star/Black Hole Companions Discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R

    2006-01-01

    The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. With high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. The assumption of orbital synchronization made it possible to constrain inclination angle and companion mass of the binaries. Five invisible companions have masses that are compatible with white dwarfs or late type main sequence stars. But four sdBs have very massive companions like heavy white dwarfs, neutron stars or even black holes. Such a high fraction of massive compact companions can not be explained with current models of binary...

  11. The Relativitic Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J. A.; Baumgarte, T. W.; Shapiro, S. L.; Taniguchi, K.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from our new relativistic evolution calculations of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries. The evolution equations of general relativity are treated in the conformally flat (CF) approximation. Assuming that the BH mass is significantly larger than that of the NS allows us to simplify the field equations for the NS, which we solve self-consistently in a fixed BH background spacetime. This approach guarantees that self-gravity is fully included. The NS fluid, assumed here to follow a gamma-law equation of state (EOS), is evolved using a Lagrangian SPH method. The field equations are solved by spectral methods in spheroidal coordinates. The code has been tested by comparing our results to previously computed quasi-equilibrium sequences, showing good agreement. Our results are a crucial first step in evaluating the stability of mass transfer in extremely close BH-NS binaries. They will allow us to describe quantitatively the dynamical tidal disruption of the NS, and to determine the dependence on the initial binary parameters, including the mass ratio and assumed NS EOS. We will also discuss the implications for detecting gravitational waves from the merger of these systems, about which, in contrast to NS-NS binaries, little is currently known for systems with components of comparable mass. JAF is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0401533.

  12. The Masses and Spins of Neutron Stars and Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. ...

  13. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  14. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J

    2005-04-07

    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase.

  15. NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....

  16. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  17. Creation of a dense torus in the coalescence of a black hole with a neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We used a newtonian SPH (smooth-particle hydrodynamics) code to follow the final stages of evolution of a coalescing binary system of a neutron star and a black hole. We find that the outcome of the "merger" is very sensitive to the equation of state describing the neutron star. A neutron star with a soft equation of state (polytrope with index Gamma=5/3) is completely disrupted, and a fairly large and long-lived accretion torus is formed.

  18. Growing black holes and galaxies: black hole accretion versus star formation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations and use it to study, in detail, black hole and galaxy properties. The high time, spatial and mass resolution, and realistic orbits and mass ratios, down to 1:6 and 1:10, enable us to meaningfully compare star formation rate (SFR) and BH accretion rate (BHAR) timescales, temporal behaviour and relative magnitude. We find that (i) BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR are typically temporally uncorrelated, and have different variability timescales, except during the merger proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr. BHAR and nuclear (<100 pc) SFR are better correlated, and their variability are similar. Averaging over time, the merger phase leads typically to an increase by a factor of a few in the BHAR/SFR ratio. (ii) BHAR and nuclear SFR are intrinsically proportional, but the correlation lessens if the long-term SFR is measured. (iii) Galaxies in the remnant phase are the ones most likely to be selected as systems dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), because of the long...

  19. Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: a gravitational waveform amplitude model

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave...

  20. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-04-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.

  1. Bright transients from strongly-magnetized neutron star-black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Levin, Janna; Murray, Norman W.; Price, Larry

    2016-07-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet black hole-neutron star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the x ray to γ rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from 1012 to 1016 G respectively and a 10 M⊙ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the neutron star magnetic-field strength, and may be observable with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor with a rate up to a few per year for neutron star field strengths ≳1014 G . We also discuss a possible decaying post-merger event which could accompany this signal. As an electromagnetic counterpart to these otherwise dark pairs, the black-hole battery should be of great value to the development of multi-messenger astronomy in the era of aLIGO.

  2. Simulating a High-Spin Black Hole-Neutron Star Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Duez, Matt; Foucart, Francois; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During their first observing run (fall 2015) Advanced LIGO detected gravitational waves from merging black holes. In its future observations LIGO could detect black hole neutron star binaries (BHNS). It is important to have numerical simulations to predict these waves, to help find as many of these waves as possible and to estimate the sources properties, because at times near merger analytic approximations fail. Also, numerical models of the disk formed when the black hole tears apart the neutron star can help us learn about these systems' potential electromagnetic counterparts. One area of the parameter space for BHNS systems that is particularly challenging is simulations with high black hole spin. I will present results from a new BHNS simulation that has a black hole spin of 90% of the theoretical maximum. We are part of SXS but not all.

  3. A Be-type star with a black-hole companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, J; Negueruela, I; Ribó, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2014-01-16

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the approximately 80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (ref. 5; also known as HD 215227), although that conclusion was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of MWC 656. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of the Be star through fitting sharp Fe II profiles from the equatorial disk, and a refined Be classification (to that of a B1.5-B2 III star), indicates that a black hole of 3.8 to 6.9 solar masses orbits MWC 656, the candidate counterpart of the γ-ray source AGL J2241+4454 (refs 5, 6). The black hole is X-ray quiescent and fed by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow giving a luminosity less than 1.6 × 10(-7) times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect in conventional X-ray surveys.

  4. The Tidal Disruption of Giant Stars and Their Contribution to the Flaring Supermassive Black Hole Population

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the $t^{-5/3}$ decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on months to years timescales. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in...

  5. The formation of massive black holes through collision runaway in dense young star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, S P; Hut, P; Makino, J; McMillan, S

    2004-01-01

    A luminous X-ray source is associated with a cluster (MGG-11) of young stars \\~200pc from the center of the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of at least 350Msun, which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A nearby but somewhat more massive star cluster (MGG-9) shows no evidence of such an intermediate mass black hole, raising the issue of just what physical characteristics of the clusters can account for this difference. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution and the motions of stars within the clusters, where stars are allowed to mergers with each other. We find that for MGG-11 dynamical friction leads to the massive stars sinking rapidly to the center of the cluster to participate in a runaway collision, thereby producing a star of 800-3000Msun, which ultimately collapses to an black hole of intermediate mass. No such runaway occurs in the cluster MGG-9 because the larger cluster radius leads ...

  6. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mainetti, Deborah; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double peaked flare (Mandel & Levin 2015). In this paper we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of SPH simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the syst...

  7. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  8. Modeling motion of a small black hole through a star or a planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, Victoria; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    In some scenarios of Big Bang the fluctuations of density in early universe result in the formation of various sized primordial black holes. The black holes of mass range 10^10 -10^22 kg are suitable candidates for a dark matter (or at least for a part of it). Such black holes could from time to time pass via Solar system or Sun or even Earth. What would a trajectory of a small black hole passing through Sun or through Earth look like? Would a black hole slow down and stuck consuming matter and causing cataclysmic collapse of Earth or Sun, or would it just pass? What other effects would take place? We model computationally a motion of a small black hole moving with various initial velocities (10- 1000 km/sec) through a planet-like and a star-like body of various density distributions. The results of this modeling are presented.

  9. The Dynamical Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries in General Relativity: Simulations of Tidal Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, J A; Shapiro, S L; Taniguchi, K; Rasio, F A; Faber, Joshua A.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the first dynamical evolutions of merging black hole-neutron star binaries that construct the combined black hole-neutron star spacetime in a general relativistic framework. We treat the metric in the conformal flatness approximation, and assume that the black hole mass is sufficiently large compared to that of the neutron star so that the black hole remains fixed in space. Using a spheroidal spectral methods solver, we solve the resulting field equations for a neutron star orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter is evolved using a relativistic, Lagrangian, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) treatment. We take as our initial data recent quasiequilibrium models for synchronized neutron star polytropes generated as solutions of the conformal thin-sandwich (CTS) decomposition of the Einstein field equations. We are able to construct from these models relaxed SPH configurations whose profiles show good agreement with CTS solutions. Our adiabatic evolution calculations for neutron stars wit...

  10. Illuminating black holes. Part 2: vortices, soap stars, and bubble galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R.; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.

    2017-05-01

    The addition of soap to vortexing water produces bubble structures around the vortices’ ‘throats’ that resemble galaxies of stars. Such soap-bubble models can be used to suggest the prediction that, at the heart of spiral galaxies may lie supermassive black holes. Combined with earlier work on illuminating black holes, these simple models could be useful classroom demonstrations of the extreme consequences of space-time distortion predicted by general relativity.

  11. Accretion disk assembly and survival during the disruption of a neutron star by a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lee, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We study the formation of accretion disks resulting from dynamical three dimensional binary coalescence calculations, where a neutron star is tidally disrupted before being swallowed by its black hole companion. By subsequently assuming azimuthal symmetry we are able to follow the time dependence of the disk structure for a few tenths of a second. Although the disruption of a neutron star leads to a situation where violent instabilities redistribute mass and angular momentum within a few dynamical timescales, enough gas mass remains in the orbiting debris to catalyse the extraction of energy from the hole at a rate adequate to power a short-lived gamma ray burst.

  12. Apparent Deviations from Keplerian Acceleration for Stars Around the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the time-dependent Doppler effect should induce measureable deviations of the time history of the projected orbit of a star around the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center (SgrA*) from the expected Keplerian history. In particular, the line-of-sight acceleration of the star generates apparent acceleration of its image along its velocity vector on the sky, even if its actual Keplerian acceleration in this direction vanishes. The excess apparent acceleration simply results from the transformation of time between the reference frames of the observer and the star. Although the excess acceleration averages to zero over a full closed orbit, it could lead to systematic offsets of a few percent in estimates of the dynamical mass or position of the black hole that rely on partially sampled orbits with pericentric distances of ~100AU. Deviations of this magnitude from apparent Keplerian dynamics of known stars should be detectable by future observations.

  13. The masses and spins of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects.

  14. Tidal Interaction between a Fluid Star and a Kerr Black Hole Relativistic Roche-Riemann Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, P; Wiggins, Paul; Lai, Dong

    1999-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic study of the equilibrium models of close binary systems containing a fluid star (mass $m$ and radius $R_0$) and a Kerr black hole (mass $M$) in circular orbit. We consider the limit $M\\gg m$ where spacetime is described by the Kerr metric. The tidally deformed star is approximated by an ellipsoid, and satisfies the polytropic equation of state. The models also include fluid motion in the stellar interior, allowing binary models with nonsynchronized stellar spin (as expected for coalescing neutron star--black hole binaries) to be constructed. Tidal disruption occurs at orbital radius $r_{\\rm tide}\\sim R_0(M/m)^{1/3}$, but the dimensionless ratio of the black hole as well as on the equation of state and the internal rotation of the star. We find that the general relativistic tidal field disrupts the star at a larger $\\hat r_{\\rm tide}$ than the Newtonian tide; the difference is particularly prominent if the disruption occurs in the vicinity of the black hole's horizon. In general, $\\h...

  15. Formation of massive black holes through runaway collisions in dense young star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Simon F Portegies; Baumgardt, Holger; Hut, Piet; Makino, Junichiro; McMillan, Stephen L W

    2004-04-15

    A luminous X-ray source is associated with MGG 11--a cluster of young stars approximately 200 pc from the centre of the starburst galaxy M 82 (refs 1, 2). The properties of this source are best explained by invoking a black hole with a mass of at least 350 solar masses (350 M(o)), which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A nearby but somewhat more massive cluster (MGG 9) shows no evidence of such an intermediate-mass black hole, raising the issue of just what physical characteristics of the clusters can account for this difference. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution and motion of stars within the clusters, where stars are allowed to merge with each other. We find that for MGG 11 dynamical friction leads to the massive stars sinking rapidly to the centre of the cluster, where they participate in a runaway collision. This produces a star of 800-3,000 M(o) which ultimately collapses to a black hole of intermediate mass. No such runaway occurs in the cluster MGG 9, because the larger cluster radius leads to a mass segregation timescale a factor of five longer than for MGG 11.

  16. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  17. I-Love-Q Relations: From Compact Stars to Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    The relations between most observables associated with a compact star, such as the mass and radius of a neutron star or a quark star, typically depend strongly on their unknown internal structure. The I-Love-Q relations (between the moment of inertia, the tidal deformability and the quadrupole moment) are however approximately insensitive to this structure. These relations become exact for stationary black holes in General Relativity as shown by the no-hair theorems. In this paper, we take the first steps toward studying how the approximate I-Love-Q relations become exact in the limit as compact stars become black holes. To do so, we consider a toy model, i.e. incompressible stars with anisotropic pressure, which allows us to model an equilibrium sequence of stars with their compactness approaching the black hole limit arbitrarily closely. We extract the I-Love-Q trio by numerically constructing such a sequence in the slow-rotation and small-tide approximations. We find that the I-Love-Q relations approach th...

  18. Enhanced accretion rates of stars on Super-massive Black Holes by star-disk interactions in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Just, Andreas; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emanuel Y

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a super-massive black hole and a central accretion disk. The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow towards the super-massive black hole and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating accretion disk. The accretion disk is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation t...

  19. Spinning boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair: the effect of self-interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Rúnarsson, Helgi F

    2016-01-01

    Self-interacting boson stars have been shown to alleviate the astrophysically low maximal mass of their non-self-interacting counterparts. We report some physical features of spinning self-interacting boson stars, namely their compactness, the occurence of ergo-regions and the scalar field profiles, for a sample of values of the coupling parameter. The results agree with the general picture that these boson stars are comparatively less compact than the non-self-interacting ones. We also briefly discuss the effect of scalar self-interactions on the properties of Kerr black holes with scalar hair.

  20. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    CERN Document Server

    El-Batal, A M; Reynolds, M T; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cJ/GM^2 > 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: theta = 75(2) degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower-flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  1. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Boggs, S. E.; Chistensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D. K.; Tomsick, J.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 “hard” state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a={cJ}/{{GM}}2≥slant 0.98 (1σ statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: θ ≃ 75{(2)}\\circ . Strong “dips” are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  2. Star Formation in the vicinity of Nuclear Black Holes: Young Stellar Objects close to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Eckart, A; Zwart, S Portegies; Sabha, N; Borkar, A; Moultaka, J; Mužić, K; Moser, L

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the strong gravitational field of a super-massive black hole disrupts an adjacent molecular cloud preventing classical star formation in the deep potential well of the black hole. Yet, young stars have been observed across the entire nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way including the region close ($<$0.5~pc) to the central black hole, Sgr A*. Here, we focus particularly on small groups of young stars, such as IRS 13N located 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain about five embedded massive young stellar objects ($<$1 Myr). We perform three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting about a $4\\times10^6~M_{\\odot}$ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups. The molecular clumps in our models assumed to be isothermal containing 100 $M_{\\odot}$ in $<$0.2 pc radius. Such molecular clumps exist in the circumnuclear disk of the Galaxy. In our highly eccentrically orbiting clump...

  3. Ultra-Close Encounters of Stars With Massive Black Holes: Tidal Disruption Events With Prompt Hyperaccretion

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Christopher; Eracleous, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A bright flare from a galactic nucleus followed at late times by a $t^{-5/3}$ decay in luminosity is often considered to be the signature of a tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole. The flare and afterglow are produced when the stream of stellar debris released by the disruption returns to the vicinity of the black hole, self-intersects, and eventually forms an accretion disk or torus. In the canonical scenario of a solar-type star disrupted by a $10^{6}\\; M_\\odot$ black hole, the time between the disruption of the star and the formation of the accretion torus could be years. We present fully general relativistic simulations of a new class of tidal disruption events involving ultra-close encounters of solar-type stars with intermediate mass black holes. In these encounters, a thick disk forms promptly after disruption, on timescales of hours. After a brief initial flare, the accretion rate remains steady and highly super-Eddington for a few days at $\\sim 10^2\\,M_\\odot\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}$.

  4. Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei with Tidal Disruption of Stars: Paper II - Axisymmetric Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Shiyan; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Tidal Disruption of stars by supermassive central black holes from dense rotating star clusters is modelled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. As in a previous paper on spherical star clusters we study the time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate and the origin of tidally disrupted stars, now according to several classes of orbits which only occur in axisymmetric systems (short axis tube and saucer). Compared with that in spherical systems, we found a higher TD rate in axisymmetric systems. The enhancement can be explained by an enlarged loss-cone in phase space which is raised from the fact that total angular momentum $\\bf J$ is not conserved. As in the case of spherical systems, the distribution of the last apocenter distance of tidally accreted stars peaks at the classical critical radius. However, the angular distribution of the origin of the accreted stars reveals interesting features. Inside the influence radius of the supermassive black hole the angular distribution of disrupted star...

  5. Backreaction of Hawking radiation on a gravitationally collapsing star I: Black holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle–Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time-symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle–Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II.

  6. Upper limits on the rates of binary neutron star and neutron-star--black-hole mergers from Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...

  7. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for LIGO, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{NS}\\propto (R/M)^{5}$ using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if non-tidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of non-tidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than $30$. For similarly loud signals, we also f...

  8. Gravitational Waves from Stellar Black Hole Binaries and the Impact on Nearby Sun-like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the impact of resonant gravitational waves on quadrupole acoustic modes of Sun-like stars located nearby stellar black hole binary systems (such as GW150914 and GW151226). We find that the stimulation of the low-overtone modes by gravitational radiation can lead to sizeable photometric amplitude variations, much larger than the predictions for amplitudes driven by turbulent convection, which in turn are consistent with the photometric amplitudes observed in most Sun-like stars. For accurate stellar evolution models, using up-to-date stellar physics, we predict photometric amplitude variations of 1-103 ppm for a solar mass star located at a distance between 1 au and 10 au from the black hole binary and belonging to the same multi-star system. The observation of such a phenomenon will be within the reach of the Plato mission because the telescope will observe several portions of the Milky Way, many of which are regions of high stellar density with a substantial mixed population of Sun-like stars and black hole binaries.

  9. THE CLUSTER OF BLUE STARS SURROUNDING THE M31 NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstrasse 1, Muenchen D-81679 (Germany); Rosenfield, Philip [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Richard F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We obtained U{sub 330}- and B-band images of the M31 nucleus using the High Resolution Camera of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spatial resolution in the U{sub 330} band, 0.''03 FWHM, or 0.1 pc at M31, is sufficient to resolve the outskirts of the compact cluster (P3) of UV-bright stars surrounding the M31 black hole. The center of the cluster is marked by an extended source that is both brighter and redder than the other point sources within P3; it is likely to be a blend of several bright stars. We hypothesize that it marks the location of the M31 black hole. Both stellar photometry and a surface brightness fluctuation analysis show that the P3 stellar population is consistent with early-type main-sequence stars formed in a {approx}100-200 Myr old starburst population. Evolutionary tracks of post early asymptotic giant branch (PEAGB) stars, associated with late-stage evolution of an old population, also traverse the U and U - B domain occupied by the P3 stars; but we argue that only a few stars could be accounted for that way. PEAGB evolution is very rapid, and there is no progenitor population of red giants associated with P3. The result that P3 comprises young stars is consistent with inferences from earlier HST observations of the integrated light of the cluster. Like the Milky Way, M31 harbors a black hole closely surrounded by apparently young stars.

  10. The shortest-known-period star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Ghez, A M; Schödel, R; Yelda, S; Boehle, A; Lu, J R; Do, T; Morris, M R; Becklin, E E; Matthews, K

    2012-10-01

    Stars with short orbital periods at the center of our Galaxy offer a powerful probe of a supermassive black hole. Over the past 17 years, the W. M. Keck Observatory has been used to image the galactic center at the highest angular resolution possible today. By adding to this data set and advancing methodologies, we have detected S0-102, a star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole with a period of just 11.5 years. S0-102 doubles the number of known stars with full phase coverage and periods of less than 20 years. It thereby provides the opportunity, with future measurements, to resolve degeneracies in the parameters describing the central gravitational potential and to test Einstein's theory of general relativity in an unexplored regime.

  11. A novel black hole mimicker: a boson star and a global monopole nonminimally coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Marunovic, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A field-theoretic model for a highly compact object that mimicks a black hole is found for the gravitationally interacting system of a boson star and a global monopole which are nonminimally coupled to gravity. According to the strength of the nonlinear gravitational effects and the gravitational backreaction, three distinct coupling regimes are featured: weak, mild and strong. In the strong coupling regime we show that a repulsive monopole stabilizes an attractive boson star and the resulting configuration exhibits large energy density, large (and negative) principal pressures, large compactness, large effective potential, large local forces, and yet exhibits no event horizon. As such a composite system of a boson star and a global monopole represents a convincing microscopic candidate for a black hole mimicker.

  12. Brane-world stars from minimal geometric deformation, and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We build analytical models of spherically symmetric stars in the brane-world, in which the external space-time contains both an ADM mass and a tidal charge. In order to determine the interior geometry, we apply the principle of minimal geometric deformation, which allows one to map General Relativistic solutions to solutions of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations. We further restrict our analysis to stars with a radius linearly related to the total General Relativistic mass, and obtain a general relation between the latter, the brane-world ADM mass and the tidal charge. In these models, the value of the star's radius can then be taken to zero smoothly, thus obtaining brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge solely determined by the mass of the source and the brane tension. General conclusions regarding the minimum mass for semiclassical black holes will also be drawn.

  13. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Barkett, Kevin; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian D; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan A; Szilágyi, Béla; Kaplan, Jeffrey D; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran D; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of $<1$ radian over $\\sim 15$ orbits. The numerical phase accuracy ...

  14. Ancient Black Hole Speeds Through Sun's Galactic Neighborhood, Devouring Companion Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found an ancient black hole speeding through the Sun's Galactic neighborhood, devouring a small companion star as the pair travels in an eccentric orbit looping to the outer reaches of our Milky Way Galaxy. The scientists believe the black hole is the remnant of a massive star that lived out its brief life billions of years ago and later was gravitationally kicked from its home star cluster to wander the Galaxy with its companion. "This discovery is the first step toward filling in a missing chapter in the history of our Galaxy," said Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission. "We believe that hundreds of thousands of very massive stars formed early in the history of our Galaxy, but this is the first black hole remnant of one of those huge primeval stars that we've found." "This also is the first time that a black hole's motion through space has been measured," Mirabel added. A black hole is a dense concentration of mass with a gravitational pull so strong that not even light can escape it. The research is reported in the Sept. 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. XTE J1118+480 The object is called XTE J1118+480 and was discovered by the Rossi X-Ray satellite on March 29, 2000. Later observations with optical and radio telescopes showed that it is about 6,000 light-years from Earth and that it is a "microquasar" in which material sucked by the black hole from its companion star forms a hot, spinning disk that spits out "jets" of subatomic particles that emit radio waves. Most of the stars in our Milky Way Galaxy are within a thin disk, called the plane of the Galaxy. However, there also are globular clusters, each containing hundreds of thousands of the oldest stars in the Galaxy which orbit the Galaxy's center in paths that take them far from the Galaxy's plane. XTE J

  15. On neutral scalar radiation by a massive orbiting star in extremal Kerr-Newman black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-Bao; Bai, Nan; Gao, Yi-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-15

    We extend the work of 1401.3746 about gravitational waves by a massive orbiting star in an extremal Kerr black hole to an extremal Kerr-Newman black hole for the scalar radiation, and we still find that it has a CFT interpretation from Kerr-Newman/CFT, because our scalar is neutral although the black hole is a charged one. When the charge of black hole is zero, we can get the result of 1401.3746, so we give a new evidence on Kerr-Newman/CFT. In addition, we investigate on electromagnetic radiation with Kerr/CFT in detail which isn't given by 1401.3746. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Black Holes, Neutron Stars and White Dwarf Candidates from Microlensing with OGLE-III

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrzykowski, L; Skowron, J; Rybicki, K A; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Ilkiewicz, K; Rattenbury, N J

    2015-01-01

    Most stellar remnants so far have been found in binary systems, where they interact with matter from their companions. Isolated neutron stars and black holes are difficult to find as they are dark, yet they are predicted to exist in our Galaxy in vast numbers. We explored the OGLE-III database of 150 million objects observed in years 2001-2009 and found 59 microlensing events exhibiting a parallax effect due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. Combining parallax and brightness measurements from microlensing light curves with expected proper motions in the Milky Way, we identified 15 microlensing events which are consistent with having a white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole lens and we estimated their masses and distances. The most massive of our black hole candidates has 8.3 M_Sun and is at a distance of 2.4 kpc. The distribution of masses of our candidates indicates a continuum in mass distribution with no mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also present predictions on how such events w...

  17. The runaway growth of intermediate-mass black holes in dense star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, S P; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Millan, Stephen L. W. Mc

    2002-01-01

    We study the growth rate of stars via stellar collisions in dense star clusters, calibrating our analytic calculations with direct N-body, simulations of up to 65536 stars, performed on the GRAPE family of computers. We find that star clusters with initial half-mass relaxation times of less than 20Myr are dominated by stellar collisions, the first collisions occurring at or near the point of core collapse. The majority of collisions occur with the same star, resulting in the runaway growth of a supermassive object. This object can grow up to about 0.1% of the mass of the entire star cluster and could manifest itself as an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). The phase of runaway growth lasts until mass loss by stellar evolution arrests core collapse. Star clusters older than about 4Myr and with present-day half-mass relaxation times smaller than 80Myr are expected to contain an IMBH. The star cluster may sink to the Galactic center by dynamical friction before stellar evolution starts to dominate the evolutio...

  18. A Search for Black Holes and Neutron Stars in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Jerome

    Black holes are the ultimate end state of gravitational collapse, and manifest both strong general relativity and quantum effects. Understanding the nature of black holes is NASA's Strategic Goal Objective 2.4.1. However, we know of only ~21 confirmed stellar-mass black holes, all of which are in close binary star systems. In this proposed research, we will carry out a search for quiescent and pre-mass-transfer black hole binary stars using the ultra high-quality archival light curves the Kepler Mission has provided. Existing X-ray surveys are sensitive to active compact object binaries (the X-ray binaries), but fail to find quiescent systems because almost no X-rays are produced. Most of the time the accretion disk is in a quiescent advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) state, with a negligible X-ray luminosity. The light from such a system is dominated by the companion star, so a search that targets the companion star is the best (and possibly only) way to find quiescent black hole systems. We will search for stars that show tidal distortions caused by their proximity to a massive compact star. The resulting "ellipsoidal variation" morphology of the light curve is sinusoidal, and thus is optimally detected via Fourier analysis. Flickering (aperiodic red- noise variation) is a signature of accretion and will be used to detect candidates with mildly active disks; our simulations show that the flickering does not prohibit the detection of the ellipsoidal variations. Once candidate distorted stars are found, medium resolution spectra can provide the orbital velocity of the companion star, and thus the minimum mass of the compact object. The ellipsoidal variations provide the inclination of the system, so we get the actual mass of the compact object, not the lower limit. An exciting aspect of our search is that we are sensitive to not only black holes in very close binaries ("semi-detached Roche-lobe filling" cases), but also to cases where the secondary star does

  19. Full Three Dimensional Orbits For Multiple Stars on Close Approaches to the Central Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ghez, A M; Duchêne, G; Hornstein, S D; Morris, M; Salim, S; Tanner, A

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of adaptive optics on the W. M. Keck 10 m telescope, two significant steps forward have been taken in building the case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way and understanding the black hole's effect on its environment. Using adaptive optics and speckle imaging to study the motions of stars in the plane of sky with +-~2 mas precision over the past 7 years, we have obtained the first simultaneous orbital solution for multiple stars. Among the included stars, three are newly identified (S0-16, S0-19, S0-20). The most dramatic orbit is that of the newly identified star S0-16, which passed a mere 60 AU from the central dark mass at a velocity of 9,000 km/s in 1999. The orbital analysis results in a new central dark mass estimate of 3.6(+-0.4)x10^6(D/8kpc)^3 Mo. This dramatically strengthens the case for a black hole at the center of our Galaxy, by confining the dark matter to within a radius of 0.0003 pc or 1,000 Rsh and thereby increasing the inferred dark mass density by f...

  20. The effects of x-rays on star formation and black hole growth in young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, Marco; Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John H.; Meijerink, Rowin

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the growth of seed black holes in young galaxies and the impact of their X-ray feedback. We have performed two simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, for the singular collapse scenario in the presence of a UV background radiation field of 105 and 103 J21. We have extended Enzo to include X-ray chemistry driven by a seed black hole with an initial mass of 5×104Msolar. Radiation transfer is performed polychromatically using the module Moray and H2 self-shielding is included. We use two different star formation recipes for the creation of Pop III and PopII/I stars and their feedback effects. We find that in the high UV background radiation case, no Pop III stars are formed until at least z = 10, due to the low H2 fractions (10-8). In the low UV background case the H2 abundances are orders of magnitude higher and pop III star formation is efficient, as is metal enrichment. We find that the production of X-rays drives an H II region that pushes out gas in the high UV background case and leads to a low duty cycle. For the low UV background run black hole accretion enjoys a duty cycle of 50%. We conclude that seed black holes with masses of 5×104Msolar, which are formed through the singular collapse of an atomic cooling halo under the influence of low (high) UV background radiation field, can(not) be the origin of supermassive black holes that we see at z = 6.

  1. The Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distributions of Quiescent Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, R. I.; Robinson, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys ultraviolet photometry of three quiescent black hole X-ray transients, X-ray Nova Muscae 1991 (GU Mus), GRO J0422+32 (V518 Per), and X-ray Nova Vel 1993 (MM Vel), and one neutron star system, Aql X-1. These are the first quiescent UV detections of these objects. All are detected at a much higher level than expected from their companion stars alone and are significant detections of the accretion flow. Three of the four UV excesses can be characterized by a blackbody of temperature 5000-13, 000 K, hotter than expected for the quiescent outer disk. A good fit could not be found for MM Vel. The source of the blackbody-like emission is most likely a heated region of the inner disk. Contrary to initial indications from spectroscopy, there does not appear to be a systematic difference in the UV luminosity or spectral shape between black holes and neutron star systems. However, combining our new data with earlier spectroscopy and published X-ray luminosities, there is a significant difference in the X-ray to UV flux ratios, with the neutron stars exhibiting L X/L UV about 10 times higher than the black hole systems. This is consistent with earlier comparisons based on estimating non-stellar optical light, but since both bandpasses we use are expected to be dominated by accretion light, we present a cleaner comparison. This suggests that the difference in X-ray luminosities cannot simply reflect differences in quiescent accretion rates and so the UV/X-ray ratio is a more robust discriminator between the black hole and neutron star populations than the comparison of X-ray luminosities alone.

  2. Supermassive Black Hole Growth During The Peak Of Cosmic Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nathaniel Robert

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies in the nearby universe all show evidence of a central Supermassive Black Hole. The black holes are seen to grow over time by accretion of gas from their host galaxy, a phenomenon referred to as an Active Galactic Nucleus. This process is believed to be fundamental to the observed correlations between black hole mass and properties of the host galaxies. We have a more limited and biased understanding of the growth of supermassive black holes in more 'typical' galaxies at z ˜ 1 -- 2. In this work, we search for Active Galactic Nuclei in a population of star-forming galaxies spanning a mass range of M* ˜ 107 -- 1012 M[special character omitted] at 0.62 Parallels (WISP) survey, for which we designed and implemented a suite of data analysis routines for discovering and measuring star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. We find a sample of 50 active galactic nuclei, identified by their strong, rest-frame optical, emission-line ratios. We find that growing supermassive black holes in low-mass galaxies at z [special character omitted] 1 either make up a greater fraction of their galaxies' masses than those in massive galaxies, or perhaps emit a greater fraction of their energy in [O III].

  3. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  4. The Cluster of Blue Stars Surrounding the M31 Nuclear Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Tod R; Kormendy, John; Rosenfield, Philip; Green, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    We obtained U_330 and B band images of the M31 nucleus using the High Resolution Camera of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spatial resolution in the U_330-band, 0.03" FWHM, or 0.1 pc at M31, is sufficient to resolve the outskirts of the compact cluster (P3) of UV-bright stars surrounding the M31 black hole. The center of the cluster is marked by an extended source that is both brighter and redder than the other point sources within P3; it is likely to be a blend of several bright stars. We hypothesize that it marks the location of the M31 black hole. Both stellar photometry and a surface brightness fluctuation analysis, show that the P3 stellar population is consistent with early-type main sequence stars formed in a ~100 - ~200 Myr old starburst population. Evolutionary tracks of post early asymptotic giant-branch stars, associated with late-stage evolution of an old population, also traverse the U and U-B domain occupied by the P3 stars; but we argue that only a...

  5. Massive black hole factories: Supermassive and quasi-star formation in primordial halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dominik R G; Ferrara, Andrea; Galli, Daniele; Latif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive stars and quasi-stars (massive stars with a central black hole) are both considered as potential progenitors for the formation of supermassive black holes. They are expected to form from rapidly accreting protostars in massive primordial halos. We explore how long rapidly accreting protostars remain on the Hayashi track, implying large protostellar radii and weak accretion luminosity feedback. We assess the potential role of energy production in the nuclear core, and determine what regulates the evolution of such protostars into quasi-stars or supermassive stars. We follow the contraction of characteristic mass scales in rapidly accreting protostars, and infer the timescales for them to reach nuclear densities. We compare the characteristic timescales for nuclear burning with those for which the extended protostellar envelope can be maintained. We find that the extended envelope can be maintained up to protostellar masses of 3.6x10^8 \\dot{m}^3 solar, where \\dot{m} denotes the accretion rate in so...

  6. Formation of Massive Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters. II. IMF and Primordial Mass Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Sanghamitra; Bierbaum, Matt; Rasio, Frederic A

    2011-01-01

    A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is the runaway merger in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole. In this paper we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code for N-body systems with N as high as 10^6 stars. Our code now includes an explicit treatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation we generally see a decrease in core collapse time (tcc). Moreover, primordial mass segregation increases the average mass in the core, thus reducing the central relaxation time,...

  7. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Masters, Karen L.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by the Nature Publishing Group. Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the galaxy population above M∗ ∼ 2×10^10 M , where their numbers have increased by a factor of ∼ 25 since z ∼ 2. Once star formation is initially shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat subseq...

  8. Relating follicly-challenged compact stars to bald black holes: A link between two no-hair properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-05-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We investigate how the two relations are related by studying relations among multipole moments for compact stars with anisotropic pressure as a toy model, which allows such stars to be more compact than those with isotropic pressure. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We also prove analytically that the current dipole moment exactly reaches the black hole limit quadratically in compactness as strongly anisotropic stars approach the black hole limit. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  9. Stars and (Furry) Black Holes in Lorentz Breaking Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    We study the exact spherically symmetric solutions in a class of Lorentz-breaking massive gravity theories, using the effective-theory approach where the graviton mass is generated by the interaction with a suitable set of Stuckelberg fields. We find explicitly the exact black hole solutions which generalizes the familiar Schwarzschild one, which shows a non-analytic hair in the form of a power-like term r^\\gamma. For realistic self-gravitating bodies, we find interesting features, linked to the effective violation of the Gauss law: i) the total gravitational mass appearing in the standard 1/r term gets a multiplicative renormalization proportional to the area of the body itself; ii) the magnitude of the power-like hairy correction is also linked to size of the body. The novel features can be ascribed to presence of the goldstones fluid turned on by matter inside the body; its equation of state approaching that of dark energy near the center. The goldstones fluid also changes the matter equilibrium pressure, ...

  10. Upper Limits on the Rates of Binary Neutron Star and Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers from Advanced LIGO’s First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

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D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. 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M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave signals from binary-neutron star systems with component masses \\in [1,3] {M}⊙ and component dimensionless spins detected the merger of binary-neutron star systems with component mass distributions of 1.35 ± 0.13 M ⊙ at a volume-weighted average distance of ˜70 Mpc, and for neutron star-black hole systems with neutron star masses of 1.4 M ⊙ and black hole masses of at least 5 M ⊙, a volume-weighted average distance of at least ˜110 Mpc. From this we constrain with 90% confidence the merger rate to be less than 12,600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary-neutron star systems and less than 3600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for neutron star-black hole systems. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these results, which we find to be in conflict with only the most optimistic predictions. However, we find that if no detection of neutron star-binary mergers is made in the next two Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing runs we would place significant constraints on the merger rates. Finally, assuming a rate of {10}-7+20 Gpc-3 yr-1, short gamma-ray bursts beamed toward the Earth, and assuming that all short gamma-ray bursts have binary-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) progenitors, we can use our 90% confidence rate upper limits to constrain the beaming angle of the gamma-ray burst to be greater than 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.1+1.7 (4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.9+3.1).

  11. Effects of Frame-Dragging on X-ray Emission from Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, D.; Lamb, F. K.

    2000-10-01

    In previous work on the effects of frame-dragging on viscous accretion disks around black holes and neutron stars, we discovered gravitomagnetically precessing global modes localized near the inner edge of the Keplerian flow. The highest-frequency modes of this type precess in the prograde direction with frequencies slightly lower than the Lense-Thirring precession frequency at the mean radius of the mode. Contrary to what had been expected since the pioneering work of Bardeen & Petterson, these modes are very weakly damped (Q ≈ 20--50) and are therefore likely to be excited. We present analytical arguments that shed further light on the nature of these modes and allow a better understanding of the symmetry-breaking pattern of viscous dissipation they create. The two highest-frequency modes tilt the innermost part of the Keplerian flow, redirecting gas crossing the sonic radius. As we discuss, these modes are likely to be the most easily excited and may be excited by magnetoturbulence in the disk or interaction of the disk with a stellar magnetic field. They may modulate X-ray emission from black holes and neutron stars by periodically altering the inspiral of gas from the Keplerian disk, by periodically obscuring emission from the inner disk or star, or by creating a rotating pattern of enhanced emission. This modulation is expected to create power spectral peaks at ~1--10 Hz in black hole sources and at ~10--40 Hz in the kilohertz QPO sources. It may also produce sidebands on the kilohertz QPOs, separated from the main peaks by ~10--40 Hz. Detecting and measuring the frequencies of these modes would provide valuable new information about the strongly curved, twisting spacetime expected near spinning neutron stars and black holes. This research was supported in part by the NSF and NASA.

  12. Super massive black holes in star forming gaseous circumnuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    del Valle, Luciano; Molina, Juan; Cuadra, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Using N-body/SPH simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of SMBHs embedded in a star forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kilo parsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are significantly higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ULIRGs, thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migr...

  13. Post-merger evolution of a neutron star-black hole binary with neutrino transport

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Roberts, Luke; Duez, Matthew D; Haas, Roland; Kidder, Lawrence E; Ott, Christian D; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-01-01

    We present a first simulation of the post-merger evolution of a black hole-neutron star binary in full general relativity using an energy-integrated general relativistic truncated moment formalism for neutrino transport. We describe our implementation of the moment formalism and important tests of our code, before studying the formation phase of a disk after a black hole-neutron star merger. We use as initial data an existing general relativistic simulation of the merger of a neutron star of 1.4 solar mass with a black hole of 7 solar mass and dimensionless spin a/M=0.8. Comparing with a simpler leakage scheme for the treatment of the neutrinos, we find noticeable differences in the neutron to proton ratio in and around the disk, and in the neutrino luminosity. We find that the electron neutrino luminosity is much lower in the transport simulations, and that the remnant is less neutron-rich. The spatial distribution of the neutrinos is significantly affected by relativistic effects. Over the short timescale e...

  14. Constraining black holes with light boson hair and boson stars using epicyclic frequencies and quasiperiodic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Nicola; Pani, Paolo; Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen; Ferrari, Valeria

    2017-06-01

    Light bosonic fields are ubiquitous in extensions of the Standard Model. Even when minimally coupled to gravity, these fields might evade the assumptions of the black-hole no-hair theorems and give rise to spinning black holes which can be drastically different from the Kerr metric. Furthermore, they allow for self-gravitating compact solitons, known as (scalar or Proca) boson stars. The quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the x-ray flux emitted by accreting compact objects carry information about the strong-field region, thus providing a powerful tool to constrain deviations from Kerr's geometry and to search for exotic compact objects. By using the relativistic precession model as a proxy to interpret the QPOs in terms of geodesic frequencies, we investigate how the QPO frequencies could be used to test the no-hair theorem and the existence of light bosonic fields near accreting compact objects. We show that a detection of two QPO triplets with current sensitivity can already constrain these models and that the future eXTP mission or a LOFT-like mission can set very stringent constraints on black holes with bosonic hair and on (scalar or Proca) boson stars. The peculiar geodesic structure of compact scalar/Proca boson stars implies that these objects can easily be ruled out as alternative models for x-ray source GRO J1655-40.

  15. Relativistic simulations of black hole-neutron star coalescence: the jet emerges

    CERN Document Server

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2014-01-01

    We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity of an initially quasiequilibrium binary black hole-neutron star on a quasicircular orbit that undergoes merger. The binary mass ratio is $3:1$, the black hole has initial spin parameter $a/m=0.75$ aligned with the orbital angular momentum, and the neutron star is modeled as an irrotational $\\Gamma=2$ polytrope. About two orbits prior to merger (at time $t=t_B$), we seed the neutron star with a dynamically weak dipolar magnetic field [${B}_{pole}\\sim 10^{14}(1.4M_\\odot/M_{\\rm NS})$ G] that extends from the stellar interior into the exterior. At $t=t_B$ the exterior is characterized by a low density atmosphere with constant plasma parameter $\\beta\\equiv P_{\\rm gas}/P_{\\rm mag}$. Varying $\\beta$ at $t_B$ in the exterior from $0.1$ to $0.01$, we find that at $\\sim 4000M \\sim 100(M_{\\rm NS}/1.4M_\\odot)$ms following the onset of accretion of tidally disrupted debris, magnetic field winding above the remnant black hole poles builds up the magnetic...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of A Rotating Massive Star Collapsing to A Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, S; Kotake, K; Sato, K; Yamada, S; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Kotake, Kei; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of a rotating star of 40 Msun and in the light of the collapsar model of gamma-ray burst. Considering two distributions of angular momentum, up to \\sim 10^{17} cm^2/s, and the uniform vertical magnetic field, we investigate the formation of an accretion disk around a black hole and the jet production near the hole. After material reaches to the black hole with the high angular momentum, the disk is formed inside a surface of weak shock. The disk becomes in a quasi-steady state for stars whose magnetic field is less than 10^{10} G before the collapse. We find that the jet can be driven by the magnetic fields even if the central core does not rotate as rapidly as previously assumed and outer layers of the star has sufficiently high angular momentum. The magnetic fields are chiefly amplified inside the disk due to the compression and the wrapping of the field. The fields inside the disk propagate to the polar region along t...

  17. Relativistic jet activity from the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Ghisellini, G; Mangano, V; Zhang, B; Page, K L; Eracleous, M; Romano, P; Sakamoto, T; Falcone, A D; Osborne, J P; Campana, S; Beardmore, A P; Breeveld, A A; Chester, M M; Corbet, R; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Esposito, P; Evans, P A; Fugazza, D; Gelbord, J M; Hiroi, K; Holland, S T; Huang, K Y; Im, M; Israel, G; Jeon, Y; Jeon, Y-B; Jun, H D; Kawai, N; Kim, J H; Krimm, H A; Marshall, F E; P Mészáros; Negoro, H; Omodei, N; Park, W-K; Perkins, J S; Sugizaki, M; Sung, H-I; Tagliaferri, G; Troja, E; Ueda, Y; Urata, Y; Usui, R; Antonelli, L A; Barthelmy, S D; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P; Melandri, A; Perri, M; Racusin, J L; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Gehrels, N

    2011-08-24

    Supermassive black holes have powerful gravitational fields with strong gradients that can destroy stars that get too close, producing a bright flare in ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions from stellar debris that forms an accretion disk around the black hole. The aftermath of this process may have been seen several times over the past two decades in the form of sparsely sampled, slowly fading emission from distant galaxies, but the onset of the stellar disruption event has not hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of a bright X-ray flare from the extragalactic transient Swift J164449.3+573451. This source increased in brightness in the X-ray band by a factor of at least 10,000 since 1990 and by a factor of at least 100 since early 2010. We conclude that we have captured the onset of relativistic jet activity from a supermassive black hole. A companion paper comes to similar conclusions on the basis of radio observations. This event is probably due to the tidal disruption of a star falling into a supermassive black hole, but the detailed behaviour differs from current theoretical models of such events.

  18. Tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes: The X-ray view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes produces luminous soft X-ray accretion flares in otherwise inactive galaxies. First events have been discovered in X-rays with the ROSAT observatory, and have more recently been detected with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift, and at other wavelengths. In X-rays, they typically appear as very soft, exceptionally luminous outbursts of radiation, which decline consistent with L ∝ t−5/3 on the timescale of months to years. They reach total amplitudes of decline up to factors 1000–6000 more than a decade after their initial high-states, and in low-state, their host galaxies are essentially X-ray inactive, optically inactive, and radio inactive. X-ray luminous tidal disruption events (TDEs represent a powerful new probe of accretion physics near the event horizon, and of relativistic effects. TDEs offer a new way of estimating black hole spin, and they are signposts of supermassive binary black holes and recoiling black holes. Once discovered in the thousands in upcoming sky surveys, their rates will probe stellar dynamics in distant galaxies, and they will uncover the – so far elusive – population of intermediate mass black holes in the universe, if they do exist. Further, the reprocessing of the flare into IR, optical and UV emission lines provides us with multiple new diagnostics of the properties of any gaseous material in the vicinity of the black hole (including the disrupted star itself and in the host galaxy. First candidate events of this kind have been reported recently.

  19. The Galactic Centre star S2 as a dynamical probe for intermediate-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gualandris, Alessia; Merritt, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the short-term effects of an intermediate mass black hole (IBH) on the orbit of star S2 (S02), the shortest period star known to orbit the supermassive black hole (SBH) in the centre of the Milky Way. Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations allow an accurate determination of the orbit of the star. Given S2's short orbital period and large eccentricity, general relativity (GR) needs to be taken into account, and its effects are potentially measurable with current technology. We show that perturbations due to an IBH in orbit around the SBH can produce a shift in the apoapsis of S2 that is as large or even larger than the GR shift. An IBH will also induce changes in the plane of S2's orbit at a level as large as one degree per period. We apply observational orbital fitting techniques to simulations of the S-cluster in the presence of an IBH and find that an IBH more massive than about 1000 solar masses at the distance of the S-stars will be detectable at the next periapse passage of S2, whi...

  20. The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Hopman, Clovis; Freitag, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Stars on eccentric orbits around a massive black hole (MBH) emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) at periapse. Such events may be directly resolvable in the Galactic Centre. However, if the star does not spiral in, the emitted GWs are not resolvable for extragalactic MBHs, but constitute a source of background noise. We estimate the power spectrum of this extreme mass ratio burst background (EMBB) and compare it to the anticipated instrumental noise of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). To this end, we model the regions close to an MBH, accounting for mass segregation, and for processes that limit the presence of stars close to the MBH, such as GW inspiral and hydrodynamical collisions between stars. We find that the EMBB is dominated by GW bursts from stellar mass black holes, and the magnitude of the noise spectrum (fSGW)1/2 is at least a factor of ~10 smaller than the instrumental noise. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that LISA is unlikely to detect relativistic bursts in the Galactic Centre.

  1. The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Freitag, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Stars on eccentric orbits around a massive black hole (MBH) emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) at periapse. Such events may be directly resolvable in the Galactic centre. However, if the star does not spiral in, the emitted GWs are not resolvable for extra-galactic MBHs, but constitute a source of background noise. We estimate the power spectrum of this extreme mass ratio burst background (EMBB) and compare it to the anticipated instrumental noise of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). To this end, we model the regions close to a MBH, accounting for mass-segregation, and for processes that limit the presence of stars close to the MBH, such as GW inspiral and hydrodynamical collisions between stars. We find that the EMBB is dominated by GW bursts from stellar mass black holes, and the magnitude of the noise spectrum (f S_GW)^{1/2} is at least a factor ~10 smaller than the instrumental noise. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that LISA is unlikely to detect relativistic bursts in...

  2. NuSTAR observations of black hole binary candidates in the Galactic Center and its environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles James; Mori, Kaya

    2017-08-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc (Perez et al. 2015) interpreted as magnetic cataclysmic variables (Hailey et al. 2017) leaves open the question of whether a sub-dominant population of sources could exist much closer to the supermassive black hole (SMBH), which NuSTAR could not resolve. Here we report the recent NuSTAR observations of two new transient hard X-ray sources within ~ 1 pc of the Galactic Center, which were discovered by Swift. These sources have no known counterparts at other energies. The spectral properties of these sources rule out NS-HMXBs. Continuous monitoring of the Galactic Center by Swift, combined with the known short (report recent results from the NuSTAR Galactic Legacy Survey of a larger region, ~ 0.7 square degrees, focusing on the search for more BHCs.

  3. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  4. Jetted Tidal Disruptions of Stars as a Flag of Intermediate Mass Black Holes at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to two types of TDEs which are expected to be observable out to high redshifts, namely (i) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming, and (ii) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for eLISA. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we ma...

  5. Models of Kilonova/macronova emission from black hole-neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star mergers are among the promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from black hole-neutron mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. Simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational-wave detection provides rich information about the merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from the black hole-neutron merger, the emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, so called kilonova/macronova, is one of the best targets for follow-up observation. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic black hole-neutron merger based on recently performed numerical relativity simulations. We combined these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a black hole-neutron kilonova/macronova lightcurve which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the result of each band mag...

  6. Pregalactic black hole formation with an atomic hydrogen equation of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Silk, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The polytropic equation of state of an atomic hydrogen gas is examined for primordial halos with baryonic masses of M-h similar to 10(7)-10(9) M-circle dot. For roughly isothermal collapse around 10(4) K, we find that line trapping of Ly alpha (H I and He II) photons causes the polytropic exponent t

  7. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-26

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  8. Co-evolution of nuclear star clusters, massive black holes and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio; Silk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Studying how nuclear star clusters (NSCs) form and how they are related to the growth of the central massive black holes (MBHs) and their host galaxies is fundamental for our understanding of the evolution of galaxies and the processes that have shaped their central structures. We present the results of a semi-analytical galaxy formation model that follows the evolution of dark matter halos along merger trees, as well as that of the baryonic components. This model allows us to study the evolution of NSCs in a cosmological context, by taking into account the growth of NSCs due to both dynamical friction-driven migration of stellar clusters and star formation triggered by infalling gas, while also accounting for dynamical heating from (binary) MBHs. We find that in-situ star formation contributes a significant fraction (up to ~40%) of the total mass of NSCs in our model. Both NSC growth through in-situ star formation and through star cluster migration are found to generate NSC -- host galaxy scaling correlation...

  9. Massive perturber-driven interactions of stars with a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Perets, H B; Alexander, T; Perets, Hagai B.; Hopman, Clovis; Alexander, Tal

    2006-01-01

    We study the role of massive perturbers (MPs) in deflecting stars and binaries to almost radial (``loss-cone'') orbits, where they pass near the central massive black hole (MBH), interact with it at periapse q, and are ultimately destroyed. MPs dominate dynamical relaxation when the ratio of the 2nd moments of the MP and star mass distributions, mu_2 = (N_p*M_p^2)/(N_star*M_star^2), satisfies mu_2>>1. The observed MPs in the nucleus of the Galaxy (giant molecular clouds and stellar clusters), and plausibly in late type galaxies generally, have 10^2<=mu_2<=10^5. MPs thus shorten the relaxation timescale by 10^2-10^5 relative to 2-body relaxation by stars alone. We show this increases by 10-1000 the rate of large-q interactions with the MBH, where loss-cone refilling by stellar 2-body relaxation is inefficient. We extend the Fokker-Planck loss-cone formalism to approximately account for relaxation by rare encounters with MPs. We show that binary-MBH exchanges driven by MPs may explain the origin of the yo...

  10. Gravitational-wave cutoff frequencies of tidally disruptive neutron star-black hole binary mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption has a dramatic impact on the outcome of neutron star-black hole mergers. The phenomenology of these systems can be divided in three classes: nondisruptive, mildly disruptive or disruptive. The cutoff frequency of the gravitational radiation produced during the merger (which is potentially measurable by interferometric detectors) is very different in each regime, and when the merger is disuptive it carries information on the neutron star equation of state. Here we use semianalytical tools to derive a formula for the critical binary mass ratio $Q=M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm NS}$ below which mergers are disruptive as a function of the stellar compactness $\\mathcal{C}=M_{\\rm NS}/R_{\\rm NS}$ and the dimensionless black hole spin $\\chi$. We then employ a new gravitational waveform amplitude model, calibrated to $134$ general relativistic numerical simulations of binaries with black hole spin (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum, to obtain a fit to the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency in the di...

  11. A STACKED SEARCH FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN 337 EXTRAGALACTIC STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, J. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Nyland, K. E. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Miller-Jones, J. C. A., E-mail: jwrobel@nrao.edu, E-mail: nyland@astron.nl, E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Forbes et al. recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to localize hundreds of candidate star clusters in NGC 1023, an early-type galaxy at a distance of 11.1 Mpc. Old stars dominate the light of 92% of the clusters and intermediate-age stars dominate the light of the remaining 8%. Theory predicts that clusters with such ages can host intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses To investigate this prediction, we used 264 s of 5.5 GHz data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for the radiative signatures of IMBH accretion from 337 candidate clusters in an image spanning 492″ (26 kpc) with a resolution of 0.″40 (22 pc). None of the individual clusters are detected, nor are weighted-mean image stacks of the 311 old clusters, the 26 intermediate-age clusters, and the 20 clusters with stellar masses The clusters thus lack radio analogs of HLX-1, a strong IMBH candidate in a cluster in the early-type galaxy ESO 243-49. This suggests that HLX-1 is accreting gas related to its cluster's light-dominating young stars. Alternatively, the HLX-1 phenomenon could be so rare that no radio analog is expected in NGC 1023. Also, using a formalism heretofore applied to star clusters in the Milky Way, the radio-luminosity upper limit for the massive-cluster stack corresponds to a 3σ IMBH mass of suggesting black hole mass fractions of.

  12. Ejection of Hyper-Velocity Stars from the Galactic Centre by Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgardt, H; Zwart, S P; Baumgardt, Holger; Gualandris, Alessia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2006-01-01

    We have performed N-body simulations of the formation of hyper-velocity stars (HVS) in the centre of the Milky Way due to inspiralling intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We considered IMBHs of different masses, all starting from circular orbits at an initial distance of 0.1 pc. We find that the IMBHs sink to the centre of the Galaxy due to dynamical friction, where they deplete the central cusp of stars. Some of these stars become HVS and are ejected with velocities sufficiently high to escape the Galaxy. Since the HVS carry with them information about their origin, in particular in the moment of ejection, the velocity distribution and the direction in which they escape the Galaxy, detecting a population of HVS will provide insight in the ejection processes and could therefore provide indirect evidence for the existence of IMBHs. Our simulations show that HVS are generated in short bursts which last only a few Myrs until the IMBH is swallowed by the supermassive black hole (SMBH). HVS are ejected almost i...

  13. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of "heavy" stellar-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, V; MacInnis, R; Cohen, D H; Townsend, R H D; Wade, G A; Thomas, S L; Owocki, S P; Puls, J; ud-Doula, J A

    2016-01-01

    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of "heavy" stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 Msun. Initial modelling of the system by Abbott et al. (2016a) supposes that the formation of black holes with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z 25 Msun such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar metallicity evolutionary models for initial ZAMS masses from 40-80 Msun that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predi...

  14. Fully General Relativistic Simulations of Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Etienne, Zachariah B; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based detectors, and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts (SGRBs) as well. Here, we discuss our new fully general relativistic calculations of merging BHNS binaries, which use high-accuracy, low-eccentricity, conformal thin-sandwich configurations as initial data. Our evolutions are performed using the moving puncture method and include a fully relativistic, high-resolution shock-capturing hydrodynamics treatment. Focusing on systems in which the neutron star is irrotational and the black hole is nonspinning with a 3:1 mass ratio, we investigate the inspiral, merger, and disk formation in the system. We find that the vast majority of material is promptly accreted and no more than 3% of the neutron star's rest mass is ejected into a tenuous, gravitationally bound disk. We find similar results for mass ratios of 2:1 and 1:1, even when we reduce the NS compaction in th...

  15. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources as Intermediate Mass Black Holes Fed by Tidally Captured Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, C; Alexander, T; Hopman, Clovis; Zwart, Simon F. Portegies; Alexander, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) is presently unknown. A possible explanation is that they are accreting intermediate mass black holes (IBHs) that are fed by Roche lobe overflow from a tidally captured stellar companion. We show that a star can circularize around an IBH without being destroyed by tidal heating (in contrast to the case of M_bh> 10^6 M_sun massive black holes in galactic centers, where survival is unlikely). We find that the capture and circularization rate is of the order of 5 \\times 10^-8 yr^-1, almost independently of the cluster's relaxation time. We follow the luminosity evolution of the binary system during the main sequence Roche lobe overflow phase and show it can maintain ULX-like luminosities for >10 Myr. In particular, we show that the ULX in the young cluster MGG-11 in star-burst galaxy M82, which possibly harbors an IBH, is well explained by this mechanism, and we predict that \\gtrsim 10% of similar clusters with IBHs have a tidally captured circularized star. The c...

  16. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the galaxy population above $M_{*}\\sim 2 \\times 10^{10}~M_{\\odot}$, where their numbers have increased by a factor of $\\sim25$ since $z\\sim2$. Once star formation is initially shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat subsequently accreted gas from stellar mass loss or mergers that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centers of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally-driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies ar...

  17. Brane-world stars from minimal geometric deformation, and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Ovalle, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Using the effective four-dimensional Einstein field equations, we build analytical models of spherically symmetric stars in the brane-world, in which the external space-time contains both an ADM mass and a tidal charge. In order to determine the interior geometry, we apply the principle of minimal geometric deformation, which allows one to map general relativistic solutions to solutions of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations. We further restrict our analysis to stars with a radius linearly related to the total general relativistic mass, and obtain a general relation between the latter, the brane-world ADM mass and the tidal charge. In these models, the value of the star's radius can then be taken to zero smoothly, thus obtaining brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge solely determined by the mass of the source and the brane tension. We find configurations which entail a partial screening of the gravitational mass, and general conclusions regarding the minimum mass for semiclassical black holes are also drawn.

  18. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkett, Kevin; Scheel, Mark; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of < 1 radian over ~ 15 orbits. The numerical phase accuracy required of BNS simulations to measure the accuracy of the method we present here is estimated as a function of the tidal deformability parameter λ.

  19. Gravitational waves from supermassive stars collapsing to a supermassive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaru; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Uchida, Haruki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    We derive the gravitational waveform from the collapse of a rapidly rotating supermassive star (SMS) core leading directly to a seed of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in axisymmetric numerical-relativity simulations. We find that the peak strain amplitude of gravitational waves emitted during the black hole formation is ≈5 ×10-21 at the frequency f ≈5 mHz for an event at the cosmological redshift z =3 , if the collapsing SMS core is in the hydrogen-burning phase. Such gravitational waves will be detectable by space laser interferometric detectors like eLISA with signal-to-noise ratio ≈10 , if the sensitivity is as high as LISA for f =1 - 10 mHz . The detection of the gravitational wave signal will provide a potential opportunity for testing the direct-collapse scenario for the formation of a seed of SMBHs.

  20. Gravitational waves from supermassive stars collapsing to a supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru; Uchida, Haruki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We derive the gravitational waveform from the collapse of a rapidly rotating supermassive star (SMS) core leading directly to a seed of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in axisymmetric numerical-relativity simulations. We find that the peak strain amplitude of gravitational waves emitted during the black-hole formation is $\\approx 5 \\times 10^{-21}$ at the frequency $f \\approx 5$\\,mHz for an event at the cosmological redshift $z=3$, if the collapsing SMS core is in the hydrogen-burning phase. Such gravitational waves will be detectable by space laser interferometric detectors like eLISA with signal-to-noise ratio $\\approx 10$, if the sensitivity is as high as LISA for $f=1$--10\\,mHz. The detection of the gravitational-wave signal will provide a potential opportunity for testing the direct-collapse scenario for the formation of a seed of SMBHs.

  1. Neutron Stars and Black Holes Seen with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Astrophysical X-rays bring information about location, energy, time, and polarization. X-rays from compact objects were seen in the first explorations to vary in time. Eclipses and pulsations have simple explanations that identified the importance of X-ray binaries and magnetic neutron stars in the first decade of X-ray astronomy. The dynamics of accretion onto stellar and supermassive black holes and onto neutron stars with relatively low magnetic fields shows up as more complex variations, quasi-periodic oscillations, noise with characteristic frequency spectra, broad-band changes in the energy spectra. To study these variations, RXTE instruments needed to have large area and operational flexibility to find transient activity and observe when it was present. Proportional counters and Phoswich scintillators provided it in a modest mission that has made textbook level contributions to understanding of compact objects. The first seen, and the brightest known, X-ray binary, Sco X-1 is one of a class of neutron stars with low mass companions. Before RXTE, none of these had been seen to show pulsations, though they were hypothesized to be the precursors of radio pulsars with millisecond periods and low magnetic fields. RXTE's large area led to identifying coherent millisecond pulsars in a subset which are relatively faint transients. It also led to identifying short episodes of pulsation during thermonuclear bursts, in sources where a steady signal is not seen. The X-ray stage verifies the evolution that produces millisecond radio pulsars.Masses and radii of neutron stars are being determined by various techniques, constraining the equation of state of matter at nuclear densities. Accretion should lead to a range of neutron star masses. An early stage of superstrong magnetic field neutron stars is now known to produce X-ray and gamma-ray bursts in crust quakes and magnetic field reconnection releases of energy. Soft Gamma Repeaters, Anomolous X-ray Pulsars, and high

  2. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  3. Stellar mass black holes in star clusters: gravitational wave emission and detection rates

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of stellar-mass black holes (BH) in star clusters focusing on the dynamical formation of BH-BH binaries, which are very important sources of gravitational waves (GW). We examine the properties of these BH-BH binaries through direct N-body computations of Plummer clusters, having initially N(0) = 5 X 10^4, typically a few of them dynamically harden to the extent that they can merge via GW emission within the cluster. Also, for each of such clusters, there are a few ...

  4. Formation of supermassive black holes through fragmentation of torodial supermassive stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Burkhard; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Hawke, Ian; Ott, Christian D; Schnetter, Erik; Müller, Ewald

    2006-04-28

    We investigate new paths to supermassive black hole formation by considering the general relativistic evolution of a differentially rotating polytrope with a toroidal shape. We find that this polytrope is unstable to nonaxisymmetric modes, which leads to a fragmentation into self-gravitating, collapsing components. In the case of one such fragment, we apply a simplified adaptive mesh refinement technique to follow the evolution to the formation of an apparent horizon centered on the fragment. This is the first study of the onset of nonaxisymmetric dynamical instabilities of supermassive stars in full general relativity.

  5. New perspectives on neutron star and black hole spectroscopy and dynamic tides

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sayan; Steinhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate on a powerful tidal interaction formalism where the multipole dynamics is kept generic and encoded in a linear response function. This response function is the gravitational counterpart of the atomic spectrum and can become of similar importance with the rise of gravitational wave astronomy. We find that the internal dynamics of nonrotating neutron stars admit a harmonic oscillator formulation yielding a simple interpretation of tides. A preliminary investigation of the black holes case is given. Our results fill the gap between Love numbers and dynamic tides.

  6. Formation and coalescence of cosmological supermassive-black-hole binaries in supermassive-star collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisswig, C; Ott, C D; Abdikamalov, E; Haas, R; Mösta, P; Schnetter, E

    2013-10-11

    We study the collapse of rapidly rotating supermassive stars that may have formed in the early Universe. By self-consistently simulating the dynamics from the onset of collapse using three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics with fully dynamical spacetime evolution, we show that seed perturbations in the progenitor can lead to the formation of a system of two high-spin supermassive black holes, which inspiral and merge under the emission of powerful gravitational radiation that could be observed at redshifts z is approximately equal or > to 10 with the DECIGO or Big Bang Observer gravitational-wave observatories, assuming supermassive stars in the mass range 10(4)-10(6)M[symbol: see text]. The remnant is rapidly spinning with dimensionless spin a*=0.9. The surrounding accretion disk contains ~10% of the initial mass.

  7. Light or heavy supermassive black hole seeds: the role of internal rotation in the fate of supermassive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2016-10-01

    Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳ 104 - 5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳ 0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole, or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a "quasi-star"). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitative matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M⊙ × black hole mass/100 M⊙)0.82 have highly sub-keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularisation outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲ 104 years before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.

  8. Light or heavy supermassive black hole seeds: the role of internal rotation in the fate of supermassive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are a key ingredient of galaxy evolution. However, their origin is still highly debated. In one of the leading formation scenarios, a black hole of ˜100 M⊙ results from the collapse of the inner core of a supermassive star (≳104-5 M⊙), created by the rapid accumulation (≳0.1 M⊙ yr-1) of pristine gas at the centre of newly formed galaxies at z ˜ 15. The subsequent evolution is still speculative: the remaining gas in the supermassive star can either directly plunge into the nascent black hole or part of it can form a central accretion disc, whose luminosity sustains a surrounding, massive, and nearly hydrostatic envelope (a system called a `quasi-star'). To address this point, we consider the effect of rotation on a quasi-star, as angular momentum is inevitably transported towards the galactic nucleus by the accumulating gas. Using a model for the internal redistribution of angular momentum that qualitatively matches results from simulations of rotating convective stellar envelopes, we show that quasi-stars with an envelope mass greater than a few 105 M_{⊙} × (black hole mass/100 M_{⊙})^{0.82} have highly sub-Keplerian gas motion in their core, preventing gas circularization outside the black hole's horizon. Less massive quasi-stars could form but last for only ≲104 yr before the accretion luminosity unbinds the envelope, suppressing the black hole growth. We speculate that this might eventually lead to a dual black hole seed population: (i) massive (>104 M⊙) seeds formed in the most massive (>108 M⊙) and rare haloes; (ii) lighter (˜102 M⊙) seeds to be found in less massive and therefore more common haloes.

  9. Detecting and Measuring the Masses of Isolated Black Holes and Neutron Stars through Astrometric Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash

    2013-10-01

    We propose a 3-year program of monitoring of 12 fields in the Galactic bulge, containing a total of 1.5 million stars down to V=28. Our primary aim is to detect microlensing events caused by non-luminous isolated black holes {BHs} and neutron stars {NSs} in the Galactic disk and bulge.The unique capability of HST imaging for microlensing observations is the addition of high-precision astrometry, allowing detection of the astrometric shift of the source during the event. Combined with the lens parallax, provided by the HST event light curve, the astrometric shift provides a direct measurement of the lens mass. We will detect 120 microlensing events, of which 45% will show astrometric deflections, leading to direct determinations of the lens masses. Of these, about 18 lenses are expected to be BHs and 14 of them NSs, along with about 22 events due to main-sequence stars.To date, BH and NS masses have been directly measured only in binaries; no isolated BH has been detected unambiguously within our Galaxy. A survey of the scope proposed here is the only means available at present for measuring the mass function of isolated BHs and NSs, and moreover one that is normalized to that of luminous stars. The results will provide a quantitative estimate of the mass content in the form of stellar remnants in the young Galactic disk and old bulge, and important constraints on SN/GRB explosion mechanisms that produce NSs and BHs.Our data will also be useful for other investigations, including a more accurate determination of the microlensing optical depth, faint variable stars, bulge proper motions and kinematics, and a deep luminosity function of the disk and bulge stars.

  10. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, Matteo; Fadda, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and central black hole accretion activity of the galaxies hosted in the two nearby (z$\\sim$0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We are able to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy @ 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations ($\\sim$ 3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. The analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with re...

  11. The star ingesting luminosity of intermediate mass black holes in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of stars in the inner regions of nearby globular clusters (GCs) such as M15 and G1 indicate the presence of central concentrated dark masses, and one would like to know whether these are indeed intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). As the number of surrounding stars, and their motions, are roughly known, the capture rate can be estimated; the question then arises of whether the apparent quiescence of the nuclei of these GCs is compatible with the IMBH's presence. The role of debris from disrupted stars in activating quiescent nuclei of GCs is studied here employing three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. It is argued that when individual stars are disrupted, the bulk of the debris would be swallowed or expelled rapidly compared with the interval between successive disruptions. Only a small fraction of the tightly bound mass is likely to be swallowed, yielding radiation with high efficiency, the surplus being expelled in a radiation-driven wind. A transient (predominantly of soft X-ray emiss...

  12. Effects of Stellar-Mass Black Holes on Massive Star Cluster Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Morscher, Meagan; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Pattabiraman, Bharat; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of stellar mass black hole (BH) candidates in some globular clusters (GC) in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. Given that the detection of BHs is challenging, these detections likely indicate the existence of large populations of BHs in these clusters. This is in direct contrast to the past understanding that at most a handful of BHs may remain in old GCs due to quick mass segregation and rapid mutual dynamical ejection. Modern realistic star-by-star numerical simulations suggest that the retention fraction of BHs is typically much higher than what was previously thought. The BH dynamics near the cluster center leads to dynamical formation of new binaries and dynamical ejections, and acts as a persistent and significant energy source for these clusters. We have started exploring effects of BHs on the global evolution and survival of star clusters. We find that the evolution as well as survival of massive star clusters can critically depend on the details of the initial assumptions related to BH formation physics, such as natal kick distribution, and the initial stellar mass function (IMF). In this article we will present our latest results.

  13. The suppression of direct collapse black hole formation by soft X-ray irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Inayoshi, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    The origins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei is one of the major unsolved problems in astrophysics. One hypothesis is that they grew from >10^5 Msun black holes that formed in the `direct collapse' of massive gas clouds that have low concentrations of both metals and molecular hydrogen (H2). Such clouds could form in the early (z>10) Universe if pre-galactic gas is irradiated by H2-photodissociating, far-ultraviolet (FUV) light from a nearby star-forming galaxy. The key uncertainties with this scenario are (1) how strong the FUV flux must be to sufficiently suppress the H2 abundance to prevent fragmentation and ordinary star formation; and (2) whether the requisite conditions arise frequently enough in nature to account for the observed number density of SMBHs (luminous quasars) at high redshifts. In this work, we re-examine the critical FUV flux J_crit that is required to keep H2 photodissociated and lead to direct collapse. We show that J_crit could be much higher than previously belie...

  14. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  15. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Hönig, S F; Caballero, A Hernán; Roche, P F; Almeida, C Ramos; Mason, R E; Díaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Aretxaga, I; Espinosa, J M Rodríguez; Packham, C

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (0.4-0.8 arcsec) mid-infrared (8-13 micron) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalogue. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of 65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 micron PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are...

  16. Stochastic Template Bank for Gravitational Wave Searches for Precessing Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.

  17. Stochastic Template Bank for Gravitational Wave Searches for Precessing Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.

  18. Quantifying the Coexistence of Massive Black Holes and Dense Nuclear Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W

    2009-01-01

    In large spheroidal stellar systems, such as elliptical galaxies, one invariably finds a 10^6-10^9 M_Sun supermassive black hole at their centre. In contrast, within dwarf elliptical galaxies one predominantly observes a 10^5-10^7 M_Sun nuclear star cluster. To date, few galaxies have been found with both type of nuclei coexisting and even less have had the masses determined for both central components. Here we identify one dozen galaxies housing nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes whose masses have been measured. This doubles the known number of such hermaphrodite nuclei - which are expected to be fruitful sources of gravitational radiation. Over the host spheroid (stellar) mass range from 10^8 to 10^11 M_Sun, we find that a galaxy's nucleus-to-spheroid (baryon) mass ratio is not a constant value but decreases from a few percent to ~0.3 percent such that log[(M_BH+M_NC)/M_sph] = -(0.39+/-0.07)log[M_sph/10^10 M_Sun] -(2.18+/-0.07). Once dry merging has commenced by M_sph ~ 10^11 M_Sun and the n...

  19. Neutron stars versus black holes: probing the mass gap with LIGO/Virgo

    CERN Document Server

    Littenberg, Tyson B; Coughlin, Scott; Kalogera, Vicky; Holz, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    The inspirals and mergers of binary systems comprised of black holes (BHs) and/or neutron stars (NSs) are expected to be abundant sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. We assess the capabilities of Advanced LIGO and Virgo to measure component masses using inspiral waveform models which include spin-precession effects by studying a large ensemble of plausible GW sources. We make quantitative predictions for how well LIGO and Virgo will be able to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars and appraise the prospect of using LIGO/Virgo observations to definitively confirm, or reject, the existence of a putative "mass gap" between NSs ($m\\leq3\\ M_\\odot$) and BHs ($m\\geq 5\\ M_\\odot$). We find sources with the smaller mass component satisfying $m_2 \\lesssim1.5\\ M_\\odot$ to be unambiguously identified as containing at least one NS, while systems with $m_2\\gtrsim6\\ M_\\odot$ will be confirmed binary BHs. However, binary BHs with $m_2<5\\ M_\\odot$ (i.e., in the gap) cannot be distinguishe...

  20. Massive disk formation in the tidal disruption of a neutron star by a nearly extremal black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Foucart, Francois; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are important sources of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometers, and BHNS mergers are also a proposed engine for short, hard gamma-ray bursts. The behavior of both the spacetime (and thus the emitted gravitational waves) and the neutron star matter in a BHNS merger depend strongly and nonlinearly on the black hole's spin. While there is a significant possibility that astrophysical black holes could have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e. near the theoretical maximum), to date fully relativistic simulations of BHNS binaries have included black-hole spins only up to $S/M^2$=0.9, which corresponds to the black hole having approximately half as much rotational energy as possible, given the black hole's mass. In this paper, we present a new simulation of a BHNS binary with a mass ratio $q=3$ and black-hole spin $S/M^2$=0.97, the highest simulated to date. We find that the black hole's large spin leads to the most massive accretion disk and the largest ti...

  1. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of `heavy' stellar-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, V.; Keszthelyi, Z.; MacInnis, R.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Thomas, S. L.; Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.; ud-Doula, A.

    2017-04-01

    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of 'heavy' stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 M⊙. Initial characterization of the system by Abbott et al. supposes that the formation of BHs with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z ≲ 0.25-0.5 Z⊙) environments. However, strong surface magnetic fields also provide a powerful mechanism for modifying mass-loss and rotation of massive stars, independent of environmental metallicity. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that some heavy BHs, with masses >25 M⊙ such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar-metallicity evolutionary models for initial zero-age main sequence masses from 40 to 80 M⊙ that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass-loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predict terminal-age main-sequence (TAMS) masses that are significantly greater than those from equivalent non-magnetic models, reducing the total mass lost by a strongly magnetized 80 M⊙ star during its main-sequence evolution by 20 M⊙. This corresponds approximately to the mass-loss reduction expected from an environment with metallicity Z = 1/30 Z⊙.

  2. On the black hole from merging binary neutron stars: how fast can it spin?

    CERN Document Server

    Kastaun, Wolfgang; Alic, Daniela; Rezzolla, Luciano; Font, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    The merger of two neutron stars will in general lead to the formation of a torus surrounding a black hole whose rotational energy can be tapped to potentially power a short gamma-ray burst. We have studied the merger of equal-mass binaries with spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum to determine the maximum spin the black hole can reach. Our initial data consists of irrotational binaries to which we add various amounts of rotation to increase the total angular momentum. Although the initial data violates the constraint equations, the use of the constraint-damping CCZ4 formulation yields evolutions with violations smaller than those with irrotational initial data and standard formulations. Interestingly, we find that a limit of $J/M^2 \\simeq 0.89$ exists for the dimensionless spin and that any additional angular momentum given to the binary ends up in the torus rather than in the black hole, thus providing another nontrivial example supporting the cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  3. Unbound Debris Streams and Remnants Resulting From the Tidal Disruptions of Stars by Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Guillochon, James; Chen, Xian; Johnson, Michael D; Berger, Edo

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic energy of a star in orbit about a supermassive black hole is a significant fraction of its rest mass energy when its periapse is comparable to its tidal radius. Upon its destruction, a fraction of this energy is extracted and injected into the stellar debris, half of which becomes unbound from the black hole, with the fastest material moving at $\\sim 0.03 c$. In this paper, we present a formalism for determining the fate of these unbound debris streams (UDSs) as they depart from the black hole and interact with the surrounding gas. As the density and velocity varies along the length of a UDS, we find that hydrodynamical drag quickly shapes UDSs into loop-like structures, with the densest portions of the streams leading portions of lower density. As UDSs travel outwards, their drag against the ISM increases quadratically with distance, which causes UDSs to deposit their momentum and energy into the ambient medium before the surrounding shocked ISM has a chance to cool. This sudden injection of $\\si...

  4. Massive black hole remnants of the first stars I: abundance in present-day galactic haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, R R; Silk, J; Islam, Ranty R.; Taylor, James E.; Silk, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that present-day galaxies and their dark matter haloes contain a population of massive black holes (MBHs) that form by hierarchical merging of the black hole remnants of the first stars in the Universe. Some of the MBHs may be large enough or close enough to the centre of the galactic host that they merge within a Hubble time. We estimate to what extent this process could contribute to the mass of the super-massive black holes (SMBHs) observed in galactic centres today. The relation between SMBH and galactic bulge mass in our model displays the same slope as that found in observations. Many MBHs will not reach the centre of the host halo, however, but continue to orbit within it. In doing so MBHs may remain associated with remnants of the satellite halo systems of which they were previously a part. Using a semi-analytical approach that explicitly accounts for dynamical friction, tidal disruption and encounters with galactic disks, we follow the hierarchical merging of MBH system...

  5. Outflows from accretion disks formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D; Quataert, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    The accretion disk that forms after a neutron star merger is a source of neutron-rich ejecta. The ejected material contributes to a radioactively-powered electromagnetic transient, with properties that depend sensitively on the composition of the outflow. Here we investigate how the spin of the black hole remnant influences mass ejection on the thermal and viscous timescales. To this end, we carry out two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of merger remnant accretion disks including viscous angular momentum transport and approximate neutrino self-irradiation. The gravity of the spinning black hole is included via a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We find that a disk around a spinning black hole ejects more mass, up to a factor of several, relative to the non-spinning case. The enhanced mass loss is due to energy release by accretion occurring deeper in the gravitational potential, raising the disk temperature and hence the rate of viscous heating in regions where neutrino cooling is ineffective....

  6. Active galactic nuclei. IV - Supplying black hole clusters by tidal disruption and by tidal capture of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, W. R.; Pacholczyk, A. G.; Stepinski, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    The extent to which individual holes in a cluster of black holes with a mass spectrum can liberate and accrete the resulting material by tidally disrupting stars they encounter, or by capturing stars as binary companions is studied. It is found that the smaller black holes in 'the halo' of such clusters can adequately supply themselves to the level M-dot sub h or greater than 0.0001(M-dot sub h) sub crit, and up to 0.05(M-dot sub h)sub crit for the smallest holes, by tidal disruption, as long as the cluster is embedded in a distribution of stars of relatively high density (not less than 0.1M sub cl/cu pc), and as long as the entire cluster of stars is not too compact (not less than 0.5 pc). Consideration is given to modifications this 'internal' mode of supply introduces in the spectrum emitted by such black hole clusters, and to the current status of their viability as models for AGN and QSOs in light of dynamical studies by Quinlan and Shapiro (1987, 1989).

  7. The growth of typical star-forming galaxies and their super massive black holes across cosmic time since z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Calhau, João; Stroe, Andra; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Lehmer, Bret; Harrison, Chris; Thomson, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here we explore a sample of Ha-selected star-forming galaxies from the HiZELS survey and use the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the COSMOS field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z=2.23 to z=0. Typical star-forming galaxies at z~1-2 have black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of 0.001-0.01 Msun/yr and star formation rates (SFRs) of ~10-40 Msun/yr, and thus grow their stellar mass much quicker than their black hole mass (~3.3 orders of magnitude faster). However, ~3% of the sample (the sources detected directly in the X-rays) show a significantly quicker growth of the black hole mass (up to 1.5 orders of magnitude quicker growth than the typical sources). BHARs fall from z=2.23 to z=0, with the decline resembling that of star formation rate de...

  8. Gravitational waves from spinning black hole-neutron star binaries: dependence on black hole spins and on neutron star equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    We study the merger of black hole (BH)-neutron star (NS) binaries with a variety of BH spins aligned or anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum, and with the mass ratio in the range MBH/MNS = 2--5, where MBH and MNS are the mass of the BH and NS, respectively. We model NS matter by systematically parametrized piecewise polytropic equations of state. The initial condition is computed in the puncture framework adopting an isolated horizon framework to estimate the BH spin and assuming an irrotational velocity field for the fluid inside the NS. Dynamical simulations are performed in full general relativity by an adaptive mesh refinement code, SACRA. The treatment of hydrodynamic equations and estimation of the disk mass are improved. We find that the NS is tidally disrupted irrespective of the mass ratio when the BH has a moderately large prograde spin, whereas only binaries with low mass ratios, MBH/MNS ~ 0.1 Msun, which is required by central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, if the BH spin is prograde...

  9. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  10. Mergers of neutron star black hole binaries with small mass ratios: nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray bursts and electromagnetic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Rosswog, S

    2005-01-01

    I discuss simulations of the coalescence of black hole neutron star binary systems with black hole masses between 14 and 20 \\msun. The calculations use a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, a temperature-dependent, nuclear equation of state and a multi-flavor neutrino scheme. General relativistic effects are mimicked using the \\Pacz-Wiita pseudo-potential and gravitational radiation reaction forces. Opposite to previous, purely Newtonian calculations, in none of the explored cases episodic mass transfer occurs. The neutron star is always completely disrupted after most of its mass has been transferred directly into the hole. For black hole masses between 14 and 16 \\Msun an accretion disk forms, large parts of it, however, are inside the last stable orbit and therefore falling with large radial velocities into the hole. These disks are (opposite to the neutron star merger case) thin and -apart from a spiral shock- essentially cold. For higher mass black holes ($M_{\\rm BH} \\ge 18$ \\msun) alm...

  11. Dusty Star Forming Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts: In- Situ Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    exploited our SFR functions with relations between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission. Our results show that the deepest SKA1- MID surveys will detect high-z galaxies with SFRs two orders of magnitude lower compared to Herschel surveys. The highest redshift tails of the distributions at the detection limits of planned SKA1-MID surveys comprise a substantial fraction of strongly lensed galaxies. The SKA1-MID will thus provide a comprehensive view of the star formation history throughout the re-ionization epoch, unaffected by dust extinction. We have also provided specific predictions for the EMU/ASKAP and MIGHTEE/MeerKAT surveys. We finally provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, the average shape, the scatter, and the cosmic evolution for the main sequences (MS) of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei at high redshift z ≥ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the redshift-dependent SFR functions, and the deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Eddington ratio distribution. We further validate these ingredients by showing their consistency with the observed galaxy stellar mass functions and active galactic nucleus (AGN) bolometric luminosity functions at different redshifts via, again, the continuity equation approach. Our analysis of the main sequence for high-redshift galaxies and AGNs highlights that the present data strongly support a scenario of in situ coevolution for star formation and black hole accretion, envisaging these as local, time coordinated processes.

  12. Formation of Double Neutron Stars, Millisecond Pulsars and Double Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Edward P. J.

    2017-09-01

    The 1982 model for the formation of Hulse-Taylor binary radio pulsar PSR B1913+16 is described, which since has become the `standard model' for the formation of the double neutron stars, confirmed by the 2003 discovery of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039AB. A brief overview is given of the present status of our knowledge of the double neutron stars, of which 15 systems are presently known. The binary-recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars is described, as put forward independently by Alpar et al. (1982), Radhakrishnan & Srinivasan (1982) and Fabian et al. (1983). This now is the `standard model' for the formation of these objects, confirmed by the discovery in 1998 of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars. It is noticed that the formation process of close double black holes has analogies to that of close double neutron stars, extended to binaries with larger initial component masses, although there are also considerable differences in the physics of the binary evolution at these larger masses.

  13. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs) and their host galaxies, a correlation which said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies -- including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions -- shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio M_nsc/M_star,tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later) is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio M_bh/M_star, bulge of SMBHs. The absence of a universal "central massive object" correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation: galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically...

  14. Formation of Double Neutron Stars, Millisecond Pulsars and Double Black Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edward P. J. Van Den Heuvel

    2017-09-01

    The 1982 model for the formation of Hulse–Taylor binary radio pulsar PSR B1913+16 is described, which since has become the ‘standard model’ for the formation of the double neutron stars, confirmed by the 2003 discovery of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039AB. A brief overview is given of the present status of our knowledge of the double neutron stars, of which 15 systems are presently known. The binary-recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars is described, as put forward independently by Alpar et al. (1982), Radhakrishnan & Srinivasan (1982) and Fabian et al. (1983). This now is the ‘standard model’ for the formation of these objects, confirmed by the discovery in 1998 of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars. It is noticed that the formation process of close double black holes has analogies to that of close double neutron stars, extended to binaries with larger initial component masses, although there are also considerable differences in the physics of the binary evolution at these larger masses.

  15. NO TIME FOR DEAD TIME: TIMING ANALYSIS OF BRIGHT BLACK HOLE BINARIES WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse F-31400 (France); Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tomsick, John; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmid, Christian [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstrasse 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andrew C.; Kara, Erin [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gandhi, Poshak [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Uttley, Phil, E-mail: matteo.bachetti@irap.omp.eu [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2015-02-20

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (∼2.5 msec) and varies event-to-event by a few percent. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be easily modeled with standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cospectrum, the real part of the cross PDS, to obtain a good proxy of the white-noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely, a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this way, most of the standard timing analysis can be performed, albeit with a sacrifice in signal-to-noise ratio relative to what would be achieved using more standard techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339–4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105.

  16. Chemical Abundances in the Secondary Star of the Black Hole Binary V4641 Sagittarii (SAX J1819.3-2525)

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Aoki, W; Arimoto, N; Takada-Hidai, M; Ohnishi, T; Tajitsu, A; Beers, T C; Iwamoto, N; Tominaga, N; Umeda, H; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Sadakane, Kozo; Arai, Akira; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tajitsu, Akito; Beers, Timothy C.; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Umeda, Hideyuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2006-01-01

    We report on detailed spectroscopic studies performed for the secondary star in the black hole binary (micro-quasar) V4641 Sgr in order to examine its surface chemical composition and to see if its surface shows any signature of pollution by ejecta from a supernova explosion. High-resolution spectra of V4641 Sgr observed in the quiescent state in the blue-visual region are compared with those of the two bright well-studied B9 stars (14 Cyg and $\

  17. Correlation between radio luminosity and X-ray timing frequencies in neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Fender, R.P.; van der Klis, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on correlations between radio luminosity and X-ray timing features in X-ray binary systems containing low magnetic field neutron stars and black holes. The sample of neutron star systems consists of 4U 1728-34, 4U 1820-34, Ser X-1, MXB 1730-335, GX 13+1, the millisecond X-ray pulsars SAX J

  18. Chaotic lensing around boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, P. V. P.; Grover, J.; Herdeiro, C.; Radu, E.; Rúnarsson, H.; Wittig, A.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent paper [1 P. V. P. Cunha, C. A. R. Herdeiro, E. Radu, and H. F. Runarsson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 211102 (2015).], it was shown that the lensing of light around rotating boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair can exhibit chaotic patterns. Since no separation of variables is known (or expected) for geodesic motion on these backgrounds, we examine the 2D effective potentials for photon trajectories, to obtain a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. We find that the emergence of stable light rings on the background spacetimes allows the formation of "pockets" in one of the effective potentials, for open sets of impact parameters, leading to an effective trapping of some trajectories, dubbed "quasibound orbits." We conclude that pocket formation induces chaotic scattering, although not all chaotic orbits are associated to pockets. These and other features are illustrated in a gallery of examples, obtained with a new ray-tracing code, pyhole, which includes tools for a simple, simultaneous visualization of the effective potential, together with the spacetime trajectory, for any given point in a lensing image. An analysis of photon orbits allows us to further establish a positive correlation between photon orbits in chaotic regions and those with more than one turning point in the radial direction; we recall that the latter is not possible around Kerr black holes. Moreover, we observe that the existence of several light rings around a horizon (several fundamental orbits, including a stable one), is a central ingredient for the existence of multiple shadows of a single hairy black hole. We also exhibit the lensing and shadows by Kerr black holes with scalar hair, observed away from the equatorial plane, obtained with pyhole.

  19. Black hole-neutron star mergers at realistic mass ratios: Equation of state and spin orientation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D; Kidder, Lawrence E; MacDonald, Ilana; Ott, Christian D; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela; Teukolsky, Saul A

    2012-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star mergers resulting in the disruption of the neutron star and the formation of an accretion disk and/or the ejection of unbound material are prime candidates for the joint detection of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals when the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors comes online. However, the disruption of the neutron star and the properties of the post-merger remnant are very sensitive to the parameters of the binary. In this paper, we study the impact of the radius of the neutron star and the alignment of the black hole spin for systems within the range of mass ratio currently deemed most likely for field binaries (M_BH ~ 7 M_NS) and for black hole spins large enough for the neutron star to disrupt (J/M^2=0.9). We find that: (i) In this regime, the merger is particularly sensitive to the radius of the neutron star, with remnant masses varying from 0.3M_NS to 0.1M_NS for changes of only 2 km in the NS radius; (ii) 0.01-0.05M_sun of unbound material can be ejected w...

  20. Nuclear reaction rates and opacity in massive star evolution calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, BocnI II 1401, 14131 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Klapp, J [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H, E-mail: jaime.klapp@inin.gob.m [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, Fach M568, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear reaction rates and opacity are important parameters in stellar evolution. The input physics in a stellar evolution code determines the main theoretical characteristics of the stellar structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of a star. For different input physics, in this work we calculate stellar evolution models of very massive first stars during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We have considered 100 and 200M{sub s}un galactic and pregalactic stars with metallicity Z = 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 9}, respectively. The results show important differences from old to new formulations for the opacity and nuclear reaction rates, in particular the evolutionary tracks are significantly affected, that indicates the importance of using up to date and reliable input physics. The triple alpha reaction activates sooner for pregalactic than for galactic stars.

  1. Reconstructing the spectrum of the pregalactic density field from astronomical data

    CERN Document Server

    Kashlinsky, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the spectrum of the pregalactic density field on scales $1h^{-1}Mpc < r < 100h^{-1}$Mpc from a variety of astronomical data. APM data on $w(\\theta)$ in six narrow magnitude is used, after correcting to possible evolutionary effects, to constrain the spectrum of galaxy clustering on scales $10h^{-1}Mpc < r < 50-100h^{-1}Mpc$. Fitting power spectra of CDM models to the data at all depths requires $\\Omega h=0.2$ if the primordial index $n=1$ and $\\Omega h=0.3$ if the spectrum is tilted with $n=0.7$. Then we compare the peculiar velocity field predicted by the APM spectrum of galaxy (light) distribution with the actual velocity data. The two fields are consistent and the comparison suggests that the bias factor is scale independent with $\\Omega^{0.6}/b\\simeq$(0.2-0.3). The next dataset used comes from the cluster correlation data. We calculate in detail the amplification of the cluster correlation function due to gravitational clustering and use the data on both the slope of ...

  2. Accuracy in Measuring the Neutron Star Mass in Gravitational Wave Parameter Estimation for Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Recently, two gravitational wave (GW) signals, named as GW150914 and GW151226, have been detected by the two LIGO detectors. Although both signals were identified as originating from merging black hole (BH) binaries, GWs from systems containing neutron stars (NSs) are also expected to be detected in the near future by the Advanced detector network. In this work, we assess the accuracy in measuring the NS mass ($M_{ns}$) for the GWs from BH-NS binaries adopting the Advanced LIGO sensitivity with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. By using the Fisher matrix method, we calculate the measurement errors ($\\sigma$) in $M_{ns}$ assuming the NS mass of $1 \\leq M_{ns}/M_{\\odot} \\leq 2$ and low mass BHs with the range of $4 \\leq M_{bh}/M_{\\odot} \\leq 10$. We used the TaylorF2 waveform model where the spins are aligned with the orbital angular momentum, but here we only consider the BH spins. We find that the fractional errors ($\\sigma/M_{ns} \\times 100$) are in the range of $10\\% - 50\\%$ in our mass region for a given dime...

  3. Accuracy in measuring the neutron star mass in the gravitational wave parameter estimation for black hole-neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2016-09-01

    Recently, two gravitational wave (GW) signals, named as GW150914 and GW151226, have been detected by the two LIGO detectors. Although both signals were identified as originating from merging black hole (BH) binaries, GWs from systems containing neutron stars (NSs) are also expected to be detected in the near future by the advanced detector network. In this work, we assess the accuracy in measuring the NS mass ( M NS) for the GWs from BH-NS binaries adopting the Advanced LIGO sensitivity with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. By using the Fisher matrix method, we calculate the measurement errors ( σ) in M NS assuming a NS mass of 1 ≤ M NS/ M ⊙ ≤ 2 and low-mass BHs with masses in the range of 4 ≤ M BH/ M ⊙ ≤ 10. We use the TaylorF2 waveform model in which the spins are aligned with the orbital angular momentum, but here we only consider the BH spins. We find that the fractional errors ( σ/ M NS × 100) are in the range of 10% - 50% in our mass region for a given dimensionless BH spin χBH = 0. The errors tend to increase as the BH spin increases, and this tendency is stronger for higher NS masses (or higher total masses). In particular, for the highest mass NSs ( M NS = 2 M ⊙), the errors σ can be larger than the true value of M NS if the dimensionless BH spin exceeds ~ 0.6.

  4. The lowest-mass stellar black holes: catastrophic death of neutron stars in gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F; Taam, R; Bulik, T

    2007-01-01

    Mergers of double neutron stars are considered the most likely progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts. Indeed such a merger can produce a black hole with a transient accreting torus of nuclear matter and the conversion of the torus mass-energy to radiation can power a gamma-ray burst. Using available binary pulsar observations supported by our extensive evolutionary calculations of double neutron star formation, we demonstrate that the fraction of mergers that can form a black hole -- torus system depends very sensitively on the (largely unknown) maximum neutron star mass. We show that the available observations and models put a very stringent constraint on this maximum mass under the assumption that a majority of short gamma-ray bursts originate in double neutron star mergers. Specifically, we find that the maximum neutron star mass must be within 2--2.5 Msun. Moreover, a single unambiguous measurement of a neutron star mass above 2.5 Msun would exclude double neutron star mergers as short gamma-ray burst pr...

  5. Investigating the effect of precession on searches for neutron-star-black-hole binaries with Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, I W; Brown, Duncan A; Lundgren, A; Ochsner, Evan; Keppel, D

    2013-01-01

    The first direct detection of neutron-star-black-hole binaries will likely be made with gravitational-wave observatories. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be able to observe neutron-star-black-hole mergers at a maximum distance of 900Mpc. To acheive this sensitivity, gravitational-wave searches will rely on using a bank of filter waveforms that accurately model the expected gravitational-wave signal. The angular momentum of the black hole is expected to be comparable to the orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum will affect the dynamics of the inspiralling system and alter the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational-wave signal. In addition, if the black hole's angular momentum is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum it will cause the orbital plane of the system to precess. In this work we demonstrate that if the effect of the black hole's angular momentum is neglected in the waveform models used in gravitational-wave searches, the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\\odot}$ neutron-star...

  6. Non-Quiescent X-ray Emission from Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournear, Derek M

    2003-08-18

    X-ray astronomy began with the detection of the persistent source Scorpius X-1. Shortly afterwards, sources were detected that were variable. Centaurus X-2, was determined to be an X-ray transient, having a quiescent state, and a state that was much brighter. As X-ray astronomy progressed, classifications of transient sources developed. One class of sources, believed to be neutron stars, undergo extreme luminosity transitions lasting a few seconds. These outbursts are believed to be thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of neutron stars (type I X-ray bursts). Other sources undergo luminosity changes that cannot be explained by thermonuclear burning and last for days to months. These sources are soft X-ray transients (SXTs) and are believed to be the result of instabilities in the accretion of matter onto either a neutron star or black hole. Type I X-ray bursts provide a tool for probing the surfaces of neutron stars. Requiring a surface for the burning has led authors to use the presence of X-ray bursts to rule out the existence of a black hole (where an event horizon exists not a surface) for systems which exhibit type I X-ray bursts. Distinguishing between neutron stars and black holes has been a problem for decades. Narayan and Heyl have developed a theoretical framework to convert suitable upper limits on type I X-ray bursts from accreting black hole candidates (BHCs) into evidence for an event horizon. We survey 2101.2 ks of data from the USA X-ray timing experiment and 5142 ks of data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) experiment to obtain the first formal constraint of this type. 1122 ks of neutron star data yield a population averaged mean burst rate of 1.7 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1}, while 6081 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 4.9 x 10{sup -7} bursts s{sup -1}. Applying the framework of Narayan and Heyl we calculate regions of luminosity where the neutron stars are expected to burst and the BHCs

  7. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquej, P. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Villafranca del Castillo, E-28850, Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, E-38205, La Laguna (Spain); Hönig, S. F. [UCSB Department of Physics, Broida Hall 2015H, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Roche, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku, HI 96720 (United States); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  8. THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS IN ENHANCING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FEEDING RATES DURING GALAXY MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiman, J. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Debuhr, J. [Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies, Indiana University, Bloomington IN 47404 (United States); Ma, C.-P. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    During galaxy mergers the gas falls to the center, triggers star formation, and feeds the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). SMBHs respond to this fueling by supplying energy back to the ambient gas. Numerical studies suggest that this feedback is necessary to explain why the properties of SMBHs and the formation of bulges are closely related. This intimate link between the SMBH’s mass and the large scale dynamics and luminosity of the host has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle with simulations due to the inability to resolve all the relevant length scales simultaneously. In this paper we simulate SMBH growth at high-resolution with FLASH, accounting for the gravitational focusing effects of nuclear star clusters (NSCs), which appear to be ubiquitous in galactic nuclei. In the simulations, the NSC core is resolved by a minimum cell size of about 0.001 pc or approximately 10{sup −3} of the cluster’s radius. We discuss the conditions required for effective gas funneling to occur, which are mainly dominated by a relationship between NSC velocity dispersion and the local sound speed, and provide a sub-grid prescription for the augmentation of central SMBH accretion rates in the presence of NSCs. For the conditions expected to persist in the centers of merging galaxies, the resultant large central gas densities in NSCs should produce drastically enhanced embedded SMBH accretion rates—up to an order of magnitude increase can be achieved for gas properties resembling those in large-scale galaxy merger simulations. This will naturally result in faster black hole growth rates and higher luminosities than predicted by the commonly used Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion formalism.

  9. Constraining Black Holes with Light Boson Hair and Boson Stars using Quasi Periodic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Franchini, Nicola; Maselli, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen; Ferrari, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Light bosonic fields are ubiquitous in extensions of the Standard Model. Even when minimally coupled to gravity, these fields might evade the assumptions of the black-hole no-hair theorems and give rise to spinning black holes which can be drastically different from the Kerr metric. Furthermore, they allow for self-gravitating compact solitons, known as (scalar or Proca) boson stars. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting compact objects carry information about the strong-field region, thus providing a powerful tool to constrain deviations from Kerr's geometry and to search for exotic compact objects. By using the relativistic precession model, we investigate how the QPO frequencies could be used to test the no-hair theorem and the existence of light bosonic fields near accreting compact objects. We show that a detection of two QPO triplets with current sensitivity can already constrain these models, and that the future eXTP mission or a LOFT-like mission can se...

  10. Neutron star-black hole coalescence rate inferred from macronova/kilonova observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Neutron star$-$black hole (NS$-$BH) coalescences are widely believed to be promising gravitational wave sources in the era of advanced detectors of LIGO/Virgo but such binaries have never been directly detected yet. Evidence for NS$-$BH coalescences have been suggested in short and hybrid GRB observations, which are examined critically. Based on the suggested connection between the observed macronovae/kilonovae events and NS$-$BH coalescences, we get a fiducial lower limit of NS$-$BH coalescence rate density ${\\cal R}_{\\rm nsbh} \\approx 18.8^{+12.5}_{-8.6} ~{\\rm Gpc^{-3}~ yr^{-1}~ (\\theta_j/0.1~{\\rm rad})^{-2}}$, where $\\theta_{\\rm j}$ is the typical half-opening angle of the GRB ejecta. The real value of ${\\cal R}_{\\rm nsbh}$ is likely at least $\\sim {\\rm a~few}$ times larger, depending upon the equation of state of NS material and the properties of the NS$-$BH system, such as the mass and spin distribution of the black hole. If the link between macronovae/kilonovae and NS$-$BH coalescence is valid, one can ...

  11. X-Rays from Galaxies Teeming with Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to more than forty years of investment in space-based technology capable of observing the Universe in the x-ray band (0.5 - 100 keV), we have learned quite a bit about the X-ray universe. It has become clear that most of the glow of the X-ray sky is attributed to accretion onto supermassive black holes. However, as we push ever fainter in our detection methods, we find an interesting population of very faint sources arising. These are normal "Milky-way-type" galaxies that also glow in X-rays. The X-ray emission from these galaxies arises from populations of accreting black holes and neutron stars contained in binary systems. This talk will describe our understanding of this population, including some strange regularity in the production of such accreting binary systems. The future, including new technology planned for the next 5-10 years and anticipated theoretical advancements, will also be discussed.

  12. Twelve Years of Spectroscopic Monitoring in the Galactic Center: The Closest Look at S-stars near the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, M.; Gillessen, S.; Martins, F.; Eisenhauer, F.; Plewa, P. M.; Pfuhl, O.; George, E.; Dexter, J.; Waisberg, I.; Ott, T.; von Fellenberg, S.; Bauböck, M.; Jimenez-Rosales, A.; Genzel, R.

    2017-10-01

    We study the young S-stars within a distance of 0.04 pc from the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy. Given how inhospitable the region is for star formation, their presence is more puzzling the younger we estimate their ages. In this study, we analyze the result of 12 years of high-resolution spectroscopy within the central arcsecond of the Galactic Center (GC). By co-adding between 55 and 105 hr of spectra we have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of eight stars orbiting the central supermassive black hole. Using deep H-band spectra, we show that these stars must be high surface gravity (dwarf) stars. We compare these deep spectra to detailed model atmospheres and stellar evolution models to infer the stellar parameters. Our analysis reveals an effective temperature of 21,000–28,500 K, a rotational velocity of 60–170 km s‑1, and a surface gravity of 4.1–4.2. These parameters imply a spectral type of B0–B3V for these stars. The inferred masses lie within 8–14 {M}ȯ . We derive an age of {6.6}-4.7+3.4 Myr for the star S2, which is compatible with the age of the clockwise-rotating young stellar disk in the GC. We estimate the ages of all other studied S-stars to be less than 15 Myr, which is compatible with the age of S2 within the uncertainties. The relatively low ages for these S-stars favor a scenario in which the stars formed in a local disk rather than a field binary-disruption scenario that occurred over a longer period of time.

  13. Production of all $r$-process nuclides by black hole accretion disk outflows from neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    We consider $r$-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important -- and in some cases dominant -- contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second $r$-process peak (mass number $A \\sim 130$), independent of model parameters, with significant production of $A < 130$ nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of $r$-process elements in metal poor stars. Disk outflows reach the third peak ($ A \\sim 195$) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the ...

  14. The growth of typical star-forming galaxies and their supermassive black holes across cosmic time since z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhau, João; Sobral, David; Stroe, Andra; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Lehmer, Bret; Harrison, Chris; Thomson, Alasdair

    2017-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here, we explore a sample of Hα-selected star-forming galaxies from the High Redshift Emission Line Survey and use the wealth of multiwavelength data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z = 2.23 to z = 0. Typical star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1-2 have black hole accretion rates (dot{M}_BH) of 0.001-0.01 M⊙ yr-1 and star formation rates (SFRs) of ˜10-40 M⊙ yr-1, and thus grow their stellar mass much quicker than their black hole mass (3.3±0.2 orders of magnitude faster). However, ˜3 per cent of the sample (the sources detected directly in the X-rays) show a significantly quicker growth of the black hole mass (up to 1.5 orders of magnitude quicker growth than the typical sources). dot{M}_BH falls from z = 2.23 to z = 0, with the decline resembling that of SFR density or the typical SFR (SFR*). We find that the average black hole to galaxy growth (dot{M}_BH/SFR) is approximately constant for star-forming galaxies in the last 11 Gyr. The relatively constant dot{M}_BH/SFR suggests that these two quantities evolve equivalently through cosmic time and with practically no delay between the two.

  15. Dichotomy Between Black Hole and Neutron Star Accretion: Effect of Hard Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhang, Prasun; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of accretion rate on to compact objects have been explored based on the well-known, spherically symmetric, inviscid, steady-state solution given by Bondi. This solution assumes that there is a sink of mass at the center -- which in case of a black hole (BH) corresponds to the advection of matter across the event horizon. Other stars, such as a neutron star (NS), have surfaces and hence the infalling matter has to come to rest at the surface. We study the initial value problem in which the matter distribution is uniform and at rest at time t=0 with different inner radial boundary conditions for BHs and NSs: inflow boundary condition valid for BHs; and reflective or settling boundary condition for NSs. We obtain a similarity solution for the flow with inner inflow and reflective boundary conditions (assuming a cold ambient medium) and compare with numerical simulations of the Euler equations. One-dimensional simulations show the formation of an outward propagating and a standing shock in NS system for reflective and settling boundary conditions respectively. Two-dimensional simulations show that both these flows are unstable (locally to convection and globally to a standing shock instability). Numerical simulations show that in steady state, spherical accretion rate on to a NS for reflective boundary condition is suppressed by orders of magnitude compared to that on to a BH.

  16. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Wang, Yiping; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3x10^7 M_sun using [NeIII]15.56micron and optical [OIII]5007A gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3micron PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios highe...

  17. What triggers black-hole growth? Insights from star formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Neistein, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    We present a new semi-analytic model for the common growth of black holes (BHs) and galaxies within a hierarchical Universe. The model is tuned to match the mass function of BHs at z=0 and the luminosity functions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z<4. We use a new observational constraint, which relates the luminosity of AGNs to the star-formation rate (SFR) of their host galaxies. We show that this new constraint is important in various aspects: a) it indicates that BH accretion events are episodic; b) it favours a scenario in which BH accretion is triggered by merger events of all mass ratios; c) it constrains the duration of both merger-induced star-bursts and BH accretion events. The model reproduces the observations once we assume that only 4 per cent of the merger events trigger BH accretion; BHs accretion is not related to secular evolution; and only a few per cent of the mass made in bursts goes into the BH. We find that AGNs with low or intermediate luminosity are mostly being triggered by mino...

  18. The Role of Nuclear Star Clusters in Enhancing Supermassive Black Hole Feeding Rates During Galaxy Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Naiman, J P; Debuhr, J; Ma, C -P

    2014-01-01

    During galaxy mergers the gas falls to the center, triggers star formation, and feeds the rapid growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). SMBHs respond to this fueling by supplying energy back to the ambient gas. Numerical studies suggest that this feedback is necessary to explain why the properties of SMBHs and the formation of bulges are closely related. This intimate link between the SMBH's mass and the large scale dynamics and luminosity of the host has proven to be a difficult issue to tackle with simulations due to the inability to resolve all the relevant length scales simultaneously. In this paper we simulate SMBH growth at high-resolution with {\\it FLASH}, accounting for the gravitational focusing effects of nuclear star clusters (NSCs), which appear to be ubiquitous in galactic nuclei. In the simulations, the NSC core is resolved by a minimum cell size of about 0.001 pc or approximately $10^{-3}$ of the cluster's radius. We discuss the conditions required for effective gas funneling to occur, whic...

  19. Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kimpson, Thomas O; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of compact object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors (Advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ~27 per cent of all double compact object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ~88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the...

  20. Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpson, Thomas O.; Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M.

    2016-12-01

    Mergers of compact-object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based GW detectors (advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ˜27 per cent of all double compact-object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ˜88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the total expected merger rate by ≈50 per cent. All binaries that merge because of KL oscillations were formed by dynamical exchanges (i.e. none is a primordial binary) and have chirp mass >20 M⊙. This result might be crucial to interpret the formation channel of the first recently detected GW events.

  1. Using HST to Detect Isolated Black Holes and Neutron Stars through Astrometric Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash C.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bond, H. E.; Bond, I.; Brown, T. M.; Casertano, S.; Dominik, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fryer, C.; Livio, M.; Mao, S.; Perrott, Y.; Udalski, A.; Yock, P.

    2012-05-01

    To date, Black Hole (BH) and Neutron Star (NS) masses have been directly measured only in binaries; no isolated stellar-mass BH has been detected unambiguously within our Galaxy. We have underway a large, 3-year HST program (192 orbits) designed to detect microlensing events caused by non-luminous isolated BHs and NSs in the direction of the Galactic bulge. Our program consists of monitoring of 12 fields in the Sagittarius window of the Galactic bulge, containing a total of 1.5 million stars down to V=28. Our observations have a typical cadence of one observation every two weeks, and are primarily targeted towards detecting microlensing events caused by non-luminous isolated BHs and NSs in the Galactic disk and bulge. The unique capability of HST imaging for microlensing observations is the addition of high-precision astrometry, allowing detection of the astrometric shift of the source during the event. Combined with the lens parallax, which can be determined from the light curve as measured by HST (and supplemented by GEMINI) observations, the astrometric shift provides a direct measurement of the lens mass. Our program is optimized to detect long-duration events, which are more likely to be caused by massive lenses. We expect to detect a few dozen long-duration microlensing events, of which 45% will show astrometric deflections, leading to direct determinations of the lens masses.

  2. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  3. Supermassive black holes and central star clusters: Connection with the host galaxy kinematics and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the masses of the central, supermassive black holes ( M bh) and of the nuclear star clusters ( M nc) of disk galaxies with various parameters galaxies are considered: the rotational velocity at R = 2 kpc V (2), the maximum rotational velocity V max, the indicative dynamical mass M 25, the integrated mass of the stellar population M *, and the integrated color index B-V. The rotational velocities andmasses of the central objects were taken from the literature. Themass M nc correlatesmore closely with the kinematic parameters and the disk mass than M bh, including with the velocity V max, which is closely related to the virial mass of the dark halo. On average, lenticular galaxies are characterized by higher masses M bh compared to other types of galaxies with similar characteristics. The dependence of the blackhole mass on the color index is bimodal: galaxies of the red group (red-sequence) with B-V >0.6-0.7 which are mostly early-type galaxies with weak star formation, differ appreciably from blue galaxies, which have higher values of M nc and M bh. At the dependences we consider between the masses of the central objects and the parameters of the host galaxies (except for the dependence of M bh on the central velocity dispersion), the red-group galaxies have systematically higher M bh values, even when the host-galaxy parameters are similar. In contrast, in the case of nuclear star clusters, the blue and red galaxies form unified sequences. The results agree with scenarios in which most red-group galaxies form as a result of the partial or complete loss of interstellar gas in a stage of high nuclear activity in galaxies whose central black-hole masses exceed 106-107 M ⊙ (depending on the mass of the galaxy itself). The bulk of disk galaxies with M bh > 107 M ⊙ are lenticular galaxies (types S0, E/S0) whose disks are practically devoid of gas.

  4. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-11-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After ˜10 Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of 0.39 pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass ˜ 105 M⊙. We also test that binary dynamics is robust against the details of the SNa feedback employed in the simulations, while gas dynamics is not. We finally highlight the importance of the SNa time-scale on our results.

  5. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...

  6. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, F.; Desai, D.; Brege, W.; Duez, M. D.; Kasen, D.; Hemberger, D. A.; Kidder, L. E.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Scheel, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about the composition of low-density, cold material in the different equations of state, and propose an updated estimate for the ejecta velocity which takes those effects into account. We also present an updated mesh-refinement algorithm which allows us to improve the numerical resolution used to evolve neutron star-black hole mergers.

  7. The Link Between Warm Molecular Disks in Maser Nuclei and Star Formation Near the Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Milosavljevic, M; Milosavljevic, Milos; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of hundreds of young, bright stars within a parsec from the massive black hole at the center of the Galaxy presents a challenge to star formation theories. The requisite Roche densities for gravitational collapse of gas clouds are most naturally achieved in accretion disks. The water maser sources in Keplerian rotation in the nuclei of NGC4258, NGC1068, and the Circinus Galaxy indicate the presence of warm, extended, molecular accretion disks around black holes similar in mass to the Galactic black hole. We here argue that the current conditions in the maser nuclei, and those near the Galactic center, represent two consecutive, recurrent phases in the life cycle of the nucleus of a typical gas-rich spiral bulge. The warm molecular disks that give rise to the observed maser emission fragment into stellar-size objects. The stellar masses, their orbital geometry, and the total number of stars thus formed are consistent with the values identified at the Galactic Center. The stars tend to form in com...

  8. A Criterion for Photoionization of Pregalactic Clouds Exposed to Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Yukiko; Umemura, Masayuki

    1998-07-01

    To elucidate the permeation of cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background radiation into a pregalactic cloud and the subsequent ionization, the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation is solved, coupled with the ionization process, for a spherical top-hat cloud composed of pure hydrogen. The calculations properly involve scattering processes of ionizing photons that originate from radiative recombination. As a result, it is shown that the self-shielding, although it is often disregarded in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, could start to emerge shortly after the maximum expansion stages of density fluctuations. Quantitatively, the self-shielding is prominent above a critical number density of hydrogen, which is given by ncrit = 1.4 × 10-2 cm-3 (M/108 Msolar)-1/5I3/521 for 104 K gas, where M is the cloud mass and the UV background intensity is assumed to be Iν = 10-21I21(ν/νL)-1 ergs cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Hz-1, with νL being the Lyman limit frequency. The weak dependence of ncrit upon the mass is worth noting. The corresponding critical optical depth (τcrit) turns out to be independent of either M or I21, which is τcrit = 2.4 for 104 K gas. The present analysis reveals that the Strömgren approximation leads to overestimation of the photoionization effects. Also, the self-shielded neutral core is no longer sharply separated from surrounding ionized regions; a low but noticeable degree of ionization is caused by high-energy photons even in the self-shielded core. The present results may be substantial when one considers the biasing by photoionization against low-mass galaxy formation.

  9. CO-DARK Star Formation and Black Hole Activity in 3C 368 at Z = 1.131: Coeval Growth of Stellar and Supermassive Black Hole Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, C.; Stacey, G.; Brisbin, D.; Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C. E.; Spoon, H.; Vishwas, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detection of four far-infrared fine-structure oxygen lines, as well as strong upper limits for the CO(2–1) and [N ii] 205 μm lines, in 3C 368, a well-studied radio-loud galaxy at z = 1.131. These new oxygen lines, taken in conjunction with previously observed neon and carbon fine-structure lines, suggest a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN), accompanied by vigorous and extended star formation. A starburst dominated by O8 stars, with an age of ∼6.5 Myr, provides a good fit to the fine-structure line data. This estimated age of the starburst makes it nearly concurrent with the latest episode of AGN activity, suggesting a link between the growth of the supermassive black hole and stellar population in this source. We do not detect the CO(2–1) line, down to a level twelve times lower than the expected value for star-forming galaxies. This lack of CO line emission is consistent with recent star formation activity if the star-forming molecular gas has low metallicity, is highly fractionated (such that CO is photodissociated throughout much of the clouds), or is chemically very young (such that CO has not yet had time to form). It is also possible, although we argue it is unlikely, that the ensemble of fine-structure lines is emitted from the region heated by the AGN.

  10. Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Rate Inferred from Macronova Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Yi-Ming; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) coalescences are widely believed to be promising gravitational-wave sources in the era of advanced detectors of LIGO/Virgo, but the rate of this population is highly uncertain due to the lack of direct detection of such binaries. There is growing evidence for the connection between the observed three luminous macronova (also known as kilonova) events and NS-BH mergers. In this work, we propose, for the first time based on such a link, a fiducial lower limit of NS-BH coalescence rate density {{ R }}{nsbh} ≈ {18.8}-8.6+12.5 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 {({θ }{{j}}/0.1{rad})}-2, where {θ }{{j}} is the typical half-opening angle of the GRB ejecta. After marginalizing over distributions of black hole masses and spins, we find a rate density {{ R }}{nsbh}≥slant {10}2 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1, depending upon the equation of state (EoS) of NS material and the properties of the NS-BH system. With the O1 non-observation by advanced LIGO, we show a preference for NS-BH systems with a stiffer NS EoS and a larger contribution from low-mass/high-spin BHs. Our estimate predicts the first detection of an NS-BH system can be as early as the late O2 run or the early O3 run. We expect that future multi-messenger observations can much better constrain NS-BH systems’ properties.

  11. Unprecedented 16-Year Long Study Tracks Stars Orbiting Milky Way Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Combining a double natural "magnifying glass" with the power of ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have scrutinised the inner parts of the disc around a supermassive black hole 10 billion light-years away. They were able to study the disc with a level of detail a thousand times better than that of the best telescopes in the world, providing the first observational confirmation of the prevalent theoretical models of such discs. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 47a/08 The Einstein Cross The team of astronomers from Europe and the US studied the "Einstein Cross", a famous cosmic mirage. This cross-shaped configuration consists of four images of a single very distant source. The multiple images are a result of gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy, an effect that was predicted by Albert Einstein as a consequence of his theory of general relativity. The light source in the Einstein Cross is a quasar approximately ten billion light-years away, whereas the foreground lensing galaxy is ten times closer. The light from the quasar is bent in its path and magnified by the gravitational field of the lensing galaxy. This magnification effect, known as "macrolensing", in which a galaxy plays the role of a cosmic magnifying glass or a natural telescope, proves very useful in astronomy as it allows us to observe distant objects that would otherwise be too faint to explore using currently available telescopes. "The combination of this natural magnification with the use of a big telescope provides us with the sharpest details ever obtained," explains Frédéric Courbin, leader of the programme studying the Einstein Cross with ESO's Very Large Telescope. In addition to macrolensing by the galaxy, stars in the lensing galaxy act as secondary lenses to produce an additional magnification. This secondary magnification is based on the same principle as macrolensing, but on a smaller scale, and since stars are much smaller than galaxies, is known as "microlensing". As the stars are

  12. Chemical Abundances of the Secondary Star in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Jonay I González; Rebolo, Rafael; Israelian, Garik; Filippenko, Alexei V; Chornock, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the secondary star in the black hole binary V404 Cygni, using Keck I/HIRES spectra. We adopt a $\\chi^2$-minimization procedure to derive the stellar parameters, taking into account any possible veiling from the accretion disk. With these parameters we determine the atmospheric abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni. The abundances of Al, Si, and Ti appear to be slightly enhanced when comparing with average values in thin-disk solar-type stars. The O abundance, derived from optical lines, is particularly enhanced in the atmosphere of the secondary star in V404 Cygni. This, together with the peculiar velocity of this system as compared with the Galactic velocity dispersion of thin-disk stars, suggests that the black hole formed in a supernova or hypernova explosion. We explore different supernova/hypernova models having various geometries to study possible contamination of nucleosynthetic products in the chemical abundance pattern of the secondary star. W...

  13. The Influence of Neutrinos on r-Process Nucleosynthesis in the Ejecta of Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Luke F; Duez, Matthew D; Faber, Joshua A; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C; Ning, Sandra; Ott, Christian D; Ponce, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    During the merger of a black hole and a neutron star, baryonic mass can become unbound from the system. Because the ejected material is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. In this work, we map general relativistic models of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) mergers into a Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code and follow the evolution of the thermodynamics and morphology of the ejecta until the outflows become homologous. We investigate how the subsequent evolution depends on our mapping procedure and find that the results are robust. Using thermodynamic histories from the SPH particles, we then calculate the expected nucleosynthesis in these outflows while varying the level of neutrino irradiation coming from the postmerger accretion disk. We find that the ejected material robustly produces r-process nucleosynthesis even for unrealistically high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. Nonetheless, we...

  14. A 200-Second Quasi-Periodicity After the Tidal Disruption of a Star by a Dormant Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Gueltkinm K.; Maitra, D.; King, A. L.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass, In the local Universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, often coming in the form of long term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a approx.200-s X-ray quasi-periodicity around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local Universe.

  15. Chaotic lensing around boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, P V P; Herdeiro, C; Radu, E; Runarsson, H; Wittig, A

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, arXiv:1509.00021, it was shown that the lensing of light around rotating boson stars and Kerr black holes with scalar hair can exhibit chaotic patterns. Since no separation of variables is known (or expected) for geodesic motion on these backgrounds, we examine the 2D effective potentials for photon trajectories, to obtain a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. We find that the emergence of stable light rings on the background spacetimes, allows the formation of "pockets" in one of the effective potentials, for open sets of impact parameters, leading to an effective trapping of some trajectories, dubbed quasi-bound orbits. We conclude that pocket formation induces chaotic scattering, although not all chaotic orbits are associated to pockets. These and other features are illustrated in a gallery of examples, obtained with a new ray-tracing code, PYHOLE, which includes tools for a simple, simultaneous visualization of the effective potential together with the spacetime trajectory, for an...

  16. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio MNSC/M⋆, tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio MBH/M⋆, bul of SMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do types Sc and later.

  17. Star formation and black hole growth at z=4.8

    CERN Document Server

    Netzer, Hagai; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    We report Herschel/SPIRE Spitzer and Wise observations of 44 z=4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel with star formation (SF) luminosity (LSF, integrated over 8-1000 mic) in the range 10^(46.70)-10^(47.21) erg/s corresponding to SF rates of 1310-4240 Msun/yr. Stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives a significant signal corresponding to LSF=10^(46.23) erg/s. The remaining 5 sources show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The mean BH mass (mbh) and associated AGN luminosity (LAGN) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected sources. The luminosity differences are seen from rest-frame 900A all the way to the far infrared. The mean optical-UV spectra of the two groups are similar to the spectrum of standard accretion disks around BHs with the measured masses and accretion rates. The Herschel data are consi...

  18. Optical Flares from the Tidal Disruption of Stars by Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Strubbe, Linda E

    2009-01-01

    A star that wanders too close to a massive black hole (BH) is shredded by the BH's tidal gravity. Stellar gas falls back to the BH, releasing a flare of energy. In anticipation of upcoming transient surveys, we predict the light curves and spectra of tidal flares as a function of time, highlighting the unique signatures of tidal flares in the optical and near-IR. Some of the gas initially bound to the BH is likely blown away when the fallback rate is super-Eddington at early times. This outflow produces an optical luminosity comparable to that of a supernova; such events have durations of ~10 days and may have been missed in supernova searches that exclude the nuclear regions of galaxies. When the fallback rate subsides below Eddington, the gas accretes onto the BH via a thin disk whose emission peaks in the UV to soft X-rays. Some of this emission is reprocessed by the unbound stellar debris, producing a spectrum of very broad emission lines (with no corresponding narrow forbidden lines). These lines are str...

  19. Spectroscopic Signatures of the Tidal Disruption of Stars by Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Strubbe, Linda E

    2010-01-01

    During the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (BH) of mass MBH <~ 10^7 Msun, stellar debris falls back to the BH at a rate well above the Eddington rate. A fraction of this gas is subsequently blown away from the BH, producing an optically bright flare of radiation. We predict the spectra and spectral evolution of tidal disruption events, focusing on the photoionized gas outside this outflow's photosphere. The spectrum will show absorption lines that are strongly blueshifted relative to the host galaxy, very broad (0.01-0.1c), and strongest at UV wavelengths (e.g., C IV, Ly alpha, O VI), lasting ~ 1 month for a 10^6 Msun BH. Meanwhile, supernovae in galactic nuclei are a significant source of confusion in optical surveys for tidal disruption events: we estimate that nuclear Type Ia supernovae are two orders of magnitude more common than tidal disruption events at z ~ 0.1 for ground-based surveys. Nuclear Type II supernovae occur at a comparable rate but can be excluded by pre-selecting red ...

  20. A relativistic jetted outburst from a massive black hole fed by a tidally disrupted star

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, Joshua S; Metzger, Brian D; Cenko, S Bradley; Perley, Daniel A; Butler, Nathaniel R; Tanvir, Nial R; Levan, Andrew J; Brien, Paul T O'; Strubbe, Linda E; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lee, William H; Nayakshin, Sergei; Quataert, Eliot; King, Andrew R; Cucchiara, Antonino; Guillochon, James; Bower, Geoffrey C; Fruchter, Andrew S; Morgan, Adam N; van der Horst, Alexander J

    2011-01-01

    While gas accretion onto some massive black holes (MBHs) at the centers of galaxies actively powers luminous emission, the vast majority of MBHs are considered dormant. Occasionally, a star passing too near a MBH is torn apart by gravitational forces, leading to a bright panchromatic tidal disruption flare (TDF). While the high-energy transient Swift J164449.3+573451 ("Sw 1644+57") initially displayed none of the theoretically anticipated (nor previously observed) TDF characteristics, we show that the observations (Levan et al. 2011) suggest a sudden accretion event onto a central MBH of mass ~10^6-10^7 solar masses. We find evidence for a mildly relativistic outflow, jet collimation, and a spectrum characterized by synchrotron and inverse Compton processes; this leads to a natural analogy of Sw 1644+57 with a smaller-scale blazar. The phenomenologically novel Sw 1644+57 thus connects the study of TDFs and active galaxies, opening a new vista on disk-jet interactions in BHs and magnetic field generation and t...

  1. The dark nemesis of galaxy formation: why hot haloes trigger black hole growth and bring star formation to an end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Galaxies fall into two clearly distinct types: `blue-sequence' galaxies which are rapidly forming young stars, and `red-sequence' galaxies in which star formation has almost completely ceased. Most galaxies more massive than 3 × 1010 M⊙ follow the red sequence, while less massive central galaxies lie on the blue sequence. We show that these sequences are created by a competition between star formation-driven outflows and gas accretion on to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's centre. We develop a simple analytic model for this interaction. In galaxies less massive than 3 × 1010 M⊙, young stars and supernovae drive a high-entropy outflow which is more buoyant than any tenuous corona. The outflow balances the rate of gas inflow, preventing high gas densities building up in the central regions. More massive galaxies, however, are surrounded by an increasingly hot corona. Above a halo mass of ˜1012 M⊙, the outflow ceases to be buoyant and star formation is unable to prevent the build-up of gas in the central regions. This triggers a strongly non-linear response from the black hole. Its accretion rate rises rapidly, heating the galaxy's corona, disrupting the incoming supply of cool gas and starving the galaxy of the fuel for star formation. The host galaxy makes a transition to the red sequence, and further growth predominantly occurs through galaxy mergers. We show that the analytic model provides a good description of galaxy evolution in the EAGLE hydrodynamic simulations. So long as star formation-driven outflows are present, the transition mass scale is almost independent of subgrid parameter choice.

  2. The M_bh-sigma_* relation for black holes fed by capturing stars and dark matter from an isothermal cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, H; Rees, Martin J; Zhao, Hongsheng; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Rees, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the rate at which stars are captured by supermassive black holes (BHs) in the centres of bulges and elliptical galaxies assuming that these initially had an isothermal cusp (rho ~ r^{-2} with velocity dispersion sigma_*). If radial orbits can be adequately replenished a BH can grow significantly by capturing stars and particles of the dark halo; the latter could be up to 20--40 percent of the total mass captured. A tight relation M_bh 10^8 (sigma_*/200\\kms)^5 between BH hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion arises at the high mass end M_bh >= 10^8 M_sun if these giant BHs grow primarily by swallowing stars. For smaller masses a gradual flattening of the relation and an increase of the scatter are expected due to tidal disruption of stars. At moderate redshifts when bright galaxies may still possess isothermal cusps tidal disruption flares may be as frequent as 10^{-4} -- 10^{-2} yr^{-1} per galaxy, a few percent of the supernovae rate. Efficient randomization of the orbits can occur when the d...

  3. The impact of magnetic fields on the IMF in star-forming clouds near a supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S; Spaans, M; Cazaux, S

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in the centers of galaxies is thought to yield massive stars with a possibly top-heavy stellar mass distribution. It is likely that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the distribution of stellar masses inside star-forming molecular clouds. In this context, we explore the effects of magnetic fields, with a typical field strength of 38 {\\mu}G, such as in RCW 38, and a field strength of 135 {\\mu}G, similar to NGC 2024 and the infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06, on the initial mass function (IMF) near (\\leq 10 pc) a 10^7 solar mass black hole. Using these conditions, we perform a series of numerical simulations with the hydrodynamical code FLASH to elucidate the impact of magnetic fields on the IMF and the star-formation efficiency (SFE) emerging from an 800 solar mass cloud. We find that the collapse of a gravitationally unstable molecular cloud is slowed down with increasing magnetic field strength and that stars form along the field lines. The total number of stars formed during the simulations...

  4. Quasi-periodic accretion and gravitational waves from oscillating "toroidal neutron stars" around a Schwarzschild black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, O; Font, J A

    2003-01-01

    We present general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of constant specific angular momentum tori orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. These tori are expected to form as a result of stellar gravitational collapse, binary neutron star merger or disruption, can reach very high rest-mass densities and behave effectively as neutron stars but with a toroidal topology (i.e. ``toroidal neutron stars''). Our attention is here focussed on the dynamical response of these objects to axisymmetric perturbations. We show that, upon the introduction of perturbations, these systems either become unstable to the runaway instability or exhibit a regular oscillatory behaviour resulting in a quasi-periodic variation of the accretion rate as well as of the mass quadrupole. The latter, in particular, is responsible for the emission of intense gravitational radiation whose signal-to-noise ratio at the detector is comparable or larger than the typical one expected in stellar-core collapse, making these new sources of gravitationa...

  5. First stars evolution and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Praha 4, (Czech Republic); Klapp, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)]. e-mail: bahen@hotmail.com

    2007-12-15

    The first stars in the universe were massive and luminous with typical masses M {>=} 100M. Metal-free stars have unique physical characteristics and exhibit high effective temperatures and small radii. These so called Population III stars were responsible for the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. In this work, we study the structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of 100, 200, 250 and 300M galactic and pregalactic Population III mass losing stars with metallicities Z 10{sup -6} and Z = 10{sup -9}, during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 structure and evolution equations together with boundary conditions, and a set of 30 nuclear reactions, are solved simultaneously, obtaining the star's structure, evolution, isotopic abundances and their ratios. Motivated by recent stability analysis, almost all very massive star (VMS) calculations during the past few years have been performed with no mass loss. However, it has recently been claimed that VMS should have strong mass loss. We present in this work new VMS calculations that includes mass loss. The main difference between zero-metal and metal-enriched stars lies in the nuclear energy generation mechanism. For the first stars, nuclear burning proceeds in a non-standard way. Since Population III stars can reach high central temperatures, this leads to the first synthesis of primary carbon through the 3 {alpha} reaction activating the CNO-cycles. Zero-metal stars produce light elements, such as He, C, N and O. Thus, very massive pregalactic Population III stars experienced self-production of C, either at the zero-age main sequence or in later phases of central hydrogen burning. In advanced evolutionary phases, these stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium through supernova explosions. (Author)

  6. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  7. Binary Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters: Exploring the Theoretical Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent N-body simulations predict that large numbers of stellar black holes (BHs) could at present remain bound to globular clusters (GCs), and merging BH–BH binaries are produced dynamically in significant numbers. We systematically vary “standard” assumptions made by numerical simulations related to, e.g., BH formation, stellar winds, binary properties of high-mass stars, and IMF within existing uncertainties, and study the effects on the evolution of the structural properties of GCs, and the BHs in GCs. We find that variations in initial assumptions can set otherwise identical initial clusters on completely different evolutionary paths, significantly affecting their present observable properties, or even affecting the cluster’s very survival to the present. However, these changes usually do not affect the numbers or properties of local BH–BH mergers. The only exception is that variations in the assumed winds and IMF can change the masses and numbers of local BH–BH mergers, respectively. All other variations (e.g., in initial binary properties and binary fraction) leave the masses and numbers of locally merging BH–BH binaries largely unchanged. This is in contrast to binary population synthesis models for the field, where results are very sensitive to many uncertain parameters in the initial binary properties and binary stellar-evolution physics. Weak winds are required for producing GW150914-like mergers from GCs at low redshifts. LVT151012 can be produced in GCs modeled both with strong and weak winds. GW151226 is lower-mass than typical mergers from GCs modeled with weak winds, but is similar to mergers from GCs modeled with strong winds.

  8. The dark nemesis of galaxy formation: why hot haloes trigger black hole growth and bring star formation to an end

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Richard; Frenk, Carlos S; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; McAlpine, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies fall into two clearly distinct types: `blue-sequence' galaxies that are rapidly forming young stars, and `red-sequence' galaxies in which star formation has almost completely ceased. Most galaxies more massive than $3\\times10^{10} M_\\odot$ follow the red-sequence while less massive central galaxies lie on the blue sequence. We show that these sequences are created by a competition between star formation-driven outflows and gas accretion on to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center. We develop a simple analytic model for this interaction. In galaxies less massive than $3\\times10^{10} M_\\odot$, young stars and supernovae drive a buoyant outflow that balances the rate of gas inflow. This prevents high gas densities building up in the central regions. More massive galaxies, however, are surrounded by a hot corona. We argue that above a halo mass of $\\sim 10^{12} M_\\odot$, the supernova-driven outflow is no longer buoyant and star formation is unable to prevent the build up of gas in the centr...

  9. LMC origin of the hyper-velocity star HE 0437-5439. Beyond the supermassive black hole paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Przybilla, N; Heber, U; Firnstein, M; Butler, K; Napiwotzki, R; Edelmann, H

    2008-01-01

    Context: Hyper-velocity stars move so fast that only a supermassive black hole (SMBH) seems to be capable to accelerate them. Hence the Galactic centre (GC) is their only suggested place of origin. Edelmann et al. (2005) found the early B-star HE0437-5439 to be too short-lived to have reached its current position in the Galactic halo if ejected from the GC, except if being a blue straggler. Its proximity to the LMC suggested an origin from this galaxy. Aims: The chemical signatures of stars at the GC are significantly different from those in the LMC. Hence, an accurate measurement of the abundance pattern of HE0437-5439 will yield a new tight constraint on the place of birth of this star. Methods: High-resolution spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT are analysed using state-of-the-art non-LTE modelling techniques. Results: We measured abundances of individual elements to very high accuracy in HE0437-5439 as well as in two reference stars, from the LMC and the solar neighbourhood. The abundance pattern is not...

  10. A 30 AU radius CO gas hole in the disk around the Herbig Ae star Oph IRS 48

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Joanna M; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes leading to the disappearance of disks around young stars are not well understood. A subclass of transitional disks, the so-called cold disks with large inner dust holes, provide a crucial laboratory for studying disk dissipation processes. IRS 48 has a 30 AU radius hole previously measured from dust continuum imaging at 18.7 micron. Using new optical spectra, we determine that IRS 48 is a pre-main sequence A0 star. In order to characterize this disk's gas distribution, we obtained AO-assisted VLT CRIRES high resolution (R ~100,000) spectra of the CO fundamental rovibrational band at 4.7 micron. All CO emission, including that from isotopologues and vibrationally excited molecules, is off-source and peaks at 30 AU. The gas is thermally excited to a rotational temperature of 260 K and is also strongly UV pumped, showing a vibrational excitation temperature of ~5000 K. We model the kinematics and excitation of the gas and posit that the CO emission arises from the dust hole wall. Prior ima...

  11. New Constraints on the Black Hole Low/Hard State Inner Accretion Flow with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Bachetti, M; Wilkins, D; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; King, A L; Stern, D K; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising "low/hard" state, at a flux of ~0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray "corona". Two models that explicitly assume a "lamppost" corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h = 5 (+7, -2) GM/c^2 and h = 18 +/-4 GM/c^2 (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a "lamppost" return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739-278 f...

  12. Dynamical ejecta from precessing neutron star-black hole mergers with a hot, nuclear-theory based equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Brege, Wyatt; Duez, Matthew D; Kasen, Daniel; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neutron star-black hole binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves detectable by current observatories. They can also power bright electromagnetic signals (gamma-ray bursts, kilonovae), and may be a significant source of production of r-process nuclei. A misalignment of the black hole spin with respect to the orbital angular momentum leads to precession of that spin and of the orbital plane, and has a significant effect on the properties of the post-merger remnant and of the material ejected by the merger. We present a first set of simulations of precessing neutron star-black hole mergers using a hot, composition dependent, nuclear-theory based equation of state (DD2). We show that the mass of the remnant and of the dynamical ejecta are broadly consistent with the result of simulations using simpler equations of state, while differences arise when considering the dynamics of the merger and the velocity of the ejecta. We show that the latter can easily be understood from assumptions about ...

  13. NuSTAR and Swift observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1908+094 during its 2013 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J; Furst, Felix; Kennea, Jamie; Miller, Jon M; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Krimm, Hans A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    The black hole candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in October 2013. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state: the spectra show a broad relativistic iron line, and the light curves reveal a ~40 ks flare with the count rate peaking about 40% above the non-flare level and with significant spectral variation. A model combining a multi-temperature thermal component, a power-law, and a reflection component with an iron line provides a good description of the NuSTAR spectrum. Although relativistic broadening of the iron line is observed, it is not possible to constrain the black hole spin with these data. The variability of the power-law component, which can also be modeled as a Comptonization component, is responsible for the flux and spectral change during the flare, suggesting that changes in the corona (or possibly continued jet act...

  14. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disc outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disc viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  15. The presence of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters and its connection with extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Miocchi, P

    2007-01-01

    By means of a multimass isotropic and spherical model including self-consistently a central intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), the influence of this object on the morphological and physical properties of globular clusters is investigated in this paper. Confirming recent numerical studies, it is found that a cluster (with mass M) hosting an IMBH (with mass M_BH) shows, outside the black hole gravitational influence region, a core-like profile resembling a King profile with concentration cM. The mass range estimate 12s - 4.8 90 percent). In particular, the presence of a central IMBH could explain why extreme HB stars are observed in M13 and NGC 6388, but not in M3 and 47 Tuc where this object is likely absent according to our analysis.

  16. Star formation and black hole growth at z ≅ 4.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Department of Physics, Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Lira, Paulina, E-mail: netzer@wise.tau.ac.il [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-08-10

    We report Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations of 44 z ≅ 4.8 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This flux-limited sample contains the highest mass black holes (BHs) at this redshift. Ten of the objects were detected by Herschel and five show emission that is not clearly associated with the AGNs. The star formation (SF) luminosity (L{sub SF}) obtained by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with standard SF templates, taking into account AGN contribution, is in the range 10{sup 46.62}-10{sup 47.21} erg s{sup –1} corresponding to SF rates of 1090-4240 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Fitting with very luminous submillimeter galaxy SEDs gives SF rates that are smaller by 0.05 dex when using all bands and 0.1 dex when ignoring the 250 μm band. A 40 K graybody fits to only the 500 μm fluxes reduce L{sub SF} by about a factor of two. A stacking analysis of 29 undetected sources gives significant signals in all three bands. A SF template fit indicates L{sub SF} = 10{sup 46.19-46.23} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed AGN contribution. A 40 K fit to the stacked 500 μm flux gives L{sub SF} = 10{sup 45.95} erg s{sup –1}. The mean BH mass (M{sub BH}) and AGN luminosity (L{sub AGN}) of the detected sources are significantly higher than those of the undetected ones. The spectral differences are seen all the way from UV to far infrared wavelengths. The mean optical-UV spectra are similar to those predicted for thin accretion disks around BHs with similar masses and accretion rates. We suggest two alternative explanations to the correlation of L{sub SF}, L{sub AGN} and M{sub BH}, one involving no AGN feedback and the second involving moderate feedback that affects, but does not totally quench, SF in three-quarters of the sources. We compare our L{sub SF} and L{sub AGN} to lower redshift samples and show a new correlation between L{sub SF} and M{sub BH}. We also examine several rather speculative ideas about

  17. Merger rates of double neutron stars and stellar origin black holes: The Impact of Initial Conditions on Binary Evolution Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E

    2015-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations and eccentricities) are indispensable input for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor 10-100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a fac...

  18. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F.A.; Cook, R.; Tomsick, J.; Schmid, C.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S.E.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Fabian, A.C.; Fürst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C.J.; Kara, E.; Maccarone, T.J.; Miller, J.M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Stern, D.; Uttley, P.; Walton, D.J.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per

  19. On the formation and evolution of the first Be star in a black hole binary MWC 656

    CERN Document Server

    Grudzinska, M; Casares, J; de Mink, S E; Ziolkowski, J; Negueruela, I; Ribo, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Benacquista, M

    2015-01-01

    We find that the formation of MWC 656 (the first Be binary containing a black hole) involves a common envelope phase and a supernova explosion. This result supports the idea that a rapidly rotating Be star can emerge out of a common envelope phase, which is very intriguing because this evolutionary stage is thought to be too fast to lead to significant accretion and spin up of the B star. We predict $\\sim 10-100$ of Be BH binaries to currently reside in the Galactic disk, but there is only a small chance to observe a system with parameters resembling MWC 656. If MWC 656 is representative of intrinsic Galactic Be BH binary population, it may indicate that standard evolutionary theory needs to be revised. This would pose another evolutionary problem in understanding BH binaries, with BH X-ray Novae formation issue being the prime example. The future evolution of MWC 656 with a $\\sim 5$ M$_{\\odot}$ black hole and with a $\\sim 13$ M$_{\\odot}$ main sequence companion on a $\\sim 60$ day orbit may lead to the format...

  20. Disruption of a Red Giant Star by a Supermassive Black Hole and the Case of PS1-10jh

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovic, Tamara; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. (2012) reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of a RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core towards the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the S...

  1. The influence of neutrinos on r-process nucleosynthesis in the ejecta of black hole-neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Luke F.; Lippuner, Jonas; Duez, Matthew D.; Faber, Joshua A.; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C., Jr.; Ning, Sandra; Ott, Christian D.; Ponce, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    During the merger of a black hole and a neutron star, baryonic mass can become unbound from the system. Because the ejected material is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. In this work, we map general relativistic models of black hole-neutron star mergers into a Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code and follow the evolution of the thermodynamics and morphology of the ejecta until the outflows become homologous. We investigate how the subsequent evolution depends on our mapping procedure and find that the results are robust. Using thermodynamic histories from the SPH particles, we then calculate the expected nucleosynthesis in these outflows while varying the level of neutrino irradiation coming from the post-merger accretion disc. We find that the ejected material robustly produces r-process nucleosynthesis even for unrealistically high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. None the less, we find that neutrinos can have an impact on the detailed pattern of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Electron neutrinos are captured by neutrons to produce protons while neutron capture is occurring. The produced protons rapidly form low-mass seed nuclei for the r-process. These low-mass seeds are eventually incorporated into the first r-process peak at A ˜ 78. We consider the mechanism of this process in detail and discuss if it can impact galactic chemical evolution of the first peak r-process nuclei.

  2. First Stars. I. Evolution without mass loss

    CERN Document Server

    Bahena, D

    2010-01-01

    The first generation of stars was formed from primordial gas. Numerical simulations suggest that the first stars were predominantly very massive, with typical masses M > 100 Mo. These stars were responsible for the reionization of the universe, the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements, and other cosmological consequences. In this work, we study the structure of Zero Age Main Sequence stars for a wide mass and metallicity range and the evolution of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 Mo galactic and pregalactic Pop III very massive stars without mass loss, with metallicity Z=10E-6 and 10E-9, respectively. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 equations together with boundary conditions are solved simultaneously. For the change of chemical composition, which determines the evolution of a star, a diffusion treatment for convection and semiconvection is used. A set of 30 nuclear reactions are solved simultaneously with the stellar structure and evolution equations. Several results on...

  3. NGC1448 and IC 3639: Two Concealed Black Holes Lurking in our Cosmic Backyard Unveiled by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Boorman, Peter; Annuar, Ady; Gandhi, Poshak; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, George B.; Asmus, Daniel; Ballantyne, David R.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Brightman, Murray; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Goulding, Andy D.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hoenig, Sebastian; Koss, Michael; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Masini, Alberto; Murray, Stephen S.; Ricci, Claudio; Risaliti, Guido; Rosario, David J.; Stanley, Flora; Zhang, William

    2017-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of two nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), NGC 1448 and IC 3639, located at distances of 12 Mpc and 54 Mpc, respectively. NuSTAR high-energy X-ray (> 10 keV) observations, combined with archival lower energy X-ray observations from Chandra and Suzaku, reveal both sources to contain heavily obscured, accreting super-massive black holes. NGC 1448 is one of the nearest luminous galaxies to the Milky Way, yet the AGN at its centre was only discovered in 2009. Using state-of-the-art models, we constrain the obscuring column density (NH) of gas concealing both AGN, finding them to be extreme, with NH values well into the Compton-thick (CT) regime with N(H) > 3e24 /cm2. NGC 1448 has an intrinsic X-ray luminosity of L(24 keV) ˜ 5e40 erg/s, making it one of the lowest luminosity CT AGN known. IC 3639, on the other hand, has one of the strongest iron fluorescence emission lines known. We also discuss multi-wavelength diagnostics at optical and mid-infrared energies as indirect indicators to penetrate through the obscuring veils and probe the intrinsic properties of the AGN. Through detailed studies such as we present here, NuSTAR is showing that there are still plenty of interesting discoveries awaiting to be made, even in the nearby Universe.

  4. A dichotomy between the hard state spectral properties of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. J.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the spectra of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XBs) in the hard state using archival RXTE observations. We find that there is a clear dichotomy in the strength of Comptonisation between NS and BH sources, as measured by both the Compton y -parameter and amplification factor A, with distinct groups of BH and NS XBs separated at y ˜ 0.9 and A ˜ 3. The electron temperature kTe can occupy a broad range in BH systems, from kTe ˜ 30 - 200 keV, whereas for NSs kTe is peaked at ˜15 - 25 keV, but can extend to higher values. The difference between BHs and NSs in y implies that kTe is higher at a given optical depth for BH XBs. Our results also imply that for NS systems the accreting material loses ˜1/2 - 2/3 of its energy through Comptonisation in the corona. The remaining energy is released on the surface of the neutron star, making it a powerful source of soft radiation, which alters the properties of the Comptonizing corona. Finally, we find evidence at the ˜2.4σ confidence level that Comptonisation parameters may be correlated with the neutron star spin, whereas no correlation with the BH spin is found. Our results highlight a further observational distinction between BH and NS XBs that is a consequence of NSs possessing a physical surface.

  5. Hydrodynamical Simulations to Determine the Feeding Rate of Black Holes by the Tidal Disruption of Stars: The Importance of the Impact Parameter and Stellar Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Guillochon, James

    2012-01-01

    The disruption of stars by supermassive black holes has been linked to more than a dozen flares in the cores of galaxies out to redshift $z \\sim 0.4$. Modeling these flares properly requires a prediction of the rate of mass return to the black hole after a disruption. Through hydrodynamical simulation, we show that aside from the full disruption of a solar mass star at the exact limit where the star is destroyed, the common assumptions used to estimate $\\dot{M}(t)$, the rate of mass return to the black hole, are largely invalid. While the analytical approximation to tidal disruption predicts that the least-centrally concentrated stars and the deepest encounters should have more quickly-peaked flares, we find that the most-centrally concentrated stars have the quickest-peaking flares, and the trend between the time of peak and the impact parameter for deeply-penetrating encounters reverses beyond the critical distance at which the star is completely destroyed. We also show that the most-centrally concentrated ...

  6. The effects of x-rays on star formation and black hole growth in young galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John H.; Meijerink, Rowin; Umemura, M; Omukai, K

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the growth of seed black holes in young galaxies and the impact of their X-ray feedback. We have performed two simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, for the singular collapse scenario in the presence of a UV background radiation field of 105 and 103

  7. The effects of X-rays on star formation and black hole growth in young galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John H.; Meijerink, Rowin; Umemura, M; Omukai, K

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the growth of seed black holes in young galaxies and the impact of their X-ray feedback. We have performed two simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, for the singular collapse scenario in the presence of a UV background radiation field of 105 and 10(3

  8. A Socially Inclusive A-Star Is Only Possible through the Understanding of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Ciara; Houghton, Jack; Read, Beth; Bird, Danny; Tatten, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is written by young people who attend an open-access youth project in the city centre of Hull. Although they describe themselves as "educational failures" (the "black holes"), they argue that they have a significant contribution to make to discussions about how to develop socially just education in schools. In the…

  9. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  10. Planetary system, star formation, and black hole science with non-redundant masking on space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishna, Anand; Ireland, Michael; Lloyd, James; Perrin, Marshall; Soummer, Remi; McKernan, Barry; Ford, Saavik

    2009-01-01

    Non-redundant masking (NRM) is a high contrast, high resolution technique relevant to future space missions concerned with extrasolar planetary system and star formation, as well as general high angular resolution galactic and extragalactic astronomy. NRM enables the highest angular resolution science possible given the telescope's diameter and operating wavelength. It also provides precise information on a telescope's optical state. We must assess NRM contrast limits realistically to understand the science yield of NRM in space, and, simultaneously, develop NRM science for planet and star formation and extragalactic science in the UV-NIR, to help steer high resolution space-based astronomy in the coming decade.

  11. Up to 700k GPU cores, Kepler, and the Exascale future for simulations of star clusters around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Berczik, P; Wang, L; Zhong, S; Veles, O; Zinchenko, I; Huang, S; Tsai, M; Kennedy, G; Li, S; Naso, L; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    We present direct astrophysical N-body simulations with up to a few million bodies using our parallel MPI/CUDA code on large GPU clusters in China, Ukraine and Germany, with different kinds of GPU hardware. These clusters are directly linked under the Chinese Academy of Sciences special GPU cluster program in the cooperation of ICCS (International Center for Computational Science). We reach about the half the peak Kepler K20 GPU performance for our phi-GPU code [2], in a real application scenario with individual hierarchically block time-steps with the high (4th, 6th and 8th) order Hermite integration schemes and a real core-halo density structure of the modeled stellar systems. The code and hardware are mainly used to simulate star clusters [23, 24] and galactic nuclei with supermassive black holes [20], in which correlations between distant particles cannot be neglected.

  12. NuSTAR reveals the extreme properties of the super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole in PG 1247+267

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.

    2016-01-01

    PG1247+267 is one of the most luminous known quasars at z similar to 2 and is a strongly super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate. We obtained NuSTAR data of this intriguing source in December 2014 with the aim of studying its high-energy emission, leveraging the broad...

  13. How an improved implementation of H2 self-shielding influences the formation of massive stars and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Latif, Muhammad A.; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-09-01

    High-redshift quasars at z > 6 have masses up to ˜109 M⊙. One of the pathways to their formation includes direct collapse of gas, forming a supermassive star, precursor of the black hole seed. The conditions for direct collapse are more easily achievable in metal-free haloes, where atomic hydrogen cooling operates and molecular hydrogen (H2) formation is inhibited by a strong external (ultraviolet) UV flux. Above a certain value of UV flux (Jcrit), the gas in a halo collapses isothermally at ˜104 K and provides the conditions for supermassive star formation. However, H2 can self-shield, reducing the effect of photodissociation. So far, most numerical studies used the local Jeans length to calculate the column densities for self-shielding. We implement an improved method for the determination of column densities in 3D simulations and analyse its effect on the value of Jcrit. This new method captures the gas geometry and velocity field and enables us to properly determine the direction-dependent self-shielding factor of H2 against photodissociating radiation. We find a value of Jcrit that is a factor of 2 smaller than with the Jeans approach (˜2000 J21 versus ˜4000 J21). The main reason for this difference is the strong directional dependence of the H2 column density. With this lower value of Jcrit, the number of haloes exposed to a flux > Jcrit is larger by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. This may translate into a similar enhancement in the predicted number density of black hole seeds.

  14. The suppression of direct collapse black hole formation by soft X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.

    2015-07-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei is one of the major unsolved problems in astrophysics. One hypothesis is that they grew from ≳ 105 M⊙ black holes that formed in the `direct collapse' of massive gas clouds that have low concentrations of both metals and molecular hydrogen (H2). Such clouds could form in the early (z ≳ 10) Universe if pre-galactic gas is irradiated by H2-photodissociating, far-ultraviolet (FUV) light from a nearby star-forming galaxy. In this work, we re-examine the critical FUV flux Jcrit that is required to keep H2 photodissociated and lead to direct collapse. We submit that the same galaxies that putatively supply the extraordinary FUV fluxes required for direct collapse should also produce copious amounts of soft X-rays, which work to offset H2 photodissociation by increasing the ionization fraction and promoting H2 formation. Accounting for this effect increases the value of Jcrit by a factor of at least 3-10, depending on the brightness temperature of FUV radiation. This enhancement of Jcrit suppresses the abundance of potential direct collapse sites at z > 10 by several orders of magnitude. Recent studies - without accounting for the soft X-rays from the FUV source galaxies - had already arrived at large values of Jcrit that implied that direct collapse may occur too rarely to account for the observed abundance of high-redshift quasars. Our results suggest that Jcrit should be even higher than previously estimated, and pose an additional challenge for the direct collapse scenario via strong FUV radiation to explain the high-redshift quasar population.

  15. Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Jon M; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial

    2015-01-01

    Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/UV flares in galactic centers. Prior studies based on modeling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of highly ionized X-ray gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow line widths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometers per second are observed, significantly below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocent...

  16. Matter of Life & Death: The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the impact of turbulence and rotation on the fragmentation behavior of collapsing primordial gas in the presence of a strong UV radiation background, which keeps the gas hot. Additionally, we explore different ways in which the collapsing gas may be able to stay hot, and thus limit fragmentation. Using a one-zone model, we examine the interplay between magnetic fields, turbulence, and a UV radiation background. Feedback processes from stars and black holes shape the interstellar medium (ISM) out of which new generations of luminous objects form. To understand the properties of these objects, e.g. the stellar initial mass function, it is vital to have knowledge of th...

  17. Implementing a search for aligned-spin neutron star -- black hole systems with advanced ground based gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Canton, Tito Dal; Lundgren, Andrew P; Nielsen, Alex B; Brown, Duncan A; Harry, Ian W; Krishnan, Badri; Miller, Andrew J; Wiesner, Karsten; Willis, Joshua L

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of spins on searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence events in realistic early advanced LIGO data. We construct a realistic detection pipeline which includes matched filtering, signal-based vetoes, coincidence tests between different detectors, clustering of events, and an estimate of the rate of background events. We restrict attention to neutron star--black hole (NS-BH) binary systems, and we compare a search using non-spinning templates to a search using templates which include spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We introduce a new implementation of the gravitational-wave matched-filter computation in a new software toolkit for gravitational-wave data analysis called PyCBC, and use this to run our search. We find that the inclusion of aligned-spin effects significantly improves the astrophysical reach of the search. If the dimensionless spin of the black hole in astrophysical NS-BH systems were uniformly distributed between (-1,1), the sensitive volu...

  18. MERGER RATES OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS AND STELLAR ORIGIN BLACK HOLES: THE IMPACT OF INITIAL CONDITIONS ON BINARY EVOLUTION PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, S. E. de [Anton Pannenkoek Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belczynski, K., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw University, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-20

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.

  19. How an improved implementation of H$_2$ self-shielding influences the formation of massive stars and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwig, Tilman; Klessen, Ralf S; Latif, Muhammad A; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The highest redshift quasars at z>6 have mass estimates of about a billion M$_\\odot$. One of the pathways to their formation includes direct collapse of gas, forming a supermassive star ($\\sim 10^5\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$) precursor of the black hole seed. The conditions for direct collapse are more easily achievable in metal-free haloes, where atomic hydrogen cooling operates and molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) formation is inhibited by a strong external UV flux. Above a certain value of UV flux ($J_{\\rm crit}$), the gas in a halo collapses isothermally at $\\sim10^4$K and provides the conditions for supermassive star formation. However, H$_2$ can self-shield and the effect of photodissociation is reduced. So far, most numerical studies used the local Jeans length to calculate the column densities for self-shielding. We implement an improved method for the determination of column densities in 3D simulations and analyse its effect on the value of $J_{\\rm crit}$. This new method captures the gas geometry and velocity fie...

  20. Probing the First Stars and Black Holes in the Early Universe with the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack O; Bale, S D; Bowman, J D; Bradley, R F; Carilli, C L; Furlanetto, S R; Harker, G J A; Loeb, A; Pritchard, J R

    2011-01-01

    A concept for a new space-based cosmology mission called the Dark Ages Radio Explore (DARE) is presented in this paper. DARE's science objectives include (1) When did the first stars form? (2) When did the first accreting black holes form? (3) When did Reionization begin? (4) What surprises does the end of the Dark Ages hold (e.g., Dark Matter decay)? DARE will use the highly-redshifted hyperfine 21-cm transition from neutral hydrogen to track the formation of the first luminous objects by their impact on the intergalactic medium during the end of the Dark Ages and during Cosmic Dawn (redshifts z=11-35). It will measure the sky-averaged spin temperature of neutral hydrogen at the unexplored epoch 80-420 million years after the Big Bang, providing the first evidence of the earliest stars and galaxies to illuminate the cosmos and testing our models of galaxy formation. DARE's approach is to measure the expected spectral features in the sky-averaged, redshifted 21-cm signal over a radio bandpass of 40-120 MHz. D...

  1. Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars (NSs) usually result in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). Whether- and when this remnant collapses to a black hole (BH) depends primarily on the equation of state and on angular momentum transport processes, both of which are uncertain. Here we show that the lifetime of the merger remnant may be directly imprinted in the radioactively powered kilonova emission following the merger. We employ axisymmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of remnant accretion disks orbiting a HMNS of variable lifetime, and characterize the effect of this delay to BH formation on the disk wind ejecta. Our models follow the system evolution over several seconds, and include the effect of nuclear recombination, viscous heating, and neutrino irradiation by both the HMNS and the disk. When BH formation is relatively prompt ( 140, resulting in ~week-long emission with a spectral peak in the near-infrared (NIR), similar to that produced by the dynamical ejecta. In contrast, de...

  2. A dichotomy between the hard state spectral properties of black hole and neutron star X-ray~binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, M J; Sunyaev, R

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the spectra of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XBs) in the hard state using archival RXTE observations. We find that there is a clear dichotomy in the strength of Comptonisation between NS and BH sources, as measured by both the Compton y-parameter and amplification factor A, with distinct groups of BH and NS XBs separated at y~0.9 and A~3. The electron temperature kTe can occupy a broad range in BH systems, from kTe~30-200 keV, whereas for NSs kTe is peaked at ~15-25 keV, but can extend to higher values. The difference between BHs and NSs in y implies that kTe is higher at a given optical depth for BH XBs. Our results also imply that for NS systems the accreting material loses ~1/2-2/3 of its energy through Comptonisation in the corona. The remaining energy is released on the surface of the neutron star, making it a powerful source of soft radiation, which alters the properties of the Comptonising corona. Finally, we find evidence at the 2.4 sigma confidence level that Compto...

  3. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  4. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; SDSS-IV/MaNGA

    2016-01-01

    In the last 10 billion years (i.e., since redshift z ~2) the number of quiescent galaxies with little to no ongoing star formation has grown by a factor ~25. This is challenging to understand since galaxy formation models predict that these galaxies will continue to accrete fresh gas over their lifetimes, relatively little of which is required to reignite measurable star formation. It is thought that feedback from fresh gas accreting onto a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) might help such galaxies maintain their quiescence, but observational evidence for such ``maintenance mode feedback'' remains sparse. Using novel imaging spectroscopy from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we present evidence for a new maintenance mode phenomenon we term ``red geysers,'' a potentially episodic but relatively low-power AGN driven wind present in typical quiescent field galaxies of moderate mass and spheroidal morphology. We examine an archetypal red geyser that appears to be accreting gas from a low-mass companion but has no corresponding star formation. Instead, we find evidence for a galaxy-scale ionized wind with outflow velocities reaching more than 300 km/s and high velocity dispersions. We also detect a narrow biconical pattern of strong emission line equivalent widths consistent with fast shocks. Given additional confirmation of a radio AGN present in the galaxy, we propose that red geysers such as this may be a common mode in which gas accretion activates an ionized wind feedback mechanism that prevents star formation and helps moderate luminosity quiescent galaxies maintain their quiescence.

  5. Constraining the initial conditions and final outcomes of accretion processes around young stars and supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jordan M.

    In this thesis I discuss probes of small spatial scales around young stars and protostars and around the supermassive black hole at the galactic center. I begin by describing adaptive optics-fed infrared spectroscopic studies of nascent and newborn binary systems. Binary star formation is a significant mode of star formation that could be responsible for the production of a majority of the galactic stellar population. Better characterization of the binary formation mechanism is important for better understanding many facets of astronomy, from proper estimates of the content of unresolved populations, to stellar evolution and feedback, to planet formation. My work revealed episodic accretion onto the more massive component of the pre-main sequence binary system UY Aur. I also showed changes in the accretion onto the less massive component, revealing contradictory indications of the change in accretion rate when considering disk-based and shock-based tracers. I suggested two scenarios to explain the inconsistency. First, increased accretion should alter the disk structure, puffing it up. This change could obscure the accretion shock onto the central star if the disk is highly inclined. Second, if accretion through the disk is impeded before it makes it all the way onto the central star, then increased disk tracers of accretion would not be accompanied by increased shock tracers. In this case mass must be piling up at some radius in the disk, possibly supplying the material for planet formation or a future burst of accretion. My next project focused on characterizing the atmospheres of very low-mass companions to nearby young stars. Whether these objects form in an extension of the binary-star formation mechanism to very low masses or they form via a different process is an open question. Different accretion histories should result in different atmospheric composition, which can be constrained with spectroscopy. I showed that 3--4mum spectra of a sample of these

  6. Comments on the newly discovered advection dominated flows around black holes and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S K

    1995-01-01

    We provide complete and global solutions of transonic flows around black holes, in presence of advection, rotation, heating and cooling. We show that for any degree of advection, there may exist two critical viscosity parameters \\alpha_{c1, c2} such that for \\alpha \\alpha_{c2}, the flow may again pass through the inner sonic point, depending on flow parameters. No new topologies emerge other than what we found earlier while studying viscous isothermal transonic flows. These findings indicate that the newly discovered advection dominated flows do not constitute any new solutions.

  7. Black Holes Make Stars which explains the Mystery of the Newly Discovered PHOENIX GALAXY, while Dark Matter is described in the explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A prevailing theory is some Stars change their energy field and are reduced to Black Holes (BHs). Consider an expanded modified Black Hole from the original Big Bang which might have been a massive Black Hole can become a Galaxy and or a Star. We theorize something is not made of nothing; and the universe was created by a massive Black Hole which had enough mass to produce what is contained in our universe today. We categorized BH by their mass. Our concept could explain the Mystery of the Newly Discovered PHOENIX GALAXY. We define and categorize black holes and the space they inhabit. We describe mechanisms for their formation and mechanisms of black hole collisions and bursts, inside of the universe. These are linked to the formation of galaxies, stars, planets and planetary processes. Insight is gained regarding the formation and evolution of galaxies and the matter contained therein. Space itself is categorized as to its purpose and properties as it relates to the categories of black holes and processes ongoing within the space in which the processes occur. We suggest a category-1 (c-1) black hole burst by collision or on it's own and formed the universe by generating great numbers of c-2 BHs inside the universe, in c-2 space, which become galaxies and which is the start of the universe, 10% of which formed galaxies and 90% remain as dark matter as c-2 and c-3 BHs which are still evolving. C-2 BHs can burst to form a galaxy, containing c-3 space, filled with c-3 and c-4 BHs. C-3 BHs are significantly more modified and expanded than c-2 BHs and are formed from burst c-2 BHs to form gas and dust clouds peppered with the c-3 BHs Remnants from the burst c-2 BH include sizes from minute particles which contribute to the formation of massive gas and dust clouds; to 10 to 20 solar masses that form large stars; and others, tiny stars which eventually become planets and moons. These gas and dust clouds are peppered with c-4 BHs which eventually are seen as new stars

  8. No Time for Dead Time: Timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Bachetti, Matteo; Cook, Rick; Tomsick, John; Schmid, Christian; Grefenstette, Brian W; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fabian, Andrew C; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J; Kara, Erin; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller, Jon M; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Uttley, Phil; Walton, Dominic J; Wilms, Jörn; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    Timing of high-count rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count-rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (~2.5 msec), and varies by a few percent event-to-event. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be modeled easily with the standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cross power density spectrum to obtain a good proxy of the white noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this ...

  9. Flaring from the supermassive black hole in Mrk 335 studied with Swift and NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, D R; Grupe, D; Bonson, K; Komossa, S; Fabian, A C

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 335 (Mrk 335) with the Swift satellite discovered an X-ray flare beginning 2014 August 29. At the peak, the 0.5-5keV count rate had increased from that in the low flux state by a factor of 10. A target of opportunity observation was triggered with NuSTAR, catching the decline of the flare on 2014 September 20. We present a joint analysis of Swift and NuSTAR observations to understand the cause of this flare. The X-ray spectrum shows an increase in directly observed continuum flux and the softening of the continuum spectrum to a photon index of 2.49 (-0.07,+0.08) compared to the previous low flux observations. The X-ray spectrum remains well-described by the relativistically blurred reflection of the continuum from the accretion disc whose emissivity profile suggests that it is illuminated by a compact X-ray source, extending at most 5.2rg over the disc. A very low reflection fraction of 0.41 (-0.15,+0.15) is measured, unexpected for such a compact coron...

  10. Empire of the Stars. Friendship, Obsession and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In 1930 a nineteen-year-old Indian graduate student, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, came up with the first mathematical proof of black holes. But five years later, when he presented his findings at the Royal Astronomical Society in London, he found himself pitted against the greatest astrophysicist of the day, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, who scathingly dismissed both Chandra and his theory. It was a battle of personalities, generations, ideas and also of cultures which was to have a devastating impact on the development of astrophysics for years to come. Who were the two men, what were the ideas that caused such uproar, and how was the conflict finally resolved? I will discuss all this and also consider what this story has to tell us about what science is, how it works, and where it can go wrong.

  11. Binary Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters: Exploring the Theoretical Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies with N-body simulations predict that large numbers of stellar black holes (BHs) could remain bound to some globular clusters (GCs) at present, and merging BH--BH binaries are produced dynamically in significant numbers. Here we systematically vary model assumptions within existing uncertainties and study their effects on the evolution of BHs in GCs and the final structural properties of GCs. We use a parallel Monte Carlo code, which provides much higher computational speed than direct N-body codes, thereby allowing large numbers of models to be computed. We find that variations in initial assumptions can set otherwise identical initial clusters on completely different evolutionary paths, significantly affecting their observable properties at present, or even affecting the cluster's very survival to the present. However, these changes usually do not affect the numbers or properties of merging BH--BH binaries produced by GCs. The only exception is that varying assumptions about stella...

  12. Merging Binary Black Holes from Young and Old Massive Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Using numerical models of star clusters spanning a wide range in stellar metallicities (Z) we study the effects of a parent cluster's metallicity on the masses of BBHs merging in the local universe (z0.5, respectively. GW150914 is more massive (beyond 1 sigma) than typical BBHs merging in z<0.2 even for the lowest metallicity clusters we consider, but is within 2 sigma of the intrinsic mass distributions from clusters with Z/Z_sun<0.05. Of course, accounting for aLIGO detectability would push the intrinsic distributions towards higher masses, hence the detection of merging BBHs as massive as GW150914 would be less rare. Since cluster dynamics typically increases BBH masses via exchange encounters relative to what could form in isolation, mergers of BBHs as massive as GW150914 in z<0.2 is likely intrinsically rare in general.

  13. An efficient photoelectric X-ray polarimeter for the study of black holes and neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E; Soffitta, P; Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Lumb, N; Spandre, G

    2001-06-01

    The study of astronomical objects using electromagnetic radiation involves four basic observational approaches: imaging, spectroscopy, photometry (accurate counting of the photons received) and polarimetry (measurement of the polarizations of the observed photons). In contrast to observations at other wavelengths, a lack of sensitivity has prevented X-ray astronomy from making use of polarimetry. Yet such a technique could provide a direct picture of the state of matter in extreme magnetic and gravitational fields, and has the potential to resolve the internal structures of compact sources that would otherwise remain inaccessible, even to X-ray interferometry. In binary pulsars, for example, we could directly 'see' the rotation of the magnetic field and determine if the emission is in the form of a 'fan' or a 'pencil' beam. Also, observation of the characteristic twisting of the polarization angle in other compact sources would reveal the presence of a black hole. Here we report the development of an instrument that makes X-ray polarimetry possible. The factor of 100 improvement in sensitivity that we have achieved will allow direct exploration of the most dramatic objects of the X-ray sky.

  14. The nature of LINER galaxies: Ubiquitous hot old stars plus rare accreting black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, R; Jahnke, K; Lyubenova, M; Falcón-Barroso, J; Alves, J; Fernandes, R Cid; Galbany, L; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; Kennicutt, R C; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Mast, D; Pasquali, A; Sánchez, S F; Walcher, J; Wild, V; Wisotzki, L

    2013-01-01

    Galaxies, which often contain ionised gas, sometimes also exhibit a so-called low-ionisation nuclear emission line region (LINER). For 30 years this was attributed to a central mass-accreting supermassive black hole (AGN) of low luminosity, making LINER galaxies the largest AGN-sub-population, dominating in numbers over higher luminosity Seyfert galaxies and quasars. This, however, poses a serious problem. While the inferred energy balance is plausible, many LINERs clearly do not contain any other independent signatures of an AGN. Using integral field spectroscopic data from the CALIFA survey, we aim at comparing the observed radial surface brightness profiles with what is expected from illumination by an AGN. Essential for this analysis is a proper extraction of emission-lines, especially weak lines such as the Balmer Hb line which is superposed on an absorption trough. To accomplish this, we use the GANDALF code which simultaneously fits the underlying stellar continuum and emission lines. We show for 48 ga...

  15. A dichotomy between the hard state spectral properties of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. J.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.

    2017-04-01

    We analyse the spectra of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XBs) in the hard state using archival RXTE observations. We find that there is a clear dichotomy in the strength of Comptonization between NS and BH sources, as measured by both the Compton y-parameter and the amplification factor A, with distinct groups of BH and NS XBs separated at y ∼ 0.9 and A ∼ 3. The electron temperature kTe can occupy a broad range in BH systems, from kTe ∼ 30 to 200 keV, whereas for NSs kTe is peaked at ∼15-25 keV, but can extend to higher values. The difference between BHs and NSs in y implies that kTe is higher at a given optical depth for BH XBs. Our results also imply that for NS systems the accreting material loses ∼1/2-2/3 of its energy through Comptonization in the corona. The remaining energy is released on the surface of the NS, making it a powerful source of soft radiation, which alters the properties of the Comptonizing corona. Finally, we find evidence at the ∼2.4σ confidence level that Comptonization parameters may be correlated with the NS spin, whereas no correlation with the BH spin is found. Our results highlight a further observational distinction between BH and NS XBs, which is a consequence of NSs possessing a physical surface.

  16. GRB 090510: a genuine short-GRB from a binary neutron star coalescing into a Kerr-Newman black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Enderli, M; Muccino, M; Aimuratov, Y; Bianco, C L; Cherubini, C; Kovacevic, M; Moradi, R; Penacchioni, A V; Pisani, G B; Rueda, J A; Wang, Y

    2016-01-01

    In a new classification of merging binary neutron stars (NSs) we separate short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in two sub-classes. The ones with $E_{\\rm iso}\\lesssim10^{52}$ erg coalesce to form a massive NS and are indicated as short gamma-ray flashes (S-GRFs). The hardest, with $E_{\\rm iso}\\gtrsim10^{52}$ erg, coalesce to form a black hole (BH) and are indicated as genuine short-GRBs (S-GRBs). Within the fireshell model, S-GRBs exhibit three different components: the P-GRB emission, observed at the transparency of a self-accelerating baryon-$e^+e^-$ plasma; the prompt emission, originating from the interaction of the accelerated baryons with the circumburst medium; the high-energy (GeV) emission, observed after the P-GRB and indicating the formation of a BH. GRB 090510 gives the first evidence for the formation of a Kerr-Newman BH. Its P-GRB spectrum can be fitted by a convolution of thermal spectra whose origin can be traced back to an axially symmetric dyadotorus. A large value of the angular momentum of the new...

  17. On the distribution of stellar remnants around massive black holes: slow mass segregation, star cluster inspirlas and correlated orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We study the long term dynamical evolution of stellar mass black holes (BHs) at the Galactic center (GC) and put constraints on their number and central mass distribution. Models of the GC are considered that have not yet achieved a steady state under the influence of random gravitational encounters. Contrary to some recent claims that mass-segregation can rapidly rebuild a density cusp in the stars, we find that time scales associated with cusp regrowth are longer than the Hubble time. These results cast doubts on standard models that postulate high densities of BHs near the GC and motivate studies that start from initial conditions which correspond to well-defined physical models. For the first time, we consider the distribution of BHs in a dissipationless formation model for the Milky Way nuclear cluster (NC), in which massive stellar clusters merge in the GC to form a nucleus. We simulate the successive inspiral of massive clusters containing an inner dense cluster of BHs. The pre-existing mass segregatio...

  18. GRB 140619B: a short GRB from a binary neutron stars merger leading to the black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Muccino, M; Kovacevic, M; Izzo, L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Bianco, C L; Enderli, M; Penacchioni, A V; Pisani, G B; Wang, Y; Zaninoni, E

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent identification of the prototypical short GRB 090227B originating from a binary neutron star (NS) merger and forming a black hole (BH), we present here a new example of such sources, GRB 140619B. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the early ~0.2s of the Fermi-GBM data, allows for the identification of the characteristic features of the e^+e^- plasma at transparency (P-GRB): i.e., a thermal spectrum with an observed temperature kT=(324+/-33)keV which represents ~40% of the total source fluence. The subsequent emission, with no thermal spectrum, is identified with the prompt emission. We consequently deduce a theoretical redshift of z=2.67+/-0.37, a total burst energy E+/-=(6.03+/-0.79)x10^{52}erg, a baryon load B=(5.52+/-0.73)x10^{-5}, and a Lorentz factor at transparency Gamma=(1.08+/-0.08)x10^4. From the simulation of the prompt emission we determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), n_CBM=(4.7+/-1.2)x10^{-5}cm^{-3}, typical of the galactic halo environment. These l...

  19. A New Open-Source Code for Spherically-Symmetric Stellar Collapse to Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Evan

    2009-01-01

    We present the new open-source spherically-symmetric general-relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics code GR1D. It is based on the Eulerian formulation of GR hydrodynamics (GRHD) put forth by Romero-Ibanez-Gourgoulhon and employs radial-gauge, polar-slicing coordinates in which the 3+1 equations simplify substantially. We discretize the GRHD equations with a finite-volume scheme, employing piecewise-parabolic reconstruction and an approximate Riemann solver. GR1D is intended for the simulation of stellar collapse to neutron stars and black holes and will also serve as a testbed for modeling technology to be incorporated in multi-D GR codes. Its GRHD part is coupled to various finite-temperature microphysical equations of state in tabulated form that we make available with GR1D. An approximate deleptonization scheme for the collapse phase and a neutrino-leakage/heating scheme for the postbounce epoch are included and described. We also derive the equations for effective rotation in 1D and implement them in GR1D. We pr...

  20. On the dynamics of supermassive black holes in gas-rich, star-forming galaxies: the case for nuclear star cluster co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Pawel; Teyssier, Romain; Bleuler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new model for the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the ramses code using sink particles, improving over previous work the treatment of gas accretion and dynamical evolution. This new model is tested against a suite of high-resolution simulations of an isolated, gas-rich, cooling halo. We study the effect of various feedback models on the SMBH growth and its dynamics within the galaxy. In runs without any feedback, the SMBH is trapped within a massive bulge and is therefore able to grow quickly, but only if the seed mass is chosen larger than the minimum Jeans mass resolved by the simulation. We demonstrate that, in the absence of supernovae (SN) feedback, the maximum SMBH mass is reached when active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating balances gas cooling in the nuclear region. When our efficient SN feedback is included, it completely prevents bulge formation, so that massive gas clumps can perturb the SMBH orbit, and reduce the accretion rate significantly. To overcome this issue, we propose an observationally motivated model for the joint evolution of the SMBH and a parent nuclear star cluster (NSC), which allows the SMBH to remain in the nuclear region, grow fast and resist external perturbations. In this scenario, however, SN feedback controls the gas supply and the maximum SMBH mass now depends on the balance between AGN heating and gravity. We conclude that SMBH/NSC co-evolution is crucial for the growth of SMBH in high-z galaxies, the progenitors of massive ellipticals today.

  1. On the Newtonian and Spin-induced Perturbations Felt by the Stars Orbiting around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fupeng; Iorio, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The S-stars discovered in the Galactic center are expected to provide unique dynamical tests of the Kerr metric of the massive black hole (MBH) that they orbit. In order to obtain unbiased measurements of its spin and the related relativistic effects, a comprehensive understanding of the gravitational perturbations of the stars and stellar remnants around the MBH is quite essential. Here, we study the perturbations on the observables of a typical target star, i.e., the apparent orbital motion and the redshift, due to both the spin-induced relativistic effects and the Newtonian attractions of a single object or a cluster of disturbing objects. We find that, in most cases, the Newtonian perturbations on the observables are mainly attributed to the perturbed orbital period of the target star rather than the Newtonian orbital precessions. Looking at the currently detected star S2/S0-2, we find that its spin-induced effects are very likely obscured by the gravitational perturbations from the star S0-102 alone. We also investigate and discuss the Newtonian perturbations on a hypothetical S-star located inside the orbits of those currently detected. By considering a number of possible stellar distributions near the central MBH, we find that the spin-induced effects on the apparent position and redshift dominate over the stellar perturbations for target stars with orbital semimajor axis smaller than 100–400 au if the MBH is maximally spinning. Our results suggest that, in principle, the stellar perturbations can be removed because they have morphologies distinct from those of the relativistic Kerr-type signatures.

  2. Search of S3 LIGO data for gravitational wave signals from spinning black hole and neutron star binary inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.

    2008-08-01

    We report on the methods and results of the first dedicated search for gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries with spinning component bodies. We analyze 788 hours of data collected during the third science run (S3) of the LIGO detectors. We searched for binary systems using a detection template family specially designed to capture the effects of the spin-induced precession of the orbital plane. We present details of the techniques developed to enable this search for spin-modulated gravitational waves, highlighting the differences between this and other recent searches for binaries with nonspinning components. The template bank we employed was found to yield high matches with our spin-modulated target waveform for binaries with masses in the asymmetric range 1.0M⊙star black hole system with m1≃1.35M⊙ and m2≃5M⊙, we calculate the 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescence of these systems to be 15.9yr-1L10-1, where L10 is 1010 times the blue light luminosity of the Sun.

  3. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Krivonos, Roman; Mori, Kaya; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  4. The impact of magnetic fields on the IMF in star-forming clouds near a supermassive black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocuk, S.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.; Cazaux, S.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in the centers of galaxies is thought to yield massive stars with a possibly top-heavy stellar mass distribution. It is likely that magnetic fields play a crucial role in the distribution of stellar masses inside star-forming molecular clouds. In this context, we explore the effects o

  5. We present 'Black Holes Make Stars which Explains the Mystery of the Newly Discovered Phoenix Galaxy while Dark Matter in the Universe is described in our Explanation.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, Salvatore; Samuels, Charles

    2014-07-01

    We present an entirely new concept for 'How the universe and its contents might have formed.' We contend the Big Bang (BB) resulted from one (or two) Black Hole(s) (BH) bursting (or colliding), producing an almost infinite number of particles of varying sizes, from the smallest elementary particle to particles large enough to contain the mass of a galaxy. The accepted prevailing theory for stellar evolution is 'sufficiently massive stars are reduced to BH upon their ultimate demise.' We consider larger types of BH originating from the original BB, which are subsequently expanded and modified enough to start significant radiation and burst, which resulting particle eventually result into a Galaxy; and smaller BH which become stars and planets. We theorize the universe was made by a massive BH which had enough mass to produce the contents of our universe. We define and categorize BH by their mass and the spaces which they inhabit. We describe mechanisms for their formation and mechanisms of BH collisions and bursts, inside the universe, linked to formations of galaxies, stars, planets and moons. Our concept could explain the mystery of the newly discovered Phoenix Galaxy, which produces 740 Stars per year, an order of magnitude above expected. We propose that a category-1 (c-1) BH formed the universe, by generating c-2 BH which form galaxies, c-3 BH which form stars, and c-4 BH which form planets and moons. Each sequential category of BH is less dense, and is more expanded and modified; and links the formation of the universe to present day activities and processes observed on earth, especially leading to the formation of the elements on earth. We offer three mechanisms (a, b, & c) for stellar origin, formation and evolution. 'a' is the accepted 'accretion and gravitation process.' 'b' is 'as a star originates as an expanded, modified BH with none or little help from accretion, begins to radiate; and continues to grow into a star. 'c' is a mechanism in which a star

  6. GRB 090510: A Genuine Short GRB from a Binary Neutron Star Coalescing into a Kerr-Newman Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Muccino, M.; Aimuratov, Y.; Bianco, C. L.; Cherubini, C.; Enderli, M.; Kovacevic, M.; Moradi, R.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In a new classification of merging binary neutron stars (NSs) we separate short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) into two subclasses. The ones with {E}{iso}≲ {10}52 erg coalesce to form a massive NS and are indicated as short gamma-ray flashes (S-GRFs). The hardest, with {E}{iso}≳ {10}52 erg, coalesce to form a black hole (BH) and are indicated as genuine short GRBs (S-GRBs). Within the fireshell model, S-GRBs exhibit three different components: the proper GRB (P-GRB) emission, observed at the transparency of a self-accelerating baryon-{e}+{e}- plasma; the prompt emission, originating from the interaction of the accelerated baryons with the circumburst medium; and the high-energy (GeV) emission, observed after the P-GRB and indicating the formation of a BH. GRB 090510 gives the first evidence for the formation of a Kerr BH or, possibly, a Kerr-Newman BH. Its P-GRB spectrum can be fitted by a convolution of thermal spectra whose origin can be traced back to an axially symmetric dyadotorus. A large value of the angular momentum of the newborn BH is consistent with the large energetics of this S-GRB, which reach in the 1-10,000 keV range {E}{iso}=(3.95+/- 0.21)× {10}52 erg and in the 0.1-100 GeV range {E}{LAT}=(5.78+/- 0.60)× {10}52 erg, the most energetic GeV emission ever observed in S-GRBs. The theoretical redshift {z}{th}=0.75+/- 0.17 that we derive from the fireshell theory is consistent with the spectroscopic measurement z=0.903+/- 0.003, showing the self-consistency of the theoretical approach. All S-GRBs exhibit GeV emission, when inside the Fermi-LAT field of view, unlike S-GRFs, which never evidence it. The GeV emission appears to be the discriminant for the formation of a BH in GRBs, confirmed by their observed overall energetics.

  7. Measurement of Hard Lags and Coherences in the X-Ray Flux of Accreting Neutron Stars and Comparison with Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Eric C.; Van Der Klis, Michiel; Mendez, Mariano; van Paradijs, Jan; Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer we have measured lags of the 9 to 33 keV photons relative to the 2 to 9 keV photons in the timing noise between 0.01 and 100 Hz in the accreting neutron stars 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44. We performed similar measurements on the accreting black hole candidates Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4 as a comparison. During the observations these sources were all in low (hard) states. We find phase lags of between 0.03 and 0.2 radians in all these sources, with a variation in...

  8. A black hole preying on the star for a gamma-ray burst of GRB080503:Evidence for the second event in this new class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we critically assess GRB080503,a short gamma-ray burst with very bright extended emission(about 30 times the gamma-ray fluence of the initial spike).The light curve of the prompt γ-ray emission of GRB080503 resembles that of GRB 060614 which has been suggested to be due to an event from an intermediate mass black hole(IMBH) preying on a star.We therefore propose that GRB080503 is also due to a similar event;the mass of the IMBH is estimated to be about 4.6×104 solar masses,and the engulfed star had about the same mass and size as the Sun.We also estimate that the total burst energy is about 7.67× 1050 ergs.

  9. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow.

  10. Constraining the high-redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupi, A.; Colpi, M.; Devecchi, B.; Galanti, G.; Volonteri, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeals to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological

  11. Black Holes Make Stars, which explains the Mystery of the Newly Discovered Phoenix Galaxy (while Dark Matter is described in the explanation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, Salvatore A.; Samuels, Chares

    2013-07-01

    A prevailing theory is stars change their energy field and are reduced to Black Holes (BH). Consider there are as many types of BH as there are of stars, and a greatly expanded modified Black Hole (from the original 'Big Bang'), can become a Star. We theorize that something is not made of nothing; and the universe was created by a massive Black Hole in c-1 space, which had enough mass to produce what is contained in our universe, today. We categorized BH, by their mass. Our concept could explain 'the Mystery of the Newly Discovered 'PHOENIX GALAXY' and presents a new theory of what forms of dark matter could exist. We define and categorize BH and the space they inhabit. These are linked to the formation of galaxies, stars, planets and planetary processes. Space itself is categorized as to its purpose and properties as it relates to the various categories of BH and processes ongoing within their space(s). We propose a category-1 (c-1) BH formed the universe, by generating billions of catagory-2 (c-2) BH in c-2 space inside the universe, 10% of which formed galaxies and 90% remain as dark matter in the form of c-2 and c-3 BH which are still evolving. C-2 BH can burst and form a galaxy, containing c-3 space, filled with c-3 and c-4 BH. C-3 BH are significantly more modified and expanded than c-2 BH and are formed from burst c-2 BH on their own or by colliding with another c-2 BH and bursting to form gas and dust clouds inside the galaxy, peppered with c-3 and c-4 BH which eventually are seen as new stars forming in the dust clouds (described later). We envision three mechanisms (a,b,&c) for stellar origin, formation and evolution . The first type "a" is well known (accepted); whereas, the other two "b&c" are new and will be presented. This explains how some super-cluster complexes can occur in 13.4 billion years rather than over 40 billion years.

  12. On the Newtonian and Spin-induced Perturbations felt by the Stars Orbiting around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fupeng

    2016-01-01

    The S-stars discovered in the Galactic center (GC) are expected to provide unique dynamical tests of the Kerr metric of the massive black hole (MBH) orbited by them. In order to obtain unbiased measurements of its spin and the related relativistic effects, a comprehensive understanding of the gravitational perturbations of the stars and stellar remnants around the MBH is quite essential. Here, we study the perturbations on the observables of a typical target star, i.e., the apparent orbital motion and the redshift, due to both the spin-induced relativistic effects and the Newtonian attractions of a single or a cluster of disturbing object(s). We find that, in most cases, the Newtonian perturbations on the observables are mainly attributed to the perturbed orbital period of the target star, rather than the Newtonian orbital precessions. The Newtonian perturbations have their unique features when they peak around the pericenter passage in each revolution, which is quite different from those of the spin-induced ...

  13. The Biases of Optical Line-Ratio Selection for Active Galactic Nuclei, and the Intrinsic Relationship between Black Hole Accretion and Galaxy Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Zeimann, Gregory R; Luck, Cuyler; Bridge, Joanna S; Grier, Catherine J; Hagen, Alex; Juneau, Stephanie; Montero-Dorta, Antonio; Rosario, David J; Brandt, W Niel; Ciardullo, Robin; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We use 317,000 emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate line-ratio selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In particular, we demonstrate that "star formation dilution" by HII regions causes a significant bias against AGN selection in low-mass, blue, star-forming, disk-dominated galaxies. This bias is responsible for the observed preference of AGNs among high-mass, green, moderately star-forming, bulge-dominated hosts. We account for the bias and simulate the intrinsic population of emission-line AGNs using a physically-motivated Eddington ratio distribution, intrinsic AGN narrow line region line ratios, a luminosity-dependent Lbol/L[OIII] bolometric correction, and the observed Mbh-sigma relation. These simulations indicate that, in massive (log(M*/Msun) > 10) galaxies, AGN accretion is correlated with specific star formation rate but is otherwise uniform with stellar mass. There is some hint of lower black hole occupation in low-mass (log(M*/Msun) < 10) hosts, although o...

  14. Relationship between star formation rate and black hole accretion at z=2: The different contributions in quiescent, normal and starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rodighiero, G; Daddi, E; Negrello, M; Mullaney, J R; Delvecchio, I; Lutz, D; Renzini, A; Franceschini, A; Baronchelli, I; Pozzi, F; Gruppioni, C; Strazzullo, V; Cimatti, A; Silverman, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the co-evolution of black-hole-accretion-rate (BHAR) and star-formation-rate (SFR) in $1.5star-forming properties compared to previous studies. We combine X-ray stacking and far-IR photometry of stellar mass-limited samples of normal star-forming, starburst and quiescent/quenched galaxies in the COSMOS field. We corroborate the existence of a strong correlation between BHAR (i.e. the X-ray luminosity, L_X), and stellar mass (M*) for normal star-forming galaxies, although find a steeper relation than previously reported. We find that starbursts show a factor of 3 enhancement in BHAR compared to normal SF galaxies (against a factor of 6 excess in SFR), while quiescents show a deficit of a factor 5.5 at a given mass. One possible interpretation of this is that the starburst phase does not coincide with cosmologically relevant BH growth, or that starburst-inducing mergers are more efficient at boosting SFR than BHAR. Contrary to studies based...

  15. The Death of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1971-01-01

    Theories associated with the gravitational collapse of a star into black holes" are described. Suggests that the collapse and compression might go through the stages from white dwarf star to neutron core to black hole." (TS)

  16. THE GALACTIC CENTER S-STARS AND THE HYPERVELOCITY STARS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TWO FACES OF THE TIDAL BREAKUP OF STELLAR BINARIES BY THE CENTRAL MASSIVE BLACK HOLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fupeng; Lu Youjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu Qingjuan [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we investigate the link between the hypervelocity stars (HVSs) discovered in the Galactic halo and the Galactic center (GC) S-stars, under the hypothesis that they are both the products of the tidal breakup of the same population of stellar binaries by the central massive black hole (MBH). By adopting several hypothetical models for binaries to be injected into the vicinity of the MBH and doing numerical simulations, we realize the tidal breakup processes of the binaries and their follow-up dynamical evolution. We find that many statistical properties of the detected HVSs and GC S-stars could be reproduced under some binary injecting models, and their number ratio can be reproduced if the stellar initial mass function is top-heavy (e.g., with slope {approx} - 1.6). The total number of the captured companions is {approx}50 that have masses in the range {approx}3-7 M{sub Sun} and semimajor axes {approx}< 4000 AU and survive to the present within their main-sequence lifetime. The innermost one is expected to have a semimajor axis {approx}300-1500 AU and a pericenter distance {approx}10-200 AU, with a significant probability of being closer to the MBH than S2. Future detection of such a close star would offer an important test to general relativity. The majority of the surviving ejected companions of the GC S-stars are expected to be located at Galactocentric distances {approx}< 20 kpc, and have heliocentric radial velocities {approx} - 500-1500 km s{sup -1} and proper motions up to {approx}5-20 mas yr{sup -1}. Future detection of these HVSs may provide evidence for the tidal breakup formation mechanism of the GC S-stars.

  17. Relationship between star formation rate and black hole accretion at z=3: the different contributions in quiescent, normal, and starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Baronchelli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Universita’ di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 (Italy); Brusa, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Pozzi, F.; Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Daddi, E.; Strazzullo, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bât.709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Negrello, M.; Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Mullaney, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Lutz, D. [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gruppioni, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Silverman, J., E-mail: giulia.rodighiero@unipd.it [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    We investigate the co-evolution of the black hole accretion rate (BHAR) and the star formation rate (SFR) in 1.5star-forming properties compared to previous studies. We combine X-ray stacking and far-IR photometry of stellar mass-limited samples of normal star-forming, starburst, and quiescent/quenched galaxies in the COSMOS field. We corroborate the existence of a strong correlation between BHAR (i.e., the X-ray luminosity, L{sub X}) and stellar mass (M{sub *}) for normal star-forming galaxies, though we find a steeper relation than previously reported. We find that starbursts show a factor of three enhancement in BHAR compared to normal SF galaxies (against a factor of six excess in SFR), while quiescents show a deficit of a factor times 5.5 at a given mass. One possible interpretation of this is that the starburst phase does not coincide with cosmologically relevant BH growth, or that starburst-inducing mergers are more efficient at boosting SFR than BHAR. Contrary to studies based on smaller samples, we find that the BHAR/SFR ratio of main-sequence (MS) galaxies is not mass invariant, but scales weakly as M{sub ∗}{sup 0.43±0.09}, implying faster BH growth in more massive galaxies at z∼2. Furthermore, BHAR/SFR during the starburst is a factor of two lower than in MS galaxies, at odds with the predictions of hydrodynamical simulations of merger galaxies that foresee a sudden enhancement of L{sub X}/SFR during the merger. Finally, we estimate that the bulk of the accretion density of the universe at z∼2 is associated with normal star-forming systems, with only ∼6(±1)% and ∼11(±1)% associated with starburst and quiescent galaxies, respectively.

  18. Accuracy and precision of gravitational-wave models of inspiraling neutron star -- black hole binaries with spin: comparison with numerical relativity in the low-frequency regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Brown, Duncan A; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A; Szilágyi, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Coalescing binaries of neutron stars (NS) and black holes (BH) are one of the most important sources of gravitational waves for the upcoming network of ground based detectors. Detection and extraction of astrophysical information from gravitational-wave signals requires accurate waveform models. The Effective-One-Body and other phenomenological models interpolate between analytic results and $10-30$ orbit numerical relativity (NR) merger simulations. In this paper we study the accuracy of these models using new NR simulations that span $36-88$ orbits, with mass-ratios and black hole spins $(q,\\chi_{BH}) = (7, \\pm 0.4), (7, \\pm 0.6)$, and $(5, -0.9)$. We find that: (i) the recently published SEOBNRv1 and SEOBNRv2 models of the Effective-One-Body family disagree with each other (mismatches of a few percent) for black hole spins $\\geq 0.5$ or $\\leq -0.3$, with waveform mismatch accumulating during early inspiral; (ii) comparison with numerical waveforms indicate that this disagreement is due to phasing errors of...

  19. A broadband X-ray spectral study of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate M82 X-1 with NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, Murray; Barret, Didier; Davis, Shane W; Fürst, Felix; Madsen, Kristin K; Middleton, Matthew; Miller, Jon M; Stern, Daniel; Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J

    2016-01-01

    M82 X-1 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) known, which, assuming Eddington-limited accretion and other considerations, makes it one of the best intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) candidates. However, the ULX may still be explained by super-Eddington accretion onto a stellar-remnant black hole. We present simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift/XRT observations during the peak of a flaring episode with the aim of modeling the emission of M82 X-1 and yielding insights into its nature. We find that thin-accretion disk models all require accretion rates at or above the Eddington limit in order to reproduce the spectral shape, given a range of black hole masses and spins. Since at these high Eddington ratios the thin-disk model breaks down due to radial advection in the disk, we discard the results of the thin-disk models as unphysical. We find that the temperature profile as a function of disk radius ($T(r)\\propto r^{-p}$) is significantly flatter ($p=0.55^{+ 0.07}_{- 0.04}$) than expecte...

  20. THE DISK WIND IN THE RAPIDLY SPINNING STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE 4U 1630–472 OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ashking@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630–472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a{sub ∗}=0.985{sub −0.014}{sup +0.005} (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 ± 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log ξ=3.6{sub −0.3}{sup +0.2}) and is dominated by He-like Fe XXV, the wind has a velocity of v/c=0.043{sub −0.007}{sup +0.002} (12900{sub −2100}{sup +600} km s{sup –1}). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log ξ=6.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7}), and is dominated by Fe XXVI, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  1. Determining the origin and possible mechanisms of QPOS in x-ray emissions of neutron stars and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Brent Wayne

    QPOs (Quasi-Periodic Oscillations) are time oscillations that appear in the light curve of observational data in x-ray bands. They are of mysterious origin although they are believed to be a result of the intense gravity around neutron stars and black holes and emit x-rays from accretion disks. I investigate a derived ratio between two periods has been found in the QPO data. The two periods, which appear as peaks in the power density spectrum have been found to be in a 3:2 ratio and can possibly distinguish theoretical models. In the work presented here, two physical approaches are developed that can explain the integer resonance ratio. One is a cusp layer model, which is based on a boundary layer model that uses the physical conditions at opposite sides of said layer to explore the magnitude of the vertical versus radial epicyclic frequencies and confirm the anticipated scales of the observed frequencies. It also happens to recreate a 3:2 resonance ratio for the Keplerian angular frequencies at the ISCO, taken as the preferred radius for the boundary layer model. A toy model was recreated and utilized to emulate the Alfven radius due to the accretion disk's innate magnetic field and explore how it serves as a disruption radius and impacts the accretion of mass and the effective inner edge of the disk. The simulations show that there is no significance deviation from the ISCO as an effective inner edge for the accretion disk due to the magnetospheric influence of the disk alone. I also invoke a parameter to handle the coupling between the vertical and radial epicyclical frequencies and relate it to the pressure within the disk. I show the coupling is strongest at the equatorial plane where pressure is at its maximum value. A model I utilize is a relativistic resonance model, combined with a helioseismological approach to explore the pulsation of the inner edge of the accretion disk that imparts the resonance of the accreting matter moving along the Kerr space

  2. Relics of Galaxy Merging: Observational Predictions for a Wandering Massive Black Hole and Accompanying Star Cluster in the Halo of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger, and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA and SKA) is the best frequency range to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering...

  3. The MEGaN project - I. Missing formation of massive nuclear clusters and tidal disruption events by star clusters-massive black hole interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the evolution of a massive galactic nucleus hosting a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with mass MSMBH = 108 M ⊙ surrounded by a population of 42 heavy star clusters (globular clusters, GCs). Using direct N-body modelling, we show here that the assembly of a nuclear star cluster (NSC) through GC orbital decay and merger is efficiently inhibited by the tidal forces exerted from the SMBH. The GC mass-loss induced by tidal forces causes a significant modification of their mass function, leading to a population of low-mass (model. The simulation produced a huge amount of data, which we used to investigate whether the GC debris deposited around the SMBH can enhance the rate of tidal disruption events (TDEs) in our galaxy inner density distribution. Our results suggest that the GC disruption leads to a TDE rate of ∼2 × 10-4 yr-1, about an order of magnitude larger than observed in galactic nuclei with similar density profiles and central SMBH. Our results suggest that the GC disruption shapes the SMBH neighbourhoods, leading to a TDE rate of ∼2 × 10-4 yr-1, a value slightly larger than what expected in previous theoretical modelling of galaxies with similar density profiles and central SMBHs. The simulation presented here is the first of its kind, representing a massive galactic nucleus and its star cluster population on scales ∼100 pc.

  4. 3D stellar kinematics at the Galactic center: measuring the nuclear star cluster spatial density profile, black hole mass, and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Do, T; Yelda, S; Ghez, A M; Bullock, J; Kaplinghat, M; Lu, J R; Peter, A G H; Phifer, K

    2013-01-01

    We present 3D kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true three dimensional profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass ($M_\\mathrm{BH}$), and distance to the Galactic center ($R_0$) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, $\\rho(r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ to have a power law slope $\\gamma=0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}$, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall $\\&am...

  5. RELICS OF GALAXY MERGING: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS FOR A WANDERING MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ACCOMPANYING STAR CLUSTER IN THE HALO OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, Yuriko [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao, E-mail: ts.kawaguti@nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.

  6. Why do galaxies stop forming stars? I. The passive fraction - black hole mass relation for central galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bluck, Asa F L; Patton, David R; Simard, Luc; Mendel, J Trevor; Teimoorinia, Hossein; Moreno, Jorge; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    We derive the dependence of the fraction of passive central galaxies on the mass of their supermassive black holes for a sample of over 400,000 SDSS galaxies at z < 0.2. Our large sample contains galaxies in a wide range of environments, with stellar masses 8 < log(M*/Msun) < 12, spanning the entire morphological spectrum from pure disks to spheroids. We derive estimates for the black hole masses from measured central velocity dispersions and bulge masses, using a variety of published empirical relationships. We find a very strong dependence of the passive fraction on black hole mass, which is largely unaffected by the details of the black hole mass estimate. Moreover, the passive fraction relationship with black hole mass remains strong and tight even at fixed values of galaxy stellar mass (M*), dark matter halo mass (Mhalo), and bulge-to-total stellar mass ratio (B/T). Whereas, the passive fraction dependence on M*, Mhalo and B/T is weak at fixed MBH. These observations show that, for central galax...

  7. Matter of Life & Death : The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Us

  8. Orbital circularisation of white dwarfs and the formation of gravitational radiation sources in star clusters containing an intermediate mass black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2007-12-01

    Aims:We consider how tight binaries consisting of a super-massive black hole of mass M = 103-104 M⊙ and a white dwarf in quasi-circular orbit can be formed in a globular cluster. We point out that a major fraction of white dwarfs tidally captured by the black hole may be destroyed by tidal inflation during ongoing tidal circularisation, and therefore the formation of tight binaries is inhibited. However some fraction may survive tidal circularisation through being spun up to high rotation rates. Then the rates of energy loss through gravitational wave emission induced by tidally excited pulsation modes and dissipation through non linear effects may compete with the rate of increase of pulsation energy due to dynamic tides. The semi-major axes of these white dwarfs are decreased by tidal interaction below a “critical” value where dynamic tides decrease in effectiveness because pulsation modes retain phase coherence between successive pericentre passages. Methods: We estimate the rate of formation of such circularising white dwarfs within a simple framework, modelling them as n = 1.5 polytropes and assuming that results obtained from the tidal theory for slow rotators can be extrapolated to fast rotators. Results: We estimate the total capture rate as N 2.5 × 10-8 {M}41.3r0.1-2.1 yr-1, where M4 = M/104 M⊙ and r0.1 is the radius of influence of the black hole expressed in units 0.1 pc. We find that the formation rate of tight pairs is approximately 10 times smaller than the total capture rate, for typical parameters of the problem. This result is used to estimate the probability of detection of gravitational waves coming from such tight binaries by LISA. Conclusions: We conclude that LISA may detect such binaries provided that the fraction of globular clusters containing black holes in the mass range of interest is substantial and that the dispersion velocity of the cluster stars near the radius of influence of the black hole exceeds 20 km s-1.

  9. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formatio

  10. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formatio

  11. Fingerprinting the Non-linear Response of Three Arm Star Polystyrene by Mechanical Spectral Hole Burning, Lissajous-Bowditch Loops, and Fourier Transform Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhiyuan; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) has become a powerful tool to fingerprint the nonlinear response of polymers and other complex fluids. In a recent work, Nabila and McKenna used the mechanical spectral hole burning (MSHB) which was developed in our labs, along with Lissajous-Bowditch (LB) curves and Fourier transform rheology (FTR) methods to characterize the nonlinearity of linear polystyrene solutions. They observed a linear relationship between the horizontal hole intensity and the square of pump strain amplitude. The similar quadratic dependence was found for the third harmonics from FTR. However, the origins are not same for these two signatures. In the current work, the nonlinearity of polymers with more complicated molecular structure, such as three arm star polystyrene, will be studied by these three methods. The concentration dependence of the fingerprinting will also be discussed. The authors are thankful to the American Chemical Society, Petroleum Research Fund 53205-ND7, for the support of this project.

  12. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  13. Prospects for constraining the spin of the massive black hole at the Galactic center via the relativistic motion of a surrounding star

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quality of constraining the spin of the massive black hole (MBH) at the Galactic center (GC), by using full general relativistic simulations of the motion of a surrounding star. We obtain the mapping of the dependence of the spin-induced signals on any spin direction of the MBH for given example stars, which indicates the feasibility to test whether the spin direction is the same as the normal of the young stellar disk located at the GC and further to provide insights into the assembly history of the MBH. We demonstrate the quality of constraining the MBH spin that may be achieved, given any set of the astrometric and the redshift precisions of observational facilities. We find that in the ranges of the astrometric and the velocity precisions with 1--30$\\mu$as and 0.1--10 km/s, an improvement in astrometric precision would be more effective in improving the quality of constraining the spin than an improvement in velocity precision. We obtain the parameter space of the semimaj...

  14. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and neutron-star-black-hole mergers from very massive close binaries at low metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Pablo; Langer, Norbert; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Tauris, Thomas M.; de Mink, Selma; Mandel, Ilya; Moriya, Takashi J.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole (BH) merger GW150914 may enlighten our understanding of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), as BHs of masses >30 M⊙ can reach luminosities >4 × 1039 erg s-1 without exceeding their Eddington luminosities. It is then important to study variations of evolutionary channels for merging BHs, which might instead form accreting BHs and become ULXs. It was recently shown that very massive binaries with mass ratios close to unity and tight orbits can undergo efficient rotational mixing and evolve chemically homogeneously, resulting in a compact BH binary. We study similar systems by computing 120 000 detailed binary models with the MESA code covering a wide range of masses, orbital periods, mass ratios, and metallicities. For initial mass ratios q ≡ M2/M1 ≃ 0.1-0.4, primaries with masses above 40 M⊙ can evolve chemically homogeneously, remaining compact and forming a BH without experiencing Roche-lobe overflow. The secondary then expands and transfers mass to the BH, initiating a ULX phase. At a given metallicity this channel is expected to produce the most massive accreting stellar BHs and the brightest ULXs. We predict that 1 out of 104 massive stars evolves this way, and that in the local universe 0.13 ULXs per M⊙ yr-1 of star formation rate are observable, with a strong preference for low metallicities. An additional channel is still required to explain the less luminous ULXs and the full population of high-mass X-ray binaries. At metallicities log Z> -3, BH masses in ULXs are limited to 60 M⊙, due to the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae which leave no remnant, resulting in an X-ray luminosity cut-off for accreting BHs. At lower metallicities, very massive stars can avoid exploding as pair-instability supernovae and instead form BHs with masses above 130 M⊙, producing a gap in the ULX luminosity distribution. After the ULX phase, neutron star BH binaries that merge in less than a

  15. Gravitational waves from a compact star in a circular, inspiral orbit, in the equatorial plane of a massive, spinning black hole, as observed by LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Lee Samuel; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-12-15

    Results are presented from high-precision computations of the orbital evolution and emitted gravitational waves for a stellar-mass object spiraling into a massive black hole in a slowly shrinking, circular, equatorial orbit. The focus of these computations is inspiral near the innermost stable circular orbit (isco) -- more particularly, on orbits for which the angular velocity {Omega} is 0.03{approx}<{Omega}/{Omega}{sub isco}{<=}1.0. The computations are based on the Teuksolsky-Sasaki-Nakamura formalism, and the results are tabulated in a set of functions that are of order unity and represent relativistic corrections to low-orbital-velocity formulas. These tables can form a foundation for future design studies for the LISA space-based gravitational-wave mission. A first survey of applications to LISA is presented: Signal to noise ratios S/N are computed and graphed as functions of the time-evolving gravitational-wave frequency for the lowest three harmonics of the orbital period, and for various representative values of the hole's mass M and spin a and the inspiraling object's mass {mu}, with the distance to Earth chosen to be r{sub o}=1 Gpc. These S/N's show a very strong dependence on the black-hole spin, as well as on M and {mu}. Graphs are presented showing the range of the {l_brace}M,a,{mu}{r_brace} parameter space, for which S/N>10 at r{sub 0}=1 Gpc during the last year of inspiral. The hole's spin a has a factor of {approx}10 influence on the range of M (at fixed {mu}) for which S/N>10, and the presence or absence of a white-dwarf--binary background has a factor of {approx}3 influence. A comparison with predicted event rates shows strong promise for detecting these waves, but not beyond about 1 Gpc if the inspiraling object is a white dwarf or neutron star. This argues for a modest lowering of LISA's noise floor. A brief discussion is given of the prospects for extracting information from the observed waves.

  16. A universal, post Big-Bang Nucleo-synthesis, pre-Galactic, origin of the Lithium (Spite) Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyed, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged abstract) We investigate the lithium plateau in the context of primordial dual-shock quark novae (dsQNe; i.e. a QN occurring a few days to a few weeks following the preceding SN explosion) going off in the wake of Pop. III stars. The neutron-rich relativistic QN ejecta leads to spallation of 56Ni processed in the ejecta of the preceding SN ejecta and thus to "iron impoverishment" of the primordial gas swept by dsQNe. We show that the generation of stars formed from fragmentation of pristine clouds swept-up by dsQNe acquire a metallicity with -7.5 2 (and up to [C/Fe] ~ 5) can be accounted for in our model for dsQNe with t_delay 10-11 days (i.e. [Fe/H] > -3). For shorter delays the temperature of the SN shell is too hot (> 2.5x10^6 K) for the spallated 7Li to survive. We find a corresponding 6Li plateau with 6Li/7Li < 0.3.

  17. A Census of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies: Coeval Star Formation and Rapid Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Fang, Jerome J; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used to dis- entangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid superm...

  18. Exploring the relationship between black-hole accretion and star-formation with blind mid-/far-infrared spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Lapi, A; Pozzi, F; Gruppioni, C; Danese, L

    2014-01-01

    We present new estimates of redshift-dependent luminosity functions of IR lines detectable by SPICA/SAFARI and excited both by star formation and by AGN activity. The new estimates improve over previous work by using updated evolutionary models and dealing in a self consistent way with emission of galaxies as a whole, including both the starburst and the AGN component. New relationships between line and AGN bolometric luminosity have been derived and those between line and IR luminosities of the starburst component have been updated. These ingredients were used to work out predictions for the source counts in 11 mid/far-IR emission lines partially or entirely excited by AGN activity. We find that the statistics of the emission line detection of galaxies as a whole is mainly determined by the star formation rate, because of the rarity of bright AGNs. We also find that the slope of the line integral number counts is flatter than 2 implying that the number of detections at fixed observing time increases more by ...

  19. NuSTAR reveals the extreme properties of the super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole in PG 1247+267

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Marinucci, A.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Vagnetti, F.; Vignali, C.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Piconcelli, E.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    PG1247+267 is one of the most luminous known quasars at z ~ 2 and is a strongly super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate. We obtained NuSTAR data of this intriguing source in December 2014 with the aim of studying its high-energy emission, leveraging the broad band covered by the new NuSTAR and the archival XMM-Newton data. Several measurements are in agreement with the super-Eddington scenario for PG1247+267: the soft power law (Γ = 2.3 ± 0.1); the weak ionized Fe emission line; and a hint of the presence of outflowing ionized gas surrounding the SMBH. The presence of an extreme reflection component is instead at odds with the high accretion rate proposed for this quasar. This can be explained with three different scenarios; all of them are in good agreement with the existing data, but imply very different conclusions: i) a variable primary power law observed in a low state, superimposed on a reflection component echoing a past, higher flux state; ii) a power law continuum obscured by an ionized, Compton thick, partial covering absorber; and iii) a relativistic disk reflector in a lamp-post geometry, with low coronal height and high BH spin. The first model is able to explain the high reflection component in terms of variability. The second does not require any reflection to reproduce the hard emission, while a rather low high-energy cutoff of ~100 keV is detected for the first time in such a high redshift source. The third model require a face-on geometry, which may affect the SMBH mass and Eddington ratio measurements. Deeper X-ray broad-band data are required in order to distinguish between these possibilities.

  20. Determination of masses of the central black holes in NGC524 and NGC2549 using Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnovic, Davor; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L

    2009-01-01

    [abridged] We present observations of NGC524 and NGC2549 with LGS AO obtained at GEMINI North telescope using the NIFS IFU in the K band. The purpose of these observations, together with previously obtained observations with the SAURON IFU, is to determine the masses (Mbh) of the supermassive black holes (SMBH). The targeted galaxies were chosen to have central light profiles showing a core (NGC524) and a cusp (NGC2549), to probe the feasibility of using the galaxy centre as the NGS required for LGS AO. We employ an innovative `open loop' technique. The data have spatial resolution of 0.23" and 0.17" FWHM, showing that high quality LGS AO observations of these objects are possible. We construct axisymmetric three-integral dynamical models which are constrained with both the NIFS and SAURON data. The best fitting models yield Mbh=(8.3 +2.7 -1.3) x 10^8 Msun for NGC524 and Mbh=(1.4 +0.2 -1.3) x 10^7 Msun for NGC2549 (all errors are at the 3 sigma CL). We demonstrate that the wide-field SAURON data play a crucia...

  1. Off-equatorial orbits in strong gravitational fields near compact objects -- II: halo motion around magnetic compact stars and magnetized black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovar, Jiri; Karas, Vladimir; Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1088/0264-9381/27/13/135006

    2010-01-01

    Off-equatorial circular orbits with constant latitudes (halo orbits) of electrically charged particles exist near compact objects. In the previous paper, we discussed this kind of motion and demonstrated the existence of minima of the two-dimensional effective potential which correspond to the stable halo orbits. Here, we relax previous assumptions of the pseudo-Newtonian approach for the gravitational field of the central body and study properties of the halo orbits in detail. Within the general relativistic approach, we carry out our calculations in two cases. Firstly, we examine the case of a rotating magnetic compact star. Assuming that the magnetic field axis and the rotation axis are aligned with each other, we study the orientation of motion along the stable halo orbits. In the poloidal plane, we also discuss shapes of the related effective potential halo lobes where the general off-equatorial motion can be bound. Then we focus on the halo orbits near a Kerr black hole immersed in an asymptotically uni...

  2. Extreme star formation in the host galaxies of the fastest growing super-massive black holes at z=4.8

    CERN Document Server

    Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Shemmer, Ohad; Lira, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    We report new Herschel observations of 25 z=4.8 extremely luminous optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Five of the sources have extremely large star forming (SF) luminosities, L_SF, corresponding to SF rates (SFRs) of 2800-5600 M_sol/yr assuming a Salpeter IMF. The remaining sources have only upper limits on their SFRs but stacking their Herschel images results in a mean SFR of 700 +/- 150 M_sol/yr. The higher SFRs in our sample are comparable to the highest observed values so far, at any redshift. Our sample does not contain obscured AGNs, which enables us to investigate several evolutionary scenarios connecting super-massive black holes and SF activity in the early universe. The most probable scenario is that we are witnessing the peak of SF activity in some sources and the beginning of the post-starburst decline in others. We suggest that all 25 sources, which are at their peak AGN activity, are in large mergers. AGN feedback may be responsible for diminishing the SF activity in 20 of them bu...

  3. The Pairing of Accreting Massive Black Holes in Multiphase Circumnuclear Disks: the Interplay between Radiative Cooling, Star Formation, and Feedback Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, Rafael Souza; Capelo, Pedro R; Bellovary, Jillian M

    2016-01-01

    We study the orbital decay of a pair of massive black holes (BHs), in the mass range 5 * 10^5 - 10^7 Msun, using a large set of hydrodynamical simulations of circumnuclear disks (CNDs) with varying prescriptions for the sub-grid physics of the interstellar medium, from star formation and supernova feedback to BH accretion and its feedback. In the absence of any of such processes, the orbit of the secondary BH in an adiabatic flow decays over timescales of a few Myr to the center of the CND, where the primary BH resides. As soon as strong dissipation operates in CNDs, fragmentation into massive objects the size of giant molecular clouds occurs, causing stochastic torques as well as direct hits that eject the secondary BH out of the disk plane. Once outside the plane, the low-density medium provides only weak drag, and the return to the CND plane is governed by inefficient dynamical friction in a stellar bulge. Ejections are seen to occur in nearly all of runs with cooling, irrespective of which other processes...

  4. Astronomy: Intermediate-mass black hole found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Kayhan

    2017-02-01

    The existence of medium-sized black holes has long been debated. Such an object has now been discovered in the centre of a dense cluster of stars, potentially enhancing our understanding of all black holes. See Letter p.203

  5. How to Distinguish Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray Binaries? Spectral Index and Quasi-Periodic Oscillation Frequency Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nickolai

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong correlations between 1-10 Hz frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) and the spectral power law index of several Black Hole (BH) candidate sources when seen in the low/hard state, the steep power-law (soft) state, and in transition between these states. In the soft state these index-QPO frequency correlations show a saturation of the photon index GAMMA approximately equal to 2.7 at high values of the low frequency nu(sub L). This saturation effect was previously identified as a black hole signature. In this paper we argue that this saturation does not occur, at least for one neutron star (NS) source 4U 1728-34, for which the index GAMMA monotonically increases with nu(sub L) to the values of 6 and higher. We base this conclusion on our analysis of approximately 1.5 Msec of RXTE archival data for 4U 1728-34. We reveal the spectral evolution of the Comptonized blackbody spectra when the source transitions from the hard to soft states. The hard state spectrum is a typical thermal Comptonization spectrum of the soft photons which originate in the disk and the NS outer photospheric layers. The hard state photon index is GAMMA approximately 2. The soft state spectrum consists of two blackbody components which are only slightly Comptonized. Thus we can claim (as expected from theory) that in NS sources thermal equilibrium is established for the soft state. To the contrary in BH sources, the equilibrium is never established due to the presence of the BH horizon. The emergent BH spectrum, even in the high/soft state, has a power law component. We also identify the low QPO frequency nu(sub L) as a fundamental frequency of the quasi-spherical component of the transition layer (presumably related to the corona and the NS and disk magnetic closed field lines). The lower frequency nu(sub SL) is identified as the frequency of oscillations of a quasi-cylindrical configuration of the TL (presumably related to the NS and disk magnetic

  6. Gravity Fields Generation In The Universe By The Large Range of Scales Convection Systems In Planets, Stars, Black Holes and Galaxies Based On The "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, H.; Amirshahkarami, A.; Gholibeigian, K.

    2015-12-01

    In our vision it is believed that the Big Bang was Convection Bang (CB). When CB occurred, a gigantic large-scale forced convection system (LFCS) began to create space-time including gravitons and gluons in more than light speed. Then, simultaneously by a swirling wild wind, created inflation process including many quantum convection loops (QCL) in locations which had more density of temperature and energetic particles like gravitons. QCL including fundamental particles, grew and formed black holes (BHs) as the core of galaxies. LFCSs of heat and mass in planets, stars, BHs and galaxies generate gravity and electromagnetic fields and change the properties of matter and space-time around the systems. Mechanism: Samples: 1- Due to gravity fields of Sun and Moon, Earth's inner core is dislocated toward them and rotates around the Earth's center per day and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [AGU, 2012]. 2- Dislocated Sun's core due to gravity fields of planets/ Jupiter, rotates around the Sun's center per 25-35 days and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [EGU, 2014]. 3- If a planet/star falls into a BH, what happens? It means, its dislocated core rotates around its center in less than light speed and generates very fast LFCS and friction, while it is rotating/melting around/inward the center of BH. Observable Factors: 1- There is not logical relation between surface gravity fields of planets/Sun and their masses (general relativity); see Planetary Fact Sheet/Ratio to Earth Values-NASA: Earth: mass/gravity =1/1, Jupiter=317.8/2.36, Neptune=17.1/1.12, Saturn=95.2/0.916, Moon=0.0128/0.166, Sun=333000/28. 2- Convective systems in thunderstorms help bring ozone down to Earth [Brian-Kahn]. 3- In 12 surveyed BHs, produced gravity force & magnetic field strength were matched (unique LFCS source) [PhysOrg - June 4, 2014]. Justification: After BB/CB, gravitons were created without any other masses and curvature of space-time (general relativity), but by primary gigantic convection

  7. Early Star Formation and Chemical Evolution in Proto-Galactic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, L; Mathews, G J; Saleh, Lamya; Beers, Timothy C.; Mathews, Grant J.

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical simulations to describe the evolution of pre-Galactic clouds in a model which is motivated by cold dark matter simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation. We adopt a SN-induced star-formation mechanism within a model that follows the evolution of chemical enrichment and energy input to the clouds by Type II and Type Ia supernovae. We utilize metallicity-dependent yields for all elements at all times, and include effects of finite stellar lifetimes. We derive the metallicity distribution functions for stars in the clouds, their age-metallicity relation, and relative elemental abundances for a number of alpha- and Fe-group elements. The stability of these clouds against destruction is discussed, and results are compared for different initial mass functions. We find that the dispersion of the metallicity distribution function observed in the outer halo is naturally reproduced by contributions from many clouds with different initial conditions. The predicted relative abundances of some alph...

  8. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  9. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  10. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  11. Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.

  12. Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.

  13. Investigating the Physics of Hard X-ray Outbursts from the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole Sagittarius A* with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic center supermassive black hole (SMBH) Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is remarkably underluminous with a bolometric luminosity about 10-9 times its Eddington luminosity. It is the closest SMBH and thus an ideal target for investigation of galactic nuclei and their activity cycles. This goal can be fulfilled by studying its current, past and possible future outbursts. Its current X-ray quiescent state, with a luminosity of LX ~ 1033 erg s-1, is punctuated by X-ray flares up to a few times 1035 erg s-1, whose origin is poorly understood. With 638.6 ks NuSTAR observation of Sgr A*, I collected nine X-ray flares which are detected up to 79 keV, and studied their timing behavior using the Bayesian block analysis. The broadband (3-79 keV) spectroscopic studies show that the X-ray flares can have a range of photon indexes, which can be explained by the magnetic reconnection scenario. During the flares, Sgr A* is still orders of magnitudes lower than its Eddington luminosity. Whether it has ever experienced more substantial increases in activity as observed in low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei is still under discussion. Indication of such past activity of Sgr A* has come from the Galactic center molecular clouds (GCMCs). I use the hard X-ray emission from Sgr B2, the densest GCMC, to constrain the past Sgr A* X-ray outburst, resulting in LX~5×1038 erg s-1 with a photon index of Γ=2.2±0.4. I also discovered different timing variability from different cloud substructures, which can further constrain the past Sgr A* outburst and the cloud structure. Future giant outburst from Sgr A* could be triggered by dust/gas infall. Although the G2 infall event has not caused any increased X-ray activity from Sgr A*, there has been evidence that it caused flare behavior changes. Ongoing hard X-ray monitoring of Sgr A* will address this remaining puzzle.

  14. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  15. Starchild Presents...StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers. Black Holes. An Information and Activity Booklet. Grades K-8, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    The information provided in this booklet is meant to give the necessary background information so that the science of black holes can be taught confidently to elementary students. The featured activities can be used to engage and excite students about the topic of black holes in different disciplines and in a number of ways. Activities include:…

  16. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  17. Seeding Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass -- velocity dispersion relation, and the size -- velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is 10^3Msun, which is orders of magnitude smaller than has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  18. Multi-resonance orbital model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations: possible high-precision determination of black hole and neutron star spin

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Torok, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Using known frequencies of the twin-peak high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HF QPOs) and known mass of the central black hole, the black-hole dimensionless spin can be determined by assuming a concrete version of the resonance model. However, a wide range of observationally limited values of the black hole mass implies low precision of the spin estimates. We discuss the possibility of higher precision of the black hole spin measurements in the framework of a multi-resonance model inspired by observations of more than two HF QPOs in the black hole systems, which are expected to occur at two (or more) different radii of the accretion disc. For the black hole systems we focus on the special case of duplex frequencies, when the top, bottom, or mixed frequency is common at two different radii where the resonances occur giving triple frequency sets. The sets of triple frequency ratios and the related spin are given. The strong resonance model for "magic" values of the black hole spin means that two (or more...

  19. Black Hole Formation and Growth: Simulations in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Stuart L

    2007-01-01

    Black holes are popping up all over the place: in compact binary X-ray sources and GRBs, in quasars, AGNs and the cores of all bulge galaxies, in binary black holes and binary black hole-neutron stars, and maybe even in the LHC! Black holes are strong-field objects governed by Einstein's equations of general relativity. Hence general relativistic, numerical simulations of dynamical phenomena involving black holes may help reveal ways in which black holes can form, grow and be detected in the universe. To convey the state-of-the art, we summarize several representative simulations here, including the collapse of a hypermassive neutron star to a black hole following the merger of a binary neutron star, the magnetorotational collapse of a massive star to a black hole, and the formation and growth of supermassive black hole seeds by relativistic MHD accretion in the early universe.

  20. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  1. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  2. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  3. Evolution of Debris of a Tidally Disrupted Star by a Massive Black Hole Development of a Hybrid Scheme of the SPH and TVD Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H M; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the stellar debris after tidal disruption due to the super massive black hole's tidal force is difficult to solve numerically because of the large dynamical range of the problem. We developed an SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) - TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) hybrid code in which the SPH is used to cover a widely spread debris and the TVD is used to compute the stream collision more accurately. While the code in the present form is not sufficient to obtain desired resoultion, it could provide a useful tool in studying the aftermath of the stellar disruption by a massive black hole.

  4. The lithium isotopic ratio in very metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt

    2013-01-01

    Un-evolved, very metal-poor stars are the most important tracers of the cosmic abundance of lithium in the early universe. Combining the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis model with Galactic production through cosmic ray spallation, these stars at [Fe/H]<-2 are expected to show an undetectably small 6Li/7Li isotopic signature. Evidence to the contrary may necessitate an additional pre-galactic production source or a revision of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We revisit the isotopic analysis of four halo stars, two with claimed 6Li-detections in the literature, to investigate the influence of improved model atmospheres and line formation treatment. For the first time, a combined 3D, NLTE (non-local thermodynamic equilibrium) modelling technique for Li, Na, and Ca lines is utilised to constrain the intrinsic line-broadening and to determine the Li isotopic ratio. We discuss the influence of 3D NLTE effects on line profile shapes and assess the realism of our modelling using the Ca excitation...

  5. 6Li/7Li estimates for metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, A E Garcia; Inoue, S; Ryan, S G; Suzuki, T K; Chiba, M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of the lithium-6 isotope in some metal-poor stars is a matter of surprise because of the high values observed. Non-standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and pre-Galactic cosmic ray fusion and spallation have been proposed to explain these values. However, the observations of this light isotope are challenging which may make some detections disputable. The goal was to determine 6Li/7Li for a sample of metal-poor stars; three of them have been previously studied and the remaining two are new for this type of study. The purpose was to increase, if possible, the number of lithium-6 detections and to confirm previously published results. Spectra of the resonance doublet line of neutral lithium Li I 670.78nm were taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2m-telescope for a sample of five metal-poor stars (-3.12 < [Fe/H] < -2.19). The contribution of lithium-6 to the total observed line profile was estimated from the 1D-LTE analysis of the line asymmetry. Observed asymmetri...

  6. Black Holes and Pulsars in the Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orear, Jay; Salpeter, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes from dying stars for the purpose of providing college teachers with materials usable in the introductory physics course. (CC)

  7. The Assembly and Merging History of Supermassive Black Holes in Hierarchical Models of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M; Madau, A F P; Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    We assess models for the assembly of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of galaxies that trace their hierarchical build-up far up in the dark halo `merger tree'. We assume that the first `seed' black holes (BHs) formed in (mini)halos collapsing at z=20 from high-sigma density fluctuations. As these pregalactic holes become incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, they sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become supermassive, form a binary system, and eventually coalesce. The merger history of dark matter halos and associated BHs is followed by cosmological Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy. A simple model, where quasar activity is driven by major mergers and SMBHs accrete at the Eddington rate a mass that scales with the fifth power of the velocity dispersion, is shown to reproduce the optical LF of quasars in the redshift range 1

  8. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  9. Stars a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Stars: A Very Short Introduction looks at how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, leaving remnants such as black holes. Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. Understanding stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, the existence of planets, and the history of our entire Universe. This VSI explores the science of stars, the mechanisms that allow them to form, the processes that allow them to shine, and the results of their death.

  10. Black Holes in Hawking's New Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn Johnson; 张凯华

    2004-01-01

    @@ Stephan Hawking, the physicist, says he was wrong about his long-held idea about black holes, backing off① a theory that had raised the possibility that the collapsed stars were swallowing information and sending it to alternate② universes.

  11. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  12. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  13. The Superluminous Transient ASASSN-15lh as a Tidal Disruption Event from a Kerr Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Leloudas, G; Stone, N C; van Velzen, S; Jonker, P G; Arcavi, I; Fremling, C; Maund, J R; Smartt, S J; Kruhler, T; Miller-Jones, J C A; Vreeswijk, P M; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P A; De Cia, A; Howell, D A; Inserra, C; Patat, F; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Yaron, O; Ashall, C; Bar, I; Campbell, H; Chen, T -W; Childress, M; Elias-Rosa, N; Harmanen, J; Hosseinzadeh, G; Johansson, J; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kim, S; Kuncarayakti, H; Lyman, J; Magee, M R; Maguire, K; Malesani, D; Mattila, S; McCully, C V; Nicholl, M; Prentice, S; Romero-Canizales, C; Schulze, S; Smith, K W; Sollerman, J; Sullivan, M; Tucker, B E; Valenti, S; Wheeler, J C; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    When a star passes within the tidal radius of a supermassive black hole, it will be torn apart. For a star with the mass of the Sun and a non-spinning black hole with a mass $ 10^8 M_\\odot$, a solar-mass star could be disrupted outside the event horizon if the black hole were spinning rapidly. The rapid spin and high black hole mass can explain the high luminosity of this event.

  14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gualandris, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of galactic nuclei reflects the presence of supermassive black holes (SBHs) in many ways. Single SBHs act as sinks, destroying a mass in stars equal to their own mass in roughly one relaxation time and forcing nuclei to expand. Formation of binary SBHs displaces a mass in stars roughly equal to the binary mass, creating low-density cores and ejecting hyper-velocity stars. Gravitational radiation recoil can eject coalescing binary SBHs from nuclei, resulting in offset SBHs and lopsided cores. We review recent work on these mechanisms and discuss the observable consequences.

  15. Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.

  16. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  17. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Lewis

    1973-01-01

    The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)

  18. Building Cosmological Frozen Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David

    2016-01-01

    Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) spacetimes generalize the Schwarzschild solution to include a massless scalar field. Although suffering from naked singularities, they share the `frozen star' features of Schwarzschild black holes. Cosmological versions of the JNW spacetimes were discovered some time ago by Husain, Martinez and Nunez and by Fonarev. Unlike Schwarzschild-deSitter black holes, these solutions are dynamical, and the scarcity of exact solutions for dynamical black holes in cosmological backgrounds motivates their further study. Here we show how the cosmological JNW spacetimes can be built, starting from simpler, static, higher dimensional, vacuum `JNW brane' solutions via two different generalized dimensional reduction schemes that together cover the full range of JNW parameter space. Cosmological versions of a BPS limit of charged dilaton black holes are also known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the charged, dilaton black hole family. We expect that understanding this second da...

  19. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  20. NuSTAR and SWIFT Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1908+094 during its 2013 Outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Lian; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    : the spectra show a broad relativistic iron line, and the light curves reveal a similar to 40 ks flare, with the count rate peaking about 40% above the non-flare level and with significant spectral variation. A model combining a multi-temperature thermal component, a power law, and a reflection component...... with an iron line provides a good description of the NuSTAR spectrum. Although relativistic broadening of the iron line is observed, it is not possible to constrain the BH spin with these data. The variability of the power-law component, which can also be modeled as a Comptonization component, is responsible...... for the flux and spectral change during the flare, suggesting that changes in the corona (or possibly continued jet activity) are the likely cause of the flare....

  1. NuSTAR reveals the extreme properties of the super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole in PG 1247+267

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.;

    2016-01-01

    band covered by the new NuSTAR and the archival XMM-Newton data. Several measurements are in agreement with the super-Eddington scenario for PG1247+267: the soft power law (Gamma = 2.3 +/- 0.1); the weak ionized Fe emission line; and a hint of the presence of outflowing ionized gas surrounding the SMBH...... observed in a low state, superimposed on a reflection component echoing a past, higher flux state; ii) a power law continuum obscured by an ionized, Compton thick, partial covering absorber; and iii) a relativistic disk reflector in a lamp-post geometry, with low coronal height and high BH spin. The first...... a face-on geometry, which may affect the SMBH mass and Eddington ratio measurements. Deeper X-ray broad-band data are required in order to distinguish between these possibilities....

  2. Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.

  3. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  4. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  5. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from...

  6. No evidence for Population III stars or a Direct Collapse Black Hole in the z = 6.6 Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter 'CR7'

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; Dunlop, J S; McLeod, D J; Stanway, E R; Eldridge, J J; Jarvis, M J

    2016-01-01

    The z = 6.6 Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter 'CR7' has been claimed to have a Population III-like stellar population, or alternatively, be a candidate Direct Collapse Black Hole (DCBH). In this paper we investigate the evidence for these exotic scenarios using recently available, deeper, optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging. We find strong Spitzer/IRAC detections for the main component of CR7 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, and show that it has a blue colour ([3.6] - [4.5] $= -1.2\\pm 0.3$). This colour cannot be reproduced by current Pop. III or pristine DCBH models. Instead, the results suggest that the [3.6] band is contaminated by the [OIII]4959,5007 emission line with an implied rest-frame equivalent width of EW_0 (H$\\beta$ + [OIII]) $\\gtrsim 2000$\\AA. Furthermore, we find that new near-infrared data from the UltraVISTA survey supports a weaker He II 1640 emission line than previously measured, with EW_0 $= 40 \\pm 30$\\AA. For the fainter components of CR7 visible in Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we find no evi...

  7. Highlighting XMM-Newton's Role in Time Domain Studies of Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray binaries in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, S.; Yang, J.; Cappallo, R.; Christodoulou, D.; Steiner, J.

    2016-09-01

    XMM-Newton's combination of large effective area, superior event timing, and wide field imaging have provided a powerful capability for time-domain studies of nearby X-ray binary populations. In its first 15 years XMM has accomplished groundbreaking monitoring surveys for X-ray binaries; complemented by RXTE, Chandra, and Nustar. Over the next decade XMM's capabilities will complement a new generation of missions including Astrosat, Hitomi, and NICER. This paper highlights the role of XMM-Newton in combination with other missions, in exploring the HMXB populations of the Small Magellanic Cloud and IC 10. Both are nearby dwarf starburst galaxies, yet their ages and evolutionary scenarios are very different, the consequences of which have led to contrasting X-ray binary populations. In the SMC the definitive sample of X-ray binary pulsars assembled by RXTE is revealing fundamental accretion physics when probed by XMM. Finding and characterizing IC 10's youthful X-ray binaries required the combination of XMM together with Chandra and Nustar. Key results include the revelatory finding of an X-ray irradiated wind masking the mass-function in the WR+BH binary X-1 and the measurement of the BH's spin. Such studies have wide relevance to stellar/galactic evolution, implications for black hole masses and formation channels for BH+BH binaries.

  8. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  9. Evolution of Nuclear Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, David

    2008-01-01

    Two-body relaxation times of nuclear star clusters are short enough that gravitational encounters should substantially affect their structure in 10 Gyr or less. In nuclear star clusters without massive black holes, dynamical evolution is a competition between core collapse, which causes densities to increase, and heat input from the surrounding galaxy, which causes densities to decrease. The maximum extent of a nucleus that can resist expansion is derived numerically for a wide range of initial conditions; observed nuclei are shown to be compact enough to resist expansion, although there may have been an earlier generation of low-density nuclei that were dissolved. An evolutionary model for NGC 205 is presented which suggests that the nucleus of this galaxy has already undergone core collapse. Adding a massive black hole to a nucleus inhibits core collapse, and nuclear star clusters with black holes always expand, due primarily to heat input from the galaxy. The expansion rate is smaller for larger black hole...

  10. The co-evolution of black hole growth and star formation from a cross-correlation analysis between quasars and the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingyu; Ross, Nicholas P; Asboth, Viktoria; Bethermin, Matthieu; Bock, Jamie; Clements, Dave; Conley, Alex; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Hajian, Amir; Han, Jiaxin; Lagache, Guilaine; Marsden, Gaelen; Myers, Adam; Norberg, Peder; Oliver, Seb; Page, Mat; Symeonidis, Myrto; Schulz, Bernhard; Wang, Wenting; Zemcov, Mike

    2014-01-01

    We present the first cross-correlation measurement between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Type 1 quasars and the cosmic infrared background (CIB) measured by Herschel. The distribution of the quasars at 0.15=1.4) is $11.1^{+1.6}_{-1.4}$, $7.1^{+1.6}_{-1.3}$ and $3.6^{+1.4}_{-1.0}$ mJy at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively, while the mean sub-mm flux densities of the DR9 quasars (=2.5) is $5.7^{+0.7}_{-0.6}$, $5.0^{+0.8}_{-0.7}$ and $1.8^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$ mJy. We find that the correlated sub-mm emission includes both the emission from satellite DSFGs in the same halo as the central quasar and the emission from DSFGs in separate halos (correlated with the quasar-hosting halo). The amplitude of the one-halo term is ~10 times smaller than the sub-mm emission of the quasars, implying the the satellites have a lower star-formation rate than the quasars. The satellite fraction for the DR7 quasars is $0.008^{+0.008}_{-0.005}$ and the host halo mass scale for the central and satellite quasars is $10^{12.36\\pm0.87}$ ...

  11. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  12. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  13. No evidence for Population III stars or a Direct Collapse Black Hole in the z = 6.6 Lyman-α emitter 'CR7'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R. A. A.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLeod, D. J.; Stanway, E. R.; Eldridge, J. J.; Jarvis, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    The z = 6.6 Lyman α emitter 'CR7' has been claimed to have a Population III (Pop III) like stellar population, or alternatively, be a candidate direct collapse black hole (DCBH). In this paper, we investigate the evidence for these exotic scenarios using recently available, deeper, optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging. We find strong Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera detections for the main component of CR7 at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and show that it has a blue colour ([3.6] - [4.5] = -1.2 ± 0.3). This colour cannot be reproduced by current Pop III or pristine DCBH models. Instead, the results suggest that the [3.6] band is contaminated by the [O iii]λλ 4959, 5007 emission line with an implied rest-frame equivalent width of EW0(H β + [O iii]) ≳ 2000 Å. Furthermore, we find that new near-infrared data from the UltraVISTA survey supports a weaker He ii λ1640 emission line than previously measured, with EW0 = 40 ± 30 Å. For the fainter components of CR7 visible in Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we find no evidence that they are particularly red as previously claimed, and show that the derived masses and ages are considerably uncertain. In light of the likely detection of strong [O iii] emission in CR7, we discuss other more standard interpretations of the system that are consistent with the data. We find that a low-mass, narrow-line active galactic nucleus can reproduce the observed features of CR7, including the lack of radio and X-ray detections. Alternatively, a young, low-metallicity (˜1/200 Z⊙) starburst, modelled including binary stellar pathways, can reproduce the inferred strength of the He ii line and simultaneously the strength of the observed [O iii] emission, but only if the gas shows supersolar α-element abundances (O/Fe ≃ 5 (O/Fe)⊙).

  14. Hair of astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem is not applicable to black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar), where \\Phi_\\infty is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that...

  15. Black holes and warped spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1979-01-01

    Black holes (BHs) and their warping effect on spacetime are described, beginning with a discussion on stellar evolution that includes white dwarfs, supernovas and neutron stars. The structure of static, rotating, and electrically charged BHs are considered, as well as the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Rosen bridge, and wormholes in spacetime. Attention is also given to gravitational lenses, various space geometries, quasars, Seyfert galaxies, supermassive black holes, the evaporation and particle emission of BHs, and primordial BHs, including their temperature and lifetime.

  16. Finding Free-Floating Black Holes using Astrometric Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jessica R.; Ofek, Eran Oded; Sinukoff, Evan; Udalski, Andrzej; Kozlowski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Our Galaxy most likely hosts 10-100 million stellar mass black holes. The exact number and mass function of these black holes contains important information regarding our Galaxy's star formation history, stellar mass function, and the fate of very massive stars. However, isolated stellar black holes have yet to be detected. To date, stellar mass black holes have only been definitively detected in binary systems with accreting companions or merging to produce gravitational waves. In principle, the presence of isolated black holes can be inferred from astrometric and photometric signatures produced when they lens light from a background star. We attempt to detect the astrometric lensing signatures of several photometrically identified microlensing events, toward the Galactic Bulge. Long-duration events (t_Einstein > 100 days) were selected as the most likely black hole candidates and were observed using several years of laser-guided adaptive optics observations from the W. M. Keck telescopes. We present results from this search.

  17. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  18. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  19. A New Signature of Dark Matter Annihilations: Gamma-Rays from Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Silk, J; Bertone, Gianfranco; Zentner, Andrew R.; Silk, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma-rays from Dark Matter (DM) annihilations in enhancements of the DM density (mini-spikes) around intermediate-mass black holes with masses in the range $10^2 \\lsim M / \\msun \\lsim 10^6$. Focusing on two different IMBH formation scenarios, we show that, for typical values of mass and cross section of common DM candidates, mini-spikes, produced by the adiabatic growth of DM around pregalactic IMBHs, would be bright sources of gamma-rays, which could be easily detected with large field-of-view gamma-ray experiments such as GLAST, and further studied with smaller field-of-view, larger-area experiments like Air Cherenkov Telescopes CANGAROO, HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS. The detection of many gamma-ray sources not associated with a luminous component of the Local Group, and with identical cut-offs in their energy spectra at the mass of the DM particle, would provide a potential smoking-gun signature of DM annihilations and shed new light on the nature of intermediate and superm...

  20. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  1. Black Hole Spectroscopy: Testing General Relativity through Gravitational Wave Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Krishnan, B; Finn, L S; Garrison, D; López-Aleman, R; Dreyer, Olaf; Kelly, Bernard; Krishnan, Badri; Finn, Lee Samuel; Garrison, David; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity in the strong field limit, can gravitational wave observations distinguish between black hole and other compact object sources? Alternatively, can gravitational wave observations provide a test of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity? Here we describe a definitive test of the hypothesis that observations of damped, sinusoidal gravitational waves originated from a black hole or, alternatively, that nature respects the general relativistic no-hair theorem. For astrophysical black holes, which have a negligible charge-to-mass ratio, the black hole quasi-normal mode spectrum is characterized entirely by the black hole mass and angular momentum and is unique to black holes. In a different theory of gravity, or if the observed radiation arises from a different source (e.g., a neutron star, strange matter or boson star), the spectrum will be inconsistent with that predicted for general relativistic black holes. We give a statistica...

  2. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  3. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-08-16

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  4. Slender Galaxy with Robust Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a flat, spiral galaxy called NGC 3621 has a feeding, supermassive black hole lurking within it -- a surprise considering that astronomers thought this particular class of super-thin galaxies lacked big black holes. The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that cracks infrared light open to reveal the signatures of elements. In this case, the data, or spectrum, for NGC 3621, shows the signature of highly ionized neon -- a sure sign of an active, supermassive black hole. Only a black hole that is actively consuming gas and stars has enough energy to ionize neon to this state. The other features in this plot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorine, produced in the gas surrounding stars. The results challenge current theories, which hold that supermassive black holes require the bulbous central bulges that poke out from many spiral galaxies to form and grow. NGC 3621 is the second disk galaxy without any bulge found to harbor a supermassive black hole; the first, found in 2003, is NGC 4395. Astronomers have also used Spitzer to find six other mega black holes in thin spirals with only minimal bulges. Together, the findings indicate that, for a galaxy, being plump in the middle is not a necessary condition for growing a rotund black hole.

  5. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes, or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth only hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Here we focus on searches for black holes with masses of 10^4-10^6 solar masses that are found at galaxy centers. We will refer to black holes in this mass range as "low-mass" black holes, since they are at the low-mass end of supermassive black holes. We review the searches for low-mass black holes to date and show tentative evidence, from the number of low-mass black holes that are ...

  6. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  7. Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then

  8. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  9. Primordial black holes in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that significant numbers of medium-mass back holes (of order 10 solar masses) should form in globular clusters during the early stages of their evolution. Here we explore the dynamical and observational consequences of the presence of such a primordial black-hole population in a globular cluster. The holes initially segregate to the cluster cores, where they form binary and multiple black-hole systems. The subsequent dynamical evolution of the black-hole population ejects most of the holes on a relatively short timescale: a typical cluster will retain between zero and four black holes in its core, and possibly a few black holes in its halo. The presence of binary, triple, and quadruple black-hole systems in cluster cores will disrupt main-sequence and giant stellar binaries; this may account for the observed anomalies in the distribution of binaries in globular clusters. Furthermore, tidal interactions between a multiple black-hole system and a red giant star can remove much of the red giant's stellar envelope, which may explain the puzzling absence of larger red giants in the cores of some very dense clusters.

  10. Dark Stars: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Dark Stars (DS) are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of ordinary atomic material but powered by the heat from Dark Matter (DM) annihilation (rather than by fusion). Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for DM, can be their own antimatter and can accumulate inside the star, with their annihilation products thermalizing with and heating the DS. The resulting DSs are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium. The first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. Though DM constituted only $10^6 M_\\odot$), very bright ($>10^9 L_\\odot$), and potentially detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Once the DM runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus DSs can provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The curre...

  11. Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that

  12. Approximate Universal Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia ($I$), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment ($Q$), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astroph...

  13. Early Star Formation, Nucleosynthesis, and Chemical Evolution in Proto-Galactic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, L; Mathews, G J

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical simulations to describe the nucleosynthesis and evolution of pre-Galactic clouds in a model which is motivated by cold dark matter simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation. We adopt a SN-induced star-formation mechanism and follow the chemical enrichment and energy input by Type II and Type Ia SNe. We utilize metallicity-dependent yields and include finite stellar lifetimes. We derive the metallicity distribution functions, the age-metallicity relation, and relative elemental abundances for a number of alpha- and Fe-group elements. We find that the dispersion of the metallicity distribution function of the outer halo is reproduced by contributions from clouds with different initial conditions. Clouds with initial masses greater than that of present globular clusters are found to survive the first 0.1 Gyr, suggesting that such systems may have contributed to the formation of the first stars, and could have been self-enriched. More massive clouds are only stable when one assumes an init...

  14. Lilienfeld Prize Talk: How do massive black holes grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei evolve in symbiosis with their hosts. This paper will review how they grow, with particular emphasis on mergers, and on the complex phenomena associated with the tidal capture and disruption of stars.

  15. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  16. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. Using the observed BH mass distribution from Galactic X-ray binaries, we derive the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, $P_{\\rm BH}(M_{\\rm ZAMS})$. We explore possible biases in the observed BH mass distribution and find that this sample is best suited for studying BH formation in stars with ZAMS masses in the range $12-...

  17. The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baykal, Altan; Inam, Sitki C; Grebenev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Neutron stars hold a central place in astrophysics, not only because they are made up of the most extreme states of the condensed matter, but also because they are, along with white dwarfs and black holes, one of the stable configurations that stars reach at the end of stellar evolution. Neutron stars posses the highest rotation rates and strongest magnetic fields among all stars. They radiate prolifically, in high energy electromagnetic radiation and in the radio band. This book is devoted to the selected lectures presented in the 6th NATO-ASI series entitled "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars" in Marmaris, Turkey, on 7-18 June 2004. This ASI is devoted to the spectral properties of neutron stars. Spectral observations of neutron stars help us to understand the magnetospheric emission processes of isolated radio pulsars and the emission processes of accreting neutron stars. This volume includes spectral information from the neutron stars in broadest sense, namely neutrino and gravitational radiat...

  18. Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  19. Gravitational Lensing of Pregalactic 21 cm Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalf, R Benton

    2008-01-01

    Low-frequency radio observations of neutral hydrogen during and before the epoch of cosmic reionization will provide hundreds of quasi-independent source planes, each of precisely known redshift, if a resolution of ~ 1 arcminutes or better can be attained. These planes can be used to reconstruct the projected mass distribution of foreground material. A wide-area survey of 21 cm lensing would provide very sensitive constraints on cosmological parameters, in particular on dark energy. These are up to 20 times tighter than the constraints obtainable from comparably sized, very deep surveys of galaxy lensing although the best constraints come from combining data of the two types. Any radio telescope capable of mapping the 21cm brightness temperature with good frequency resolution (~ 0.05 MHz) over a band of width ~> 10 MHz should be able to make mass maps of high quality. If the reionization epoch is at z ~ 9 very large amounts of cosmological information will be accessible. The planned Square Kilometer Array (SK...

  20. Quiescence correlates strongly with directly-measured black hole mass in central galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Terrazas, Bryan A; Henriques, Bruno M B; White, Simon D M; Cattaneo, Andrea; Woo, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Roughly half of all stars reside in galaxies without significant ongoing star formation. However, galaxy formation models indicate that it is energetically challenging to suppress the cooling of gas and the formation of stars in galaxies that lie at the centers of their dark matter halos. In this Letter, we show that the dependence of quiescence on black hole and stellar mass is a powerful discriminant between differing models for the mechanisms that suppress star formation. Using observations of 91 star-forming and quiescent central galaxies with directly-measured black hole masses, we find that quiescent galaxies host more massive black holes than star-forming galaxies with similar stellar masses. This observational result is in qualitative agreement with models that assume that effective, more-or-less continuous AGN feedback suppresses star formation, strongly suggesting the importance of the black hole in producing quiescence in central galaxies.

  1. Quiescence Correlates Strongly with Directly Measured Black Hole Mass in Central Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Bryan A.; Bell, Eric F.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.; White, Simon D. M.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Woo, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Roughly half of all stars reside in galaxies without significant ongoing star formation. However, galaxy formation models indicate that it is energetically challenging to suppress the cooling of gas and the formation of stars in galaxies that lie at the centers of their dark matter halos. In this Letter, we show that the dependence of quiescence on black hole and stellar mass is a powerful discriminant between differing models for the mechanisms that suppress star formation. Using observations of 91 star-forming and quiescent central galaxies with directly measured black hole masses, we find that quiescent galaxies host more massive black holes than star-forming galaxies with similar stellar masses. This observational result is in qualitative agreement with models that assume that effective, more-or-less continuous active galactic nucleus feedback suppresses star formation, strongly suggesting the importance of the black hole in producing quiescence in central galaxies.

  2. Star formation near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Tan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La acreción de los agujeros negros supermasivos y la formación estelar parecen estar íntimamente relacionados. Evaluó la evidencia teórica y observable de esta afirmación y expongo como estudios específicos de dos sistemas, nuestro Centro Galáctico y el núcleo de M87, pueden ayudarnos a comprender mejor estos procesos.

  3. Black hole-neutron star mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un estudio num erico de la interacci on hidrodin amica en una binaria compacta formada por un agujero negro y una estrella de neutrones, cuando la separaci on es del orden del radio de la estrella. Utilizamos un formalismo Lagrangiano con un programa Newtoniano de hidrodin amica de part culas en tres dimensiones. El agujero negro se modela como una masa puntual con una frontera absorbente en el radio de Schwarzschild. Las condiciones iniciales corresponden a binarias irrotacionales en equilibrio, y simulamos la evoluci on del sistema durante aproximadamente 23 ms. El resultado de la interacci on depende fuertemente de la compresibilidad del gas, y se forma un disco de acreci on alrededor del agujero negro, conteniendo algunas d ecimas de masa solar. Al mismo tiempo, hasta 0.1 masas solares son eyectadas del sistema. Nuestros resultados muestran que estos sistemas son buenos candidatos para la producci on de destellos de rayos gamma.

  4. Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T

    2009-09-11

    A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes.

  5. Black hole foraging: feedback drives feeding

    CERN Document Server

    Dehnen, Walter

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back towards the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (i) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (ii) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (iii) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (iv) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible fl...

  6. Black Hole Based Tests of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some impor...

  7. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  8. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  9. Stability properties of Q-stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, R. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Bernal, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, AP 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman, F.S. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx; Nucamendi, U. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-12-06

    We present the evolution of Q-star configurations using numerical methods. We solve the full Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of equations and show that: Q-stars can be stable and unstable. The unstable branch is two fold: configurations with negative binding energy that collapse and form black holes, and others with positive binding energy that explode and release the scalar field.

  10. Stability properties of Q-stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, R.; Bernal, A.; Guzmán, F. S.; Nucamendi, U.

    2007-12-01

    We present the evolution of Q-star configurations using numerical methods. We solve the full Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of equations and show that: Q-stars can be stable and unstable. The unstable branch is two fold: configurations with negative binding energy that collapse and form black holes, and others with positive binding energy that explode and release the scalar field.

  11. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be eectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate...... in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates....

  12. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kouvaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be effectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates.

  13. Collapse of axion stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  14. Collapse of axion stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L.C.R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  15. Bubbles and holes in the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHulst, JM; Skillman, ED

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the HI in nearby galaxies now clearly begin to show the effects of star formation on the interstellar medium. Holes, filaments, expanding motions and other anomalous velocity signatures are clearly apparent in sensitive observations of the HI in nearby galaxies. A global relation with the

  16. Black hole hunting in the Andromeda Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Kolb, U C; Haswell, C A

    2004-01-01

    We present a new technique for identifying stellar mass black holes in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and apply it to XMM-Newton observations of M31. We examine X-ray time series variability seeking power density spectra (PDS) typical of LMXBs accreting at a low accretion rate (which we refer to as Type A PDS); these are very similar for black hole and neutron star LMXBs. Galactic neutron star LMXBs exhibit Type A PDS at low luminosities (~10^36--10^37 erg/s) while black hole LMXBs can exhibit them at luminosities >10^38 erg/s. We propose that Type A PDS are confined to luminosities below a critical fraction of the Eddington limit, $l_c$ that is constant for all LMXBs; we have examined asample of black hole and neutron star LMXBs and find they are all consistent with $l_c$ = 0.10+/-0.04 in the 0.3--10 keV band. We present luminosity and PDS data from 167 observations of X-ray binaries in M31 that provide strong support for our hypothesis. Since the theoretical maximum mass for a neutron star is \\~3.1 M_Sun,...

  17. Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe

  18. Kronos: Mapping Black Hole Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. M.; Kronos Science Team

    2001-12-01

    Kronos initiates a new era in astrophysics, fully opening the domain of time to astrophysical study. By using the natural variability of accreting sources, Kronos creates microarcsecond maps of the environments of supermassive black holes in galaxies and stellar-size black holes in binary systems and characterizes accretion processes in Galactic compact binaries. Kronos will obtain broad energy range spectroscopic data with co-aligned X-ray, ultraviolet, and visible spectrometers. The high-Earth orbit of Kronos enables well-sampled high time-resolution observations, critical for the innovative and sophisticated methods that are used to understand the accretion flows, mass outflows, jets, and other phenomena found in accreting sources. By utilizing reverberation mapping analysis techniques, Kronos produces advanced maps of unprecedented resolution of the extreme environment in the inner cores of active galaxies. Similarly, Doppler tomography and eclipse mapping techniques characterize and map Galactic binary systems, revealing the details of the physics of accretion processes in black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf binary systems. The Kronos instrument complement, sensitivity, and orbital environment make it suitable to aggressively address time variable phenomena in a wide range of astronomical objects from nearby flare stars to distant galaxies.

  19. Iron Kα line of Proca stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianling; Zhou, Menglei; Bambi, Cosimo; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen

    2017-08-01

    X-ray reflection spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Extending previous work on Kerr black holes with scalar hair [1] and on boson stars [2], here we study whether astrophysical black hole candidates may be horizonless, self-gravitating, vector Bose-Einstein condensates, known as Proca stars [3]. We find that observations with current X-ray missions can only provide weak constraints and rule out solely Proca stars with low compactness. There are two reasons. First, at the moment we do not know the geometry of the corona, and therefore the uncertainty in the emissivity profile limits the ability to constrain the background metric. Second, the photon number count is low even in the case of a bright black hole binary, and we cannot have a precise measurement of the spectrum.

  20. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  1. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  2. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  3. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  4. Revisiting Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Could dark matter be made of intermediate-mass black holes formed in the beginning of the universe? A recent study takes a renewed look at this question.Galactic LurkersThe nature of dark matter has long been questioned, but the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has renewed interest in the possibility that dark matter could consist of primordial black holes in the mass range of 101000 solar masses.The relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up roughly 27%. [ESA/Planck]According to this model, the extreme density of matter present during the universes early expansion led to the formation of a large number of intermediate-mass black holes. These black holes now hide in the halos of galaxies, constituting the mass that weve measured dynamically but remains unseen.LIGOs first gravitational-wave detection revealed the merger of two black holes that were both tens of solar masses in size. If primordial black holes are indeed a major constituent of dark matter, then LIGOs detection is consistent with what we would expect to find: occasional mergers of the intermediate-mass black holes that formed in the early universe and now lurk in galactic halos.Quasar MicrolensingTheres a catch, however. If there truly were a large number of intermediate-mass primordial black holes hiding in galactic halos, they wouldnt go completely unnoticed: we would see signs of their presence in the gravitational microlensing of background quasars. Unseen primordial black holes in a foreground galaxy could cause an image of a background quasar to briefly brighten which would provide us with clear evidence of such black holes despite our not being able to detect them directly.A depiction of quasar microlensing (click for a closer look!). The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. [NASA

  5. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  6. Supernovae powered by magnetars that transform into black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J; Blinnikov, Sergei I

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) can release their enormous rotational energy via magnetic spin-down, providing a power source for bright transients such as superluminous supernovae. On the other hand, particularly massive (so-called supramassive) neutron stars require a minimum rotation rate to support their mass against gravitational collapse, below which the neutron star collapses to a black hole. We model the light curves of supernovae powered by magnetars which transform into black holes. Although the peak luminosities can reach high values in the range of superluminous supernovae, their post maximum light curves can decline very rapidly because of the sudden loss of the central energy input. Early black hole transformation also enhances the shock breakout signal from the magnetar-driven bubble relative to the main supernova peak. Our synthetic light curves of supernovae powered by magnetars transforming to black holes are consistent with those of some rapidly evolving brig...

  7. Energetic constraints on electromagnetic signals from double black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2017-09-01

    The possible Fermi detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to the double black hole merger GW150914 has inspired many theoretical models, some of which propose that the holes spiralled together inside a massive star. However, we show that the heat produced by the dynamical friction on such black hole orbits can exceed the stellar binding energy by a large factor, which means that this heat could destroy the star. The energy scale of the explosion and the terminal velocity of the gas can be much larger than those in conventional supernovae. If the star unbinds before the merger, it would be hard for enough gas to remain near the holes at the merger to produce a gamma-ray burst, and this consideration should be taken into account when models are proposed for electromagnetic counterparts to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. We find that only when the two black holes form very close to the centre can the star certainly avoid destruction. In that case, dynamical friction can make the black holes coalesce faster than they would in vacuum, which leads to a modification of the gravitational waveform that is potentially observable by advanced LIGO.

  8. Signatures of Dark Star Remnants in the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Spolyar, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The very first stars likely formed from metal-free, molecular hydrogen-cooled gas at the centers of dark matter minihalos. Prior to nuclear fusion, these stars may have been supported by dark matter heating from annihilations in the star, in which case they could have grown to be quite massive before collapsing to black holes. Many remnant black holes and their surrounding dark matter density spikes may be part of our Milky Way halo today. Here we explore the gamma-ray signatures of dark matter annihilations in the dark matter spikes surrounding these black holes for a range of star formation scenarios, black hole masses, and dark matter annihilation modes. Data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope are used to constrain models of dark matter annihilation and the formation of the first stars.

  9. Black Holes: Attractors for Intelligence?

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clement

    2011-01-01

    The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has so far been unsuccessful and needs additional methods. We introduce a two-dimensional metric for civilization development, using the Kardashev scale of energy increase and the Barrow scale of inward manipulation. To support Barrow's scale limit, we contend with energetic, societal, scientific, computational, and philosophical arguments that black holes are attractors for intelligence. An application of the two-dimensional metric leads to a simple, consistent and observable hypothesis to test the existence of very advanced civilizations. We suggest that some already observed X-Ray binaries may be unnoticed advanced civilizations, of type KII-Bomega. The appendix provides an argumentative map of the paper's main thesis. KEYWORDS: SETI, black holes, Kardashev scale, Barrow scale, star lifting, XRB

  10. Black holes formed by direct collapse: observational evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    2016-01-01

    Binary black holes as the recently detected sources of gravitational waves can be formed from massive stellar binaries in the field or by dynamical interactions in clusters of high stellar density, if the black holes are the remnants of massive stars that collapsed without natal kicks that would disrupt the binary system or eject the black holes from the cluster before binary black hole formation. Here are summarized and discussed the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic black hole X-ray binaries. For Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105 it is found that the black holes of ~15 and ~10 solar masses in these sources were formed in situ, without energetic kicks. These observations suggest that binary black holes with components of ~10 solar masses may have been prolifically produced in the universe.

  11. Initial data for black hole–neutron star binaries, with rotating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-11-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole–neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as {S}{BH}/{M}{BH}2=0.99.

  12. Key problems in black hole physics today

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Pankaj S

    2011-01-01

    We review here some of the major open issues and challenges in black hole physics today, and the current progress on the same. It is pointed out that to secure a concrete foundation for the basic theory as well as astrophysical applications for black hole physics, it is essential to gain a suitable insight into these questions. In particular, we discuss the recent results investigating the final fate of a massive star within the framework of the Einstein gravity, and the stability and genericity aspects of the gravitational collapse outcomes in terms of black holes and naked singularities. Recent developments such as spinning up a black hole by throwing matter into it, and physical effects near naked singularities are considered. It is pointed out that some of the new results obtained in recent years in the theory of gravitational collapse imply interesting possibilities and understanding for the theoretical advances in gravity as well as towards new astrophysical applications.

  13. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    the cavities. "If a car was as fuel-efficient as these black holes, it could theoretically travel over a billion miles on a gallon of gas," said coauthor Christopher Reynolds of the University of Maryland, College Park. New details are given about how black hole engines achieve this extreme efficiency. Some of the gas first attracted to the black holes may be blown away by the energetic activity before it gets too near the black hole, but a significant fraction must eventually approach the event horizon where it is used with high efficiency to power the jets. The study also implies that matter flows towards the black holes at a steady rate for several million years. Chandra X-ray Images of Elliptical Galaxies Chandra X-ray Images of Elliptical Galaxies "These black holes are very efficient, but it also takes a very long time to refuel them," said Steve Allen who receives funding from the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. This new study shows that black holes are green in another important way. The energy transferred to the hot gas by the jets should keep hot gas from cooling, thereby preventing billions of new stars from forming. This will place limits on the growth of the largest galaxies, and prevent galactic sprawl from taking over the neighborhood. These results will appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov

  14. Evolution of growing black holes in axisymmetric galaxy cores

    CERN Document Server

    Fiestas, Jose; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    NBody realizations of axisymmetric collisional galaxy cores (e.g. M32, M33, NGC205, Milky Way) with embedded growing black holes are presented. Stars which approach the disruption sphere are disrupted and accreted to the black hole. We measure the zone of influence of the black hole and disruption rates in relaxation time scales. We show that secular gravitational instabilities dominate the initial core dynamics, while the black hole is small and growing due to consumption of stars. Later, the black hole potential dominates the core, and loss cone theory can be applied. Our simulations show that central rotation in galaxies can not be neglected for relaxed systems, and compare and discuss our results with the standard theory of spherically symmetric systems.

  15. Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Marcelo A; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculation...

  16. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  17. Black holes, quasars, and the universe /2nd edition/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Topics of astronomy are discussed in terms of black holes, galaxies, quasars, and models of the universe. Black holes are approached through consideration of stellar evolution, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, the event horizon, Cygnus X-1, white holes, and worm holes. Attention is also given to radio waves from high speed electrons, the radiation emitted by quasars, active galaxies, galactic energy sources, and interpretations of the redshift. Finally, the life cycle of the universe is deliberated, along with the cosmic time scale, evidence for the Big Bang, and the future of the universe.

  18. Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

  19. Formation of a black hole in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, I Félix; Rodrigues, Irapuan

    2003-05-16

    We show that the black hole in the x-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was formed in situ and did not receive an energetic trigger from a nearby supernova. The progenitor of the black hole had an initial mass greater than 40 solar masses, and during the collapse to form the approximately 10-solar mass black hole of Cygnus X-1, the upper limit for the mass that could have been suddenly ejected is approximately 1 solar mass, much less than the mass ejected in a supernova. The observations suggest that high-mass stellar black holes may form promptly, when massive stars disappear silently.

  20. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  2. Dark matter and the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolyar, Douglas

    The first stars in the universe (Pop. III stars) mark the birth of the visible and dynamical universe, which we are familiar with: stars galaxies, clusters, etc. They are also important for reionizing the universe, creating the metals needed for subsequent populations of stars and not to mention us. They are possible seeds for super massive black holes which power quasars and are found at the center of galaxies such as the Milky Way galaxy. In this thesis, we argue that if DM is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP), then DM can be an important heat source for the first stars. WIMPs are arguably from a particle physics perspective the most popular DM candidate and are being looked for in numerous experiments such as LHC, CDMS, and GLAST. DM heating would dramatically change the nature of the first stars. Stars powered by DM are larger and cooler than typical Pop. III stars. These differences would alter the metals and abundances produced by the first stars, the ionization history of the universe, and alter the formation of later stellar populations. Effects caused by stars powered by dark matter may also be tested with 21 cm line Tomography, JWST, 30 meter telescopes, Planck, and GLAST. This thesis has been written with an anthology in mind. Thus the thesis will be organized into an introduction followed by a series of papers which will illuminate the effects which DM can have on the first stars. The first paper will argue that DM can dramatically change the formation of the first stars. The second paper discusses DM capture as an important source of DM for the first stars. The third paper tests the effectiveness of the Blumenthal method. The fourth and fifth papers look at the effects of DM upon the evolution of Pop. III stars. As a note, primordial black holes are also a popular DM candidate. The final paper looks at primordial black hole's effect upon the first stars. Thus, we argue that DM in the guise of WIMPs and primordial black holes can dramatically

  3. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  4. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  5. Investigating stellar-mass black hole kicks

    CERN Document Server

    Repetto, Serena; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether stellar-mass black holes have to receive natal kicks in order to explain the observed distribution of low-mass X-ray binaries containing black holes within our Galaxy. Such binaries are the product of binary evolution, where the massive primary has exploded forming a stellar-mass black hole, probably after a common envelope phase where the system contracted down to separations of order 10-30 Rsun. We perform population synthesis calculations of these binaries, applying both kicks due to supernova mass-loss and natal kicks to the newly-formed black hole. We then integrate the trajectories of the binary systems within the Galactic potential. We find that natal kicks are in fact necessary to reach the large distances above the Galactic plane achieved by some binaries. Further, we find that the distribution of natal kicks would seem to be similar to that of neutron stars, rather than one where the kick velocities are reduced by the ratio of black hole to neutron-star mass (i.e. where the ki...

  6. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  7. Natal kicks of stellar mass black holes by asymmetric mass ejection in fallback supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Integrating trajectories of low-mass X-ray binaries containing black holes within the Galactic potential, Repetto, Davies & Sigurdsson recently showed that the large distances of some systems above the Galactic plane can only be explained if black holes receive appreciable natal kicks. Surprisingly, they found that the distribution of black hole kick velocities (rather than that of the momenta) should be similar to that of neutron stars. Here I argue that this result can be understood if neutron star and black hole kicks are a consequence of large-scale asymmetries created in the supernova ejecta by the explosion mechanism. The corresponding anisotropic gravitational attraction of the asymmetrically expelled matter does not only accelerate new-born neutron stars by the `gravitational tug-boat mechanism', but can also lead to delayed black hole formation by asymmetric fallback of the slowest parts of the initial ejecta on to the transiently existing neutron star, in course of which the momentum of the black hole can grow with the fallback mass. Black hole kick velocities will therefore not be reduced by the ratio of neutron star to black hole mass as would be expected for kicks caused by anisotropic neutrino emission of the nascent neutron star.

  8. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  9. Gravitational Waves, Gamma Ray Bursts, and Black Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but appear frozen near their Schwarzschild horizon are termed "black stars". The collision of two black stars leads to gravitational radiation during the merging phase followed by a delayed gamma ray burst during coalescence. The recent observation of gravitational waves by LIGO, followed by a possible gamma ray counterpart by Fermi, suggests that the source may have been a merger of two black stars with profound implications for quantum gravity and the nature of black holes.

  10. The origin of S-stars and a young stellar disk: distribution of debris stars of a sinking star cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Michiko; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    Within the distance of 1 pc from the Galactic center (GC), more than 100 young massive stars have been found. The massive stars at 0.1--1 pc from the GC are located in one or two disks, while those within 0.1 pc from the GC, S-stars, have an isotropic distribution. How these stars are formed is not well understood, especially for S-stars. Here we propose that a young star cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) can form both the disks and S-stars. We performed a fully self-consistent $N$-body simulation of a star cluster near the GC. Stars escaped from the tidally disrupted star cluster were carried to the GC due to an 1:1 mean motion resonance with the IMBH formed in the cluster. In the final phase of the evolution, the eccentricity of the IMBH becomes very high. In this phase, stars carried by the 1:1 resonance with the IMBH were dropped from the resonance and their orbits are randomized by a chaotic Kozai mechanism. The mass function of these carried stars is extremely top-heavy within 10''. Th...

  11. An Optical Survey for Black Holes in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, W. F.; Windmiller, G.; Short, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    Black holes and neutron stars represent the final evolutionary stages of the most massive stars, and as such are a fossil record of high-mass stellar evolution in the Milky Way. Black holes and neutron stars are ideal laboratories to test General Relativity in the strong field limit. The number of such objects in the Milky Way is not precisely known, but there are roughly one billion neutron stars in the galaxy based on the observed numbers of radio pulsars with corrections for the many observational biases, and about 100 million black holes based on the behavior of the Initial Mass Function at high stellar masses. All of the known steller-mass black holes (and a fair number of neutron stars) are in "X-ray binaries" that were discovered because of their luminous X-ray emission. The requirement to be in an X-ray binary that has recently exhibited X-ray activity places strong observational biases on the discovery rate of stellar-mass black holes. Thus the 21 X-ray binaries that have confirmed black holes represent the tip of the iceberg. We have therefore began an optical survey using Kepler data that may uncover several black holes and neutron stars in both "quiescent'" X-ray binaries and "pre-contact" X-ray binaries. Any such discoveries will be of interest in their own right. In addition, the rate of such objects uncovered in our survey (or even the lack of discoveries) will place meaningful constraints on the formation theories of low-mass X-ray binaries and thus compact objects. We present here a progress report of our work so far, including techniques we use for light curve classification and the identification of the variability type. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA via the grant NNX13AF23G.

  12. Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)

  13. Formation of the First Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bromm, V; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    We consider the physical conditions under which supermassive black holes could have formed inside the first galaxies. Our SPH simulations indicate that metal-free galaxies with a virial temperature ~10^4 K and with suppressed H2 formation (due to an intergalactic UV background) tend to form a binary black hole system which contains a substantial fraction (>10%) of the total baryonic mass of the host galaxy. Fragmentation into stars is suppressed without substantial H2 cooling. Our simulations follow the condensation of ~5x10^6 M_sun around the two centers of the binary down to a scale of 10 that would be detectable by LISA.

  14. Collapse of Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, Joshua; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L C R

    2016-01-01

    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. These dense configurations, which are the endpoints of collapse, have extremely high binding energy, and as a result, decay through number changing $3\\,a\\rightarrow a$ interactions with an extremely short lifetime.

  15. Energetic constraints on electromagnetic signals from double black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lixin; Miller, M Coleman

    2016-01-01

    The possible Fermi detection of an electromagnetic counterpart to the double black hole merger GW150914 has inspired many theoretical models, some of which propose that the holes spiraled together inside a massive star. However, we show that the heat produced by the dynamical friction on such black hole orbits can exceed the stellar binding energy by a large factor, which means that this heat could destroy the star and thus make it difficult for enough gas to be near the holes at merger to produce detectable photons. These considerations must be taken into account when models are proposed for electromagnetic counterparts to the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. We find that only when the two black holes form very close to the center can the star avoid destruction. In that case, dynamical friction can make the black holes coalesce faster than they would in vacuum, which leads to a modification of the gravitational waveform that is potentially observable by advanced LIGO.

  16. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  17. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  18. Black Hole Formation in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanke, Samaya

    2015-08-01

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.

  19. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  20. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  1. Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The detection of quasars at z > 6 unveils the presence of supermassive black holes of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  2. Formation of supermassive black hole seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    The detection of quasars at $z>6$ unveils the presence of supermassive black holes (BHs) of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.

  3. The Doubling of Stellar Black Hole Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kazandjian, Mher V

    2012-01-01

    It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disk of stars revolving around its central super-massive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around super-massive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disk of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disk reproduces key features of Keplerian disk models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in HST observations of Andromeda's double ...

  4. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  5. On the formation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    The paper explores the consequences of the existence of a burning process beyond ordinary nuclear processes (which stop at iron), involving the 'strange' particles. In effect, this idea has already had considerable discussion within the high energy physics community in terms of 'quark' matter. A possible consequence is that neutron stars may explode rather than collapse to black holes. It should be evident that such a possibility suggests radically new scenarios for activity in galactic nuclei and gamma ray burst sources.

  6. How Massive Single Stars End their Life

    CERN Document Server

    Heger, A; Woosley, S E; Langer, N; Hartmann, D H

    2003-01-01

    How massive stars die -- what sort of explosion and remnant each produces -- depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are chiefly a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate upon stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.

  7. The Deaths of Very Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S E

    2014-01-01

    The theory underlying the evolution and death of stars heavier than 10 Msun on the main sequence is reviewed with an emphasis upon stars much heavier than 30 Msun. These are stars that, in the absence of substantial mass loss, are expected to either produce black holes when they die, or, for helium cores heavier than about 35 Msun, encounter the pair instability. A wide variety of outcomes is possible depending upon the initial composition of the star, its rotation rate, and the physics used to model its evolution. These heavier stars can produce some of the brightest supernovae in the universe, but also some of the faintest. They can make gamma-ray bursts or collapse without a whimper. Their nucleosynthesis can range from just CNO to a broad range of elements up to the iron group. Though rare nowadays, they probably played a disproportionate role in shaping the evolution of the universe following the formation of its first stars.

  8. The runaway black hole GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F; Rodrigues, I; Combi, J A; Rodríguez, L F; Guglielmetti, F

    2002-01-01

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the motion in the sky and compute the galactocentric orbit of the black hole X-ray binary GRO J1655-40. The system moves with a runaway space velocity of $112\\pm 18$ km s$^{-1}$ in a highly eccentric ($e = 0.34\\pm 0.05$) orbit. The black hole was formed in the disk at a distance greater than 3 kpc from the Galactic centre and must have been shot to such an eccentric orbit by the explosion of the progenitor star. The runaway linear momentum and kinetic energy of this black hole binary are comparable to those of solitary neutron stars and millisecond pulsars. GRO J1655-40 is the first black hole for which there is evidence for a runaway motion imparted by a natal kick in a supernova explosion.

  9. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  10. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  11. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  12. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AROUND YOUNG LOW MASS STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D'Alessio

    2009-01-01

    have been interpreted as produced by disks with inner holes, which have been classi ed as \\Transitional Disks". These disks are considered the evolutionary link between the full disks typically found around the young T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars, and the debris disks, found around some main sequence stars. In this contribution we summarize the observed/inferred characteristics of these transitional disks and also some of the models proposed to explain their peculiar geometry.

  13. Star Wreck

    OpenAIRE

    Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, Igor I.

    1998-01-01

    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the or...

  14. Star polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Riosa, Blažka

    2014-01-01

    In mathematics we often encounter polygons, such us triangle, square, hexagon, etc., but we hardly encounter star polygons. Despite the fact that we do not meet them so often in mathematics, in nature they can be traced almost on every step. In this paper the emphasis is on the geometric meaning of regular star polygons. Star polygon is a generalization of the concept of regular polygons. In star polygons also non-adjacent sides intersect. Up to similarity they are determined by Schläfli symb...

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  16. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  17. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  18. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  19. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  20. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs. Spin-dependen